Moral Reasoning 78 Classical Chinese Ethical and Political Theory

Professor Puett

Final Study Guide
Fall 2009 Contributors:
Alice Chung Francis Deng Linda Ge Rick Goldstein Tana Jambaldorj Tierney Morikawa Charlene Neo Amy Vo Shiyu Wei Joyce Yang Jeremy Ying Betty Zhang Compiled by: Linda Ge

MR 78 Final Study Guide

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CONFUCIUS
Charlene Neo, Betty Zhang Confucius Background (***Important, as Confucius is probably one of the most important philosophers. His arguments set the way for the later philosophers, introducing key ideas and concepts. Hence I elaborated quite a bit for the background). The Analects a record of the teachings of Kongzi (Confucius, 551-479 BCE) and his disciples. • Confucius believed that the Golden Age of humankind had been realized during the height of the Zhou dynasty, from c. 1045-771 BCE. • Personified by cultural heroes King Wen, his son King Wu, and the virtuous reagent Duke of Zhou, the early Zhou rulers established and maintained a special relationship with tian (heaven), by properly and sincerely observing a set of sacred practices collectively referred to as the “li”, rites or rituals • The scope of rituals was very vast, from grand state ceremonies to the proper way of sitting / treating others • The Zhou rulers were offered a Mandate of Heaven to rule China. • By Kongzi’s age, the Zhou kings had been reduced to mere figureheads. Real political power was in the hands of various local rulers. • Kongzi was upset—the “scholars” of the day were not virtuous, and were instead, often interested in self-aggrandizement and sensuous pleasures, and the states were very unruly Hence could only be controlled by strict laws and harsh punishments. • Kongzi believed that there was still hope, and the Ru (“Erudites”) could serve as a blueprint to rebuild the Golden Age. Ru: a record of the traditional Zhou ritual forms and written classics, carefully preserved by a small group of cultural specialists • Goal: to return back to Golden Age, to lead this fallen world back to the dao (“way”) of heaven • Kongzi’s Way is to culminate eventually in a intuitive mastery of traditional cultural forms, one who possesses the strong mastery of those forms, the “gentleman”, is said to possess the supreme virtue of Goodness. Ren (goodness), refers to one who has so completely mastered the Way that it becomes second nature • This state of spiritual perfection can be referred to as “Wu Wei” (effortless action or nonaction): a state of spontaneous harmony between individual inclinations and the sacred Way of Heaven. • Through the power of Virtue accruing to one so perfectly in harmony with Heaven, this state of individual perfection is to lead to the spontaneous and effortless ordering of the entire world. There will be no need for raising armies, instituting laws, or issuing governmental decrees, for the entire world will be as inexorably drawn to a ruler with the true Virtue as the heavenly bodies are bound to their proper circuits in the sky (analects, 2.1) Book One: Key Themes: Making of a gentleman • Learning: Very important virtue to have • Deriving joy from the simplest things (having friends from afar) • Patience, even when others do not understand.

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• Filial and respectful of is elders someone who is like that rarely becomes the kind of person inclined to defy his superiors, and will not be disinclined to defy his superiors stirring up a rebellion (1.2, book one) • Once the roots are firmly established, the Way will grow • Filial piety and respect for elders constitute the root of Goodness • What is inside matters the most distinguish between genuine virtue from “counterfeit virtue”, the outwardly appearance • Should care for the masses, but feel a particular affection for those who are Good • Kongzi does not actively pry or seek out information, but rather is so perfected in Virtue that what he seeks comes to him unbidden (finds out about other government) • Important to mourn for three years when someone’s parents pass on • When performing rituals, it is important to have harmonious ease (that’s what made the Way of the kings so beautiful). If one merely sticks to the ritual in all matters, great and small, there will be things that you can’t accomplish. Hence, you been harmonious ease and regulation of rites, to get matters accomplished • Being poor yet joyful, being rich yet loving ritual acceptable • (1.15, book one) “As if cut, as if polished; As if carved, as if ground.”  metaphorically, that is speaking of a person who has been shaped and perfected by a long, arduous process of self-cultivation. • Importance of the past, history, from the sage kings, Kongzi: “Informed as to what has gone before, you what is to come.” Book two: • One who is committed to the Odes will not be led astray. (2.2) • Punishments are bad, as people will become evasive and have no sense of shame. If you guide them with virtue, and keep them in line by means of ritual, the people will have a sense of shame and will rectify themselves  Sense of shame is important • Set your mind upon learning take place in society through mastery of the rites  become free of doubts  understand Heaven’s Mandate • Have to respect parents, not just by proving them with nourishment • On teaching: (2.11) Both keeping past teachings alive and understanding the present, someone able to do this is worthy of being a teacher • Gentlemen cannot be vessels: can’t just serve a particular function, not a narrow specialist • (2.19) Duke Ai asked, “What can I do to induce the common people to be obedient?”, Kongzi replied: “Raise up the straight and apply them to the crooked, and the people will submit to you. If you raise up the crooked and apply it to the straight, the people will never submit” • Being a filial son and a good brother, one is already taking part in government Book three: • Kongzi is against the Ji family having eight rows of dancers performing in their courtyard, as this is going against what’s “right”. In Kongzi’s time, this is a prerogative of the Zhou kings representing the ritual, moral and political improprieties of his age • (3.3) A man who is not Good—what has be to do with ritual? A man who is not good, what has he to do with music?  only fit for morally upright people

4) • Analogy: The application of colors comes only after a suitably unadorned background is present  Rites (application of colors) comes only after you are Good (unadorned background) (?) (3. rites are useless • (4. but as if unfolds. you’ll feel at home in Goodness. “What can be known about music is this: When it first begins. poverty and disgrace should be avoided in the proper way • Life should be about learning and knowing the Way (and hence die without regret) (4. whereas the petty person understands profit • Always reflect • Should never oppose your parents. It is in this way that music reaches its perfection. should not travel far.” nothing more than dutifulness (zhong) tempered by sympathetic understanding (shu) • The gentleman understands rightness. brought into tension by means of counterpoint. you need to be fully present (psychologically) • The Zhou gazes down upon the two dynasties that preceded it.8) • The gentleman will only seek to be on the side of those he considers to be right • Can’t abandon yourself to seek profit • In government: through ritual propriety and deference  otherwise. must keep to a fixed itinerary never be too far from parents. these notes are reconciled by means of harmony.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. and ministers should serve their lord with dutifulness • Music (infer about self-cultivation) (3. actions had to measure up to words • Be slow to speak. should take care of them • People in ancient times were not eager to speak.8) • When you make a sacrifice. passing through many phases.23) The Master was discussing music with the Grand Music Master of Lu. emphasizing the importance of learning from history • Ritual practices had so degenerated by Kongzi’s age that a proper ritual practitioner was viewed with suspicion or disdain • Lords should employ ministers with ritual. Book five: .25) Virtue is never solitary. but for mourning. 3 • Rituals: better to be spare than extravagant. it resounds with a confusing variety of notes. spreading the teachings of the Way (3. and culminating in a state of perfection • Heaven might have deliberately caused Kongzi to lose his official position so that he might wander throughout the realm. while your parents are alive. better to be excessively sorrowful than fastidious (3. and when you do travel. follow their lead diligently without resentment.24) Book four: • It is important to dwell among Good people • If you’re good. those who are wise will follow Goodness because they can profit from it • Merely set your heart sincerely upon Goodness and you will be free of bad intentions • Wealth and eminence needs to be acquired in the proper way. quick to act • (4.15) “Zeng! All I teach can be strung together on a single thread. and finally woven together into a seamless whole.” As a metaphor for self-cultivation: starting in confusion. How brilliant in culture it is! I follow the Zhou  Again. it always has neighbors. He said.

Kongzi was very much a firm believer of what the ancient sage-kings did. Learn from people who are worse. he helps others to realize themselves Book seven: • The importance of transmission rather than innovation. good officials • One who is good helps others to take their stand. rely upon Virtue. he never ate his fill he was always empathetic • Looks into antiquity for knowledge • Learn from people who are good. one’s immersion in the culture of the Zhou is to be so complete that it penetrates even one’s dreams • Set your heart upon the Way.10) • Kongzi focuses his teachings upon the task at hand. “dutiful”. • Ideally. • In seeking the Way. Important to listen to words and then closely observing their conduct as well in evaluating people. and a wall of dung cannot be plastered. and only after thinks about results or rewards • Kongzi had concerns about the proper use of names: “A gu that is not a proper gu—is it really a gu? Is it really a gu?”  can infer about what he thinks about officials holding positions and whether they’re true. esoteric subjects (different from other philosophers) • You can be “pure”. respecting the ghosts and spirits while keeping them at a distance • Goodness: One who is Good sees as his first priority the hard-ship of self-cultivation. who was once imprisoned as a criminal • Importance of the “native substance”. but may not necessarily be Good • Should be able to perceive one’s own faults and take himself to task inwardly • Love for learning is of utmost importance Book six: • The proper course of action cannot be determined by a simple formula but should rather be the result of careful reflection and consideration of the needs of others • Yan Hui as a worthy man: living in a narrow alley. wanting to realize himself.9) When the master dined in the company of one who was in mourning. and hence trust in and love the ancient ways. action > words (5. 4 • Importance of true morality from conventional social judgments: Kongzi marrying his daughter off to Gongye Chang. to emulate them. yet it never spoiled Hui’s Joy. should never think that one’s strength is insufficient. one will find that it is already here . to remind oneself about what’s bad • If one simply desires goodness.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. rather than theoretical. and explore widely in your cultivation of the arts (7. hence no use in reprimanding Zai Wo. lean upon Goodness. else it can be deemed as giving up or drawing the line • Only when culture and native substance are perfectly mixed do you get a gentleman • Wisdom: Working to ensure social harmony among the common people. subsisting upon a basket of grain and gourd full of water—other people could not have born such hardship. that serves as the background upon which the color of the Confucian self-cultivation is to be applied  Rotten wood cannot be carved.6) • (7.

MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. The Master said “You are not yet able to serve people—how could you be able to serve the ghosts and spirits?” “May I inquire about death?” “You do not yet understand life—how could you possibly understand death?” Book Twelve – governance: • The importance of fulfilling one’s roles in government. hold fast to the good Way until death Book nine: • Confucius’s contempt for merely technical skills  man should not be a vessel • Whenever the master saw someone wearing mourning clothes.. even if there is sufficient grain. when speaking with officers of lower rank. when speaking with officers of upper rank he was formal and proper. to accord with them. “Well put! Certainly if the ruler is not a true ruler.38) Book eight: • The gentlemen should always lead by example. awe-inspiring without being severe. so that one can inspire others towards goodness • Rituals are very important • Be sincerely trustworthy and love learning. and the sons true sons. He always rise to his feet. When his ruler was present he combined an attitude of reverential respect with graceful ease. etc…thus we can only focus on our present life and try our best to achieve benevolence o Zilu asked about serving the ghost and spirits. even if the person was his junior  respect for others • The gentleman should share his virtue with the world by taking public office. the fathers not true fathers.” Book Eleven • We do not and cannot grasp Heaven. Kongzi responded “Let the ruler be a true ruler the ministers true ministers the father true fathers. 5 • A balance: being affable yet firm. or garbed in full official dress (in times of distress. society. he [Kongzi] was pleasant and affable. the courageous do not fear (9. or was blind. when he meets someone of high authority etc)--. The Duke replied. death.29) Book Ten • One should adopt different behaviors / responses appropriate for the given situation o “At court. but Kongzi waits for the right ruler to recognize him rather than to actively peddle his wares on the market • Important to change oneself after being rebuked with exemplary words. and the sons not true sons. It is even more important to live up to them • The wise are not confused. will I ever get to eat it?” . the Good do not worry. simultaneously respectful and relaxed (7. and family o Duke Jing of Qi asked Kongzi about governing.

The Master said. not for the favor of other people o The master said. and Ao was strong enough to push a boat over dry land. then the people will also desire good. to us o Nangong Kuo said to Kongzi. so that others may follow (similar to Mencius’ argument. those we consider ‘upright’ are different from this: fathers cover up for their sons.MR 78 Final Study Guide • Pg. Yi was a skillful archer.” Book Thirteen • Being good means that one should love and protect the people who are closest to us – our family. people should have the intentions to learn and to improve. “If I were to execute those who lacked the Way in order to advance those who possessed the Way. “In ancient times scholars worked for their own improvement.’ When his father stole a sheep. Cultivating oneself and thereby bringing peace to the people is an accomplishment that even a Yao or a Shun would not disdain. the grass must bend. and occurrences in life may not make sense. and yet neither of them met a natural death. asked. The Virtue of the gentleman is like the wind.’” Book Fourteen • Again. what would you think of that?” Kongzi responded. in particular his “water analogy”) o Jikangzi. we as humans cannot know about fate. “What a gentlemanly person he is! How he reveres Virtue!” • True cultivation is done for the sake of self-improvement. or seem fair. This is what it means to be ‘upright.” Book Sixteen • People are born with different dispositions for learning. questioning Kongzi about governing. some will find it easier to become learned and practice rituals.” “Is that all?” “He cultivates himself in order to bring peace to the people.” • The gentleman. . Yu and Hou Ji. “Among my people there is one we call ‘Upright Gong. on the other hand. he reported him to the authorities. 6 A ruler should lead by example and practice benevolence. and sons cover up for their fathers. Regardless. the Master sighed. “He cultivates himself in order to achieve reverence.” Kongzi replied. “Among my people. This exhibits an argument for partiality that is opposed by later philosophers o The Lord of She said to Kongzi. After Nangong Kuo left. ad yet they both ended up with possession of the world. did nothing but personally tend to the land. who is perfect and complete. “In your governing what need is there for executions? If you desire good. however.” The Master did not answer. cultivates himself to help those around him o Zilu asked about the gentleman. nowadays they seek only to win the approval of others. and the Virtue of the petty person is like the grass—when the wind blows over the grass.

One who does not understand the rites lacks the means to take his stand.” However. 7 o Kongzi said. well-cultivated people. whether it’s “good” or “bad.” Book Seventeen • It is not clear on Kongzi’s view of human nature.’ people are similar . “By xing. he does state that people are born with similar natures and that it is through “practice” that we differ from one another in our goodness. ‘nature. Confucius is important as he started Confucianism. “One who does not understand the Heavenly Mandate lacks the means to become a gentleman. Rites and rituals are important to foster and mold this sense of goodness. from the Golden age. “Those who are born understanding it are the best. The worst are the people who find it difficult but do not even try to learn. Not only should people seek to improve their inner minds. proprietary and deference. and that the state of the nation was dismally “crooked”. uprightness…etc. but also seek to better the lives of the people around them. suggesting that it is the order of the world and the will of Heaven that people strive to cultivate themselves. in order to achieve the prosperity and order that he believed persisted during the Golden age. filled with virtue.’” Note: Many of the important concepts have been highlight in the above summaries. He seeks knowledge from antiquity. One who does not understand how to evaluate the words of others lacks the means to understand people. applying that to current context. Confucius believed that the time he lived in was a period of chaos. looks to the past to find answers for the future. The route to recovery is to spread the teachings of the ancients. ‘practice. This selfcultivation and goodness are strongly related to one’s insight into appropriate behaviors and responses in different situations.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. o The Master said. those who understand it through learning are second. and to be able to self-cultivate on an individual level. Those who find it difficult and yet persist in their studies are still lower. but also to be able to spontaneously harmonize with the knowledge. but yet insists on not blindly following the past. . His teachings revolved around learning from history. they diverge as the result of xi. to eventually have a nation that is filled with learned. The potential IDs are underlined. goodness.’” Book Twenty • Here Kongzi seems to associate practicing rituals and becoming good with the Mandate of Heaven. understand one another and affect others for the better o Kongzi said.

order. increasing the population. And so they never waste their resources or overburden their people yet are able to generate great benefits” (78). world of hierarchy/social mobility. View of Kongzi: criticized his system for being family based and for being an ethical and political system for partiality. This is to be done through punishments/rewards. factionalism. o “And so it is those who are partial in their dealings with others who are the real cause of all the great harms in the world” (68). Also Kongzi was not thinking in terms of radical institutional change—his system would be a slow process. orderly. • In place of Confucian ren. employ the people or expend their resources. and the population of the state. bringing stability to precarious situations and order to chaos” (81). dukes. Also thought Kongzi was incredibly vague. o Supports four goals for society: “enriching the poor. o P68 contains several key quotations o Story of two rulers on page 71: impartial ruler is able to win his citizens . whenever they issue orders.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. Ideal State: highly centralized. if it doesn’t it’s bad. and great officials to increase the number of worthy men in their states” (62). sought to maximize wealth. “If we look into how good order was maintained in the state. (Confucians on the other hand would say the Mohist system would lead to selfishness and people would still need to make judgment calls) Main principle: if it benefits people it is good. undertake an enterprise. not to cultivation emotions or virtues. ideologically unified • Key Quotations: o Why can’t rulers always get power?: “That is because the kings. Mozi wanted change as soon as possible and didn’t want to wait for people to change. dukes. you’re inherently bias by dealing with only those who are around you. heaven would replace them. Said even if you’re good in Confucian terms. The ethical problem of the day of was excessive partiality and not a lack of compassion. they never do anything that is not useful. what do we find? Was it not simply because the ruler of the state was able to unify the norms followed within the state that he was able to maintain good order into it?” (67) o On moderation in expenditures: “When sage-kings rule. If the superior didn’t do a good job. and by looking at external behavior. His primary goal was the change and shape behavior. 8 Mozi Alice Chung Source of human suffering: ideological differences. o First paragraph of page 62: how to force each citizen to be righteous o Unify standards of righteousness to bring order to chaos (65). So he wanted a world where everyone would know what to do. Crucial to follow superiors. The hope would be that you would extend this goodness to strangers too and not be bias toward your family. clear rules of conduct. and great officials who rule the various states are not able to honor the worthy and employ the capable in carrying out their rule… it is the proper work of kings. • Argued for universal love/impartial care. The Way: • favored a strict chain of command.

ghosts. But for some reason the gentlemen of the world don’t know enough to warn each other about offending Heaven” (90) o Heaven punished the vicious kings with short life and a weak line (92). or hidden places where none lives. 9 • • • • • System of strict rewards and punishments enforced by the state and guaranteed by the support of heaven. valleys. o References the sage kings on page 109. and spirits.MR 78 Final Study Guide • Pg. Where’s there’s right there is life and death where this is wrong. Heaven governs the Son of Heaven. Condemned musical performances b/c they are expensive. just judge people based on external behavior. funerals (examined this in light of his 3 criteria) and concluded it was not good because it didn’t prevent states form being attacked and took away from the people and did not win the blessing of the Lord and ghosts Heaven’s will: p. 90: Mozi believed it to be established and predicable. Even the king’s kin must be righteous Sought to promote public righteousness and prevent private resentment Pushed for moderation in expenditures. . o “For Heaven will clearly see you even if you run to the forests. It doesn’t matter if they are good human beings.

“Suppose someone suddenly saw a child about to fall into a well: everyone in such a situation would have a feeling of alarm and compassion—not because one sought to get in good with the childʼs parents. itʼs because they didnʼt cultivate their inner goodness -Ex. -If people had to do a cost-benefit analysis before deciding to rescue the child. The heart of disdain is righteousness. Self-cultivation leads to development of internal goodness 3. righteousness.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. 130 -These four characteristics are given to us at birth . 10 Mencius (Mengzi) Linda Ge Background -Follower of Confucius -Beliefs are in opposition to Mozi and Xunzi in particular -Believes in necessity of partiality (as opposed to Moziʼs impartiality) -Believes in inherent goodness of human nature (as opposed to Xunziʼs belief that human nature is inherently bad) Main Ideas: 1. “As for their essence. they would be inhuman in Menciusʼs eyesMencius believes that Moziʼs system of analyzing cost-benefit of everything destroys peopleʼs seed of goodness -Ex. and not because one would dislike the sound of the childʼs cries” (129) -Everyone would respond instinctively to go and rescue the childthey are not doing a cost-benefit analysis like Mozi would suggest. this is not the fault of their potential…the heart of compassion is benevolence. Role of government is to provide “constant livelihood” to the people Human Nature has Innate Potential to be Good -People are born with a seed of goodness in their hearts—if they become corrupt it is because of their external environment -Ex. they do it because of instinctthey must be good by nature. and wisdom]” (148) -Almost exact same quote on pg. Human nature has innate potential to be good 2. they can become good. “Human natureʼs being good is like waterʼs trending downward. propriety. There is no human who does not tend toward goodness. There is no water that does not tend downward” (145) -Natural for humans to be goodeveryone has ability to be sage. but if they donʼt become a sage. This is what I mean by calling their natures good. The heart of respect is propriety…we inherently have [benevolence. As for their becoming not good. not because one wanted fame among their neighbors and friends.

It can only be cultivated naturally over time through rituals. it follows that they will lack a constant heart” (122) -Constant livelihood—essentially food. if they lack a constant livelihood. 11 Self-Cultivation Development of Goodness -Self-cultivation (like cultivating a plant) through rituals (although role of rituals is reduced in Mencius compared to Confucius) leads to goodness. As for the people. then you will be repressing that goodness. etc. but the government can facilitate that by providing people with supplies -Ex. Abandon it and you will lose it” (148) -As long as you cultivate your inner seed of goodness. -Ex. so it is the responsibility of the ruler to provide a base level of means with which his people can survive so that they can have the time and energy to cultivate goodness -Government itself can do nothing to make people good -Ex. which let you develop that instinctively benevolent response to all situations Role of Government is to Provide Constant Livelihood for People -People cannot focus on developing their goodness if theyʼre hungry. “One must work at it. Let the heart not forget. -Developing of goodness is up to the individual. which Mencius defines as being instinctively able to respond in the appropriate way to a situation -Ex. but do not aim at it directly.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. yet to have a constant heart—only a scholar is capable of this. “To lack a constant livelihood. Do not be like the man from Song” (127) -This quote is followed by the anecdote of the man who tried to help his grain grow faster by pulling it up out of the ground a little bit each daygoodness is like a plant. “Suppose Your Majesty were to bestow benevolence in governing…All under Heaven who wish to complain of their rulers would all desire to report to Your Majesty” (122) -Can increase population/power simply by being a benevolent ruler and providing for your people . but do not help it grow. “Seek it and you will get it. clothing. but if you choose not to cultivate it. you will be able to become benevolent.

with no expectation of reward 2. an advocate of The Way and non-action. Laozi advocates simplifying our lives 1. i. When humans act towards achieving world goods / power / wealth. and you will be first 2. Passivity conquers the world 1. Avoid Contention 1. and yield to the wind a. War = BAD 2. we remove ourselves from the way. Put yourself last. 1. stop once you’ve achieved what you need. they disrupt the way b.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. Never try to obtain too much. Non-action – Don’t get caught up in worldly pursuits. Be the sapling. It’s essentially the idea of the world in an “undifferentiated state” a. which is dangerous ii. The strong trees – with unyielding roots. Laozi’s View of Human Nature a. Main Facts/Ideas about Laozi & the Daodejing a. retreating weakens the enemy. Calm oneself 3. iii. . Ignorance is bliss – rulers should keep the populace ignorant. But when we seek wealth. 4. Embrace Simplicity i. The Way – you can’t explain the way 1. Wealth just complicates life. Follow the example of water – be supple. 12 Laozi (author of the Daodejing) Rick Goldstein I. b. free oneself from desires. “A way that can be named is not a constant way” 2. are destroyed in storms. We are all part of the Way. ii. Removing oneself from the way  doom ii. Act spontaneously. b. i. Laozi was a Daoism philosopher. Retreating is better than attacking. yield to others 3. While the sapling travels with the winds and comes out unscathed II. Train to be calm and still.

VI. When the great Way is abandoned.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. Laozi’s View of Goodness a. . 13 III. A ruler should maintain a shadowy presence. This is bad. Laozi’s View of Self Cultivation? a. To reiterate. so keep populace in the dark. people won’t know who to appreciate. i. When all goes well. Don’t use tools c. the highest virtue is to return to the way. d. which is good c. there is chaos. War = Bad – the violent won’t die a natural death. Education = BAD b. Simplify life b. IE don’t interfere with the state b. IV. Comfortable Clothes and Homes are all that’s necessary to live a good life e. Avoid confrontations f. Knowledge = bad. Non-action V. Chapters 80 + 81 (page 202) are good summaries of Laozi’s Way a. b. Savory Food. Make sure people fear death d. Laozi’s View of Rulers a. remove oneself from the pursuit of wealth c. c. Be humble d. Don’t accumulate goods. Instead. human desires encourage humans to remove themselves from the Way.

Great modesty is not reserved. • Point/nonpoint (p.Passages Chapter 1 – Wandering Round and About • Minnow and Breeze • Small vs. I. and you’ll live out your long years. 224) Shadow and Penumbra – “Why are you like this?” “Well. How do we know Confucius is a sage? (p. shallow vs. Zhuangzi dreaming of the butterfly. deep • Story of the big gourd (p. Gaptooth and Royal Relativity: not everyone has the same likes and dislikes. The sage goes along with things. 212) – smashed up big gourd b/c didn’t know what to do with them. big. 223) Argument – who is to say what is right or wrong in an argument. • • • • • (p.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg.217). Chapter 2 – On Equalizing Things • Conversation between Master Dapple and Ziyou • True/false. We think Lady Li is beautiful. 220) The great way is not announced. The great debate is not spoken. Harmonize and go with it. Modesty that is pure is not trustworthy. 218) – better to use a nonpoint to show that a point is not a point • Three in the morning – Happy monkeys with 4 bananas in the morning • The Way (p. Jeremy Ying Lived roughly around 4th century BCE. 14 Zhuangzi Shiyu Wei. which was during the warring states. Chapter 3 – The Key to Nourishing Life . but could’ve have thought up imaginative uses for them. Main argument / philosophy . Benevolence that is constant is not complete. Words in debate do not reach. (p. A way that shines does not lead. 222) Master Nervous Magpie and Master Long Desk: Question of dreaming. 221) Convo btw. Great benevolence is not benevolent. (p. how do we know we are not dreaming? Can’t simply take what someone says to be very profound. “this” comes from “that”(p. but the fishes would commit suicide when they see her. Great courage is not aggressive. Courage that is aggressive is not complete. how should I know why I am like this? How should I know why I am not otherwise?” Tie to the idea: Sage should just go along with things.

the Duke of She with a really tough mission o Balance due to the Way is the only way to accomplish things o Critique of people taking things too seriously o Stick to the job and forget about yourself (Zhuangzian argument) o Communicate the real essence. but through the letting go of worrying about change. but what they say since words give actions their meaning • (p. and being hidden in harmonious Virtue (whatever that means) Chapter 6 – The Great Ancestral Teacher • (p. However if you hide it in the “world”. • Hide the boat in obscure place but can still lose it. even losing a limb o Looking at what’s there vs. 224) Butcher cutting up the ox – follows the way the flesh grows.not what they do. 15 (p. 231) The amputee Royal Nag who has more followers than Confucius o Comical “I’ve been running late” and he’s going to be a student of Royal Nag o Kongzi’s comment. 233) -Duke Ai and the Ugly Prime Minister • Love what moved the form (qi) instead of the form itself • Note that the Confucian ideal has been reached. . this is the mind not blocking the way. 225) Commander Right (amputee) – Heaven makes things unique (p. 236) True people – “knew nothing loving life and nothing of hating death”. Chapter 4 – Human Realm • (p.just live in the world!) Chapter 5 – Signs of Abundant Virtue (p.RECTIFYING names? o Entropy with yin-yang o Confucian. (p. not exaggerated words. 226) At the funeral of Laozi. then you won’t lose it. Qin Shih tells people shouldn’t cry continuously because death is the “divine release”.he’s a sage because he can have stillness in the face of everything.someone spontaneously making people like him.MR 78 Final Study Guide • • • Pg. the boat will just be in a different place. 229) Zigao. 226) Yan Hui and his business trip plans o Comical language in “Sheesh” o His predictions are basically his preemptions of Yan Hui’s plans. thus never needs to sharpen his knife.indications that his philosophies of righteousness and the dichotomy between external and internal behavior is too restricting = futility in actions o Can’t be outwardly right and inwardly dispassionate or the vice versa either o This Kongzi has realized the narrowness of his path and tells him to “fast with the mind” o Voice becomes distinctly Zhuangzian • (p. but the process is different • Not through ritual. specifically Zhuangzian tone of existing in the physical (obliquely contradicts Confucian value of living to make the world a better place. what is not there o Again.

• Whish and Whoosh drilled a hole in All-full and he died. Master Chariot is so physically messed up. says he does not dislike it “ if he turns my buttocks into wheels I’ll spirit into a horse. and I wander within them o Seems very un-Confucian because he said he is punished by heaven to be wandering within the rules. Have to practice it yourself. his entire goal is to happily pursue goodness through ritual cultivation o Deliberate skewing of Confucius’s words with petty people and princes/gentlemen (p.” Moral: don’t be afraid of change! (p. Practice over theory? Chapter 14 – Heaven’s Turning • Use boat when traveling on water. The man was angry at the suggestion of using technology. 16 • • • (p. Master Plow. 240) Gain the name while lacking substance o Mengsun is beyond knowing. Chapter 12 – Heaven and Earth • Zigong saw a man manually ladling out water to crops. Master Chariot. Chapter 13 – Heaven’s Way • Wheel chiseler asks Duke Huan why he reads sages when they are dead since the works are only leftovers. a parody of the Kongzi Chapter 7 – The Proper Way for Emperors and Kings • The ancient sages slept calmly woke blankly – sometimes they took themselves for horses. and preferred the pure simplicity for spiritual life. 239) The meaning of ritual and Kongzi o They wander outside of the rules.MR 78 Final Study Guide • Pg. I’ll climb aboard. and Master Arrive – on sickness and dying.he’s letting change just take him over. Chapter 17 – Autumn Floods . and he rides on top o Kongzi and Yan Hui are still “dreaming” (thinking) (p. Maybe a mockery of Confucius’s emphasis on ritual? • Freak giving birth in the middle of the night and see whether the child will look like her – worrying about the trivial things. the looks of things. 242) I’m improving o Yan Hui forgets all of his teachings o Similar to Confucian “harmonious ease” with trained spontaneity. Dongshi looked ugly when she tried to copy. Don’t use the past to travel on the present. Can’t apply what is unique to you to others. 237) Master Sacrifice. • Xishi looked beautiful even when glowering. but different process o Again. however. The right application of tools.

. Professor Puett’s Interpretation of Zhuangzi Definition of the Way: For Laozi. Story of how Builder Stone could slice a speck off of Plaster Monkey’s nose with a big ax. Not sad because her body just transformed into a truck. 17 Animals and their legs – Kui (mythical 1-legged beast) => millipede: how do you manage those legs? Millipede => snake: how do you move without feet? Snake => wind: how do you move? They move by heavenly mechanism. Awesome! We are on crack. you can’t pin it down.MR 78 Final Study Guide • • • Pg. Huizi says: how do you know? You are not a fish. Chapter 19 – Penetrating Life Ferryman can handle boats really well • Those who value what is on the outside are clumsy on the inside • Forgetting everyone around him is how the guy works Chapter 20 – The Mountain Tree • A chain of predators: cicada <= praying mantis <= magpie <= Zhuangzi <= warden of the grove Chapter 22 – Knowledge Wandered North • The way is everywhere. Chapter 24 – Mister Ghostless Slow • Zhuangzi pass by Huizi’s grave. Chapter 23 – Mister Gengsang Chu • Convicts about to give up life are sagely. Again the scale of things. so it’s stupid to ask where the Way is. Zhuangzi has no one to talk to after his teacher died. that from which things merge. Frog in the well – frog thinks he’s in a big world. Chapter 18 – Perfect Happiness • Zhuangzi squatting beating on a tub and singing although his wife died. but the turtle proved otherwise. Zhuangzi replies: how do you know I don’t know? Etc. It’s not fair to steal food from the stuff that will eat me. to which things return to. Zhuangzi and Huizi – talking about how happy the fish are in the Pu river. Chapter 26 – Outside Things • Where can I find someone who has forgotten words so I can have a word with him? Chapter 32 – Mister Clampdown Lie • Death of Zhuangzi – just dump me somewhere. it’s a space of undifferentiated space. We should do what is natural.

Incorporates the philosophies of Laozi and Confucius. Important concepts • The Way – A constant changingness • Is/is not . Xunzi incorporates Zhuangzi’s ideas. So one basic question is to think through this. Humans as exceptions Humans uniquely have consciousness. humans be all that they could be. We convince ourselves that the world isn’t one flexible changing-ness and create an artificial world that we remove ourselves from the constant changingness. Embrace the endless flux and transformation that is in the world. Trained Spontaneity Practice piano so can play it sensing the nuances of the musically spontaneously. this sounds great and abstract. Morality Zhuangzi doesn’t talk about morality. We use this as birds use wings to swim. Put this in practice. Basic moral: Stop studying. that wrecks the path to the way. III. if we are going to change the world for the better. some ppl might think. When we die The qi will become pieces of trees. If fully embrace the way. This is a perfect solution to breaking all the attempts by the ruling powers to control us. then we need to sit down and think about what institutions needs to be established. But bank robbing is away from the way. This accomplishes what Confucius teaches at a higher level. Nothing matters. go play.relativity • Point/nonpoint .MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. We don’t leave the way to return to it. all of that is the way – birds flying. what about concrete political societies that suck? At this stage. Yeah-huh! II. All is part of the way. worms. 18 Zhuangzi sees it differently: The world in which we live in is changing constantly. However. Don’t follow Z’s teaching thinking being moral/immoral. Go dream of butterflies. that is an oversimplification. So being one with the way is moral. How is he relevant for Chinese philosophy? Sima Qian called him as the founder of the Daoist school. Interacting with the WORLD Do we simply accept everything around us. then can truly embrace being a human being. we think by the heart and the mind. Morality would come spontaneously. fish swimming. birds that eat my body. Z says: his teachings leads to humans create great worlds. We are depressed by the thought of death b/c we foolishly ultimately cling to the distinction between one and pieces of one in other things. This will go on and will go on forever.

19 Relationship to Confucius – C making the concession that Zhuangzi’s conception of the way more broad and acclimated to metaphysical things.MR 78 Final Study Guide • • Pg. how they can also be perfect IV. Potential IDs See Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy (2nd ed. Ivanhoe and Bryan W. Confucius is toward practical. but Zhuangzi’s way is so much better. Confucius says his own way is limited.. edited by Philip J. Van Norden) . Deformed people. amputees.

lofty -can be secured by inner power  “developing inner power” involves holding onto vital energy -true condition of the mind: calmness “numen”. then it will gradually come on its own. assist the inner power. and the Way can thereby be attained.” (66) -we all have a “numinous mind” residing in us. but it’s all chi) -we all have vital essence Goodness -rewards are not enough to encourage good/(punishments are not enough to discourage bad): instead the flow of vital energy must be achieved -we are connected with everything around us. energy and spirit! (you have unrefined and refined chi.spirit Human Nature -the ruling principle is to be tranquil -if you encounter others with a good flow of vital energy. abandon the trivial -deep thinking generates knowledge. if we relax efforts to try and control the “numinous mind. they will harm you -be inwardly tranquil and outwardly reverent to return to your innate nature -Chi is everything: it is matter. we call them sages -the essence of the vital energy “vital energy”: -is bright. but do not plan things out in advance or it will be ruined -everything in moderation and you will naturally reach vitality -it is about controlling your thoughts and actions to ensure maintenance of vital energy .” its vital essence will naturally stabilize (70) -calm/well-ordered mind  awareness  word/implementation (action)  order -chase away the excess. make your thoughts tranquil. dark. vast. so you should live your life energizing yourself and things around you.” (54) -use the Way to cultivate the mind and align the body -“Align your body. Roth Tierney Morikawa “tien”—the heavens -naturalistic connotations associated with this term -powers and activities utterly spontaneous and natural—become models for other sorts of natural impulses and abilities “vital essence”—that which brings things to life when it flows amid heavens and earth we call it ghostly when stored within the chests of humans. 20 ORIGINAL TAO: INWARD TRAINING and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism By Harold D. they will be kinder to you than your family. but if you encounter others with a bad flow of vital energy.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. refining our Chi Self-Cultivation -“Cultivate your mind.

yet still cannot penetrate it… Unify your awareness. . and you will daily renew your inner power. When they gain it they succeed. then you must stop. the Way can be halted -when people attain the Way. shifts with things but doesn’t change places with them. When there is though.” (76)  “inward attainment” -when you maintain the Way. you cannot achieve the Way (because you are unbalanced) Important Passages: “When people lose [the Way] they die. 21 -“Follow this Way of restricting sense-desires and the myriad things will not cause you harm. there is thought. concentrate your mind. b But when it is generated. there is knowledge. but when the mind is tranquil and the vital breath is regular. But when there is knowledge. You lose your vitality. When people gain it they flourish. they are sustained -people who can transform without expending vital energy and to alter without expending wisdom are the ones who hold fast to the Way -the Way fills the entire world.” (56) “The Sage: Alters with the seasons but doesn’t transform. accorded with or directly experienced -sometimes involves total self-transcendence -what infuses the body -daily we make use of its inner power -has no fixed position. You think.” (60) “You think and think about it And think still further about it.” (58) “When the vital energy is guided. When endeavors lose it they fail.” (96) “The Way” = “the One” -For Taoists.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. the “Way” is the ultimate power in the cosmos -ineffable/cannot be known as an object -but it can be merged with. but people don’t understand it -“Reverently be aware [of the Way] and do not waver. you will not be swayed by temptations (relaxed. [the vital essence] is generated. Whenever the forms of the mind have excessive knowledge. yet acutely sensitive) -when you allow yourself to be overcome by any emotion.

The earth brings forth their bodies.” (82) “As for the life of all human beings The heavens bring forth their vital essence. To hold onto the rites there is nothing better than reverence. And even the far-off will seem close at hand.MR 78 Final Study Guide Then your eyes and ears will not be overstimulated.” (86) “To bring your anger to a halt.” (88) Pg. 22 . These two combine to make a person. To hold onto reverence there is nothing better than tranquility. When they are in harmony there is vitality. When they are not in harmony there is no vitality. there is nothing better than poetry. To cast off worry there is nothing better than the rites.

However. Xunzi believes that we should consciously be making these artificial distinctions to organize society. none are greater than rituals. we are selfish animals.these are things people have from birth.” (Chapter 5) . it is amoral. but are already so. He thinks of Heaven as the spontaneous workings of the world. 23 Xunzi Tana Jambaldorj Main idea: Xunzi believed in rituals like Confucius but believed human nature is selfish and disgusting so we also need laws for orderliness. he emphasizes that while human nature is bad. then even if you are not brilliant. but as humans we are uniquely endowed to create an organized world. then you will advance. rather than punishments. Without these distinctions. If you truly accumulate effort for a long time. No divine power gives us morality. Unlike Zhuangzi’s belief that we make artificial judgments with our heart-mind. you will be only a dissolute scholar. it is not all that we posses. and your understanding is just like your teacher’s understanding. Learning proceeds until death and only then does it stop. These one does not have to await. so we must create the correct world for ourselves. that by which humans are humans is that they have distinctions. Of distinctions.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg.” (Chapter 2) Humans: “What is that by which humans are human? I say: It is because they have distinctions. All humans are equally endowed to reach the greatness of a sage. desiring warmth when cold.” (Chapter 1) “If you exalt ritual. then even if you are an acute debater. However. and ends with studying ritual. all of which can be trained through ritual to reach any level of goodness. We have the faculty to see and hear and have emotional dispositions. and of rituals. The teacher is that by which to correct your practice of ritual. If you do not exalt ritual. of social divisions. liking the beneficial and hating the harmful. none are greater than social divisions. and you are thus-and-so. believed in promotions and meritocracy based on Confucian ideals of serving good. none are greater than those of sage-kings. However. Xunzi had a lot of distaste for Mozi. and ends with becoming a sage. similar to Mengcius. you will be a man of the proper model. Desiring food when hungry. but also believed in institutions. desiring rest when tired. then this is to be a sage. then this means your disposition accords with ritual.” (Chapter 1) Self-cultivation: “Ritual is that by which to correct your person. When ritual dictates thus-and-so. and because of it we have a responsibility to do so. Important points in the teaching: Learning: “Where does learning begin? Where does learning end? I say: Its order begins with reciting the classics. If your disposition accords with ritual. Its purpose begins with becoming a noble man.

If they are strong. The rules are the beginning of order. control the ten thousand things. It is what whereby humans make their way. Thus.” (Chapter 17) Ritual: “Ritual has three roots. then they will be able to overcome the animals. Cleave to what is central in carrying it out. Without Heaven and . Thus. floods and drought cannot make you go hungry or thirsty.” (Chapter 8) Government: “There are chaotic lords. If there is chaos then they will disband. If your means of nurture are prepared and your actions are timely. that people can order themselves with the four seasons.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. then Heaven cannot ruin you. If they struggle. They do not persist because of Yao. nor is it the way of earth. If you cultivate the Way and do not deviate from it. then they will struggle. and that which the gentleman takes as his way. and aberrations and anomalies cannot cause you misfortune. This is the meaning of saying that “one must not let go of ritual and standards of righteousness for even a moment. If they disband then they will be weak. If you respond to them with chaos. If you respond to them with order. then you will have misfortune. If they are unified. then Heaven cannot make you ill. Rules cannot stand alone. The Way is not the way of Heaven.” (Chapter 12) Heaven: “The activities of Heaven are constant. There are men who create order. If they form communities but are without social divisions. Heaven and earth are the root of life. How can social divisions be put into practice? I say: It is because of standards of righteousness. Forefathers and ancestors are the root of one’s kind. cold and heat cannot make you sick. 24 “Why are humans able to form communication? I say: It is because of social divisions. If they are weak then they cannot overcome the animal. then Heaven cannot make you poor. then they will be strong. And so they will not get to live in homes and palaces.”” (Chapter 9) The Way: “The Way of the former kings consists in exalting benevolence. And so if they use standards of righteousness in order to make social divisions. They do not perish because of Jie. What do I mean by “what is central”? I say: It is ritual and the standards of righteousness. If one has the right person. and the gentleman is the origin of the rules. Rulers and teachers are the root of order. then you will have good fortune. And so they can get to live in homes and palaces. If they have more force. there are no rules creating order of themselves. there are no states chaotic of themselves. And so human life cannot be without community. they they will be preserved. then there will be chaos. and bring benefit to all under Heaven is for no other reason than that they get these things from social divisions and standards of righteousness. and categories cannot implement themselves. then they will be unified. then they will have more force. If you strengthen the fundamental works and moderate expenditures.

single-mindedness. it is clear that people’s nature is bad. and that is why the sage is able to produce them. and wei. then human nature would not be able to beautify itself. Their goodness is a matter of deliberate effort.” is to pattern and order it and make it exalted. how cold ritual and the standards of righteousness and the accumulation of deliberate effort be people’s original nature?” (Chapter 23) . turn to disrupting social divisions and disorder. turn to culture and order. how could the wood of the utensils be the craftsman’s nature? The relationship of the sage to ritual and the standards of righteousness can be compared to mixing and producing things. Now people’s nature is such that they are born with a fondness for profit. If one chooses people using a heart that approves of the Way.” Chapter 21) Human Nature: “People’s nature it bad. and stillness. how would one live? Without forefathers and ancestors. Yet. Yet. then there would be nothing for deliberate effort to be applied to. how would one have come forth? Without rulers and teachers. how would there be order? Of these three.this is essential thing for good order. So it is necessary to await the transforming influence of teachers and models and the guidance of ritual and the standards of righteousness. I answer: that is not so. And so. 25 earth. they are sure to come to struggle and contention. and then the reputation of the sage and the work of unifying all under Heaven is thereupon brought to completion. “deliberate effort. If there were no deliberate effort.” (Chapter 23) “Someone suggests: Ritual and the standards of righteousness and the accumulation of deliberate effort are people’s nature. and only then will they come to yielding and deference.” (Chapter 19) Heart-mind: “The heart must know the Way. and end up in violence. If there were no human nature. ritual serves Heaven above and earth below. it honors forefathers and ancestors. How does the heart know the Way? I say: It is through emptiness. So. If they follow along with this. The potter mixes clay and produces tiles. then one will accord with people who follow the Way. […] If people follow along with their inborn nature and dispositions. if even one is neglected there will be no one safe. and end up under control. and only then will it approve of the Way. Human nature and deliberate effort must unite. Only after it approves of the Way will it be able to keep to the Way and reject what is not the Way.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. and one approves of the Way and to join together with people who follow the Way when judging what is not the Way. and their goodness is a matter of deliberate effort. then struggle and contention will arise.” (Chapter 19) “I say that human nature is the original beginning and the raw materials. and it exalts rulers and teachers. how could the clay of the tiles be the potter’s nature. The craftsman carves wood and makes utensils. and yielding and deference will perish therein. Looking at it in this way.” (Chapter 21) “How do people know the Way? I say: it is with the heart.

In the book of Han Fei Zi. identified the writings as those of Han Fei. But he established a reputation of brilliant writing styles through his book. The First Emperor later regretted his condemnation of Han Fei and was going to pardon him. Han Fei had no other choice but killed himself. But even though the First Emperor was pleased with Han Fei's advice. Shu (tactic or method): Special tactics are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state. Han Fei tried to defend himself. Through a series of conspiracies. and thus no one can know which behavior might help them getting ahead. His goal was simply to determine which measures were most . which was a serious impediment. but Han was already dead. they are students of Xunzi and founders of Legalism. Laws should reward those who obey them and punish accordingly those who dare to break them. Legalism was a pragmatic political philosophy that does not address higher questions such as ethics and morality like the other schools of thoughts do. 26 Han Fei Zi Amy Vo 280BC–233 BC. Together with Li Si. Thus it is guaranteed that actions taken are systematically predictable. even a weak ruler will be strong. Han Fei saw the gradual decline of the state of Han and tried on several occasions to persuade Han’s ruler to change policies. of which law is the critical role. not the ruler himself or herself.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. Warring States Period. analysis of the trends. he did not fully trust him. and Han Fei did come to Qin eventually. All people under the ruler were equal before the law. Han Fei's works made their way to Qin where the future First Emperor saw them and wanted to meet the man who wrote them. Especially important is that no one can fathom the ruler's motivations. but he could not get an audience. the context. that holds the power. who then was the chancellor of Qin. but the king proved incapable of following his advice. Li Si. Ultimately. He does not seem to have been the least bit interested in determining what form of government was most ethically justified. Han Fei Zi. Historical Background: Han Fei was born into an aristocratic family in the state of Han. Shi (legitimacy or power): It is the position of the ruler. Han Fei could never be entirely loyal to the interests of Qin. Han Fei had the problem of stuttering and could not present his ideas in court very well. Legalism Legalism has a focus on strengthening the power of the ruler. Li Si sent Han Fei some poison forcing him to commit suicide. Han Fei Zi believed that a ruler should use the following three tools to govern his subjects: Fa (law or principle): The law code must be clearly written and made public. Therefore. If the law is successfully enforced. the First Emperor accepted Li Si’s advice and had Han Fei imprisoned for a crime. and the facts are essential for a real ruler. Li Si played on the suspicion that being a member of the royal family of Han. Han Fei writes his ideas and thoughts from the perspective of a ruler.

e. wandering orators. FROM LECTURE AN AMORAL PHILOSOPHER Believes the Confucian implications of self-cultivation are dangerous Well-educated people will thwart the state and ruler You can’t have subjects who think too much THE POWER OF INSTITUTION Make a system of regulations. and merchants. Among the groups singled for criticism by Han Fei are: classical scholars (i. the ability of the ruler is irrelevant Analogy to America – the “arbitrary” laws that we don’t think about WHAT THE RULER SHOULD DO Be paranoid.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. in which Han was under constant threat of being taken over by the Qin → perhaps leading to his amoral and pragmatic political views CH 5 – the ruler must subscribe to Daoism He must not show his inner self. and establish them so that people don’t even realize that they are following the rules You will create a bureaucracy that will run on itself. FROM READING Lived during the Warring States period. In addition. Han Fei believes that in order for a state to sustain over time. 27 effective in ensuring the continued survival of the state and furthering the public interests of the ruler and his people. Hei Fei rejected the Confucian and Mohist claim that a ruler should model his government on the values and institutions of the ancient sage-kings. Subscribe to a Laozian philosophy of non-action In essence. He maintained that each stage in the development of human civilization comes with its own unique set of problems. not necessarily exemplary rulers. and punishments are always given out And the ministers will be your mindless servants CH 7 – the two handles Punishment and favor . a legalist philosophy. not private judgment Everything is based off of a universal standard They must create a hierarchy in which superiors are always obeyed. and instead allow his ministers to show themselves to him He must strictly administer reward and punishment CH 6 – the importance of law Rulers must use public law. private swordsmen. draft dodgers. Confucians). Han Fei was also concerned about the proliferation of what he regarded as politically dangerous or socially useless groups of people. and so the rulers of each age must be able to come up with new measures for dealing with these problems. it needs to depend upon a system of government.

highlight the good qualities of that person to make him proud. but they are conflicting schools of thought – and therefore the minds of rulers are disordered And you must decide by people’s actions. not their words . and craftsmen are also vermin – Han Feizi prefers farmers and infantry CH 50 – the two dominant schools of thought Rulers listen to Confucianism and Mohism. 28 A minister should not do any more or any less than his own duty. swordsmen. This status is more powerful than worthiness or wisdom Critic: Power is good in the hands of the benevolent. he needs to subscribe within the boundaries of his office Key is to hide your own likes and dislikes so that the real character of your ministers is revealed. but disregard the bad CH 43 – use of administrative methods or governing through laws (??) Administrative methods: assign office based on people’s qualifications Government through law: lay out standards and then punish those who violate them You need both to govern successfully! CH 49 – the five vermin And you cannot use love of your subjects or benevolence to keep order – you must use law Consistent implementation of punishment is key Orators. and they cannot deceive you CH 8 – who can rule? Shenzi and Han Feizi: you simply need a power of position to get things done. but very dangerous in the hands of the bad CH 12 – persuasion of a ruler You must match your argument to the heart and desire of your listener! If you want to persuade a ruler.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. merchants.

in order to obtain legitimacy o Emperor Wu recreated the grand mass infantry of the Qin. he was sentenced to imprisonment and torture. and you should live your life moment by moment. Sima Tan. aiming to take over parts of Central Asia. as the new emperor. 65-83) Plot: Zhao Gao (chief eunuch) fears that the Second Emperor would blame him for the uprisings occurring throughout China. one of the emperor’s nephews. who was the Grand Historian at the court of Emperor Wu (Han Dynasty) Historical context o Emperor Wu wanted to create an improved version of the legalist Qin empire. believed that the Emperor Qin did not correctly understand the ideology  decided to create a legalist state disguised as a Confucian state. However. 29 Joyce Yang Sima Qian. the accused would normally commit suicide. This is something that Sima Qian criticizes throughout the work. training yourself to be as good as you can. with no one to aid him. Zhao Gao then installs Ziying. and hence his errors went uncorrected. we must break down the barriers between the different schools of thought. Sima Qian’s vision is similar to Confucius’s in practice – there are no easy answers to anything. Sima Qian’s major underlying point is that one single vision or philosophy cannot explain everything at all times.Records of the Grand Historian Part 1 Biographical Information Lived around 145-89 BC Records of the Grand Historian was planned and perhaps written in part by Sima Qian’s father. but then the penalty was changed to castration. Sima Qian also writes implicitly. Ziying stood alone and friendless. Ziying. We should not always take a simple. thus he faced harsh punishment. The other states soon overthrow Ziying and the Qin dynasty “The First Emperor trusted his own judgment. but Sima Qian decided to accept his punishment so he could finish writing the history of China While Records of the Grand Historian is ostensibly a history. General Li Ling surrendered because he had no other choice. never reforming. All three rulers were deluded. or else this may lead to people failing to live up to situations or fail to judge others properly. According to Professor Puett. Thus he plans a coup and the Second Emperor commits suicide. and to the end failed to awaken—is it not fitting that they perished?” (p 76) ‐ These emperors failed because they were stubborn in their views and refused to see things from different perspectives. In such a case.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. As a consequence. . During this failing campaign. compounding his misfortune through violence and cruelty. offering a critique of the empire and the entire period during which he lives. assassinates Zhao Gao first. never consulting others. The Second Emperor carried on in the same manner. easy approach to interpreting things. suspecting that Zhao Gao plans to assassinate him. weak and imperiled. - - Summary of Shi ji 15: “Reflections on the Rise of Qin” (p. Sima Qian was the only court official to spoke out in defense of Li Ling.

confident in his own wisdom. influenced by what they have heard. 87) o Same idea as passages 1 and 2 ‐ ‐ ‐ . despite both the ruthlessness and the short-lived nature of the Qin Dynasty.“Nevertheless. never getting to know his people. testes them in terms of the present day.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. This was not necessarily due to its mountain barriers or the advantages of its geographic situation. To be honoured as a Son of Heaven. and its military strength was no match for that of the Three Jin states. 87) o In both the above passages. it actually managed to accomplish a great deal. he observes how things were done in ancient times. see that the Qin occupied the position of emperor for only a short period. 86) 2 . Also. These passages reflect Sima Qian’s emphasis on the importance of approaching a given matter from different perspectives. initiates actions in the proper order. This is as ridiculous as trying to eat with one’s ear. and lamentable indeed” (p. when the gentleman is given charge of a state. and they fail to examine the beginning and end of the matter. and changes with the times. 3 . but a people who feel threatened easily turn to evil. sees how they tally with human concerns. Even though the legalist Qin state had many faults. Such was the Second Emperor’s error” (p 83) Summary of Shi ji 15: “Reflections on the Rise of Qin” (p. to possess the riches of the empire. there are things worth noting even in the shifts of power of the Warring States period. Hence they refer to the Qin only as an object of ridicule and decline to say anything more about it.“Scholars. 85-87) 1. Sima Qian points out that. never trusting his meritorious officials. Those who make simplified. and yet to be unable to escape execution comes from failure to correct misdirection. Yet in the end it united the whole world under its rule. 81) ‐ Same idea as first passage. yet it managed to change with the times and its accomplishments were great” (p. underlines the importance of closely analyzing the situation “But the First Emperor was greedy and short-sighted.“Qin at its most virtuous and righteous could not compare to Lu and Wey at their most violent and cruel. unsubstantiated judgments are erroneous and misguided. also shows that Sima Qian was not completely objective “The former kings perceived the changes that occur in the course of events and understood the secret of survival or downfall. He cast aside the kingly Way…leading the whole world in violence and cruelty” (p. 30 “That is why. just because the empire fell quickly doesn’t automatically mean that it was a complete failure. examines into the cause of flourishing and decay. Rather it was as though Heaven had aided it” (pg. a people who feel secure may be led into righteous ways.” (p 77) ‐ Combination of Confucius’s emphasis on antiquity/sage kings and Xunzi and Han Feizi’s emphasis on adapting to the present ‐ Also. Why must one learn only from high antiquity? Qin’s seizure of the empire was accompanied by much violence. perceives what is fitting in the light of circumstances. which was a huge achievement. it managed to end the Warring States Period. Therefore their way of shepherding the people was simply to assure them of security… So it is said.

167-178. This is different from Confucius’ adherence to antiquity and the ritual practices of the ancient sages. then escapes). a musician. that their names should be handed down to later ages?” (178) Examination of empires: • the expanding empire is the enemy in this case (“eating away at the lands of the other feudal lords”(168) and “Qin has a heart that is greedy for gain” (171)). he was a man of depth and learning.” Storytelling technique: • inclusion of songs: “Winds cry xiao xiao/ Yi waters are cold” etc (174) . Sima Qian judging the situation: • “Of these five men. • Perhaps Sima Qian thinks that its mistake is that it “forced every ruler within the four seas to acknowledge its sovereignty. tells him of Tian's death. • Prince won't give it. so finally Jing Ke gets Fan to commit suicide. 31 ‐ o Also.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg. • king of Qin attacks Yan with more fury. The Prince asks Jing to go to Qin. • Prince of Dan asks his tutor Ju Wu what to do. from Cao Mei to Jing Ke. offer the king some proposal. Jing Ke hesitates some more and finally sets off with young Qin Wuyang. but doesn't set off. 4 . kills associates of Prince Dan and Jing Ke. who believe that rulers should learn from more recent history and focus on adapting to the current state of affairs. pulls out the dagger but hesitates. is allowed near king of Qin. presents the head. gets his eyes put out. Records of the Grand Historian The Biography of Jing Ke Storyline • Jing Ke is a master swordsman. then. requiring the head of General Fan to take as an offering.” Why? Because they were closer to us. 87) o Same idea as passage 3 – “a certain text” refers to Xunzi’s writings p. here Sima Qian resembles Xunzi and Han Feizi. the Prince of Dan (heir to Yan throne) worries what to do (is first a hostage of Qin. and their ideals are lowly and easy to practice” (p. some succeeded in carrying out their duty and some did not. Ju Wu suggests he consult Master Tian • Master Tian goes to see Jing Ke and commits suicide in order to encourage Jing Ke to act to save Yan • Jing Ke goes to see the Prince. lives in the land of Yan • The king of Qin is taking over various lands and it looks like Yan will be next.” (171) Examination of character: • “although Jing Ke spent his time with drunkards.“A certain text tells us to ‘model ourselves on the rulers of later times. But it is perfectly clear that they had all determined upon the deed. and slay him. Is it not right. their customs and happenings of their times resemble ours. • Gao Jianli. • Jing Ke declines for a while and finally agrees. during which the king survives and runs away. • Jing Ke heads to the king. They were not false to their intentions. but still tries to kill king with lead in his lute.

. 227-237. It all depends upon the way he uses it. or it may be light as a goose feather. I defended him.. is that I grieve that I have things in my heart that I have not been able to express fully.MR 78 Final Study Guide • Pg.” (233) . I have examined the events of the past and investigated the principles behind their success and failure” (236) • “The reason I have not refused to bear these ills and have continued to live.” (235) (He wants to continue his writings. crawled forward. 32 details. sinking to his knees.. and I was accused of trying to deceive the emperor. That death may be as weighty as Mount Tai.. “I only cautioned. He made one mistake in battle. the tears starting from his eyes. After some time he said. …. “from old times men have been ashamed to associate with eunuchs” (229) • I have done nothing great in twenty years at court • a misunderstanding with Li Ling: we weren't close. and conversation: “The prince bowed twice and then..) On empire: • “Our enlightened ruler did not wholly perceive my meaning” and “hoping to broaden His Majesty's view” (232) On people: • “A gentleman must be ever careful of proper conduct. • “A man has only one death.” (171) P. Sima Qian on history • “I too have ventured not to be modest but have entrusted myself to my useless writing. Records of the Grand Historian Sima Qian's Letter to Ren An (describes the course of events leading to his punishment and castration) Brief Storyline • you (the addressee) recommended caution in dealing with others • I have heard that “to devote oneself to moral training is the sign of wisdom” … quote continues (229) • there is nothing worse than castration. begging for food. but he was a good man.” • metaphor of a tiger in a cage.


 One
essay
(two
prompt
choices.
 But
in
reality.
the
world
is
not
differentiated
being.
everything
is
the
Way
 and
undifferentiated.
foolishly.
Everything
operates
in
a
different
way
from
what
we
 think
it
does.
Zhuangzi
is
joyous
part
of
the
world.
reflect
on
the
material.
morality
is
an
artificial
construction.
control
all
belongs
to
the
category
of
highly
differentiated
things.
 Mencius
actually
says
our
natural
potential
good:
if
naturally
cultivated
and
nurtured.
 Xunzi:
use
heart/mind
to
train
self
to
become
good.
not
good)
removes
us
from
the
Way
 Zhuangzi:
good
vs.
 We
see
the
world
normally.
will
 become
good.
we're
all
connected.
Always
play
weakness
 to
someone's
strength.
We
should
bring
 what
we
do
back
into
the
natural.
 

 Zhuangzi
has
a
different
context
and
goal.
Spirits
are
purely
refined
qi.
which
we
cultivate
daily. 33 Notes
from
Final
Review
Session
 Francis
Deng
 
 IDs:
Explain
in
only
one
paragraph
how
each
passage
is
relevant
to
the
philosopher's
larger
arguments.
He
would
rule
like
the
butcher
does
‐
simply
working
 with
the
world.
 

 Inward
Training
 Similar
to
the
Laozi.
not
good
potentially
takes
us
away
from
the
flux
of
the
Way.
but
to
joyously
celebrate
and
 be
part
of
the
changes
of
the
world.
 The
Way
is
achievable
through
everyday
activities.
domination.
 Xunzi:
yes.
as
a
host
of
differentiated
things.
 Zhuangzi
isn't
a
true
anarchist.
however.
 Strength.
 Mud
is
turbid
qi.
The
natural
world
is
amoral.
 .
 Water
is
where
true
power
lies:
it
simply
flows.
 

 Different
conceptions
of
the
Way
 Confucius:
what
humans
form
when
we
create
a
ritually
ordered
universe
that
is
Good.
draw
on
all
your
 knowledge
 

 Difference
between
Laozi
and
Zhuangzi
 Laozi
is
about
how
to
properly
run
things.
 People
artificially
impose
reality
and
make
distinctions
that
take
us
away
from
the
Way.
but
that's
good.
Not
to
win
or
control.
like
a
plant.
Cosmology
using
qi.
can
think
and
make
things
happen
with
some
refined
qi
(vital
 energy).
 Laozi:
active
artificial
distinction
(good
vs.
 Play
the
Way
to
everyone
else
who
tries
to
be
a
differentiated
being.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg.
 The
Way
is
the
endless
flux
and
transformation
of
everything.
open‐ended):
think
big.
as
who
runs
what
things
 and
who
is
strongest.
and
have
vital
essence
(jing).
Doesn't
rule
out
any
particular
political
paradigm.
 

 Difference
between
Xunzi
and
Mencius
 Xunzi
says
Mencius
is
wrong
because
he
thinks
our
nature
is
good.
but
can
cleave
mountains.
 We
can
effect
things
with
our
energy.
 Humans
have
unrefined
qi.
 Way
is
different:
Laozi
is
successful
general.

34 Xunzi:
our
nature
is
basically
bad.MR 78 Final Study Guide Pg.
accepts
and
fully
living
up
to
the
situation.
making
a
fuller
critique
of
the
emperor. .
but
heart
is
also
a
natural
faculty
that
allows
us
to
create
this
 artificial
morality.
 Xunzi:
can't
be
just
like
water.
Mencius
is
in
danger
of
implying
that
it's
too
easy.
Rhetorical
problem.
need
strong
institutions
 

 Sima
Qian
 Did
people
face
up
with
what
they
had
to
do?
 Facing
punishment.