Industrial Crops and Products, 1 (1992) 31-34 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers BY All rights reserved, 0926-6690/92/S05

.00

r)

31

INDCRO 00005

Composition of seed oils in some Latin American Cuphea (Lythraceae)
Shirley A. Graham a and Robert Kleiman b
'Departmelll oj Biological Sciences, Kelll State University, Kent, OH, USA ancfbUSDA-ARS, Northern Regional Research Celller, Peoria, IL, USA

(Received 26 August 1991: accepted 13 February 1992)

Abstract Graham, S.A. and Kleiman, R., 1992. Composition of seed oils in some Latin American Cuphea (Lythraceae). Industr. Crops Products, I: 31-34.
Cuphea is unique among all flowering plants for the diversity of medium chain fatty acids produced as dominant fatty acids in the seed oils. The genus is a focus of research as a renewable source of MCTs for use by the chemical, food and health industries and as a model organism for the elucidation of biosynthesis of fatty acids, Seed oil composition is reported in 15 taxa, including 13 species previously unstudied, Results mostly substantiate patterns established in earlier studies in which species emphasize production of a single fatty acid, either C8:0, CIO:O, CI2:0, C14:0 or CI8:2. Three species are unusual in producing equal amounts ofC8:0 and CIO:O, C12:0 and C14:0, and ClO:0-CI2:0-CI4:0, respectively, In C. pulcherrima, 94% of total seed oil composition is caprylic acid (C8:0) and in C. schumann ii, 94% is capric acid (ClO:0). These are the highest single fatty acid percentages reported in the genus, Representatives of sect. Ornithocuphea are analysed for the first time and new compositional seed oil patterns are reported in sections Brachyandra and kIelvilla.
Seed oil; Latin American Cuphea

The New World genus Cuphea is currently included in a select list of flowering plant genera that show exceptional promise as new industrial crop plants (Hinman, 1986; Knapp, 1990; ThomI1son, 1984), Seeds of Cuphea produce oils composed of a diversity of medium-chain fatty acids, with individual species usually emphasizing one of several fatty acids, Cuphea oilseeds may be rich in caprylic (C8:0), capric (ClO:O), lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), linoleic (C18:2) or, occasionally, linolenic acid (C18:3), The lipids occur primarily in the embryo and constitute up to 42% of total seed
Correspondence: Shirley A. Graham, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

weight, most commonly with 30-33% oil content (Arkcoll, 1988; Thompson and Kleiman, 1988), The value of Cuphea seed lipids lies in the compositional diversity produced and the utilization that can be made of the various fatty acids by the chemical, food and health industries, The primary medium chain fatty acid in use at present is lauric acid, It is employed extensively in the manufacture of food products, household cleaners and personal care products, in industrial lubricants, and in coatings and plastics (Knaut and Richtler, 1985), About one billion pounds of lauric oils are imported annually by the United States for such uses (Kleiman, 1990), Of recent development are structured lipid mixtures in which linoleic acid

ianthina are unique in having nearly equal amounts of C8:0 and CIO:O. 1990 and unpublished data). which ClIplzea seeds produce in abundance. In var. hirtella. minor variation of 10% or less normally occurs in percentage of fatty acids produced. the latter from Brazil. C. The emphasis on this most common plant fatty acid. micropetala. long-tongued bees) makes determination of relationships difficult. Such formulations are employed to improve digestion in newborns. Where several populations of one species have been analysed.. 1989a). Lineages of C I0:0 and C 12:0 species were previously reported (Graham. Graham. The first population is from Dominican Republic.. 1983). and only occasionally by two. for weight control in obese patients. hawkmoths. They are congruent with patterns of related species in most. micropetala (sect. C12:0 and CI4:0. In C. Dominance of C18:2 in C. in var. 1989a). with two major fatty acids (CI2:0=47% and CI4:0=40%). 1987). CI4:0. 1990). Evidence for relationships using seed oil composition is welcome in this section where convergence of the most prominent floral characters as a result of similar specialized pollinators (hummingbirds. Among the taxa reported. rather than major variations such as reported here for C.(typically predominate in plant seed oils) is blended with shorter chain fatty acids. denticlilata is in keeping with the pattern in section Cliphea (see summary: Graham. The section Melvilla is considered polyphyletic based on diversity of pollen types and floral characters such as spur shape and calyx lobe types (Graham and Graham. hirtella three dominant fatty acids. Mexico and Venezuela. micrantlza. 1981. The species generally follow patterns reported for previous species analysed. Most species of ClIplzea are represented by one dominant fatty acid in the seed oil. micropetala. Dominican Republic. Results and Discussion Fatty acid composition of seed oils in 15 taxa of ClIplzea is summarized in Table I. After transesterification to their methyl esters. micropetala var. together \vith the nearly regular (vs.. while isolation of the genes that control the system is a goal of biotechnology firms seeking to transfer fatty acid synthesis genes to established oilseed plants such as rape (Graham. 1971. C. Wolf et al. The same pattern is reported for C. In section Braclzyandra. fatty acids of the wild seeds were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Bolivia. differs from a previously reported population in which lauric acid dominated (CI2:0=53%) and myristic acid was secondary (CI4:0= 18%)(Graham et al. but not all. C. three fatty acids occur in approximately equal proportions. M elvilla) appears to have two compositional patterns. 1989a). denticlilata seeds primarily produce linoleic acid (C 18:2). CI0:0. C. the following deserve special comment. the most common constituent of flowering plant seed lipids. C. Materials and Methods Seeds for analysis were collected in Brazil. pinetorllm in this . Because of the unique diversity of fatty acids produced among the species. salvadorensis with C14:0 seed oils suggests presence of a third group of related species. 1985) and are summarized by Graham (1989a). and content of single fatty acids was computed as percentage of the total fatty acids. 1982: Deerberg et aI. The addition of C. In the evolutionarily advanced sect. ClIplzea is also viewed as a model system for the study of the fatty acid biosynthetic mechanism (Slabas et al. one of the three. one in each variety of the species. Fifteen new analyses are reported here. 1983: Graham and Kleiman. is predominant. Differences in composition patterns are thus valuable in assessing evolutionary relationships among the species.. 28% of the genus have been determined (Graham et al. Analysis follows procedures outlined earlier (Wolf et al.. Seed oil composition patterns support the presence of at least three major lineages. micrantlza. rasilis. Herbarium vouchers are deposited at Kent State University (KE-G). suggests that the most primitive species of the genus occur in section ClIplzea. seed oils of C. 1981.. 1981). and in other specific nutritional medical applications (Babayan. In only one species to date. micropetala var. instances. including analyses of 13 previously unstudied taxa in six of the fourteen sections of the genus. irregular or zygomorphic) flowers characteristic of the section. occur in approximately equal amounts. Diploptychia. Seed oil composition patterns of 73 species of ClIplzea or ca.

0 3. micropetala Kunth var. Cuphea pinetarum is a diploid with n = II.6 65. hirtella with different fatty acid patterns have the same chromosome number and are tetraploids with n = 16. Cuphea micrapetala var..9 6.2 0. Republic: Zanoni 41811 Brazil: Graham 951 Brazil: Graham 927 .7 4.2 0.2 ' 0 ~ 53. Graham.0 1.6 1.8 45. 1981.0 0.0 5.3 1.0 68. but as yet unexplained.8 38. C. micrantha the two populations differing in fatty acid composition are both diploids with n = 8 (Graham et al. schumannii Koehne Sect. acin!folia St.0 0.7 5.4 0.0 0.7 2.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0. pulcherrima. 1992).6 3. which allow limited assessment of this idea. and strengthen the observed.1 9.Hil.1 0. 93.2 0.1 23.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 17. Brachyalldra me/anium R.1 12.7 27. Diploptychia C. are available for all mixed-composition species except C.33 TABLE I Fatty acid composition of Cuphea seed oils expressed as percentages of total fatty acid composition.3 0.1 73. micrapetala and var.9 J _.7 33. ianthina Koehne Sect.8 0.0 Mexico: Mexico: Mexico: Mexico: Mexico: Graham Graham Graham Graham Graham 1051 1048 1027 1076 1090 Mexico: Graham 1070 Bolivia: Smith 13925 Mexico: Graham 1053 Mexico: Graham 1052 section with C8:0=48% and ClO:0=40% of total fatty acid percentages (Graham et aL 1981). & Seat.1 0.9 0.0 5.2 0.0 0. cyanea DC.Br.4 0. C.6 20. pulcherrima.0 94. It has been suggested that species with codominant fatty acids might have originated as allopolyploids from species with different dominant fatty acid oil types (Knapp.3 3. rasilis Graham C.7 1. 0. Chromosome numbers of the species with mixed-composition oils. Species are arranged according to the classification of Koehne (1903) Species Percentage of total fatty acids (%) 8:0 Sect. MeMlla C. are analysed and. salvadorensis Stand.0 64. ianthina (Graham. personal communication.1 0.9 1.2 0.0 0. 1989b.8 1. pulcherrima Foster 0. Cuphea schumannii in section !vIelvilla also has nearly as high percentage ofa single fatty acid.3 13. con(enif!ora St.0 85.0 0. C.3 50.9 42.7 49. In C.1 4.5 0.1 23...1 0.0 75. 1981).0 0. unpublished data). . trend toward predominance of shorter chain length fatty acids with evolutionary advancement in the genus (Graham et al. avigera Rob. C. Elialldra C. Sect.2 0. C.0 0.3 1.Hil. with 94. A mechanism for production of mixedcomposition oils within a species has not been determined.8 29. C.2 4. C.7 3.5 0. Seed oil composition in section Ornithacuphea is reported for the first time.0 7.6 40.6 0.0 25. hirtel/a Koehne C.4 0.5 J . On the basis of this limited evidence. Cuphea C.0 4.1 0. surprisingly.1 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 4. Republic: Zanoni 38177 Dom.9 0.3 0.0 22.5 1. C.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0. . C.8 4.1 0.0 47.0 0.0 21.8% capric acid.2 0.5 Venezuela: Fryxel/ 4381 Dom. Omithocllphea C.4 0.1 5.0 0. The remainder of the species analysed display patterns of seed oil composition typical of those reported earlier for their section. avigera and C. Republic: Zanoni 41271 Dom. 1992).7 3.5 15. micropetala var.2 0. Two morphologically very similar species.1 2.1 Sect. allopolyploidy does not appear to be the causal factor in the mixed and differing patterns of these three species.8 1.1 0.1 0.9 47.1 2. has the highest percentage of any single fatty acid recorded to date in seeds of Cuphea.1 0.J o 0 23.6 0.0 0.8 0.9 93.. dellliculala Kunth Sect. have different major fatty acids. Other species of the section produce either C8:0 or C I 0:0 oils.9 5.0 10. micralll!w Kunth urens Koehne Collection 18 :0 18: I 18:2 18:3 10:0 12:0 14:0 16:0 0.0 0.3 0.7 3.2 0.4% caprylic acid.~ 0 3.6 3.

J. Fatty acids of Cliphea (Lythraceae) seed lipids and their systematic significance. A.E. Oregon. S. Brittonia. Trends in industrial uses of palm and lauric oils. Am.. Medium chain length fatty acid esters and their medical and nutritional applications.. 1985. Advances in New Crops. S.. Portland. Graham. Simon (Eds.1 .. J.. Potential new crops. 58: 844-857. Cliphea proclIlllbens: a model system for studying the mechanism of medium-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in plants.K . The \vork is supported in part by NSF grant BSR8806523 to S. and Hammond. JAOCS. 196-203.. S. Fuhrmann. 1989b. New species of Cliphea section Me/

i//a (Lythraceae) and an annotated key to the section. J. In: J... 1983... (Ed.. Cliphea: A new plant source of mediumchain fatty acids. Kleiman. Smith and T. Graham. Mexic.). 1992. G . Engler. Acta. 1-326. Planta. In: J. D. 197!. 1985. C. Econ. 62: 317-327. pp. E.. Babayan.. S. 42: 12-32. Effect of seed maturity on seed oil. R. J. Nutri . A.. Slabas. Bot. J. 68: 908-917. Biophys. JADCS. Knaut. pp. S.. Graham.. Food Sci. 203-210. 17: 45-5!. 1990. Cole. von Twickel. Ormesher.).. 1988. Bot. Chemistry of new industrial oilseed crops. V. S. fatty acid and crude protein content of eight Cliphea species.1-326. Janick and J. 216. S.. 1986. 62: 81-82. H .A. Babayan.. V. R.W. Lauric oil resources. Graham. 58: 49a-51a. JAOCS.. II. K . Hirsinger.. Acta Bot. 180: 440-444. R.. H. 1984. 1987. P. 1990.. 28: 139-173. 65: 139-146.. R. In: A. and Graham. J. Advances in New Crops.34 Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge A... Synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids and their incorporation into triacylglycerols by cellfree fractions from Cliphea embryos. 60: 27-28. References Arkcoll. Am. Forster. Timber Press. Timber Press. Das Pflanzenreich. Chromosome numbers in Cliphea (Lythraceae): new counts and a summary. E. 1982..B . and Kleiman.. Thompson... CRC Crit. Palynology and systematics of Cliphea (Lythraceael.. P. S. 1988.. J.1 . Cliphea: a potential new crop. Leipzig. 1990. Am. Engelmann. Wolf. S. 1990. HortSci . 1989a.E. Zanoni for collection of seeds analysed in this study and S.W . F. Rev. JAOCS. S. Fatty acid composition of Cliphea seed oils. A.E. Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids.R. and Robbelen. Deerberg. pp. Knapp. Thompson. New chromosome counts in Lythraceae- systematic and evolutionary implications. 71l: 411-420. Janick and J. pp. 198!. Graham. Bot. T.. D. 19: 352-354. Graham. Bot. Graham. Fatty acid composition in Cliphea seed oils from Brazil and Nicaragua. IV. A. Heft 17. Oregon. 42: 195-205. and Heise. Lipids. JAOCS. Lythraceae. Am . 76: 15301540.A. New temperate oilseed crops. Pollen morphology and infrageneric classification. Roberts. Simon (Eds. Graham. Fryxeli. Knapp for insightful suggestions for further investigation. Biochim.. Koehne.. 1903. 22: 417-420. Portland.. 255: 32-37. Hinman. and Richtler.E. 198!. and Kleiman. and Kleiman.K . Graham. Graham. Sci. R.). .

Related Interests

i//a (Lythraceae) and an annotated key to the section. J. In: J... 1983... (Ed.. Cliphea: A new plant source of mediumchain fatty acids. Kleiman. Smith and T. Graham. Mexic.). 1992. G . Engler. Acta. 1-326. Planta. In: J. D. 197!. 1985. C. Econ. 62: 317-327. pp. E.. Babayan.. S. 42: 12-32. Effect of seed maturity on seed oil. R. J. Nutri . A.. Slabas. Bot. J. 68: 908-917. Biophys. JADCS. Knaut. pp. S.. Graham.. Food Sci. 203-210. 17: 45-5!. 1990. Cole. von Twickel. Ormesher.).. 1988. Bot. Chemistry of new industrial oilseed crops. V. S. fatty acid and crude protein content of eight Cliphea species.1-326. Janick and J. 216. S.. 1986. 62: 81-82. H .A. Babayan.. V. R.W. Lauric oil resources. Graham. 58: 49a-51a. JAOCS.. II. K . Hirsinger.. Acta Bot. 180: 440-444. R.. H. 1984. 1987. P. 1990.. 28: 139-173. 65: 139-146.. R. In: A. and Graham. J. Advances in New Crops.34 Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge A... Synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids and their incorporation into triacylglycerols by cellfree fractions from Cliphea embryos. 60: 27-28. References Arkcoll. Am. Forster. Timber Press. Timber Press. Das Pflanzenreich. Chromosome numbers in Cliphea (Lythraceae): new counts and a summary. E. 1982..B . and Kleiman.. Thompson... CRC Crit. Palynology and systematics of Cliphea (Lythraceael.. P. S. 1988.. J.1 . Cliphea: a potential new crop. Leipzig. 1990. Am. Engelmann. Wolf. S. 1990. HortSci . 1989a.E. Zanoni for collection of seeds analysed in this study and S.W . F. Rev. JAOCS. S. Fatty acid composition of Cliphea seed oils. A.E. Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids.R. and Robbelen. Deerberg. pp. Knapp. Thompson. New chromosome counts in Lythraceae- systematic and evolutionary implications. 71l: 411-420. Janick and J. pp. 198!. Graham. Bot. T.. D. 19: 352-354. Graham. Bot. Graham. Fatty acid composition in Cliphea seed oils from Brazil and Nicaragua. IV. A. Heft 17. Oregon. 42: 195-205. and Heise. Lipids. JAOCS. Lythraceae. Am . 76: 15301540.A. New temperate oilseed crops. Pollen morphology and infrageneric classification. Roberts. Simon (Eds. Graham. Fryxeli. Knapp for insightful suggestions for further investigation. Biochim.. Koehne.. 1903. 22: 417-420. Portland.. 255: 32-37. Hinman. and Richtler.E. 198!. and Kleiman. and Kleiman.K . Graham. Graham. Sci. R.). .

","doc_promotions_enabled":false,"static_promo_banner_cta_url":""},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/55211594","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=55211594&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"}},"categories_array":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","news","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"ids":[385522842,374171193,385444941,255557253,60129141,255023485,335103638,354964797,367089539,263748305,116577335,74521015,265002271,139426298,210495728,361700584,361344527,246931271,354072617,248077237,41584265,2376421,61732962,283190924,325612386,110146377,279698066,300262308,187219147,318879471,340650536,340650621,340650803,340650898,356668223,56768077,175406165,175408234,340646167],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"7mlbqBG9H3UN/WupGf7qm2qMkRM=","module_id":"/r+Xg8ALxXJ05TPnBPDGQ7Jabhk=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"ids":[385522842,374171193,385444941,255557253,60129141,255023485,335103638,354964797,367089539,263748305,116577335,74521015,265002271,139426298,210495728,361700584,361344527,246931271,354072617,248077237,41584265,2376421,61732962,283190924,325612386,110146377,279698066,300262308,187219147,318879471],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To Aceite Esencial de Cuphea","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"7mlbqBG9H3UN/WupGf7qm2qMkRM=","module_id":"7jQIgHcLeOUYpasfEI27FU0p7sw=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"ids":[340650536,340650621,340650803,340650898,356668223,56768077,175406165,175408234,340646167],"title_link":null,"title":"More From Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"7mlbqBG9H3UN/WupGf7qm2qMkRM=","module_id":"rvuUDRhk0BMfTvX48DhBBMF/WnQ=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]},"documents":{"2376421":{"type":"document","id":2376421,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/2376421/108x144/99de58f718/1399592611?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/2376421/216x288/724f9d4841/1399592611?v=1","title":"The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species by Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882","short_title":"The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species by Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882","author":"Gutenberg.org","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":2376421,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"lKQ82EF4hJr/LPmA9iRIqLHl9dE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/2376421/The-Different-Forms-of-Flowers-on-Plants-of-the-Same-Species-by-Darwin-Charles-1809-1882"},"41584265":{"type":"document","id":41584265,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/41584265/108x144/28199c2547/1289241803?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/41584265/216x288/4f9f29f7a6/1289241803?v=1","title":"A Multidisciplinary Approach to Discriminating Different Taxa in the Species Complex Pachycondyla","short_title":"A Multidisciplinary Approach to Discriminating Different Taxa in the Species Complex Pachycondyla","author":"massuretti","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":41584265,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7+npvhYymzx3/LCXq2EYZNV4Nz0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/41584265/A-Multidisciplinary-Approach-to-Discriminating-Different-Taxa-in-the-Species-Complex-Pachycondyla"},"56768077":{"type":"document","id":56768077,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/56768077/108x144/a7199ff0ec/1360675915?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/56768077/216x288/aeec45ffc4/1360675915?v=1","title":"Ablacion Fenmenina en Contra","short_title":"Ablacion Fenmenina en Contra","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":56768077,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"azVbYG0/GS/Q/aAqNYfwHo7zum4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/56768077/Ablacion-Fenmenina-en-Contra"},"60129141":{"type":"document","id":60129141,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/60129141/108x144/2a9e33f740/1353835516?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/60129141/216x288/2b17ebfa4c/1353835516?v=1","title":"Lipids","short_title":"Lipids","author":"Marga Villanueva","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":60129141,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Ifd4XFkb4TUINA48BA8lBtkM6CQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/60129141/Lipids"},"61732962":{"type":"document","id":61732962,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/61732962/108x144/27273c7832/1368812279?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/61732962/216x288/a52aec20ff/1368812279?v=1","title":"Fatty Acids as Flotation Collectors","short_title":"Fatty Acids as Flotation Collectors","author":"tintusekhar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":61732962,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NNYxks/2azigzgJkzwst8e+ixS8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/61732962/Fatty-Acids-as-Flotation-Collectors"},"74521015":{"type":"document","id":74521015,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74521015/108x144/6b1515744f/1409664011?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/74521015/216x288/828375b3b7/1409664011?v=1","title":"kerafed os","short_title":"kerafed os","author":"Prasanth Sai","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":74521015,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"OxwifjXdctadOmk2CxiyXt5CSv0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/74521015/kerafed-os"},"110146377":{"type":"document","id":110146377,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/110146377/108x144/5ad2e9bba5/1400016743?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/110146377/216x288/21b1f7e3db/1400016743?v=1","title":"Peony Power","short_title":"Peony Power","author":"Orna Ballout","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":110146377,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"nyxyABi0HyQKso/iF3nHd/thuRM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/110146377/Peony-Power"},"116577335":{"type":"document","id":116577335,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/116577335/108x144/f9b189af7b/1355346816?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/116577335/216x288/be892ead42/1355346816?v=1","title":"BCH Exam 4","short_title":"BCH Exam 4","author":"shane_bracewell_1","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":116577335,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"p+53EsJsjtZ+aQaLC7ssHZiLpOE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/116577335/BCH-Exam-4"},"139426298":{"type":"document","id":139426298,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/139426298/108x144/b4d199e7e3/1367683727?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/139426298/216x288/e8b0bacbe9/1367683727?v=1","title":"Notes Lipids","short_title":"Notes Lipids","author":"letapvihs","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":139426298,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/RoeQMhdGWjGQpAvwjYK9awzuLc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/139426298/Notes-Lipids"},"175406165":{"type":"document","id":175406165,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/175406165/108x144/d4662b0336/1381517020?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/175406165/216x288/63cf22db61/1381517020?v=1","title":"Estadistica Asociacion Entre Variables","short_title":"Estadistica Asociacion Entre Variables","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":175406165,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"8UyyEODbJrxgx/r7bfGvehzJBa0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/175406165/Estadistica-Asociacion-Entre-Variables"},"175408234":{"type":"document","id":175408234,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/175408234/108x144/e0c1330298/1381517534?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/175408234/216x288/40c9a94e02/1381517534?v=1","title":"J. Clin. Microbiol.-2003-Lukaszuk-608-12","short_title":"J. Clin. Microbiol.-2003-Lukaszuk-608-12","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":175408234,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"/5I83dZlYKiYZDiJYqDuwkt1BdI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/175408234/J-Clin-Microbiol-2003-Lukaszuk-608-12"},"187219147":{"type":"document","id":187219147,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/187219147/108x144/28d43a631a/1385461965?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/187219147/216x288/377738c173/1385461965?v=1","title":"Trees Are Terrific","short_title":"Trees Are Terrific","author":"pepac414","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":187219147,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qjKlmrrZL9VfJ31s1FqzFm6JIjk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/187219147/Trees-Are-Terrific"},"210495728":{"type":"document","id":210495728,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/210495728/108x144/7d12d09b5c/1421857816?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/210495728/216x288/53857cd286/1421857816?v=1","title":"Crochet Bouquet Pattern","short_title":"Crochet Bouquet Pattern","author":"wafanada357","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":210495728,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"vSRXkixNsoap58Dkxcbq8tocTuU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/210495728/Crochet-Bouquet-Pattern"},"246931271":{"type":"document","id":246931271,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/246931271/108x144/19fb3a8fbe/1486578262?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/246931271/216x288/2eb98eaf9b/1486578262?v=1","title":"ict student assignment","short_title":"ict student assignment","author":"api-270966081","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":246931271,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qd6wUwvOFx2cbTY8M8S93ov33GE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/246931271/ict-student-assignment"},"248077237":{"type":"document","id":248077237,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/248077237/108x144/3696d61306/1486557281?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/248077237/216x288/0e5ada75a2/1486557281?v=1","title":"ict student assignment","short_title":"ict student assignment","author":"api-270966081","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":248077237,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gtmLMe3FqzL2CSC27B/TG7ORWF0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/248077237/ict-student-assignment"},"255023485":{"type":"document","id":255023485,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/255023485/108x144/2f176dba25/1426759774?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/255023485/216x288/8b5b2d58d0/1426759774?v=1","title":"0610_w14_qp_22","short_title":"0610_w14_qp_22","author":"Haider Ali ","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":255023485,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"yTfDvikmsgPzVk0OdyTbCNux7pg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/255023485/0610-w14-qp-22"},"255557253":{"type":"document","id":255557253,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/255557253/108x144/f29445eec4/1423752030?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/255557253/216x288/7de496434a/1423752030?v=1","title":"Characterization of Moringa Oleifera JAFC","short_title":"Characterization of Moringa Oleifera JAFC","author":"KTINE08","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":255557253,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BGCNoh2plRpZDUs57y1yQ4dl/ds="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/255557253/Characterization-of-Moringa-Oleifera-JAFC"},"263748305":{"type":"document","id":263748305,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263748305/108x144/e018f00e21/1430478498?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/263748305/216x288/3b51cb3201/1430478498?v=1","title":"Ann Bot-2009-Mitchell-1355-63 pollination.pdf","short_title":"Ann Bot-2009-Mitchell-1355-63 pollination.pdf","author":"Rebecca Cross","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":263748305,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"7jpr4671RtF5YRavn9frllnzLl4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/263748305/Ann-Bot-2009-Mitchell-1355-63-pollination-pdf"},"265002271":{"type":"document","id":265002271,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/265002271/108x144/49387e9eb3/1486621792?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/265002271/216x288/38d4f22474/1486621792?v=1","title":"how do plants reproduce lesson","short_title":"how do plants reproduce lesson","author":"api-263161461","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":265002271,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"EWYo2LacMQDQ8xNFAmmZ514PmVs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/265002271/how-do-plants-reproduce-lesson"},"279698066":{"type":"document","id":279698066,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/279698066/108x144/2936056767/1486644887?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/279698066/216x288/a8c63fa0c3/1486644887?v=1","title":"science notes grd 6","short_title":"science notes grd 6","author":"api-235903058","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":279698066,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"RicaMDbxGYR2CPgChRVilblbgIo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/279698066/science-notes-grd-6"},"283190924":{"type":"document","id":283190924,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/283190924/108x144/07b7470391/1443598883?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/283190924/216x288/a040955654/1443598883?v=1","title":"STRAWBERRY FERTILISATION.pdf","short_title":"STRAWBERRY FERTILISATION.pdf","author":"Roman Palanciuc","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":283190924,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Bkk8yyjw8vpQRyTf743AOJg82L8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/283190924/STRAWBERRY-FERTILISATION-pdf"},"300262308":{"type":"document","id":300262308,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/300262308/108x144/97dbb6e326/1456313095?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/300262308/216x288/f21805f143/1456313095?v=1","title":"Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils With Cooking Process","short_title":"Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils With Cooking Process","author":"argeneparas","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":300262308,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"p2BI1fIASG2rCF1GDOGaW45VkEE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/300262308/Analysis-of-Trans-Fat-in-Edible-Oils-With-Cooking-Process"},"318879471":{"type":"document","id":318879471,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/318879471/108x144/f5beb4dcc5/1469068265?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/318879471/216x288/415ca5744f/1469068265?v=1","title":"SET 1 FORM3 SCI","short_title":"SET 1 FORM3 SCI","author":"Wan Nazrina","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":318879471,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SdZPRbTz06icol62UBGlbJjDIys="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/318879471/SET-1-FORM3-SCI"},"325612386":{"type":"document","id":325612386,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/325612386/108x144/485e75f652/1475060413?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/325612386/216x288/a269748620/1475060413?v=1","title":"Conditioning of Flowers","short_title":"Conditioning of Flowers","author":"SagarMishra","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":325612386,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pN8Pw7fQJKMaLqLHVWVgy53SJbk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/325612386/Conditioning-of-Flowers"},"335103638":{"type":"document","id":335103638,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/335103638/108x144/05e7f29826/1482806087?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/335103638/216x288/7b472eabb7/1482806087?v=1","title":"Lipids Pospholipids","short_title":"Lipids Pospholipids","author":"Yomal Amarathunge","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":335103638,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"J1P443K58qEWMZw2ijf4U5ZIEK4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/presentation/335103638/Lipids-Pospholipids"},"340646167":{"type":"document","id":340646167,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340646167/108x144/c3a618ef88/1488408229?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340646167/216x288/d964dd47af/1488408229?v=1","title":"Bioquimica de Lehninger en Espanol","short_title":"Bioquimica de Lehninger en Espanol","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":340646167,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SAWigtsK7J1bitsPEs7dMyfqZrg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/340646167/Bioquimica-de-Lehninger-en-Espanol"},"340650536":{"type":"document","id":340650536,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650536/108x144/4a294a6595/1488412295?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650536/216x288/f3c5110c2c/1488412295?v=1","title":"Microarreglos en CaCu Cinvestav","short_title":"Microarreglos en CaCu Cinvestav","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":340650536,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"P3Ep5cgovZQCyJTacIzUKpO1/xg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/340650536/Microarreglos-en-CaCu-Cinvestav"},"340650621":{"type":"document","id":340650621,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650621/108x144/4a936aec66/1488412404?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650621/216x288/841b150c8f/1488412404?v=1","title":"Cancer Res 1985 Fukushima 3252 5","short_title":"Cancer Res 1985 Fukushima 3252 5","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":340650621,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"HkAwQV0svfUZCSlFpp/5JhcdWs8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/340650621/Cancer-Res-1985-Fukushima-3252-5"},"340650803":{"type":"document","id":340650803,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650803/108x144/b4082545fe/1488412655?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650803/216x288/a316dd4b67/1488412655?v=1","title":"Cap 5 Replicación ADN.pdf","short_title":"Cap 5 Replicación ADN.pdf","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":340650803,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"LnMsveJY6srYCcD8x2HEs6bF8eA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/340650803/Cap-5-Replicacion-ADN-pdf"},"340650898":{"type":"document","id":340650898,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650898/108x144/b78ef992e5/1488412755?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/340650898/216x288/9e9e223cce/1488412755?v=1","title":"La Célula Cooper´s.pdf","short_title":"La Célula Cooper´s.pdf","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":340650898,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"E+mn08PTZlG1mtG91hkQ2GXE4Fk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/340650898/La-Celula-Cooper-s-pdf"},"354072617":{"type":"document","id":354072617,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/354072617/108x144/71b90d404d/1500383351?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/354072617/216x288/50e87772fd/1500383351?v=1","title":"7 STD Chapter 12","short_title":"7 STD Chapter 12","author":"Deven Bari","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":354072617,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pf83tWvYRPXcEpI3WYGvYLH9JHg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/354072617/7-STD-Chapter-12"},"354964797":{"type":"document","id":354964797,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/354964797/108x144/d150992ba7/1501264565?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/354964797/216x288/8848991f14/1501264565?v=1","title":"Review of Lipids","short_title":"Review of Lipids","author":"Edwing Cuadra","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":354964797,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"G7J+py6/8oUlitYfzZWUClaablU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/354964797/Review-of-Lipids"},"356668223":{"type":"document","id":356668223,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/356668223/108x144/a500dfa5ea/1503268439?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/356668223/216x288/b2ce499948/1503268439?v=1","title":"LECCIÓN 27 La Mayordomía de Nuestra Vida","short_title":"LECCIÓN 27 La Mayordomía de Nuestra Vida","author":"Lorena Gonzalez Hernandez","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":356668223,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"diKY/aMCFZXwWyibSaU/1mNo7a0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/356668223/LECCION-27-La-Mayordomia-de-Nuestra-Vida"},"361344527":{"type":"document","id":361344527,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/361344527/108x144/e97b78d21a/1537542010?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/361344527/216x288/47988a7bd3/1537542010?v=1","title":"Nectaries and Nectar","short_title":"Nectaries and Nectar","author":"Vinicius Ferreira","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":361344527,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BOo9/6py8ls9wWMFz5jlS0k8B1o="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/361344527/Nectaries-and-Nectar"},"361700584":{"type":"document","id":361700584,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/361700584/108x144/86fae5081c/1508131951?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/361700584/216x288/1f691d542f/1508131951?v=1","title":"EFFECTOFBLENDINGONPHYSICO-CHEMICALPROPERTIESOFPALMOILPALMOILPRODUCTSWITHSOY.pdf","short_title":"EFFECTOFBLENDINGONPHYSICO-CHEMICALPROPERTIESOFPALMOILPALMOILPRODUCTSWITHSOY.pdf","author":"Ariston","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":361700584,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"1PS+3URB4RAT7IyzRwzjfcABorc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/361700584/EFFECTOFBLENDINGONPHYSICO-CHEMICALPROPERTIESOFPALMOILPALMOILPRODUCTSWITHSOY-pdf"},"367089539":{"type":"document","id":367089539,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/367089539/108x144/c30fadb2e4/1513178792?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/367089539/216x288/de63c50a5b/1513178792?v=1","title":"Cucurbit Growth Development Inggris","short_title":"Cucurbit Growth Development Inggris","author":"eko khojiro","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":367089539,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"DXZg+DzLqDzMMMi5sRj1LR/2Pig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/367089539/Cucurbit-Growth-Development-Inggris"},"374171193":{"type":"document","id":374171193,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374171193/108x144/7072c310c2/1521381125?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/374171193/216x288/21f214cfd5/1521381125?v=1","title":"Effects of Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Vegetable Oil at Elevated Temperature","short_title":"Effects of Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Vegetable Oil at Elevated Temperature","author":"Rizki Ichi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":374171193,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ZwaO/VNEa1Bv++D8LorwQvhUcG8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/374171193/Effects-of-Antioxidants-on-the-Oxidative-Stability-of-Vegetable-Oil-at-Elevated-Temperature"},"385444941":{"type":"document","id":385444941,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/385444941/108x144/4715551a77/1533405197?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/385444941/216x288/65de63a7ee/1533405197?v=1","title":"fatstable 1 ","short_title":"fatstable 1 ","author":"api-419200857","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":385444941,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"6eF/9vjMsuJJHWXqnOWkh+BjpMo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/385444941/fatstable-1"},"385522842":{"type":"document","id":385522842,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/385522842/108x144/0d1db9bf52/1533524653?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/385522842/216x288/971c6cf790/1533524653?v=1","title":"Digestive System","short_title":"Digestive System","author":"Namya Mehan - Mississauga SS (2672)","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":385522842,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"J19QP1QvquIo2uuh7SMrLwRxKoQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/385522842/Digestive-System"}}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/55211594","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=1&auth_token=BAbZvq5w6EoWZLtuICrbGguRC%2F4%3D&authenticity_token=Uxc279KXLeE7TkeMjqyCI5gwzuG1%2F7U3Slf0FMInJQcCkPZx6LmBKZTOkfpxZfgAKkFqwaRNDcBnqcFUqwbyAw%3D%3D&expires=1538309519&wordDocumentId=55211594&wordUploadId=58050569"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->