HW5 Part A

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Aldo Leveroni Ling 200

1.) Human Language has all of Hockett’s design features. These features include mode of communication, samanticity, pragmatic function, interchangeability, cultural transmission, arbitrariness, discreteness, displacement, and productivity. Productivity refers to a language’s ability to form novel messages from discrete units. As a result productivity gives the communicator the ability to form an infinite (infiniteness) array of information, built from discrete units, to help communicate and increase survival rate. In human language productivity is achieved by people’s ability to produce and understand an infinite number of novel sentences built from words in various forms. Due to the nature of human language, vocalizing sentences from discrete units to make effective messages gives rise to productivity, and our ability to make infinite number of messages shows the “infiniteness” of the human language. On the contrary honey bees achieve productivity in a limited but useful manner. Honey bees use a dancing technique with limited semantic value to convey new information to fellow bees in the hive. The bees use one out of three dance patterns: round, sickle, and tail wagging. The round dance indicates locations near the hive (within 20ft.), the sickle dance indicates locations at intermediate distance from the hive (20-60ft.), and the tail-wagging dance is for distances that exceed 60ft. Aside from communicating distance the round dance can also communicate quality of food source. The sickle dance can also show direction and quality of food in addition to its approximate distance. Similarly the tail-wagging dance conveys all information that the sickle dance does in addition to the communicating precise distance. In the tail-wagging dance, the number of times per minute the bee dances a complete pattern indicates the distance of the food source. For example the slower the repetition rate the greater the distance of food. Utilizing these dancing techniques the bees have a unique and effective system of communication that is capable, in principle, of conveying infinite (infiniteness) different messages through limited productivity. Finally the absence of creativity, makes the bee’s communication technique qualitatively different from human language. Part B: 2.) a. desk /dɛsk/ → [dɛs] (i) there is a consonant cluster at the end of the syllable (/sk/) (ii) the second consonant is a stop consonant when it comes after (/k/); (/s/) (A tenuis consonant is a stop consonant) (iii)the two consonants, /s/ and /k/ are both voiceless => Thus, the /k/ deletes b. arm /aɹm/ → [aɹm]

(*)= failed condition 3. Past tense suffixes that do not for consonant clusters are not deleted .[bo ld] ii./t/ after /s/. /r/ and /m/ are both voiced => Thus. the /m/ does not delete because not all three conditions apply.(i) there is a consonant cluster at the end of the syllable (/rm/) (ii) the second consonant is not a stop consonant (/r/)* (iii)the two consonants. similar to /desk/ in example above.[fas] …. and /t/ is voicless* => Thus..)SAE………[ka nd n s ] ii. thus the /t/ deletes d) kindness i.[d gz] ii.)AAVE………. paint /peɪnt/ → [peɪnt] (i) there is a consonant cluster at the end of the syllable (/nt/) (ii) the second consonant is a stop consonant (/n/) (iii)the consonants.[bo ld] … not all 3 conditions apply b) dogs i.)SAE……….)SAE………. /n/ is voiced. However. this is not the case.) The fact that the final word past tense suffixes can be deleted in certain AAVE environments might give the impression that AAVE lacks the past tense suffix.)SAE………. c.[ka nd n s]…not all 3 conditions apply 4.) a) bold i.)AAVE……….[d gz] … the two consonants (/g/ and/s/) don’t share a voicing feature c) fast i.[fast] ii.)AAVE……….)AAVE………. the /t/ does not delete because not all three conditions apply. Rules apply.

by the AAVE phonological process. [bɹn] Hyp A= pass.. base end in consonant Hyp B= pass. AAVE pronunciation Pushed………………. [pʊʃ] Hyp A=fail. no consonant cluster in base. V + O = Vpast Actual=[mɪsd] Shouted……………. all 3 conditions met Hyp B=pass. Examples: Word……………. /s/ is not a stop.[peɪdʒ] Hyp A= pass. thus past tense not deleted Hyp B=pass. V + O = Vpast Actual=[mɛs ʌp] . V + O = Vpast Actual=[reɪzd] Picked ………………. Hypothesis A: the lack of a past tense morpheme on the verbs in (a) and (b) is due to a phonological process.[mɪs] Hyp A=fail.[pɪk] Hyp A=pass. the following word begins with a vowel Hyp B=pass. V + O = Vpast Actual=[dʒʌmp] Missed ………………. V + O = Vpast Actual=[bɹn] messed up…………. thus past tense not deleted Hyp B= pass. thus past tense not deleted Hyp B= fail.. thus past tense not deleted Hyp B= fail. ending /d/ is still pronounced SAE=AAVE Actual=[peɪdʒ] Raised………………. Given this fact Hypothesis A is the correct hypothesis. thus past tense not deleted Hyp B=pass. [reɪz] Hyp A=fail. no consonant cluster in base. all 3 conditions met Hyp B=pass. namely the rule of consonant cluster simplification described above. [ʃaʊɾɪd] Hyp A= pass. V + O = Vpast Actual=[pɪk] Jumped …………….. not all 3 conditions met. [mɛs ʌp] Hyp A= pass. not a consonant cluster in base. V + O = Vpast Actual= [pʊʃd] Paged ………………. the final /d/ is pronounced SAE=AAVE Actual=[ʃaʊɾɪd] Burned……………….[dʒʌmp] Hyp A=pass...

Linguistically speaking there is no one dialect or language that is dominant over than any other. Mainly people lean to speak a dialect in accordance with the people that speak around them in their environment. represents the group’s heritage and culture and is a direct result of the region (environment) they live in. Due to the fact that slaves were seen as inferior at the time. not consonant cluster in base Hyp B=fail. . Print. What this means is that there isn’t one dialect that is logically or systematically better than the other. First being the fact that this deletion is associated with AAVE. etc. Secondly the popular misconception that every language has a “correct” dialect that all other “inferior” (stigmatized) dialects come from plays a major role in the tendency to stigmatize dialects. socioeconomic class. which gives the notion that this dialect was commonly used by African American slaves brought to America. gender. Therefore the dialect or language a person speaks is not predestined. Thus the deletion of consonants in dialects is not due to laziness. there is no linguistic reason or evidence to consider these deletions as bad or wrong. Thus any modification to this standard dialect would be used by people in the lower socioeconomic class and further emphasize stigmatism. If you were to place a white child in an urban African American environment he will lean to speak that urban dialect. but instead it is determined by the dialect or language they are exposed to. Also ideally the standard dialect . Bibliography: Language Files. and doesn’t reflect the speaker intelligence or judgment. /d/ is pronounced SAE=AAVE Actual=[θɹoʊd] 5. Columbus: Ohio State UP. rather it is due to phonological rules that are acquired due to exposure to a variety that exhibits these particular patterns. in this case. or “correct” dialect of English was used by the higher socioeconomic class (although the speaker can speak any dialect and not necessarily be of a higher or lower class).) These particular deletions tend to be seen as stigmatized in American society for a number of reasons.Throwed…………… [θɹoʊd] Hyp A= pass. This is because human language is leaned and is not a refection or our personality (laziness). As a result all dialects are rule-governed systems that produce an effective medium of communication. Although there are reason as to why these particular deletion are seen as incorrect. 6. This misconception roots from many social stereotypes from the past.) How people speak is a product of many factors like age. 2007. The deletion of the consonant. their dialect was seen as inferior as well.