# Ann Lynn, Ph.D. Psychology 207 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing: The Z test I.

Hypothesis testing: the procedure for doing inferential statistics A. The z-test compares a sample mean (with treatment) to a known population mean (without treatment), when we also know the population standard deviation NOTE: this research design rarely happens in real life!! II. Language and steps of Hypothesis testing A. State statistical hypothesis Ho : Null hypothesis (statement that there is no effect) H1 : Alternate hypothesis/Research hypothesis (statement that there is an effect) B. Find Critical area 1. specify the cutoff sample mean needed in order to conclude that the sample mean was not likely to be obtained from the population 2. alpha level = α = the size of the critical area a. Convention is that this is 5% or less of the distribution of sampling means 3. How to do it: a. Find the Z-critical. This is the cutoff Z score that defines the critical area Zc for Common α levels (taken from Normal Table) α = .05 Type of H1 One tailed Two tailed 1.64 ± 1.96 α = .01 2.33 ± 2.58

C. Collect data and Calculate test statistic 1. Convert the sample data to a standardized score in order to find out if it is beyond the cutoff specified in Step B. 2. How to do it: Convert sample mean to Z- observed Zo = M-μ ------σM where: σM = σ --√n

05 b. c. p < alpha level If do not reject null: Z = obs. Z = 2. The null hypothesis is a good explanation (Sample data not beyond cutoff) * "We do not reject the null hypothesis" (statistically correct terminology) * NOT statistically significant * The observed differences between the M and μ are probably due to error/chance * The null hypothesis is a reasonable explanation of the results * The IV had no effect on the DV * p > .5.28) from the stress level reported by the population (μ=12.Ann Lynn. b. Z score. p< . effect? Include the names of the IV and DV Include the sample mean and SD Include the string of numbers: If reject Null: Z = obs. SD=. SD = . Was there a sig.3).” . p > . State conclusion a. The researcher's hypothesis is a good explanation (Sample data IS beyond the cutoff) * "We reject the null hypothesis" (statistically correct terminology) * Statistically significant * The observed differences between the M and μ are probably due to the IV * The null hypothesis is wrong * The IV had an effect on the DV * The probability of no real difference between the M and μ is less than 5% * p < . Make decision and state conclusion 1.0. Z score. Psychology 207 D. Decision will either be: a.05 example: “A Z-test revealed that the new stress reduction technique significantly reduced the stress level of the students in the sample (M = 10.05 3.D. d. Ph.05.

At α = .5 on a scale of 1 to 100 with 1 being most unfavorable. A researcher at IC hypothesizes that IC students are more critical of the president than the general population. After 1 year.8 on a national science achievement test.05 test the one-tailed hypothesis that IC students are more critical than the population. and 100 most favorable. Practice Example A recent national survey reported that the general population gave the president an average rating of μ = 60 with a standard deviation of 3. She collects data on 10 IC students (below). the 36 children in this program obtained an average score of 61.05.D. Sample Ratings of President 44 50 24 45 39 57 25 90 78 54 .Ann Lynn. Ph. Psychology 207 Z-test Example Problems Demonstration example A local school district recently implemented an experimental program for science education. Did the students in the special program score above the national average? Test at α = . This national test is standardized so that the national average is 60 with a standard deviation of 6.