In [[mathematics]] the Robinson-Schensted-[[Knuth]] correspondence is a [[biject ion]] between generalized permutations (as 2 lined arrays) and pairs

of [[Young_ tableau#Tableaux semi-standard Young Tableaux]]. [[Richard_P._Stanley Richard St anley]] uses this term for these tableaux and abbreviates it as SSYT <ref name=S tanley> Stanley, Richard P., Enumerative Combinatorics, Volume2. Cambridge Unive rsity Press. ISBN 0-521-55309-1, 0-521-56069-1. Page 316-380</ref>. Donald Knuth uses the term generalized Young Tableaux <ref name=Knuth> Knuth, Donald E., Per mutations, matrices, and generalized Young tableaux. Pacific J. Math. Volume 34, Number 3 (1970), 709-727. Available at lay&version=1.0&service=UI&handle=euclid.pjm/1102971948&page=record</ref>. == Introduction == The [[Robinson-Schensted algorithm]] helps establish a [[bijective]] mapping bet ween [[permutations]] and pairs of [[Young_tableau Young Tableaux]], both having shape <math>\lambda</math>: <math>\pi \longleftrightarrow (\lambda,P,Q) </math> where <math>\pi \in S_n </math> is a permutation of order <math>n</math> and <ma th>P,Q</math> are Young Tableau of shape <math>\lambda</math>. ===Generalized permutations=== A ''generalized permutation'' or two-line array <math>w</math> is defines by<ref name=Stanley/>: <math> p = \begin{pmatrix}i_1 & i_2 & \ldots & i_m\j_1 & j_2 & \ldots & j_m\end {pmatrix}</math> where, # <math>i_1 \leq i_2 \leq i_3 \ldots \leq i_m</math> # if <math>i_r = i_s</math> and <math>r \leq s</math> then <math>j_r \leq j_s</m ath> '''Example''': <math>p = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 1 & 1 & 2 & 2 & 3 & 3\ 1 & 3 & 3 & 2 & 2 & 1 & 2\end{pmatrix}</math> By extending the Robinson-Schensted algorithm to generalized permutations we can obtain [[one-to-one]] mappings from these types of permutations to ordered pair s, <math>(P,Q)</math>, where <math>P</math> and <math>Q</math> are SSYT of the s ame shape. ==The Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence== The Robinson-Schensted-Knuth (RSK) algorithm works almost exactly like the [[Rob inson-Schensted algorithm]], the only difference being that RSK takes a generali zed permutation as input. Stanley <ref name=Stanley/> uses this moniker. The ba sic operation consists of an ''insertion operation'' defined as <math>P \longlef tarrow k</math> of a positive integer <math>k</math> into a SSYT <math>P</math>. Let <math>A = (a_{ij})_{i,j \geq 1}</math> be a matrix with non-negative element s of dimension <math>m \times n</math>. Let <math>p_A</math> be a generalized pe rmutation associated with <math>A</math>, defined as: <math>p_A = \begin{pmatrix}i_1 & i_2 & \ldots & i_m\j_1 & j_2 & \ldots & j_m\en

d{pmatrix}</math> where in addition to the 2 rules specified in the definition of a generalized pe rmutaion <math>p_A</math> needs to satisfy: # For each <math>(i,j)</math>, there must be <math>a_{ij}</math> values of <math >r</math> for which <math>(i_r,j_r) = (i,j)</math>. It is easy to see that there is a bijective mapping from <math>A</math> to <math >p_A</math>. '''Example''': If <math>p_A = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 1 & 1 & 2 & 2 & 3 & 3\ 1 & 3 & 3 & 2 & 2 & 1 & 2\end{pmatrix}</math> then <math>A = \begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & 2 \ 0 & 2 & 0 \ 1 & 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}</math> If we apply the RSK algorithm on the permutation <math>p_A</math> we get the fol lowing theorem called the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence theorem<ref na me=Knuth/>. '''Theorem 1''': There is a one-one correspondence between matrix <math>A = (a_{ ij})_{i,j \geq 1}</math> (and by implication permutation <math>p_A</math>) and t he ordered pairs <math>(P,Q)</math>, where <math>P</math> and <math>Q</math> hav e the same shape. In addition integer <math>i</math> occurs exactly <math>a_{i1} + a_{i2} + \ldots + a_{in}</math> times in <math>Q</math> and the integer <math >j</math> occurs exactly <math>a_{1j} + a_{2j} + \ldots + a_{mj}</math> times in <math>P</math>. == Combinatorial properties of RSK correspondence == ===RSK and permutation matrices=== If <math>A</math> is a [[permutation matrix]] then RSK outputs standard Young Ta bleaux, <math>P,Q</math> of the same shape <math>\lambda</math>. Conversely, if <math>P,Q</math> are SYT having the same shape <math>\lambda</math>, then the co rresponding matrix <math>A</math> is a permutation matrix. As a result of this p roperty by simply comparing the cardinalities of the two sets on the two sides o f the bijective mapping we get the following corollary: '''Corollary 1''': For each <math>n \geq 1</math> we have <math>\sum_{\lambda\vd ash n} (f^\lambda)^2= n!</math> where <math>\lambda\vdash n</math> means <math>\lambda</math> varies over all [[ Partition (number theory) partition]]s of <math>n</math> and <math>f^\lambda</ma th> is the number of standard Young tableaux of shape <math>\lambda</math>. By examining the structure of the Robinson-Schensted-K algorithm we can prove th e following theorem:<ref name=AOP> Kunth, Donald E., The Art of Programming, Vol ume 3/ Sorting and Searching. Addison-Wesley, 1973. Page 54-58</ref> '''Theorem 2''': If the permutation <math>\sigma</math> corresponds to a triple <math>(\lambda,P,Q)</math>, then the [[Permutation#Product_and_inverse inverse p ermutation]], <math>\sigma^{-1}</math>, corresponds to <math>(\lambda,Q,P)</math >.

This leads to the following surprising corollary that links the number of involu tions on <math>S_n</math> with the number of tableaux that can be formed from <m ath>S_n</math> (An ''involution'' is a permutation that is its own [[Permutation #Product_and_inverse inverse]])<ref name=AOP/>: '''Corollary 2''': The number of tableaux that can be formed from <math>\{1,2,3 , \ldots,n\}</math> is equal to the number of involutions on <math>\{1,2,3, \ldo ts,n\}</math>. ''Proof'': If <math>\pi</math> is an involution corresponding to <math>(P,Q)</ma th>, then <math>\pi = \pi^-</math> corresponds to <math>(Q,P)</math>; hence <mat h>P = Q</math>. Conversely, if <math>\pi</math> is any permutation corresponding to <math>(P,P)</math>, then <math>\pi^-</math> also corresponds to <math>(P,P)< /math>; hence <math>\pi = \pi^-</math>. So there is a one-one correspondence be tween involutions <math>\pi</math> and tableax <math>P</math> The number of involutions on <math>\{1,2,3, \ldots,n\}</math> is given by the re currence: <math>a(n) = a(n-1)+(n-1)a(n-2)</math> Where <math>a(1) = 1,a(2) = 2</math>. By solving this recurrence we can get the number of involutions on <math>\{1,2,3, \ldots,n\}</math>, <math>I(n) = n!\sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} \frac{1}{2^kk!(n-2k)!}</math> ===Symmetry of RSK<ref name=Stanley/>=== Let <math>A</math> be a matrix with non-negative entries. Suppose the RSK algori thm maps <math>A</math> to <math>(P,Q)</math> then the RSK algorithm maps <math> A^T</math> to <math>(Q,P)</math>, where <math>A^T</math> is the transpose of <ma th>A</math>. ===Symmetric Matrices<ref name=Stanley/>=== Let <math>A</math> be an matrix with non-negative entries, then <math>A=A^T</mat h> if and only if <math>P = Q</math> where <math>A</math> is mapped to <math>(P, Q)</math> by the RSK algorithm. ==References== {{Reflist}}