New soybean processing technology boosts nutrition

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Date: 2010-03-01
By Nabil Said, Ph.D. Extruded full-fat soybeans can partly or totally replace soybean meal in poultry and swine diets.

High shear extrusion process with Insta-Pro International’s High Capacity Model 2000 extruder does not require an external source of heat or steam.

food and neutraceutical applications. local farmers. in addition to some 100 countries worldwide have recognized the extrusion technology of Insta-Pro as a method of adding value to soybeans. Soybean meal. The high shear extrusion process allows flexibility in tailoring plant design to the exact need to achieve cost-effective conversion of beans to saleable product. Since the early 1960s. Although the crop was only introduced to North America in 1804. partially de-fatted soybean meal (ExPress soybean meal). . Organic certified consignments cannot be subjected to hexane extraction and extrusion is an ideal alternative to a solvent process. An alternative to extraction Although solvent extraction is an efficient method to extract oil from soybeans. The majority of soybean meal produced is consumed by poultry followed by the swine. and chemical-free. These constraints have forced the soy-industry to develop an alternative process that is less hazardous. It is known that raw soybeans contain anti-nutritional factors that must be de-activated by heat treatment in order to make the soybeans suitable for consumption by humans and monogastric livestock. Probably the most important factor in the successful adoption of this technology is the fact that the nutritional superiority of full-fat soy or ExPress soybean meal has been documented by independent universities worldwide. The fact that the process does not require a high level of technology. the United States is now the leading producer and exporter of soybeans followed by Brazil. and some sectors of the feed industry in the U.Soybeans are considered the most important crop in the world with China recognizing their value for over 3000 years. a high level of technology and large scale operation. is included in the diets of most food animal species. The emerging demand for identity preservation is incompatible with the current infrastructure of solvent extraction plants which are not in a position to segregate specific products. private sector and end users. is considered a carcinogen and represents an environmental hazard. The majority of soybeans are currently processed by solvent extraction to remove about 99% of the oil content.S. High shear extrusion High shear extrusion refers to the fact that this type of extruder does not require an external source of heat or steam. dairy. pet food and aquaculture industries. Hexane solvent is highly flammable. beef. is effectively “all natural” and does not emit any undesirable residue into the environment has facilitated adoption of extrusion worldwide. cooperatives. it requires considerable capital investment. Protein derived from soybeans is further processed to derive specialty products such as soy concentrate and soy isolates used for industrial. the by-product of the process. Heat is generated through friction as the sole source of energy to “cook” and partially dehydrate soybeans within seconds. China and Argentina. virgin soy oil. Currently extrusion plants can be configured to simultaneously produce full-fat soy.

longer shelf life due to the presence of natural Tocopherols antioxidants and less dust. add fat to poultry and swine diets without the problems associated with conventional methods of supplementation. The only difference would be that applying steam allows an increase in the moisture content of full-fat soy to about 10% compared with 5% to 6% without a pre-conditioner. ExPress soybean meal with higher protein content can be produced if the raw soybeans are dehulled. . In this case. The product can be processed by Insta-Pro extruders selected to conform to required daily capacity. cells are ruptured resulting in the release of tocopherols (natural anti-oxidants). Higher energy and dry matter allows for greater flexibility in feed formulation. especially poultry and swine. the ExPress soybean meal may contain 48% to 50% protein and 6% to 8% oil. metabolizable energy and dry matter content. improved flowability associated with the extruded soybean products. The main advantage from extrusion. This creates a highly digestible source of energy and protein for all animal species. The ExPress system does not permit the use of steam pre-conditioning since the moisture interferes with the expulsion of oil. Insta-Pro installations therefore provide the capability to refine oil through a physical process without using chemicals. urease. The extruded-expelled oil that is produced has unique characteristics in terms of stability and low levels of phosphatides. The process enhances the availability of oil. Extruded products which contain oil. ExPress soybean meals with or without the hulls removed have similar nutrient profiles to corresponding conventional solvent-extracted soybean meals.As the extrudate (processed material) exits the barrel of the extruder. as shown in the comparison is the higher metabolizable energy and dry matter content of Dry Extruded Whole soybeans or DEW (full-fat beans processed by Insta-Pro extrusion) compared to conventional full-fat soybeans processed by alternative methods. Again. the extruded full-fat soy is channeled from the extruder to an Insta-Pro horizontal press (expeller) in which up to 75% of the oil can be removed from the extruded full-fat. peroxide value and free fatty acids. Extruded soy products options Extruded whole soybeans contain on average 38% protein and 18% oil. The resulting ExPress soybean meal will average 46% protein and 6% to 8% oil. de-activates the anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors. The extruder can be fitted with a steam pre-conditioner to almost double the capacity of a given Insta-Pro model extruder without affecting quality of full-fat soy. lipase and lipoxyginase enzymes. Chemical-free process Table 1 shows the typical composition of Insta-Pro extruded soy products compared with conventional soybean meal and full-fat soy processed by alternative procedures. To produce ExPress soybean meal. the major difference is that the ExPress soy meals are superior to the solvent-extracted soybean meal on the basis of higher fat. lectins. These include more predictable quality of fat. unsaponifiable matter.

based on optimum digestibility of nutrients.5%) in cecectomized cockerels as compared with wet extrusion (85.83 kg vs. solvent extracted soybean meal plus added oil or raw soybeans. and toasting (91.79 kg) and better feed efficiency (2. micronization (87. It is however the responsibility of the nutritionist to determine the quality and nutrient content of an extruded product at any given location. A 9% to 11% moisture content of the raw soybeans is preferred. Quality indices for whole soybeans and optimally extruded ExPress soybean meal as shown in Table 2 are attainable.9%). Containerised extruder undergoing installation refines oil through a physical process without using chemicals. Nutritional advantages The nutritional quality of soybean products is related to the method of processing. Quality control. Variations in the quality of expressed soybean meals may be due to producers adding water back to the express meal to compensate for dehydration losses during extrusion thereby depressing the nutrient content below tabular values. An extrusion temperature of 310F to 320F (154C to 160C) is recommended. quality assurances To produce high-quality extruded full-fat or ExPress soybean meal and oil. Insta-Pro provides both equipment and training to optimize the value of extruded products.6%).1. metabolic studies and performance comparisons. Full-fat soybeans from the Insta-Pro dry extrusion process provide highly digestible amino acids (92.Local processing of soybeans permits direct control of quality and predictability of performance. “jet-sploded. Soybeans vary among growing areas and seasons. 2. Insta-Pro recommends using raw soybeans with low levels of contamination with foreign material. Nitrogen retention by chickens fed full-fat soy processed from an Insta-Pro dry extruder is significantly higher than that achieved by feeding toasted.4%). Feeding extruded full-fat product to commercial flocks resulted in higher weight gain (1.07 vs. A UK manufacturer of Insta-Pro dry extrusion full fat soy conducted two feeding trials to compare the product with solvent extracted soybean meal in isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. micronized. A disadvantage of commercial expressing systems is the lack of standardization of the product.” wet extruded.18) for the extruded and control groups .

It was concluded that superior feed efficiency was attributed to the higher ME value of full-fat soy.8% above the tabulated NRC value.01pH. It was reported that pigs fed extruded full fat product grew significantly faster. amino acids and metabolizable energy. with 83.05) in commercial hens compared to feeding solvent extracted soybean meal. Extruded soybeans showed urease activity of 0. Incorporating extruded full-fat soy in diets resulted in higher daily gain and feed efficiency compared to solvent extracted soybean meal with added animal and vegetable fat.87% compared with 0. The highest TME and amino acid digestibility was achieved at 309F (154C).6% higher than the 3514 kCal/kg value observed for roasted soybeans. In other trials it was reported that toasted soybeans had a urease activity of 1.24 pH rise. roasted fullfat soybeans or raw soybeans.98% protein solubility. This indicated more consistent quality of the extruded full-fat product compared to toasted full-fat soybeans. Similar results were reported in a starter pig trial in which pigs were fed isocaloric isolysine diets comprising corn-SBM-whey and soybean oil compared to extruded or roasted full fat soybean meal derived from either regular-Kunitz or lowKunitz soybeans. In contrast the swine ME for roasted soybean meal was 3. Iowa State and other universities conducted numerous trials feeding dry extruded full-fat soy to broilers.1% lower than the NRC value. The results of metabolic studies using SBM (45.71% protein solubility for soybean meal. roasted full fat soybean meal and extruded full fat soybean meal demonstrated an ME value for extruded soybean meal of 4414 kCal/kg which was 25. It was concluded that extruded full-fat soybeans can partly or totally replace soybean meal in the diet as opposed to toasted soybeans. The swine ME value for extruded soybeans is 21. It is evident that the NRC tabular ME value of extruded beans should be sub-classified by the . Feeding broilers diets containing full-fat soy extruded by the Insta-Pro process resulted in significantly higher (p<0. Higher feed efficiency Optimizing processing conditions is crucial to achieving maximum digestibility of protein. Dry extruded full-fat soy resulted in significantly higher egg production and feed efficiency (p<0. Replacement of soybean meal and added oil in broilers diet (1-48 days of age) with increments of either toasted or extruded full-fat soy is practical although high inclusion levels of toasted soybeans resulted in lower weight gain. Increasing the substitution level with extruded full-fat beans resulted in a numerical increase in weight gain and an improvement in feed conversion efficiency. and protein solubility of 91.2pH rise urease activity and 87. This has been demonstrated by many investigators who reported an increase in true metabolizable energy (TME) and a linear increase in the amino acid digestibility of whole soybeans processed by an Insta-Pro extruder. A trial using weaning pigs showed a 26% reduction in fat digestibility when roasted soybeans were compared to extruded full fat soybean meal.1% protein).05) weight gain and feed efficiency compared to wet extruded full-fat soy or roasted full-fat soy.respectively. ate more feed and were more feed efficient than pigs fed roasted full fat soybean meal.

it . the oil is reabsorbed into the meal. Other oil seeds such as cotton. Extruded-expelled soybean meal The University of Illinois collaborated with Insta-Pro International to investigate the possibility of using the dry extrusion process as a pre-treatment for separating oil from meal. Digestible and metabolizable energy of extruded–expelled soybean meal (with or without the hulls removed) was compared to dehulled solvent extracted soybean meal (Table 5). as the product exits the barrel of the extruder.method of processing to reflect accurate values for roasted and extruded full fat soybean products respectively. Insta-Pro has commercialized the system under the trade name "ExPress System" and the extruded-expelled soybean meal is registered as "ExPress Soybean Meal. Extrusion prior to expelling greatly increased the throughput of the screw press beyond the rated capacity. In the case of soybeans. producing full-fat soy." Studies have defined the effect of extrusion temperature on TME and digestibility of amino acids for poultry (Table 3). ExPress soybean meal and Expelled soy oil simultaneously. On dry matter basis. The process produces natural oil which is beneficial for countries that cannot afford the cost and technical complexity of solvent extraction. Coarsely ground extruded soybeans immediately processed in a continuous screw press results in high quality oil and pressed cake. Extrusion cooking results in 90% inactivation of trypsin inhibitors and the low-fat cake can be ground easily in a hammer mill. Combining the dry extruder with a horizontal press to immediately separate most of the oil produces high quality soybean meal that retains 6% to 8% oil. No difference in digestibility was reported between dehulled or non-dehulled extruded expelled soybean meal (Table 6). the extruded-expelled cake contains 50% crude protein and 6% residual oil. Economic evaluation To determine the value of extruded full-fat soy or ExPress soybean meal compared to the current values of solvent extracted soybean meal and oil.S. Rupturing of the cells during extrusion results in the release of natural tocopherols which contributes to improved stability. Kansas State University studied the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible and metabolizable energy content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal in relation to growth of pigs. and abroad. It is known that dry extrusion results in the deactivation of the anti-nutritional factors and total rupturing of cells within seconds. canola and sunflower are processed with the ExPress system in the U. Results indicated significantly greater amino acid digestibility (Table 4). The InstaPro ExPress system has the flexibility of producing extruded full-fat.

D = Difference between oil content of full-fat or ExPress meal and SBM47. 1. Relative Advantages/Disadvantages Compared with 47.27/Bushel. C = Current price of ton oil or fat. CP ratio = Relative crude protein ratio to SBM-47. B = Price of 1 ton SBM-47. G = Value of ExPress soy oil (applicable to expressed soybean meal only) Relative value of ExPress soybean meal .22.27 x 40.Example Assumptions: B = Cost of SBM (47. F = Actual cost of processing 1 ton of full-fat or ExPress meal. A = (CP ratio x B) + 1. E = Current cost of raw soybeans needed to produce 1 ton extruded product.3 bushels to produce 1 ton of ExPress meal = $9.4) + 1.40 CP ratio 46/47.07 = Correction factor for the high energy availability of full-fat or ExPress meal compared with added fat.3 = $373. It takes 40.06 ) = $302.968 x $312.5% SBM This equation can be used to evaluate extruded full-fat and ExPress soybean meal in comparison to solvent extracted soybean meal.82 = $333. repair & maintenance and overhead) G = Value of ExPress soy oil (240 lbs oil expressed from 40.58 F = $21.07 ($480 x 0.5%.342/lb) = $82.22 Comparative value of expressed meal to soybean meal and added oil is $333. .1% = 6% (added fat equivalent from ExPress meal ) E = $9.(E + F) + G Where: A = Economic advantage-disadvantage.968 C = current price of A/V fat blend used in formulation = $480/ton D = 7% .07 (C x D) .3 bushels of soybeans = (240lbs x $0.5/ton operating cost (electricity.08 Relative Value of ExPress soybean meal compared to SBM plus added fat A = (0.is important to apply data generated in the area of operation rather than using tabular figures based on national averages. labor.5 = 0.5%.5% cp) = $312.5%.4 + 30.

from the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.08) = $415. He has broad and extensive experience in processing ingredients applying extrusion technology from the perspectives of laboratory studies.22 per ton produced Join the Feed Milling Technology discussion group at www.S.30 .D.50) = $395. Iowa.3 Cost of producing ExPress meal = Cost of beans ($373.58) + operating cost per ton ($21. He earned his Master of Science degree at the University of Wisconsin and his Ph. March/April 2010. and international markets.$395. ©Copyright 2011.   .08 = $20. 2010 This article appeared in Feed Management. Nabil Said serves as vice president for nutrition and extrusion technology for Insta-Pro International based in Des Moines.22) + value of oil ($82.com Dr.Cost/profit of processing ExPress soybean meal Value of the meal ($333.08 Margin = $415. Updated: Jun 02. All Rights Reserved.AnimalAgNet. product development and field applications in the U.