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Chapter

5

Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation

After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Describe each stroke of a four-stroke cycle engine. Identify and explain the purposes of the major components of the engine compression system. Explain the operating principles of liquid cooling systems. Identify cooling system parts. Explain the engine lubricating system. Identify lubrication system parts. List common oil classification systems.

Know These Terms
Balance shafts Camshaft Camshaft drive mechanism Compression stroke Connecting rods Coolant passages Coolant pump Coolant-recovery system Cooling system Crankshaft Cylinder head Engine block Engine coolant Engine oil Exhaust stroke Exhaust valves Intake stroke Intake valves Lifters Lubrication system Oil filter Oil galleries Oil pan Oil pickup screen Oil pump Pistons Power stroke Pressure regulator Push rods Radiator Radiator fan Radiator pressure cap Rocker arms Serpentine belt Thermostat Valve timing Valve train Variable valve timing Vibration damper

73

001 (. The downward movement of the piston on the intake stroke draws the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder through the intake valve(s). the engine will not develop enough compression to start. Four-Stroke Cycle Engine Operation One power cycle in an automotive engine is a four-stroke process. Each connecting rod is connected to a piston by a piston pin. Harmonic balancers. Valve train. pushing the exhaust gases out of the open exhaust valve. Head Engine Block The engine block is the basic support and attaching point for all other engine parts. the oil-control ring scrapes most of the oil from the cylinder wall when the piston is moving down in the cylinder. One cycle is now complete. which in turn pushes on the crankshaft. Valves and related components. Balance shafts. cylinder heads.74 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 75 Engine problems can have a major effect on vehicle driveability. During the piston’s intake stroke. This requires two revolutions of the crankshaft. This oil film is only about . Connecting Rods and Crankshaft The connecting rods are forged steel rods that connect the piston to the crankshaft. Figure 5-3. Connecting rods. They transfer the force from the piston to the crankshaft. the basic components and their functions are the same as described here. vacuum in the cylinder tries to pull oil from the cylinder wall. The pistons and rings are the parts that most people associate with the compression system. and manifolds. Refer to Figure 5-1 as you read the following paragraphs. use only two strokes rather than four. They are made of aluminum to reduce weight. Although the exact design and number of engine components varies with the type of engine and number of cylinders. A film of oil between the compression ring and cylinder wall seals pressure in the cylinder. When the piston reaches the bottom of the intake stroke. compression. When the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder is ignited. Compression rings seal in the pressure created during the compression and power strokes. B—Compression and oil-control ring installation. the engine will not properly operate. B—The casting is then machined to accept and support the other engine parts. compressing the air-fuel mixture. The piston then moves up in the cylinder. The cycle shown here is typical of all four-stroke cycle engines: intake. For example. This chapter covers the major engine components and reviews engine operation. and exhaust. which is why these engines are known as four-stroke cycle engines. A small amount of oil passes by the oil-control ring to seal the compression rings against the cylinder wall. Figure 5-2A. Engine Components This section describes the major components of the engine compression system. without good compression or proper valve timing. the burning fuel and oxygen produce heat. Honda) Pistons and Rings Pistons transfer the force of expanding combustion gases to the connecting rods. The rod is attached to the crank- 1 Intake 3 Power Ring grooves Compression rings Oil-control ring { Skirt A B 2 Compression 4 Exhaust Figure 5-1. When the piston reaches the bottom of the power stroke. Pistons. Most engines with spark ignition use this type of ring configuration. The connecting rod and crankshaft arrangement changes the linear piston movement into rotation of the crankshaft. Engine block. the molding sand is washed out and the block is machined to allow other parts to be installed or attached. camshaft. The compression system contains the parts that develop engine compression and allow the heat energy in the burning air-fuel mixture to become mechanical energy. Some diesel engines. . The downward motion of the piston is transferred to the connecting rod. The major parts installed in or on the block are the pistons. crankshaft. the engine will not start or will have severe power and driveability problems. To reduce oil loss. the exhaust valve is open. power. Rings. Most automotive pistons have two compression rings and one oil ring. Engine blocks are made by pouring molten cast iron. The compression rings are installed at the top of the piston. The exhaust stroke then begins as the piston moves up the cylinder. Figure 5-2B. A—The engine block starts out as molten metal poured into a mold. (BMW. After the metal cools. The cycle then repeats. The oil-control ring is installed below the compression rings to prevent excessive oil consumption.0025 mm) thick. Crankshaft. the intake valves are closed. If this pressure is allowed to leak out. A—This shows the various parts of the piston. forcing the piston down under pressure. or aluminum into molds. This rotational movement is used to move the vehicle. The heat causes the gases in the cylinder to expand. steel. however. The piston moves up twice in the cylinder and down twice in the cylinder for each power-producing cycle. Cylinder heads. but if it is removed. A B Figure 5-2. This is called the power stroke. This is called the compression stroke. as shown in Figure 5-3.

A valve and spring assembly is shown in Figure 5-7. Also. The bearing caps are held to the engine block by two. keeping it closed. This transfer is most critical for exhaust valves. This design allows the crankshaft to rotate inside of the bearings with minimal friction. The spring is held to the valve by valve spring retainers. cast aluminum. When the valve is in contact with its seat. Valve springs are always slightly compressed when installed. Valve Bearing inserts Nut Figure 5-4. stem lock. the valve may melt. or plastic valve cover is installed over the upper valve train components. the camshaft lobes push on valve lifters installed into bores machined into the block. The engine crankshaft turns camshaft via a chain. It delivers power to the drive train. Coolant passages between the cylinder heads and engine block must be sealed to prevent coolant leakage. This ensures that the valve closes tightly. Coolant passages Intake valves Spark plug Make sure the tab on the bearing fits tightly into the matching notch in the cap Main bearing caps Thrust bearings Bearing inserts (lower) Cylinder Heads The cylinder head contains the combustion chamber for each cylinder and forms the top of the cylinder. between the valve stem and guide. Valve clearance can sometimes be adjusted. Opening and closing of the valves are controlled by the valve train. Figure 5-5. the camshaft and lifters.76 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 77 shaft by a bearing cap and bearing inserts that surround the crankshaft journal. Without a seal. It is attached to the engine block by bearing caps and bearings that surround the crankshaft journal. coolant passages. The retainer is a cap which covers the spring. The cylinder head and head gasket are secured to the block with head bolts. Intake and exhaust valves are identical in shape. A sheet metal. belt. They are occasionally called mushroom valves due to their resemblance to a mushroom. The crankshaft converts the straight-line force from the piston and connecting rod into rotary force. oil would be pulled Piston Piston Pin Connecting rod Bolt from the cylinder head. The camshaft controls the distance the valves open and the duration of time over which they are open. Head gaskets are used between the head and engine block for these purposes. The crankshaft is the engine part that converts the piston’s up-and-down (reciprocating) motion into rotary motion. It keeps the valve steady and provides a smooth surface on which the stem can slide. The intake valves are cooled by the incoming air and are not as prone to damage. The connecting rods attach the pistons to the crankshaft. The valve spring holds the valve against its seat. (Ford) Valves and Related Components One or more intake valves are used to control the flow of the air into each cylinder. it forms combustion chambers for each cylinder. usually called a split keeper. The motion is transferred through push rods and rocker arms to the valves. The valve spring pressure is overcome and the valves are forced open. There is one camshaft lobe for each valve. or six bolts torqued to specifications. copper. four. The valve-to-seat contact is controlled by the valve clearance. in some cases. valve spring. These must be torqued to specifications. One or more exhaust valves are used to control the flow of exhaust gases out of each cylinder. Along with the cylinders. and into the combustion chamber. and oil seals. Make sure the tab on the bearing fits tightly into the matching notch in the block Crankshaft Bearing inserts (upper) Combustion chamber Exhaust valves Figure 5-6. Valve train operation is similar in both overhead camshaft and cam-in-block engines. (Ford) . locks the cap to the valve stem. and openings to allow the flow of intake and exhaust gases. The guide may be integral to the cylinder head or a removable insert. A few engines have studs and nuts. the pressure of expanding combustion gases must be contained within the cylinder. The valve remains open Split Keeper Sleeve Retainer Spring Valve stem seal Valve Train The valve train is the group of components that control the opening and closing of the valves. They are thin and made from steel. (Ford) Figure 5-7. The cylinder head contains the valves and acts as a cap on the top of the engine. The valve stem slides up and down in a valve guide. The piston pin and crankshaft bearings allow the rod to move in relation to both the piston and crankshaft. The valve seal may be an umbrella type or an O-ring installed between the valve stem and valve retainer. If the heat is not transferred to the head. They also contain oil galleries. The oil seal at the top of each valve stem prevents engine oil from entering the combustion chamber. In a cam-in-block engine. The valve assembly consists of the valve. and fibers. Valve clearance has more effect on valve life than on engine performance. since they absorb more heat of combustion. rather than head bolts. but intake valves are usually larger. Valves also seal the cylinder during the compression and power strokes. or gear set. Figure 5-6 shows a typical cylinder head. A locking device. Valve clearance is the amount of looseness in the valve train between the camshaft and valve stem. Some valves are filled with metallic sodium to further aid in heat transfer. (BMW) Figure 5-5. The assembly is held together by the pressure of valve spring acting against the cylinder head. Cylinder heads are made from either cast iron or aluminum. heat is transferred from the valve to the cylinder head. retainers. Refer to Figure 5-4. Cylinder heads contain the intake and exhaust valves and.

Valve Lifters Valve lifters transmit the motion of the camshaft lobes to the push rods or rocker arms. This rolling action between the lobe and lifter helps the lobes to evenly wear. Hydraulic lifters use the engine oil pressure to automatically eliminate play from the valve train. Valve timing. Overhead camshafts are either belt or chain driven. However. A few spark-ignition engines use gears as the camshaft drive mechanism. some overhead camshaft engines also have chain camshaft drives. not to be confused with ignition timing. The crankshaft always turns two complete revolutions for every one revolution of the camshaft. When the cam lobe allows the lifter to move down. Note the timing marks on both the camshaft and crankshaft timing gears. requires two complete revolutions of the crankshaft to complete all four cycles. but are installed on the rocker arm or on the opposite side of the valve stem. Lash adjusters are used in the valve train for an overhead camshaft engine. Lift is how wide the valve opens. Some overhead camshaft engines use a system that is a combination of chain and belt drives. In many cases. This relationship is called valve timing. Lifters can be mechanical or hydraulic. similar in operation to a hydraulic lifter. (Subaru) Figure 5-9. must be periodically adjusted. This is because any cylinder in a four-stroke cycle engine. To further reduce friction. The chain then drives the camshaft gear. Figure 5-13. An increasing Camshaft gear Cam Roller follower Chain Timing marks Crankshaft gear Valve stem Hydraulic lash adjuster Plunger spring Body Spring Check valve retainer Check ball retainer Figure 5-8. Oil from the lifter flows through them to lubricate the rest of the valve train. Figure 5-12. the cam lobes usually push directly on the valve rocker arm. many late model engines use roller lifters. This oil is supplied by the lubrication system through a small passage. However. but does not have enough force to open the valve. . Engine oil pressure pushes the plunger upward to remove any valve train clearance. See Figure 5-10. the lifter is placed between the cam lobe and the rocker arm. Camshaft gear Camshaft Drive Mechanisms To maintain the relationship between the valves and pistons. (Ford) Figure 5-12. the valve timing set by the relationship of the drive and driven sprockets or gears could not be changed once the engine was assembled. the camshaft is installed on top of the cylinder head. Since the oil cannot escape or compress. A hydraulic lash adjuster. lift. A few overhead camshaft engines use a chain drive. the belt is driven by a crankshaft sprocket. Push Rods and Rocker Arms Push rods are used only on cam-in-block engines. The space between the lifter body and the plunger is filled with engine oil. Figure 5-8. Hydraulic lifters are used on almost all cam-in-block engines. the driving gear on the crankshaft always has half the number of teeth as the driven gear on the camshaft. It opens the valves from above. This causes the camshaft to turn at exactly half of the crankshaft speed. one of three types of camshaft drive mechanisms is used. most overhead camshaft engines use a belt drive. the gear or sprocket on the crankshaft has exactly half the number of teeth on the camshaft gear or sprocket. Gear drive is more common in diesel engines.78 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 79 until the camshaft lobe allows the valve spring to reseat the valve. Lift and duration are determined by the shape of the camshaft lobes. The overhead camshaft valve train allows quicker valve response with less play and friction between the components. The intake valve must also open wide enough and long enough to allow the air-fuel mixture to get into the cylinder. The crankshaft gear rotates to drive the camshaft gear. the rocker arm is directly operated by the camshaft. maintains the proper valve clearance. Valve timing is determined by the relative positions of the crankshaft and camshaft. whether gasoline or diesel. To accomplish this. Lash adjuster Valve rocker Push rod cup Metering valve disk Oil hole Plunger Body Plunger spring Check ball Lock ring Plunger Check valve Check valve spring Variable Valve Timing Devices In the past. The outer lifter body contacts the camshaft lobe. A few vehicles use a gear drive. To reduce friction. Overlap is the amount of time that both intake and exhaust valves are open. The exhaust valve must do the same to allow the exhaust gases to get out of the cylinder. the hydraulic lifter acts as a solid unit and opens the valve. This causes the lifters to rotate as they are pushed up by the lobe. the belt often drives the water pump and oil pump. When the camshaft lobe pushes the lifter body upward. the camshaft lobes are tapered and the lifters offset. or solid lifters. On overhead camshaft engines. In all cases. The inner piston (plunger) contacts the push rod or rocker arm. Mechanical. the lifter oil passage is again open and oil can flow into the lifter. In this design. They transmit the lifter motion to the rocker arm. Rocker arms are pivoting levers that convert the upward movement of the push rod or lifter into downward movement of the valve. They use the same principle as the hydraulic lifter. each valve in the engine opens only once during all four strokes. The crankshaft gear drives the chain. Many push rods are hollow. In some overhead cam engines. On these designs. Hydraulic lifters are self adjusting. the oil passage into the lifter is sealed off. and duration have a big effect on engine driveability. Valve Timing The valves must open and close in proper relation to the movement of the piston or the engine will not run. The friction between the lobes and lifters is the highest friction in the engine and can cause the camshaft and lifters to rapidly wear out. A roller is installed on the bottom of the lifter and turns with the lobe as the camshaft rotates. (Ford) Figure 5-10. The belt then drives the camshaft sprocket. Chain camshaft drive mechanisms are most common on cam-in-block engines. A typical hydraulic lifter is shown in Figure 5-9. Crankshaft gear Timing marks Figure 5-11. This type of drive has two meshing gears. On overhead cam engines. There are no push rods. However. cam-in-block engines use a chain drive. Figure 5-11. The majority of overhead valve. Duration is the amount of time that the valve stays open.

it picks up heat. The amount of heat removed must be controlled so that the engine does not run cooler than its normal operating temperature. The engine flywheel also absorbs vibration. This heat is transferred to the air by the radiator. A balance shaft has offset weights that rotate in the opposite direction of the crankshaft. sometimes called a harmonic balancer. The vehicle computer operates the adjusters based on sensor inputs. Some of the engine heat is removed by the exhaust gases and some radiates out of the engine block and heads. To stop the vibration. A fan draws air through the radiator at low speeds. the outer ring of the damper has a tendency not to rotate. Even a slightly overheating engine experiences excess wear Upper radiator hose Thermostat housing Transaxle fluid cooler lines Figure 5-14. The types of variable valve timing devices are discussed in more detail in Chapter 10. force is transmitted to the crankshaft. As coolant circulates through the engine. The coolant then flows from the engine into the radiator. When a cylinder fires and the crankshaft speeds up. In direct air cooling. the heat is absorbed by a liquid. As the crankshaft tries to unwind after the cylinder has fired. It must be able to absorb and release heat without damaging any cooling system parts. It may also be hot enough to melt the exhaust valves. Two general types of variable valve timing are used on engines: Camshaft timing adjustment. The excess heat must be removed to prevent engine damage.80 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 81 number of engines have some form of variable valve timing. The flywheel used with manual transmissions is heavy and absorbs vibration. Camshaft lift and duration adjustment. This unwinding action. These adjusters are mounted on the end of the camshaft where it is fastened to the driven sprocket or gear. An excessively hot engine tends to ping. one or more balance shafts are added to counterbalance vertical and torsional vibrations. the partially twisted shaft unwinds. All cooling systems remove excess heat from the engine and transfer it to the surrounding air. The torque converter absorbs most of the vibration. or a combination of the two. The two main kinds of cooling systems are liquid cooling and direct air cooling. These adjusters are mounted at the camshaft lobes and rocker arms. the movement of the vehicle forces air through the radiator. is attached to the front of the crankshaft. When it receives this force. the crankshaft pulley is an integral part of the balancer. Variable valve timing allows the timing of the valve opening and closing to be varied based on driving conditions. which then transfers it to the air. causes what is known as torsional vibration. the outer ring of the damper again tends not to rotate in the opposite direction and the rubber flexes. In liquid cooling. drives poorly. An engine that runs too cold wastes fuel. The cooled liquid then returns to the engine to pick up more heat. As the coolant circulates through the passages. On some newer engines. Some dual overhead camshaft engines use a combination belt and chain system to drive the camshafts. Figure 5-14 shows a typical cooling system. Liquid Cooling All cars and light trucks manufactured today have a liquid cooling system. and quickly wears out. The unwinding force of the crankshaft is cancelled out by the damper. It consists of two heavy rings connected by rubber plugs. spring-loaded friction discs. This is usually called valve burning. This causes a twisting of the crankshaft. At higher speeds. The cooling system is a set of components that remove unwanted engine heat and regulate engine temperature. In-tank heat exchanger Cooling System Crankshaft sprocket Figure 5-13. it picks up heat from the surrounding metal. Engine coolant Lower (return) radiator hose Engine oil cooler lines Oil filter Heater hoses Coolant pump Camshaft sprocket Timing mark Stationary mark Belt Balance Shafts In some engines. Engine Coolant. Components of a typical cooling system. When the force is removed. . A cooling system is needed because not all of the heat of combustion creates pressure to move the pistons. In-tank heat exchanger Heater core Radiator Coolant first flows through the heads and then block Tensioner Engine-Related Systems That Can Affect Driveability Stationary mark Fan and motor Timing mark The following sections cover systems related to the engine that can affect driveability. Automatic transmission flywheels are lightweight steel stampings. The engine block and cylinder head has many internal passages through which coolant circulates. pollutes the air. These shafts are either turned by the camshaft through direct gearing or by the crankshaft through a belt or chain. or be hard to start. due to the tighter-than-normal clearances between moving parts. These systems are all part of the overall basic engine and affect engine operation if they are not properly operating. the heat is directly transferred to the air. The engine coolant is the medium of heat transfer. As the coolant travels through the radiator. Belt camshaft drive mechanisms are used on overhead camshaft engines. The rest of the heat must be removed by the cooling system. Balance shafts help to provide a smoother idle and less vibration from the engine. As a result. diesel. a vibration damper. Vibration Damper When the engine cylinders fire. the rubber connecting the two rings of the damper flexes. The coolant is moved through the cooling system by a pump. although minute. heat is transferred from the coolant to the air passing through the radiator. part of the crankshaft tends to rotate before the rest of the crankshaft.

or freeze plugs. When the excess pressure is released. Some antifreeze solutions use organic acid technology (OAT) to lengthen the life of the coolant. A 50:50 mixture of propylene glycol and water freezes at about –26 F (–32 C). are cast into the block and heads during manufacture. gives up heat to the engine coolant. (Ford) Crossflow radiator Air-temperature-sensing switch Fan shroud Electric fan motor The fluid clutch allows the fan to freewheel. Inlet (lower radiator hose connection) Impeller Typical core plug locations Figure 5-15. Coolant pumps are either belt. A 50:50 mixture of ethylene glycol and water freezes at about –35 F (–37 C). The fan will continue to run after the engine Figure 5-16. Some fluid-clutch fans contain a thermostat that prevents the fan from operating until the engine warms up. The coolant is thrown outward by centrifugal force. Pure ethylene glycol freezes at about 9 F (–13 C) and water freezes at 32 F (0 C). Core plugs may be pressed in or threaded. A mixture of antifreeze and water has a higher boiling point than plain water. (Chrysler) Figure 5-19. Radiator Fan. The transmission cooler is always mounted in the radiator tank that feeds coolant back into the engine. This type of pump is known as a centrifugal pump. As the impeller rotates. In addition. Antifreeze is colored with dyes. Radiator Pressure Cap. Coolant is drawn into the center of the rotating pump by suction. Actual radiator efficiency depends on the flow rate of the coolant and the outside air temperature. It is capable of circulating several hundred gallons of coolant per hour at about 1 psi or 2 psi. the freezing point of the mixture is lower than either liquid alone. sides. such as near the valves and cylinder walls. The coolant pump uses an impeller to move the coolant through the engine. Coolant Passages. Most radiators are cross-flow radiators. Core plugs are installed in various locations in the front. Most fans are electric. and rear of the block. As the coolant flows through the tubes. The impeller is constructed with blades. Fan blades Serpentine belt Coolant pump Fan clutch Drive pulley Figure 5-18. The fan clutch allows the fan to freewheel at highway speed. See Figure 5-17. Color does not determine whether a particular antifreeze is suitable for a particular engine. at higher speeds when it is no longer needed. In this design. or water pump. however. the radiator is capable of removing more heat than the engine can produce. The fan is controlled by either thermostatic switches installed in a passage of the cooling system or through the engine control computer. In most vehicles. There are many types of antifreeze. Coolant is pushed through the coolant passages by the coolant pump. The radiator pressure cap is a valve that allows pressure to build up in the cooling system. Internal coolant passages. These fans are usually installed on the end of the coolant pump shaft so that the same pulley drives the pump and the fan. consists of a cast iron or aluminum housing containing an impeller. When ethylene glycol and water are mixed.or gear-driven. Some contain ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. Passages in the pump and engine direct the coolant through the block and heads. The fan remains off until the coolant temperature reaches a certain point. or water jackets. The coolant pump. the fan is turned on any time the air conditioner compressor is operating. A 50:50 mixture boils at about 222 F (106 C). See Figure 5-19. Coolant Pump. This gives added boil-over protection for summer driving. Ingesting a very small amount of antifreeze can lead to kidney failure and death. The fins then transfer the heat to the air passing through the radiator. Some internal coolant passages have external holes for manufacturing purposes. . Never open a radiator pressure cap when the cooling system is under pressure. This reduces the load on the engine. coolant pressure builds until it overcomes spring pressure and opens the valve. It does so by using spring pressure to hold a seal against the radiator filler neck. Some longitudinal engines have belt-driven fans. The pump intake is connected by a flexible hose to the bottom of the vehicle radiator. Tanks on the left and right sides of the radiator direct coolant into the radiator tubes or to an outlet that leads back to the engine. Most engine manufacturers recommend a 50:50 mix of either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol antifreeze and water. Other fluidclutch fans contain a flow-control solenoid. Small amounts of water-soluble oils are added to lubricate seals and moving parts. however. coolant flows from one side of the radiator to the other. Many belt-driven fans have a fluid clutch installed between the drive pulley and fan assembly. The spring is calibrated to produce the proper system pressure. Some vehicles have belt-driven fans. Figure 5-15. Radiators used on cars with automatic transmissions/ transaxles have a heat exchanger mounted in the radiator to cool the transmission fluid. Consult the service information for a vehicle to determine which antifreeze to use. Up to a 70:30 mixture of antifreeze and water is sometimes used in severe climates and operating conditions. heat is transferred to the fins. coolant is thrown to the outside of the impeller. are designed so that more coolant flows through them. A mixture of 2/3 ethylene glycol and 1/3 water freezes at about –67 F (–55 C). Radiator. One or more electric fans are used on all frontwheel and many rear-wheel drive vehicles. The coolant absorbs heat before exiting through the top of the engine. Figure 5-16. Hydraulic pressure in the transmission/transaxle forces the fluid through the heat exchanger.82 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 83 is a mixture of antifreeze and water. no matter what the coolant temperature. The radiator is a heat exchanger consisting of tubes and fins. The electric fan allows for better control of fan operation as well as more available horsepower from the engine. which is at a higher temperature than the coolant. The solenoid is operated by the vehicle computer based on temperature sensor inputs. The fluid. The radiator fan draws extra air through the radiator to aid in heat transfer at low speeds. Passages near the hottest parts of the engine. Also included are corrosion inhibitors to reduce rust and corrosion of the engine block and radiator. a faulty cap can cause diminished overheating protection. Warning: Most antifreeze is poisonous to humans and animals. Drive pulley Housing Coolant is thrown outward by the impeller is shut off until the coolant temperature falls to a certain point. Radiator pressure caps are not a frequent source of driveability or engine problems. The holes sealed by these plugs are used to remove molding sand after the block is cast. Automatic transmission oil cooler fittings Radiator fan switch Enlarged view—note polarity Figure 5-17. the spring closes the valve. Figure 5-18. These are sealed with metal plugs called core plugs. As the engine heats up. or not be driven.

Most engines use a thermostat with an opening range between 190–195 F (87. shock absorption. The thermostat consists of a heat-sensitive material.7 C). provides lubrication between moving parts. Also. Bleeder valves are used to remove air from Direct Air Cooling Direct air cooling is a method of directly transferring engine heat to the surrounding air. The engine is surrounded by a sheet metal shroud to direct more air over the hottest engine parts. Never open a pressurized recovery tank if the cooling system is under pressure. resulting in hot spots or engine overheating.9 kPa) increase in pressure. This can reduce the speed of the coolant pump. such as wax. the valve continues to open until the wide-open temperature is reached. Some engine parts can be lubricated by oil that is splashed onto them. as shown in Figure 5-20. Warning: Some coolant-recovery systems are pressurized. The various moving parts of the engine are subjected to differing levels of stress. Also. Flange Piston Nut Flange seal Valve seat Frame Teflon seal Valve Coil spring Wax pellet Rubber diaphragm Figure 5-21. some driveability problems can affect the lubrication system. and cleaning. a starter/generator is used to restart the engine by driving the belt to turn the crankshaft. alternator. a 15 psi (105 kPa) pressure cap will raise the boiling point of the coolant by 45 F (25. Oil is made to do a good job of lubrication. and piston pins. In very cold weather. The thermostat is located at the engine outlet gooseneck. The belt must be in good condition and properly adjusted.8–90. which can cut hoses or cause intermittent loading of the bearings in the coolant pump. This tubing is made of soft steel or aluminum. Especially when the vehicle is only operated for a short period of time. Oil is thrown upward by the rotation of the crankshaft. the radiator is usually connected to the engine by flexible hoses. It is also formulated to prevent sludge formation. The lubrication system may have no apparent effect on driveability. while others are lubricated by splashing oil. often called motor oil. Therefore.5 C). The bypass system prevents damage to rapidly heating parts. These hoses are made of rubber or neoprene molded around a fiber mesh. Some splashed oil also reaches the camshaft and lubricates the cam lobes and valve lifters. Hoses and Tubing. When the cooling system loses heat. The plastic tank is called the recovery tank. Coolant pump Serpentine belt Crankshaft Starter / generator Hydraulic belt tensioner A/C compressor Figure 5-22. Many cooling systems also have one or more small bleeder valves. Most tanks are not pressurized. Therefore. It is driven by a pulley on the front of the crankshaft. Bubbles in the reservoir bottle while the engine is running is a good indication of severe engine problems. piston skirts. The cylinders and heads of an air cooled engine are made with fins to present a larger heat transfer surface. The tubing is either directly connected to components or connected via a flexible hose. Engine Oil The engine oil. Some parts of the engine are lubricated by pressurized oil. The coolant-recovery system is designed to keep the cooling system as full as possible at all times. Coolant-Recovery System. Engine oil serves several purposes. sealed in a chamber with a piston at one end.6 C). such as exhaust valves or cylinder walls. Recovery tank Add coolant here Fill levels To radiator overflow neck Figure 5-20. Some engines have a bypass hose that allows the coolant to circulate inside the engine until the thermostat opens. It must be delivered to the right place at the right time and in the proper quantity. The radiator is fixed to the chassis and stationary. the cooling system during service. The piston is attached to a valve that opens or closes the thermostat to control coolant flow. hydraulic lifters must have a supply of pressurized oil to work properly. Thermostat. As the coolant continues to warm up. However. The system consists of a tank connected by a hose to the radiator overflow neck. and belt-driven fan. Looseness in the belt permits slippage. The camshaft and crankshaft bearings are pressure lubricated. the wax is contracted and holds the piston in the closed position. Figure 5-22. the bypass is built into the engine casting or the bypass system is the heater core and hoses. On this hybrid vehicle. An engine belt drives the coolant pump and other engine accessories. The belt is called a serpentine belt because it winds around several pulleys. It uses a fan to force air around the cylinders and cylinder heads. On other engines. by allowing coolant to circulate past the parts before the thermostat opens. Never open a pressurized tank when it is under pressure. The cap on the recovery tank is a pressure cap like the one found on the radiator. Most engines have an automatic tensioner to keep the serpentine belt properly adjusted. For every 1 psi (6. If a portion of the cooling system is higher than the radiator fill cap. This is where coolant leaves the engine on its way to the radiator. This cracks the valve open and allows coolant to begin circulating through the radiator. The thermostat helps the engine to quickly warm up by keeping coolant from circulating through the radiator when the engine is cold.6 C).8–90. The boiling point of any liquid goes up as the pressure is increased. This will cause premature wear. the coolant boiling point increases by 3 F (1. The coolant reservoir tank is usually mounted in a conspicuous location and can be used as a quick diagnostic tool. As the coolant warms up and circulates under the thermostat. When the coolant is cold. cooling. As a result. Engine Belt. The fan is driven by the crankshaft via a belt. Clamps are used to secure the hoses to the radiator and engine. Engines use one or two serpentine belts to drive all of the accessories. which are the hottest parts of the engine. Lubrication System The lubrication system circulates engine oil to internal engine parts. Pockets of air in the cooling system can block coolant flow. but it is a vital part of the engine and some defects in it can result in driveability symptoms. Excessive tightness in the belt places a heavy load on the bearings in the coolant pump and possibly the crankshaft bearings. On some engines. the engine may overheat or the battery may become discharged. Most engines use a thermostat with a wide-open temperature of between 190–195 F (87. An excessively loose belt will have a tendency to whip or flap. Air-cooled engines are no longer used on cars and light trucks. Some cooling systems have fixed metal tubing to route coolant along straight runs. The difference between this pressure and atmospheric pressure draws coolant from the recovery tank into the radiator. the wax expands and pushes on the piston. the engine moves on its mounts as torque increases and decreases. pressurized oil drips through nozzles onto moving parts such as timing gears. The amount of oil needed varies between engine parts. the coolant may never reach the wide-open temperature.84 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 85 The cooling system is pressurized to raise the boiling point of the coolant. a lower pressure is created in the radiator. Coolant that is pushed out of the radiator as the engine heats up enters the recovery tank. (Daimler) . Parts of a typical thermostat. the thermostat may not fully open. Figure 5-21. The thermostat has no effect on engine temperature once the coolant temperature is at or above the thermostat’s wideopen temperature. the system will have at least one bleeder valve. Figure 5-23 shows a typical pressure/splash lubrication system. This oil strikes the engine cylinder walls. sealing.

Most oil screens cannot be removed and cleaned unless the oil pan is removed. Housing asyengine variable timing Block asycylinder Oil pump Advance side of variable camshaft timing B – – Oil pan – – Figure 5-25. Even a slightly overheated piston can develop a localized hot spot that will cause detonation. Most engines have a pan with a single sump. these spots will contact each other. such as the piston skirts and cam lobes. However. The oil acts like a set of microscopic ball bearings.or dry-sump pan. The cast pan also adds some rigidity to the engine block. The oil separates the moving parts. such as connecting rod journals and rod bearings. oil that reaches the bottom of the pan is immediately pumped to a separate oil reservoir. The lubrication system also serves to cool the internal engine components. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies oil according to various factors that affect oil’s ability to prevent friction and deposits in an engine. The deposits can cause the engine to overheat. engine oil provides shock absorption. rods. In this way. This extends bearing life and prevents engine knocking. In a dry-sump system. have microscopic high spots. The oil pan is a reservoir for engine oil and helps the oil to lose the heat that it picked up in the engine. These impurities can form sludge and varnish deposits in an engine. The API Oil Pan Oil that drips or is squirted out of any part of the lubrication system eventually drains into the oil pan. made up of American and Japanese vehicle manufacturers. (Chrysler) . The oil cushions the shock when the rod changes direction at high speeds. Oil splash also removes heat from the cylinder walls. the screen is always covered by oil. Some manufacturers are implementing a dry-sump oiling system. This leaves very little oil in the pan. It is always located at the lowest point in the oil pan. Figure 5-25. no matter how finely machined. A—Oil containers carry an American Petroleum Institute (API) marking indicating the oil viscosity and classification. (BMW) From head Back to head Oil pumpscreen & cover asy Oil Pickup Screen service classification is SM for most gasoline engines and CH4 for most diesel engines. Figure 5-26. older engines can use engine oil with the newest classification. crankshaft. A thin film of oil between the piston rings and cylinder wall seals in pressure. from being circulated in the lubrication system.86 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 87 Housing asyengine variable timing Head-cylinder Engine variable camshaft timing asy Tensionerengine timing chain LH Housing asyengine variable timing LH Bottom of engine block SM A Tensionerengine timing chain Valve body asy Filter Retard side of variable camshaft timing Metering orifice To chain tensioner Pump asyoil less screen & cover Adapter asyoil filter Camshaft sprocket bolt Oil filter Oil to front of camshaft timing Oil pan asy From head Triggerwheel Oil to rear of camshaft timing rotor Engine variable camshaft timing asy Figure 5-24. Cleaning is also an important job of engine oil. the impurities are trapped. The oil itself is cooled by the cooling system and by direct heat transfer when it is in the oil pan. The advantage of this system is that it allows the engine to be set lower. carbon from the combustion process. (Ford) Lubrication is the most obvious job of engine oil. Most oil pans have a drain plug at the lowest point of the pan. Oils with other classifications are only for use in older engines. The air passing underneath the vehicle removes this heat from the oil pan. the parts begin to wear and overheat from friction. the oil screen usually does not become plugged until the engine reaches very high mileage. Unburned gasoline. the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC). sand. Sealing is another task of engine oil. or metal shavings. They will overheat and melt if the heat is not removed. and other engine parts that cannot be directly cooled by the engine cooling system. The oil screen is installed on the intake side of the oil pump. allowing the parts to slide against each other. Intake Variable camshaft timing auxiliary view Variable timing asy RH auxiliary view Figure 5-23. Dry-sump oiling is a proven system that has been used for many years in auto racing and motorcycles. Friction is greatly reduced. and water vapor get into the crankcase. The oil pan is made of stamped sheet steel or cast aluminum. and prematurely wear out. When the oil circulates through the oil filter. For some moving parts. B—Oil temperature range chart. Note that this engine also uses oil pressure to control a variable timing system. Automotive engines use a combination of pressurized and splashed oil to lubricate engine components. are also cushioned by oil. In addition to the API grades. The oil pan serves as the reservoir for the engine oil as well as providing a surface for heat dissipation. If this oil is not present. yet the pistons are among the hottest parts in the engine. burn oil. They cannot be cooled by the cooling system. As one part moves across another. Oil pump Bolt Oil pickup screen Figure 5-26. preventing the high spots from touching. Since it traps only large particles. GF-4 is the latest standard. Cooling is one of the less obvious jobs of engine oil. The oil pickup screen is either bolted or pressed onto the oil pump. Aluminum pans may have cooling fins cast into the bottom. such as dirt. It is difficult to remove heat from the piston heads. Engine oil contains detergents that prevent formation of sludge by picking up impurities and holding them in suspension. However. All engine parts. classifies oils according to manufacturer test criteria. Some models have two drain plugs. Classifications are called GF for gasoline fueled. The API service classification is printed on the oil container. Oil splashed under the piston head absorbs heat from the piston. Other moving parts. The pickup reaches into the bottom of the oil pan sump to draw oil into the engine. which allows a lower hood profile. some engines use either a dual. Figure 5-24. The oil pickup screen prevents any large particles. This keeps the oil pump from drawing in air if the oil level drops because of oil consumption or sloshing during turns or hard braking. Oil reduces friction by forming a layer between moving parts. At the present time. As a result. Engines constantly collect impurities. pressure leakage (loss of compression) will prevent the engine from running.

and valve train. The cooling system removes unwanted engine heat and regulates engine temperature. Some oil filters have an anti-drainback valve. This allows oil to flow past the filter if the element becomes clogged. On some engines. A film of ______ between the compression rings and cylinder wall seals pressure in the cylinder. the upward movement of the piston pushes the exhaust gases out of the cylinder. Oil under pressure flows into the filter. connecting rods. The oil filter contains an internal bypass. The ______ transfer the force of the expanding combustion gases to the connecting rods. The oil pump speed varies with engine speed. As a Figure 5-28. and Sealant result. a high-pressure area is created. When the mixture ignites. Engine coolant is a mixture of antifreeze and water. . Oil galleries are internal engine passages that carry the oil. Normal oil pressure will not unseat the valve. the spring is compressed and the valve opens. a gear and chain arrangement. Coolant is pumped through engine passages by a belt-driven pump. This creates a low-pressure area that draws oil from the oil pan or oil tank. allowing oil to flow to the pan.88 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 89 Oil Pump The engine oil pump develops oil pressure and flow to circulate oil throughout the lubrication system. The pressure regulator consists of a valve that is held closed by a spring. seals. Minimum pressure at idle should be 15–20 psi (105–140 kPa). Oil pump output is controlled by a pressure regulator. The oil is carried around the housing in the spaces between the gears and housing. Oil Filter The oil filter removes small particles and contaminants from the engine oil. crankshaft. Seals. however. On the exhaust stroke. 4. the oil is not filtered when this happens. The process is then repeated. Preventing fuel and air leaks is vital to driveability. the oil pressure is regulated. pistons and rings. 5. When the oil pressure reaches a certain point. the pump will produce too much oil pressure and flow. Usually. Most gear-driven oil pumps are mounted near the bottom of the engine and connect to the camshaft drive gear through a shaft. Gaskets and seals must stand up to high engine temperatures. A radiator removes heat from the coolant. valve lifters. The valves are driven by the crankshaft through a set of gears. such as the ones shown in Figure 5-29. the filter is very important to good engine performance. However. and out of the filter. or sprockets and a Gear Inlet Outlet Gear External gear pump Internal Rotor pump gear Figure 5-27. Gaskets. Cars and light trucks have a liquid cooling system. The oil pump may be of the external gear or rotor design. The faster the pump revolves. provides shock absorption between parts. since the pump is driven by the engine. They are cast or drilled into the engine block and heads. A typical oil filter. (D) Expanding combustion gases. Poor lubrication can eventually result in driveability symptoms. The _____ converts the straight-line motion of the piston into rotary motion. the oil filter is mounted on the firewall or Outlet External gear Inlet Summary The four-stroke cycle operates through two revolutions of the crankshaft. This valve closes to keep oil from draining out of the filter when the engine is not operated for long periods. affect hydraulic lifter operation. It is formulated to prevent sludge formation. The major components of a reciprocating-piston engine are the engine block. high oil pressure forces the valve open. reduces friction. When the gear teeth mesh at the outlet. The externalgear design is most common. The cycle then repeats. Both designs have a positive displacement. the more oil it delivers. Some oil filters are installed in the oil pan or an engine-mounted canister and do not have housings. This dumps excess oil into the sump. Pressure Regulator The oil pump has enough capacity to deliver sufficient oil pressure and flow at idle speeds. Galleries are drilled in the crankshaft to allow oil to reach the connecting rod bearings. Other types of elements may be used. more and more engines are equipped with rotor pumps. which is at a lower (near atmospheric) pressure. and cleans parts. In some engine designs. When the pump gears rotate. Figure 5-27 illustrates the external-gear and rotor designs of oil pump. a pleated paper filter element. The filter is always installed on the outlet side of the oil pump. Oil pressure from the pump pushes against the valve on the opposite side from the spring. drive belt. What holds intake and exhaust valves closed? (A) The camshaft. The engine oil provides lubrication. High oil pressure elsewhere in the engine compartment. Oil Galleries Oil flows to the pan Review Questions—Chapter 5 Please do not write in this text. It consists of a stamped metal housing containing. The lubrication system circulates engine oil to internal engine parts. Oil galleries are internal passages that carry the oil throughout the engine. but be pliable enough at various operating temperatures to create the intended seal. A pressure regulator controls oil pump output. The oil filter is replaced during an oil change as part of normal engine maintenance. 2. helps with cooling. it pushes the piston down for the power stroke. At higher engine speeds. Some oil pumps are installed in the engine front cover and are directly driven by the engine crankshaft. The intake stroke draws air and fuel into the cylinder. (A) piston (B) crankshaft (C) flywheel (D) connecting rod 6. typically. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. (A) carbon (B) oil (C) unburned fuel (D) None of the above. Antifreeze may be ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. While it is a very simple and inexpensive part. performance. it is driven by a gear on the camshaft or crankshaft. (B) Compression pressure. valve operation is controlled by a mechanism operated by a computer. A constant-displacement pump delivers the same amount of oil with each revolution. through the filter element. Name the four strokes in a four-stroke cycle engine. Engine oil pressure is usually regulated to about 35–45 psi (240–310 kPa). Removable plugs are located at the rear of some engine blocks to allow the galleries to be cleaned during an overhaul. can be removed from the engine by unscrewing it from the mounting pad. 3. The compression stroke compresses the air-fuel mixture. However. This may rupture seals or filter elements. Engine oil pumps are always constant-displacement types. Galleries extend from the pump and filter to the crankshaft and camshaft bearings. Gaskets and seals are used in the intake system to seal air and fuel in and to prevent vacuum leaks. cylinder head(s). The oil is squeezed out of the discharge port. Oil filters come in many sizes and shapes. List the major parts installed on or in the engine block. and emissions. and rocker arm shafts. 1. (C) Valve spring pressure. The pressure regulator controls the maximum oil pressure. The oil pump is driven by a gear on the camshaft or by the engine timing belt. or cause oil burning. Seat Ball Spring holding the ball against the seat Normal oil pressure Oil pressure acting on the ball compresses the spring Figure 5-29. the gear teeth unmesh in the inlet area. Figure 5-28. valves.

(A) cam-in-block (B) roller-lifter (C) overhead cam (D) All of the above. 9. (D) None of the above. (C) increase the boiling point of the engine coolant. Who is correct? (A) A only. Cylinder heads contain all of the following. Who is correct? (A) A only. (C) Both A & B. 12. except: (A) oil control rings are installed below the compression rings. (C) Both A & B. Technician A says that overhead camshafts are usually driven by a belt. (C) a combination of pressurized/splashed oil. (B) lower the freezing point of the engine coolant. except: (A) intake valves. The camshaft turns at _____ the speed of the crankshaft. Oil screens on the inlet to the oil pump are to remove: (A) large particles of dirt or metal. _____ and ____ are the two general types of variable valve timing. Technician B says that the engine oil pan serves as the reservoir for engine oil. (B) exhaust valves. (B) splashed oil. List two devices used to reduce engine vibration. (D) defective oil control rings will cause high oil consumption 3. (D) particles the oil filter does not catch. (B) B only. overhead valve engines. (D) Neither A nor B. 7. (C) oil control rings scrape oil from the cylinder walls when the piston is moving down. (C) Both A & B. the boiling point of the engine coolant is _____. 15. Technician A says that an engine must have sufficient compression before it will start and run. (A) about half (B) exactly half (C) about twice (D) exactly twice 8. (A) 10:90 (B) 50:50 (C) 30:70 (D) 80:20 9. The purpose of antifreeze is to: (A) reduce rust and corrosion in the engine and radiator. Technician A says that engine oil pumps are constant-displacement pumps. (B) small particles of dirt or metal. (A) cool (B) lubricate (C) cushion (D) All of the above. All of the following statements about oil control rings are true. 13. By pressurizing the cooling system. (B) there should be no oil at the compression rings. Most vehicle manufacturers recommend a ______ mix of water and antifreeze. typically in the range of: (A) 5–15 psi (35–105 kPa) (B) 15–20 psi (105–140 kPa) (C) 20–35 psi (140–240 kPa) (D) 35–45 psi (240–310 kPa) ASE Certification-Type Questions 1. Technician B says that the intake valve must be in contact with its seat long enough to transfer heat to the cylinder head. 10. (D) Neither A nor B.90 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Engine Construction and Operation 91 7. Technician A says that the intake valves are cooled by incoming air. (D) Neither A nor B. (B) B only. (D) camshafts. (C) chemical contaminants. Technician B says that in cam-in-block. Cars and light trucks manufactured today are _____ cooled. 5. 6. 4. A hydraulic lash adjuster. Engines are usually lubricated by: (A) pressurized oil. 2. (B) B only. Technician B says that compression is developed on the power stroke of a four-cycle engine. . maintains the proper valve clearance on ______ engines. (B) B only. (D) Neither A nor B. (D) All of the above. 14. similar in operation to a hydraulic lifter. 10. (A) intake valves (B) exhaust valves (C) EGR valve (D) Both A & B. the camshaft is usually directly driven by two meshing gears. Who is correct? (A) A only. (A) air (B) liquid (C) oil (D) thermostatically 11. (C) EGR valves. The valve train is the group of components that opens the ______. Who is correct? (A) A only. 8. (C) Both A & B. Engine oil is used to ______ various parts of the engine. Engine oil pressure is controlled by a pressure regulator.

In other vehicles. such as this car from Smart.92 Auto Engine Performance and Driveability Electricity is used throughout the vehicle. Some vehicles use electricity to assist the gasoline or diesel engine in moving the vehicle. (Daimler) . only electricity propels the vehicle.