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goal that every journalist strives to maintain. Journalism¶s objectivity could be compared to the objectivity that scientists use when conducting an experiment. The idea behind this is that even though a journalist may not be objective, the method in which he obtains his information can be objective (Kovach, and Rosenstiel 83). Although we are all human and we all have our own bias, the spirit of objectivity is what a journalist strives to achieve. During the early years of American journalism, newspapers were affiliated with the various political parties of the time. The majority of the stories were filled with bias towards the party that they were affiliated with. Yet, over time the concept of ³realism´ arose during the 19th century (Kovach, and Rosesntiel 82). This concept gave the journalists in America the idea that they should drag as many of the facts out as possible and place them before the American public and be very extreme in delivering the truth. Even though today we do not use realism, objectivity developed from that realism. It is the way by which journalists develop and maintain credibility and the process by which they gather their information. All principles of journalism lead back to objectivity.
No matter how hard it is to write a story. the media sets the agenda for what the public thinks about and what they consider newsworthy (Brooks 27). . I plan to research and verify facts thoroughly and I plan to keep my ideals separate from the stories I am covering. such as Anderson Cooper (Shea). They should search for the truth and let the facts speak for themselves and let the public decide their own opinions based off of their work. it is a journalist¶s responsibility to take a step back from their own opinions and decide whether or not they are being objective and providing relevant information to the public. I believe it is important to maintain objectivity. Various journalists keep their own personal beliefs and political beliefs from public knowledge in order to maintain their objectivity. Objectivity is what gives journalists credibility and therefore I will strive to be objective in everything write I as a journalist. they should realize that they are setting their own agenda. If they are not.Objectivity is also the separation of journalist from audience. According to the Agenda Setting Theory. As a future journalist. It is my own belief that a journalist should keep their opinions separate from their work. With knowledge of that theory.
We b. C N N T e l l I nt e r v i e w e r s : " N o p e r s o na l q u e s t io n s " . .c o o p e r c n n. N e w Y o r k : C r o w n P u b l i s h i n g G r o u p . c o m / 2 0 0 9 / 0 1 / 1 4 / a nd e r s o n. " H u f f i n g t o n P o s t 1 4 J a n 2 0 0 9 : n. T h e E l e m e n t s o f J o u r n a l i s m .t e l l _ n_ 1 5 8 0 2 3 . a n d T o m R o s e ns t i e l . 1 3 Ap r 2 0 1 1 . Seventh Edition. hu f f i n g t o np o s t .Works Cited Brooks. D a n n y. 1 s t R e v . Brian S. Page 27 Ko v a c h . < ht t p : / / w w w . e d . B i l l . " A n d e r s o n C o o p e r . 2 0 0 7 . "News Reporting and Writing". p a g . ht m l > . S h e a .. Bedford / Missouri Group. P r i nt . et al.
a journalist would lose objectivity and credibility.´ A journalist needs to check their facts before publishing a . and they should original. fair and courageous in gathering.Essay Number 2: In February of this year. Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing (Society of Professional Journalists). they need to go through the process of verifying their facts. The Code of Ethics states that a journalist should do the following when it comes to reporting the truth: ³Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error« Deliberate distortion is never permissible. reporting and interpreting information (Society of Professional Journalists). had written a previous article about General Stanley McChrystal and that article was partly responsible for the removal of McChrystal as the commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. in order to ³brain wash´ top senators and representatives. It was titled ³Another Runaway General. The Society of Professional Journalists¶ Code of Ethics states that: ³Journalists should be honest. It is a journalist¶s responsibility to the public to provide truthful reports. In order for a journalist to determine what is true. this time. Nothing should be added. Michael Hastings. or Psy-ops. an article was released in the Rolling Stone. Yet. The author. they should not deceive their audience. Hastings source was not as reliable as the source for his previous article. The article also claimed that the reasoning was to obtain more funding for his operations in Afghanistan (Hastings)." Providing truth is journalism. Without the truth.´ and its contents claimed that General William Caldwell of the United States army was using Psychological Operations.
the article lacked a true sense of credibility compared to his previous article. but that if a conflict of interest can be found.news story.´ Transparency means that a journalist does not hide any information from their audience. They should remain independent from what they are reporting. Hastings used only one source that claimed that he was trained in psy-ops (Hastings). and Ackerman). A journalist who is directly involved with the story they are reporting cannot report that story according to the Code of Ethics. Another part of providing truth to the public is being transparent. From the beginning. Yet. The article still raised an investigation into General Caldwell. The Elements of Journalism states that a journalist must maintain independence in order to keep their focus (Kovach. they should let a more objective journalist report the story. That does not mean they should not have an opinion. During a . it still is important to have facts right. It is one of the many ways they remain objective in writing a story. That example can be seen through several journalists across the nations who refuse to share their political beliefs and other private matters with the world. real or perceived (Society of Professional Journalists). and Rosenstiel 118). Hastings should have verified the information that his source was giving him and used multiple sources. Referring to the Rolling Stone article. It is also a key to gaining credibility. They believe that revealing their private beliefs to their audience voids their objectivity and credibility. A journalist must remain independent from their audience. a journalist should avoid conflicts of interest. Without verifying his information. ³This responsibility requires that journalists be as open and honest with audiences as they can about what they know and what they don¶t (Kovach. In order to remain accurate in their reporting they need to be separate from their audience. the source had never been trained psy-ops was actually an Information Operations officer (Schachtman. but even with the investigation. and Rosesnstiel 92). Referring back to the Code of Ethics.
. even though the truth they are searching for is quite different from one another (Willis). whether it is government corruption or what is happening in Afghanistan. how does one maintain the past principles of journalism when it comes to faith and journalism? Is it possible for a journalist to be truthful when it comes to sharing empirical truth even if it conflicts their own personal beliefs? It is important for a journalist to remain independent as previously stated. journalism searches for truth in the everyday life. Journalists should strive to search for the truth and continue to remain objective. it could lead to personal conflicts of interests. In order for a journalist to remain objective they should be careful when reporting on stories that involve their religious beliefs. Yet. religion and journalism are similar because they are both seeking for the truth. they need to be honest with their audience. If remaining objective is a key part of journalism. No matter what a journalist does. Yet. credibility is important. Credibility leads to trust which comes from a journalist remaining transparent. According to The Mind of a Journalist.time where the public¶s trust of journalists is low. If the story involves their religious institution. which as stated before is against the Code of Ethics. the key to maintaining that objectivity is by being truthful. while religion searches for the answers to life.
1 3 Ap r 2 0 1 1 .s . < ht t p : / / w w w . " A no t h e r R u n a w a y G e ne r a l : Ar m y D e p l o ys P s y.w a s nt . N o a h.2 0 1 1 0 2 2 3 > . B i l l . . e d . c o m/ p o l it i c s / n e w s / a no t h e r r u n a w a y.u . P r i nt . a n d T o m R o s e ns t i e l . W e b.i l l e g a l .g e n e r a l.p s y o p / > .O p s o n U .asp> W i l l i s . C o d e o f E t h i c s . < ht t p : / / w w w . " W i r e d 2 7 F e b 2 0 1 1 : n. I n c .a r m y. Ko v a c h .Works Cited H a s t i n g s . M i c h a e l . " µ I l l e g a l P s yo p ¶ N e it h e r I l l e g a l N o r P s yo p .p s y. r o l l i n g s t o ne . W e b. T ho u s a n d O a k s . 1 s t R e v . a n d S p e n c e r A c k e r m a n. T h e M i n d o f a J o u r n a l i s t .spj. 1 3 A p r .h i s . G e n e r a l ¶ s L a w ye r R u l e d .g e n e r a l.o p s . " R o l l i n g S t o n e 2 3 F e b 2 0 1 1 : n.s p i n . W i l l i a m J a m e s .d e p lo ys . . c o m / d a ng e r r o o m/ 2 0 1 1 / 0 2 / l a w ye r t o ld . 2 0 0 7 . P r i nt .o n. N e w Y o r k : C r o w n P u b l i s h i n g G r o u p . 2 0 0 9 . < http://www. S e n a t o r s .s e n a t o r s . S c h a c t ma n. p a g . T h e E l e m e n t s o f J o u r n a l i s m . S o c ie t y o f P r o f e s s i o na l J o u r na l i s t s . C A : S A G E P u b l i c a t io ns . S . p a g .org/ethicscode. w i r e d .
Citizen journalism has taken a center stage recently because the violence in the Middle East. The citizens¶ information will continue the public forum that . In a recent article in the Washington Post. the audience has started using the traditional news outlets less and less. These outlets allow the citizens have part in the industry giving their voice and opinion on the news stories. Along with the rise of Internet publication. The only way to verify the facts that are coming out of that area is through the citizen journalists (Fassihi). Whether it be switching to paid online subscriptions such as the New York Times is currently doing or continuing the struggle in gaining advertising revenue. as the journalism industry evolves to suit the change of environment. but in order for the industry to thrive. advertising revenue declines and then what is to become of journalism industry? In order for journalism to thrive in the changing environment.Essay Number 3: The rise of the Internet has produced several problems for the journalism industry. With less use of the traditional media outlets. Citizen journalism. the industry needs to evolve and maintain a way to make a profit from the online news environment. will become an aid to journalists. Tom Rosenstiel states that one of the five myths about the future of journalism is that journalism will be fine as soon as the advertising revenue catches up (Rosenstiel). The journalism industry may be heading to the online world. the industry will find which method will help them gain profit in the new environment. a solution for revenue needs to be found. the online world gives citizens a part in the journalism industry through blogging and websites such as YouTube. As online news becomes more readily available to the public. The article also states that advertising revenue on the Internet mainly goes to search engines such as Google (Rosenstiel).
While revealing government documents is part of watchdog journalism. Blogging and such will provide points of views that a journalist cannot share because they must remain objective. WikiLeaks. It is part of the extreme of truth by giving all of the information. has endangered the lives of thousands of United States troops overseas in Afghanistan and Iraq (Mackey). If summoned to a court of law. such as the Code of Ethics. citizen journalism is not protected. Although there is no federal protection of journalists. questions arise over sites like WikiLeaks and over people like James O¶ Keefe. but WikiLeaks cannot be considered journalism while it has a lack of ethics associated with journalism.journalists provide. endangering parties who are not directly involved is not a part of it. A normal citizen does not have to follow these of Code of Ethics because they are not subject to it because they are not considered professional journalists. under these laws. Objectivity and training is what divides a journalist from the rest. they do not have the same control. Should they be considered journalism? While both provide the truth to the public. Along with the rise of citizen journalism. the standard of the industry. they must reveal their sources. Julian . do not have the luxury of the protection. While in the future the website could become a source for journalists. as journalists. various states across the nation have laws called shield laws which protect a journalist from revealing their sources in a state court. Citizen journalists. on the other hand. Even under the law. The creator of WikiLeaks. which is provided by the Society of Professional Journalists. Journalists should minimize harm that could happen from their news stories and that they should realize what could happen from the release of information (Society of Professional Journalists). A journalist follows the Code of Ethics.
According to the Code of Ethics. Being honest and transparent with citizens will help them be honest and transparent with journalists. they in turn will treat us with respect. The methods in which O¶ Keefe has used to obtain his news stories have been questionable and surreptitious. such as the very recent sting on Planned Parenthood and even the trap with then NPR senior vice-president Ronald Schiller (Cohen). If the website was designed for the public interest. one must be ethical and follow the code of ethics provided to us by our professional organization. He has done several investigative pieces in various organizations.Assange. he investigates organizations and tries to reveal the truth to the public. to do unto others as you would have them do unto you. is an example of modern muckraking. but that does not mean he is a journalist. like WikiLeaks. As a self-proclaimed muckraker. . but according to the Pew Research Center. As a journalist. then why do Americans believe that WikiLeaks is harmful to it? James O¶ Keefe. A person who follows the code should be considered a journalist because they are following the industry¶s professional organization¶s code. claims that the website is designed for the public interest. If we treat citizens with respect. Therefore the information provided by them can be considered distorted. a journalist must avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public (Society of Professional Journalists). As the environment of the industry changes over time. I feel it is best for journalists to follow the Code of Ethics. A journalist should always search for the truth and follow the Code of Ethics as they stay in that search. It is the golden rule. 60% of the public believe that WikiLeaks is detrimental to the public interest (Pew Research Center). after all.
Area News and Headlines . Tom.blogs. 2 0 0 7 . "Syria Rallies Grow in Face of Threats. <http://thelede. e d .org/>. 2011.html>. 2011. S o c ie t y o f P r o f e s s i o na l J o u r na l i s t s .Works Cited Cohen.org/ethicscode. Web.com/2011/01/19/u-s-officialsreportedly-said-wikileaks-revelations-were-not-damaging/>." The Washington Post: National. Web. a n d T o m R o s e ns t i e l . Mackey. 2011. Fassihi. New York Times. Web. Rosenstiel.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=10816:why-sting-operations-cheapen-public-policydiscourse&catid=149:rick-cohen&Itemid=991>. < http://www. No Foul.com/article/SB1000142405274870453020 4576236463818851514.wsj. T h e E l e m e n t s o f J o u r n a l i s m .Washingtonpost.nonprofitquarterly. Web. "Five Myths About the Future of Journalism.asp> . C o d e o f E t h i c s . "Why Sting Operations Cheapen Public Policy Discourse. Ko v a c h . Web. Robert." Web log post. Rick. 13 Apr. P r i nt . <http://www.spj. B i l l .C. "WikiLeaks: No Harm. 2011.13 Apr. 2011. 1 Apr." Pew Research Center. 2010. Farnaz. N e w Y o r k : C r o w n P u b l i s h i n g G r o u p .com/opinions/five-myths-about-the-future-ofjournalism/2011/04/05/AF5UxiuC_story. 8 Dec.washingtonpost." Wall Street Journal. World & D. <http://online. <http://pewresearch.org/index.html>. 13 Apr. 1 s t R e v . <http://www. 11 Jan." The Nonprofit Quarterly(2011).com.nytimes. "Public Sees WikiLeaks as Harmful. The Lede.
Yet. such as the television program ³60 Minutes´. Yet.Essay Number 4: As young reporters in 1972. Their news stories led to the eventual government investigations and resignation of President Richard Nixon. could their stories be considered watchdog journalism or muckraking journalism? The idea of watchdog journalism refers to the idea that the free press is the guard for the public from tyranny. Probably one of the first famous muckrakers of the . They need to protect the public from harm. The tag of watchdog journalism is given to many different modern programs. Those stories are one of the greatest examples of investigative journalism. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein teamed together and revealed to the world the incidents of the Watergate scandal. Yet these programs cannot be called watchdog because they do not do the investigations themselves nor do they focus on the ³powerful few´ (Kovach 150). societal. According Kovach. whether it be corporate executives or the government. on the other hand. Being a muckraker has always been seen as a negative term for a person. muckraking was the original form of investigative journalism. and various other reforms such as the case of Ida Tarbell. According to The Elements of Journalism the watchdog principle of journalism means ³watching over the powerful few to protect the many. became very popular during the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. the muckrakers were the ones who brought about government.´ The focus of watchdog journalism is purely those who are in charge. They investigated the government and revealed the truth to the American public. the focus needs to be on the elite who are in power. Muckraking. In order for the program to be considered watchdog.
Yet it is a journalist¶s responsibility to provide the people with the truth. Without the success of watchdog journalists such as Bob . watchdog journalism involves direct investigation and using previous investigations.nation. They monitor them. When government breaks the law. A journalist will use actual people and cover actual events. Rockefeller¶s negative business practices in the oil industry. personal research led to her revealing Rockefeller¶s underhanded business practices to the public. While his book The Jungle revealed horrendous conditions of the meat packing industry and led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. a muckraker does not necessarily need to be a journalist. Her dedicated. a journalist is responsible for letting the public know the truth. A watchdog journalist focuses on those who are in power. Ida Tarbell was known for investigating and reporting John D. It gives a voice to those who do not have a voice among the powerful elite. A journalist should not just rely on the government for their information. An example of a muckraker who was not a journalist would be Upton Sinclair. While watchdog journalism exclusively relies on journalists. they should take the government¶s information with a grain of salt and question whether or not what the government is saying is true. Muckraking involves direct. the elite. waiting for a moment the elite overstep boundaries. She investigated through hundreds of papers and information in order to report successfully. and then they warn the public. The watchdog press is meant to protect the public. That is the goal of watchdog journalism. Many believe that currently the watchdog press is dead and that journalists have become the lap dog of government (Thomas). personal investigation where no information could have previously been found by others. all of the characters and the story line of the book were fictitious (Humane Society of America).
.Woodward and Carl Bernstein. the government would not be in check and would run over the public that supports them. journalism should continue on reporting the corruption of the American government and revealing the truth. Therefore.
e d . 1 s t R e v . B i l l . 2 0 0 7 . Ko v a c h . .Works Cited Humane Society of the United States: "The Jungle: Upton Sinclair's Roar Is Even Louder to Animal Advocates Today. Thomas. "White House Press Corps Is a Lapdog. 2010. Not a Watchdog.html>. 30 Dec." The Olympian. T h e E l e m e n t s o f J o u r n a l i s m .com/2010/12/30/1489436/white-house-presscorps-is-a-lapdog. a n d T o m R o s e ns t i e l . Web.theolympian. N e w Y o r k : C r o w n P u b l i s h i n g G r o u p . <http://www. P r i nt ." March 10. 2006. Carl.
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