The application of magnetite nanoparticles in environmental engineering is promi sing due to several factors.

Magnetite nanoparticles have a large specific surfa ce area, making them ideal as nano-sorbents for some contaminants [5], [6], [21] and [23]. The specific surface area can be estimated at 116 m2/g, based on the assumption that all magnetite particles are spheres of 10 nm in diameter (the de nsity of magnetite is 5.18 g/cm3 [39]). The PZC of magnetite nanoparticles is cl ose to 7 [10] and [39]. Thus, the surfaces of magnetite nanoparticles are positi vely charged at acidic conditions and negatively charged at alkaline conditions, which entails the advantage to remove both anionic and cationic pollutants from water or wastewater via adsorption at different pHs. In the structure of magnet ite nanoparticles, one third of the total iron is in the ferrous state, which ca n reduce some metal ions to less soluble forms or detoxify some metals such as C r6+ in remediation or wastewater treatment [5] and [39]. Another feature of magn etite nanoparticles is their superparamagnetic properties, which make them very promising in environmental treatment or remediation. After sorption, the contami nant compounds along with magnetite nanoparticles can be separated from the wast ewater using high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) techniques [23] and [41], making the regeneration and reuse of nanoparticles possible. In environmental engineering, however, the utilization of magnetite nanoparticle s prepared from reagent-grade chemicals could not be cost-effective in the fullscale process, due to the characteristics of water or wastewater, such as high f low rate, and the presence of various pollutants and associated high consumption and loss of nanoparticles. AMD is an environmental problem with long-term liabi lity for the mining industry due to its low pH and high metal concentrations (es pecially Fe). Further, AMD sludge treatment and disposal are difficult and can b e costly to implement. The metal recovery process used in this study demonstrate d that iron could be recovered as iron hydroxide/oxyhydroxide precipitate with a relatively high purity while AMD was treated. After resolubilization, the recov ered ferric iron from AMD was used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles, which showed the same quality as those prepared with reagent-grade chemicals. Thus, th is study provided a great opportunity for manufacturing of low-cost magnetite na noparticles for water and wastewater treatment in environmental engineering, and hence the overall waste minimization was achieved. samples exhibited higher adsorption rates and more effective removal capacity of organic pollutants compared with commercial activated carbon The multifunctional nanocomposites can be potentially used as absorbents for fas t, convenient, and highly efficient removal of pollutants from the wastewater, w hich will play important roles in the purification or desalination of natural wa ter and industrial effluents. The porous wall structure of the lateral carbon capsules provides the sufficient spaces that contribute to high adsorption capacities and faster adsorption rate s of pollutants molecules in aqueous media. The nanocomposites are superparamagn etic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of 5.5 emu g-1, which p rovides the prerequisite for the fast magnetic separation in wastewater treatmen t applicati

A novel type of superparamagnetic silica-coated (Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell) magneti te nanoparticle modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and wa s applied as an effective sorbent material for the pre-concentration of several typical phenolic compounds (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-n -nonylphenol (4-NP)) from environmental water samples. Compared with pure magnet ic particles, a thin and dense silica layer would protect the iron oxide core fr

and 20 ng/L. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or cetyltrimethyla mmonium bromide (CTAB) were added. Un der selected conditions. which adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3O4/Si O2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs) and formed mixed hemimicelles. .om leaching out in acidic conditions. Main factors a ffecting the adsolubilization of analytes were optimized and comparative study o n the use of CPC and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs mixed hemimicelles-based SPE was also carried out. concentration factor of 1600 was achieved by using this method to extract 800 mL of different environmental water samples. In order to enhance their adsorptive tende ncy towards organic compounds. respectively. 4-OP and 4-NP with HPLC-FLD were 7. 14. CPC-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs system was selected due to lower e lution volume required and more effective adsorption of the target compounds. The detectio n limits obtained for BPA.