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REPORTED SPEECH IN ENGLISH
1. Quando la reggente presenta un verbo al presente, futuro o passato prossimo, il tempo verbale della frase riferita rimane invariato. Es. Mark: “I don't want to go to school” Mark says he don't want to go to school 2. Quando la reggente presenta un verbo al passato, il tempo verbale della frase riferita necessita di cambiamenti. Direct speech Present simple
He said “I go to school”

Indirect speech Past simple
He said he went to school

Present continuous Present perfect Past simple

He said “I'm going to school” He said “I've gone to school” He said “I went to school”

Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect

He said he was going to school He said he had gone to school He said he had gone to school

Past perfect

He said “I had gone to school”

Past perfect (No Change)

He said he had gone to school

Modal Verb
Direct speech Will
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Indirect speech Would+B.I./Would+Past infinitive.1 Could
He said he would go / would have gone to school He said he could go to school

He said “I will go to school”

Can

He said “I can go to school”

Must

He said “I must go to school”

Had to

He said he had to go to school

Shall May

He said “What shall we learn?” He said “May I open the door”

Should Might

He aked what we should learn He asked if he might open the door

Would Could

He said “I would go to school” He said “I could go to school”

Would (No Change) Could (No Change)

He said he would go to school He said he could go to school

Had to

He said “I had to go to school”

Had to (No Change)

He said he had to go to school

Should
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He said “I should go to school”

Should (No Change)

He said he should go to school

Con Will solitamente si utilizza il Present conditional (Would+B.I.), ma quando vogliamo specificare che non è avvenuta l' azione descritta si usa il Past conditional (Would+Past infinitive)

Giacomo Gelmetti

Inglese

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Conditional
Direct speech Zero conditional First conditional
He said “If water reaches 100°, it boils” He said “If it rains, i will stay at home”

Indirect speech Zero conditional (No Change) Second conditional Second conditional Third conditional
He said if water reaches 100°, it boils He said if it rained, he would stay at home He said if he was young, he was able to walk

Second conditional Third conditional

He said “If I was young, I was able to walk”

He said “If I had seen Mara, I would have told her” He said if he had seen Mara, he would have told

Time change
Direct speech This (evening, day, morning,...) Today2 Tommorrow Yesterday Last (week, Friday, year,...) Next (week, Friday, year,...) A year ago Here
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Indirect speech That (evening, day, morning,...) Yesterday/That day2 The following day The day before The previous (week, Friday, year,...) The following (week, Friday, year,...) A year before There

Con “today” si usa “that day” se ci si riferisce ad una azione avvenuta nello stesso giorno nel quale si riporta la frase (nell' arco di 24 ore) altrimenti si utilizza “yesterday”

Giacomo Gelmetti

Inglese