Citing references & Avoiding Plagiarism

Why should I cite my references? .Referring to your source material gives authority to your work and demonstrates the breadth of your research .Your list of citations will enable readers of your work to find the information sources for themselves .Failure to credit sources of information used for an essay, report, project, journal article or book constitutes plagiarism, and for this you may be penalised. Referencing styles The two main standard systems for citing references correctly are the Harvard or author/date system and the Vancouver or footnotes/endnotes system, otherwise known as the numeric system. There are variations on both types, and you do need to know which system your department requires you to use. You can find out by referring to your departmental student handbook. In journal publishing, versions of both the Harvard and the Vancouver systems are widely used according to the "house style" outlined in the journal's "Instructions to Authors". For electronic sources standards are still being developed but as with any other system, consistency is the essence. Harvard System .Known as the 'author and date' system, references made in the text are listed in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author in the bibliography at the end of the text. N.B. if the author is unknown you should use "Anon." .At every point in the text where a particular item is referred to, include the author's surname and the year of publication in brackets along with page numbers if you are quoting these specifically .If there is more than one work by a given author from the same year you can differentiate between them by adding "a", "b" etc. after the year within the brackets .For up to three authors include all names; if there are more than three, give the first author's surname and initials followed by et al. .Periodical titles are usually spelt out in full e.g. Reference within essay: In his survey of the mating habits of frogs, Bloggs (Bloggs 1998) refuted that ...

1 Ioanna Ampartzoglou - LSBF

g. . Year of publication. references are numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text.Dawkins. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature. Harlow: Longman. Stonehenge and neighbouring monuments. . Entry in bibliography: 1.Scragg. give the first six authors' surnames and initials followed by et al.At every point in the text where a particular work is referred to. . . or eds. K. I 1998. K. R. Vancouver System . D. B. e. ~ '. The blind watchmaker. 1986. Bloggs. include the number of the reference in brackets . if there are more than six.g. Place of publication: Publisher. Lapidge.Periodical titles are commonly abbreviated e..LSBF . In: M. eds. 2 Ioanna Ampartzoglou . Frogs and their mating habits. How to reference books in bibliographies Reference elements are arranged according to the system being used. Bloggs ( 1) refuted that. London: Tadpole Press. . 1995. followed by examples: Harvard Author/s surname. Title of chapter/paper.. Year of publication. Editor's/Editors' initial/s and surname/s (ed. Title of book it appears in. B. . Frogs and their mating habits. initial/s. Place of publication: Publisher. Vancouver Author surname/s.Dawkins. London: English Heritage. followed by examples: Harvard Author surname/s.. Stonehenge and neighbouring monuments. (ed. Reference within essay: In his survey of the mating habits of frogs.. 1995. R. Title. .g.Known as the "numeric" or the "footnote/endnote" system. or eds.Osborne. initial/s.Entry in bibliography: Bloggs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.For up to six authors include all names. initial/s. Year of publication. if editor/s). The nature of Old English verse. ed. Place of publication: Publisher. Godden and M. or eds. Harlow: Longman. (ed. 1986. London: Tadpole Press.Osborne. G. Title. if editor/s).). . London: English Heritage. ed. 1991. How to reference chapters/papers in bibliographies Reference elements are arranged according to the system being used. The blind watchmaker. 1998. e.

initial/s. How to reference electronic source materials in bibliographies Electronic journal articles are usually the same as their hard-copy versions so these should be cited in the same way but recommendations on how to cite other material vary so see the following websites for 3 different sets of recommendations and use whatever your department recommends: Modern Language Association.Greenhalgh T.g.C.).Scragg. .aDastvle. Lapidge (eds. D. V. (Issue number): Page numbers. The nature of Old English verse. In: M.ora/elecsource.mla. 1997. Year of publication. G. King's College.). Title of article.html Modern Humanities Research Association. initial. Retrieved September 82006 from http://www.Vancouver Author/s surname. How to reference theses in bibliographies The reference needs to include information in the following arrangement for the Harvard System but the date needs to move to the end if you are using the Vancouver System: Mat thews. thesis. Year. 3 Ioanna Ampartzoglou . British Medical Journal. 315 (7101): 180-183. e. or eds. followed by examples: Harvard Author surname. Editor initial and surname (ed. How to reference journal articles in bibliographies Reference elements are arranged according to the system being used. 315 (7101): 180. Full journal title. Place of publication: Publisher. Ph.Greenhalgh T.183. 2002 [Accessed September 8 2006] (Online Publications) . Title of chapter/paper. 1997. Volume number. . 1998.LSBF . . Reference Examples for Electronic Source Materials. Abbreviated journal title. BMJ.g. Title of book it appears in. Title of article. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature.D. Issue number: page numbers. University of London. How to read a paper: the Medline database.ora/stvle faa4 American Psychological Association. Year of publication. Volume number. How to read a paper: the Medline database. e. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vancouver Author surname. initial. 1991. MHRA Style Guide. Godden and M. The true self-knower : Central themes in Iris Murdoch's moral philosophy. How do I document sources from the Web in my works-cited list? September 8 2006 http://www.

translator Tips for avoiding plagiarism . eds.d.g. (t. supplement ~ trans. .How to reference e-mails in bibliographies The reference can include information in the following arrangement: Author's name (e-mail address). circa.l. chapter ed. pages proc. [Accessed September 82004].uk. editor.ac. cit. British Standard recommendations for the presentation of theses and dissertations 4 Ioanna Ampartzoglou .. in the place (or work) cited (loco citato) n. name of publisher unknown (sine nomine) op.co. revised e. ca. Recommendations for citation of unpublished documents BS 4821 : 1990. and others (et alii or et alia) ibid. from the same source as one cited previously (opere citato) p. Mon. unknown author c. proceedings repr. pp.n.supp. no date n.." E-mail to Britarch mailing list (britarch@jiscmail.uk) "Wessex Archaeology Press Release: Builders of Stonehenge found. editors et al. in the same work cited just above (ibidem) loc. new series s. Date sent. 21 Jun 2004. Some Standard Abbreviations Anon. or suppl.Cite all your sources. E-mail to (e-mail address). Title of e-mail highlighted.). no place of publication (sine loco) s. rev. compare with chap. for approximate dates ~~~ cf. reprint rev.[Accessed date] e. whether you have read or heard them .. T.LSBF .goskar@wessexarch. London.s. i Goskar. page.Place quotation marks around any words you copy verbatim and credit the source . cit.Keep full records of every source of information you use .Use your own words when summarising or paraphrasing someone else's words Further reading British Standards Institution. italicised or in quotation marks. ed. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material BS 6371 : 1983. BS 5605 : 1990.g.