OBJECTIVES • • THEORY To be able to describe the operation and characteristics required of a horn antenna. To know what is meant by beam-width and gain with reference to a horn antenna.

A horn antenna is used to transmit radio waves from a waveguide (a metal pipe used to carry radio waves) out into space, or collect radio waves into a waveguide for reception. It typically consists of a short length of rectangular or cylindrical metal tube (the waveguide), closed at one end, flaring into an open-ended conical or pyramidal shaped horn on the other end. The radio waves are usually introduced into the waveguide by a coaxial cable attached to the side, with the central conductor projecting into the waveguide. The waves then radiate out the horn end in a narrow beam. However in some equipment the radio waves are conducted from the transmitter or to the receiver by a waveguide, and in this case the horn is just attached to the end of the waveguide. A horn antenna serves the same function for electromagnetic waves that an acoustical horn does for sound waves in a musical instrument such as a trumpet; it provides a gradual transition structure to match the impedance of a tube to the impedance of free space, enabling the waves from the tube to radiate efficiently into space. Types of horn antennas * Pyramidal horn * Sectoral horn * Conical horn * Corrugated horn * Ridged horn * Septum horn

That means that the best angle direction is 0° to have maximum current. Fig 3. The amplifier is set to maximum sensitivity. The written parameters is shown in the Table 1.7 TABLE 1 20° 2.4 2.Energy will escape into space .8 2. the measured current decreased unproportionally. The distance between two antennas must be 100mm and there must be no solid material between them.1 30° 1. To compare left side and right side is equal to each other.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The connection of the devices is shown Fig 3. There is also experimented that between two antennas is a paper and iron to placed.6 As it is shown in the Table 1. by 40° angle has the current flow minimum. und antennas 0° direction.5 40° 1 0. which is consisted of a sending antenna and receiving antenna. By increasing the angle of the direction.4 1.5. Although the amount of the current values are similar to each other (left side and right side). when the angle of the direction is 0°. the measured current is equal to 3mA.1 Left open end. Meter reading (mA) Left side Right side Attenuator setting 0° 3 3 10° 2. for the differences to see.

2 Left open end with a horn.Fig 3. Energy is radiated Fig 3. Most energy is in main lobe .3 Lobes.

Connection of the devices .5.Fig 3.

Fig 3.6 Current versus angle .