Lecclen 5

__________ ~--------~J~~II-·~,~I -.~,-.'----,------~I~.·~."----~---~~I~ l.

.Dlodos

ObJellt~! .

, En e~tii lecclon estudinremos:

. ,

• Qu~ es un diodo y pAm tttl~ s~ u~n .

• Como se construye 0 fnbrica un dlodo,

• Los prin~lplos b:t~lcos\ (Ie ~pernci6J d~: Ids .dlod~s y algunas de sus apllcnclones mds Im(lOrtantes.

• C6mo tunclonnn los dlodos en unn fuente de poder .

.'

Noto:

. ! ua est! lecckin muy despnclo mlentras anaH11l , las figur8s. Esta leccion er mil)' importante.

.

. @' 'Qul ~ un dfodo1

. " J Los dlodos son unos componentes muy

i importantes en IA electninlca y forman pArte de un

, grupo numeroso de componentes ItRnmdo " los semlconductores "10 " cornponentes de l!!tado . . s6ltdo".A eS11t Inmi in pertenecen tambMn los tran-

slstores Y los clrcuitos lntegrados. .

"

f

~IO, lbl

.. , .. ' .

puett .. , de Ur1d sold. V's

EN uNA bll=ll::CCloN -----TJ; .....

'b '

GGe J,J rio·> ~e/e' . '. ,.

- - ,- '0 'CI' !_ - ~. •

Gee Pee -ee

~ . ,

La puerln estA obl.rtA

,lo!! uluclroMS pyed"fl pUttr 1

.... [(Jt=N LA OTRA DI~Ectl.N

eee' see

III puodn e9th c~JlDdn

Les eleclroniHI no puedon pasar

I I

l

.~

'l I

• t

Conduccl6n del dlodo . I! II

, No pa .... eonlent. '. t,'

.~ 3

r ... cart""r. '

ill

~ • ~ • +

I

i. J:. '. , -, ~ .. ' I

. La electronic A modema ho klnrfll tan avrul71tdR

1 it t1b exlsUera el dJoOO, I!ste es uno de I~ rom-

_. ~h~jUe! electnSnlcm mM simple! Veri> triM U~b!!

eli tbdl dllse de cltruhos. . . . I ,

CuhJdo usted endenda blen su runclon~lentt>·y .

Ml r4tnltlaHce ton ~I. eslar4 en eondlclones de .~htehdet rticllmente la leona;y funelonamlento de to! ~ 'tUttslsfores y de los elrcultos Inte~do~.ltl~ dlodos ioH mb sehclllos pero muy parecldol a',JO! tran-

81st~, • , '.' I'"

:, f ~, .

,

'~" .' tit dlodo e! lui cO~lletite et~trdntcd tonnnck . . d~~ ~temenlos: el dn~~ y. el,c«tOdo. I!n Ii flgutft oj ~ tnuestra su sfmbolo esquemdtlco. .' '.

Sfmbolo lIel dl.d.

. CAlodo ____

------.--~K~~--------

----- ~ IInodo

,~ .F

1- LaIlllll I!II!I!IIm!m!'. ,!:!"",m,.""r.tl._mm!!!!l!.rn __ !'lI,._!!':.~!n'l.~ ·.lllmlml

) . !

Los grMicos que sc mucstran CII la ri~" 10-1,

nos ittdican como el diodo deja pnsnr la cd ~ienlc.

II 6nicltnente en tina sola dircccion. ' '

f

.
; ,
Dlrecclon de la cdrrlente .j
-,
, - ~::l
; l

P,D ' !
Dlrocclon lin In qua ...... ~
lillY!) Is corrton!o ( II ~ ) ;
,
,f
- -> t
• , I
~ .
.1 I~~,- ~l: '
, 0
e .
! No IJUYII I" corrtlerrla I
,t (~II-) -
" ~.~
.fl.. , 1 }. : ~,f~ I 'U. ..... ~ ".... ... .._

" ~

V In circulacion de la corriente esltf det~ ~jnadll por la polarizaci6n del clemente. Esta se ~ tnblcce

gra~ III voltaje que se aplique 01 diodo. t ..

,

El volta]e aplicado, se deuominn voltaje ~ polariliJd6rl.

~a polarizncion 0 forma de conectnr 4 diodo,

pude set" dlrectn 0 inversa. :

EI ,dlodd rontcfn(fd tldAd dlrecfn)

.' . I,

c()rrecfnme~ne' '(pOlAN

en el c1tcuito de la figurn 105, In corrienl clrcula

y el bombillo se encicnde, f~

. til cltodo del diodo es ncgativo con n\; ~cto al dnodd. HI diodo "abre ,m puerto" y In COTT{~ .~ pnsa.

EI!l d'odd rohedndo lllcorrt>dnm('nfl ·'(VOlA-

.~ tf~d htversa) ~

!

"

fj flguta 106, has muestra Uri clrcuilo t el cual

I

, 1-'

.103

. '/

Polarlzaci6n correcta

----------------------

la corriente n. circula y la lampara no enciende,

EI catodo del diodo es positivo con respccto al dnodo. EI diodo "cierra sU puerta·1 y la comente no pasa.

Por ser "puertas de una 5'010 via ., para hi. corricnte, los diodos puedcn tener rnuchas aplicaclones en electr6nica. Aquf mostraremos algunas de elias que serrin cstudiadas en dctalle mas adelantc,

Recuerde:

' .. Si el cdrodo es negative con respect a al ~nodot cI diodo conduce, 0 se:t que deja pasar In corriente.

i

'" SI eI ~~todo es positive con respecto ai Ii1lotlo, ef diodo '/0 conduce • 0 sea no deja pasar In corriente.

Polarldad

lnversa

+ 6V-==-

ldmpara

Fla. 106

avA!~pedo ttslco del dlodo

I

Los diodos se encuentran en muchas formas y tamafios. En In figura 107 mostrarnos algunos e . ellos)Es muy importante identiflcar y locali r cl terminal del dlodo del diodo,

Y ESlc terminaise indica general te por medio

de una raya 0 banda en el cue del diodo 0 por

algrin tlpo de rnarca especial, rno un borde recor-

tndo en diagonal, etc. ' .

• III •

Tlpos de dtbdo9 ~,\

__ '_. -Jlt".--1 + I ~

CA TOOO f"'.J ANdoo

, ,

Fig. 107

~ .. mmnmmm-mmm~mmmmmm .. ma ....... Jlj~··, -. •. ~'~.

II fi1Jffi&WP&&cthltMUWQQlklQt!!4:tiZ : ruM ! III ._

~Rilnllo de voltnje y corrlente i 1,1 So recomienda us~ diodoscon una .eap.Pd~i

1,. .I .. , ;;. .: ..... , ~al':dr POt' lo menos en un 25%; alo!t valores de.

: Los diodos S~: clasificnn en t~nllinos, de la co- cMileHte y voftnje de traba]o del circuit(}: ;"~.~

mente y el voltale que pucden rnanejar. Esta clasi-

ficaci6n se resume en forma de una 'referenda

cornpuesta pol' lelras y mimcros. . . "

Estas referencias se usan en todos los sernlconductores y el pr e fijo t N significa que ese cornpo-

nente es un diodo, -

-----_ ... _-, .. _--

~

brooo DE cnrSTAL

LAS BANOAS DE CoLonES INDICAN ELCATODO

J-j-.r=J-

.; 01000 DE PLASTICO

LA BANDA 'NOICA EL CATODO

DloDO 'JE POTENCIA

EL LADO nOSCAD:) USUALMENTE ts EL c.lnoDo '

. Como ejetnplo, un diodo lN4001 puede mane-

jar. 1 arnperio y .il) voltios. .

J\

Esto sigrtiflra CJ.ue si ttl diodo IN4QOl le haceIrlOS pasar una i.orrierite mQlor de 1 amperio y un . voltaje mayor de 50 voltios, probablemente se

quemard, flgura lOR. ###BOT_TEXT###quot; . " 1 '''. :)~ .. ,

\ "', ,; •. "J~

:l Sin embarg.., los valores J.\dos representan ~~~ :, max.ima corrieue y el maximo voltaje que 'pued~ , ;

I I' d '

: scr Rp rca os. '

r 11 Si 6n circuito reqciere ur a cantidad menor, pot eJemplo, medic' amperio y 25 voltios, el diodo J N400 1 trabajar~l bien.

Hi

..... ~ __ w _ .. • - ., _~ , _-- ' "

.f

. 11:.". t

OIODOOEPOTENcIA' ':','~ihiJ-

EL EMPAQUE METALICO ss EL CATOod . '11;} fll:W)

. ' ,'"

,<) *11-- -

oiopos DE rLAsTlco . ~lLAOO ~ISELAOO ES EL CATOnO

.; 'tM'l. ......

!"~, ~" I (

. ,

.(

LAOO PLANO

! " 01000 EMISOR DE LUZ, ,

1 ELLAOO PLANo ES El CATODO

.,' -' --__.;.-------_;,__, -_ ....... '_-...,'

l1a""o tI~ VbltaJ~' y cottfEt~!!!;>

, t."~'.'f'

. ~.~. ~ J!.

,,1/ I // I, .

~~~~',

MAt do 1 Amp ,150 v to dOtltruy •

. .. "FIg .. 108

, '11" __

I! ", l '. - . I . f. '. ~ ',,' ',

'! I ,~~. :'. . • • ~..

: i,·. ·"t~: ':pos:lb.l~ C,oneClM diodes eu par~~elo. Para.,M.~ . If I! . for!. 'd~U .cap~cldad de manejo d, ~ eotrienle. .. : .... ';

i I 81 colocarnos dos diodos de I Amp.y 50 Voltios (lN4txJl) en paralelo, su capacldad de corriente secl de 2 :A~ps, su capncidad de volt.ije sera la mlstna, 50.volt1os; como se puede ver en III figura 10.>. I

1 N 4001

1 Amp/SO v

I " .1

J

I,

.109

@ConStrlJcd6n y orrl'nrj(;n dd ."r"tn

,

altos ttloJ~s C;,t~1I Iabricados COli los .mismos materialesquese usau para Iabr icnr los translstores y los circuitos intcgrndc,s, cl RClmClllh, y cl.rllicio.

'I ,

• •

los dlodos de silicio f) silicones, SOli los ~n~s CI11- pleados yn que poc&n nruncjar corr lcntcs mayores.

( .

Cort' ~ll1ti de cntcllrkr mejor e l funcionarnicnto del .diodo. vamos n e xpllcnr. e61l1o s('. forman los

,. tnateriales semlcoudnctor ("S. i

@_!:lsiU,do,.M._" InRffti:.' ~wmicorl(llIdor' .: ~

Como todas las s1tsl::l.ncias,sl silido e4.ILbc.Cho

de __ 4tPITms. t

En el centro del ;~t(lIl1[uleLsUido CSr:1~hUclCO q u econs L1 ~t1 e cat f)r&.c._J':Jlt.g.a.')---po.s.lr lvns ( . tones): cil'CUr.ld,;:todJ.Lel.ultc.lcn CII diminutns or '. tas hay catorce cargas Ilcgarivas (clccuoucs). ~OIlJO el mimerode cargns posirj"as cs igunl al ndinero de

,. cargas negativas del ~IOIlJO, lr cimos ue cst1

electricamente neutro, como ~w mucs ( igura

tin _------'

-j.-J:\J.--------

Atomo de silicio

F~ .. 110

..:;:.; . .;.-~«;:~.::!;::;~.; .: . ,:' .>: ~~·;!:t~t-';3 ;'; /~/ ~:~'; ;'; .:+:-':. ~~lli".f!:t.,

Note que la orbitn eX!"'!I1a consta de cuatro ell g115 negntivns. Cuando los tHomos de silicio vitm'l1 unidos formando micleos, ellos comparten I sus cargas ncgntivas externas y forman una union

finne. Esto los convlerte en un buen alslante. I

CDn la union Iirme, de las cargas negatives de la 6rbitn externa, l.(alCm!)_s__tllU¥-P~S_~_ Jibres dis(lonibtes pam. el ftuj.o_de_la.conient.~. J2.c. esta irianera.desde cI punto de vista ectrico,__cl_ 1ili92...11I.lID..serla_aistante. Vet figura 111:

------:

SlIIclo puro

'Figura 1 ft

@rDopnndo el silfdo

Para cOllvertir el siUcio Jtro (un pobre con-

ductor) e.!!____!!I!A.~!l11CO_QI nctor, debemos agreg_ark ;~tomoL~_~J_I11.R.t,re ~I! .. A ~rocew+e~'l. " 'dopndo l'---12QI_Jltedio=.de-~1.-.s-~~QIlYlert~tlsdICIO

j)ill-o:efi-silkio- SeDJiCQDdu_~t.Qt. .

vi _Llpyd?S-ti;fJWul~i.Q1lJm:e,;z;asEunaqu,e .producc .~!!L!.~!1~1MJ.e"-P.{)t:ta:dQr~~_!f_e~!!1!H'M .lleg.allYns,y la ~~:ftq_}tlJ_:t.~~~.st?jc .:~ue~!J}LQc,p.Qdado[cs' dec n r g ns J_)QS:U~1S,

~.s.Ls_e..ll-gro-f}'l--uIJ.Q_~fia cJ!lltidadde"ru:.<;enkn 0

fosforo al silicic, pjsl1r~ en el material' unligcro ex<:.eSQ._de C!\!_g~~gativas.ll

Esto.se debe aque estas s. ustnncias._tLc_Qg1SilICC elcctronea.ensu orbitaexterna. EI quinto electron (carga negntlvn), no puede unirse con ningiin ~tOIl1(1 y queda flotando como un electron libre 0 portadoi potencial de la corriente.

, Eslc nuevo rwtterinl ~btenido es cbnocido corm un semiconductor'npo N, porque tiene un exceso cit cargas ncgatlvas, como rhuestra la fignra 112.

6_) Cunndo se agrega al silicio, BOTO 0 Gallo, hahr: una pequefia deficiencia de cargas negativas, Come

• flo, .' i

crsrr . Curso flJrico dL FJUlr<l"icn Apllcada . U"iMd 2 • 1

. resutado habra 1~II~o~ en eI semiconductor.

'; ,I

"

~ '"

Fig, 112

Arsenico m£!ztlado coh slllclo

T1po N

" EI 11l~e~o puede ser tomndo como un Ingar car"~7

gada posltlvnmentc 0 portador de carga positiva. EI material result~nte es cq3ocido como un(~emicon.. ' ductor de material (;1'0 r,"4 ver figura 113.

i I'

I ..

,

Fig. 113,

Boro mezclado con slllclo

I.

. , I

Et bore alrae una carga ~eg~tiva doJando un hueco posillvo

Si se conecta un voltnje it trnves de un cristal de . sllicio tiro N. como sc muestrn ehla Iigura 114. el resultado es el flujo de corrlente de las cargas

ncgativas libres. '

.
Sernlconductor tlpo N
.. ~ +

e (3 e e ,
... 1 ...
8 EJ 8 {9 " r-, . , .,
r--- ~.'.,
.. :1
1 ,
,
-~ I i I + !
rig. 114
I ... ,·1
. , , .. . ... . . ;U_..: .~ , ~i36

:. ". - " ~

~

" \ Si'se conccia un voltnje a traves d~ un cristal (k: silicic tipo P; los poriadores de cohiente ,"-17)

.~uecos: figura 115. I .

,~ " . \, 11

:i Dentro del cristal tipo P, los huecos se ml1(~":" ~h ta direcci6n opuesta III movimlento de l!l~ car B

liegativ8s. ' I' .

\ I

Semiconductor tlpo P

Cargas n9gatlvas IIonando hU0c08

C~rgli9 nogatl~a~~,~

movl6ndCidb I " ,

. '\

! ' " ,

t HU9COS movl6ndoS9

~ .. H + .......... -

.

Fig. 115

.. : .··Y.·:»~ <v: : x ···: .. :: ,J>O;,' •••••••••••••••••••••••• !:. :.-: : » .. :.: \,!",;';~ :###BOT_TEXT###quot;:!:":':'"

.'\..

. . .... . '}Ir;I~:.

Cuando un bloquv de. siliclo tijiQ Nrc

une a unbloque de 'silicio tlpo 'P,/onL r~ una union 0 juntura ,ltamada dlod« de rmitJii PlY 0 juntura PN, cmno SI! muestra en lc

. jigura 116. ' t

. , En este procesosefonna una barrera electric el

. fa union de los materiales, que .evita que,Q ; ; electrones del material tipo N se pasen at tnaterirt1

tlpo P. . '.. .. , .:

blodo de unhitt 0 IUtltuta PN

."" (V: .• .; : ;. •.• : .; « , .. :-; ,...". .. ;- {

. @~tmci?nal11iento ~('I diodo

. .,. (t

Si aplicamos un voltaje .orno muestra la figuta 11 ? t la barrera desaparece .Y el diodo conduce el

Ilujo de corriente. " I:

i.

Los electrones en la baerta, rechazan los ,let material tipo N hacia la unidn 0 juntura. Al mis 10

;. "f; I.

conducclon de con iente

J ticmpo, las cargas positiv;lS de I~ haterfn son

rcchazadas hacln In juntura y atracI1 a las cargas " rregaliv1is, crcando III) camino pilrn coiuplcmentnr d ')' circuho, pcrmiticnrlo que la conicntc cirrule.

~ • ',,' ~ . f .• ':,1

I

Recuerde: cargas igunlcs sc rcpclcn y cargas difcrcntes sc atrncu.

~ Tipos .V flplirnri(m «f' los dii,dm

t Aprovcchando la plOl'iedad de conducir la co. rriente en una sola dircccion, cl diodo se pucde utillzar ell una gran cuntidnd de circnitos elcc'. tr6nicos. Dc aClIcrdtl ;1 SlI aplicacirll1, existcn I diferentcs lipos de diodos,

, I f

r ' Di()( os de sdinl

Son pcquciios diod(1s de gcr manio que s~ usan como rcctirit:idorcs CII If)S rr ccpro«:s cit- rristal.

r

t, Anterionnente. estos radios utilizaban un cristal

i de galena (sulfur» dr plnmn). como detector 0 rcctificndor.

, .'

't

Hoy un simple diodo de gCllI1:1nio I NGO, reulizn la rnismn funcion. Cunnclo se USHII para detectar IIl1a sefial de radio Irecucucin, se It's llama diodes de se'ial~ corno sc pucdc vcr ell ln rigllr~ II R.

r-~---~-----'---

Detector · de serial

I. I

I)iodo I"r,f) ,00 I

,- ,..., -I· '-i E----,

0) Audffono

Bobin!1 r : '", ,001 '. df}

~-.--.__----1 :l crlstal

SI'I".,t dn ,::ldi,., IrnCUf'ncin d,,!qcl;.,fn por , .... eii!)

rig 1113

Dindu 1('11('1'

i' -'i-,.

EI diorlo zener, es WI tipo especial de (lindo. <tIll: se pucdc usar COITlO regulador 'de voltaje,

EI diodo zcner, tiene un aspccto similar al de los diodos rectificadorcs y se debe distinguir de estos por su refcrencin, En la figura 119, podernos ver cI aspecto ffsico y cl sfmbolo para este npo de diodo.

Diodo zener

1W. 10W. 50W.

Sfmbolo

-. 1If-

Fig, 119

()jodos emlsorcs de hJ7: ( Led's )

l ix llll dindo qlle entrcgn 1117. HI nplicrirselc 1111 dclcllllillndo voltajc. Cuando cSIO suceclc, (lClirlC una rccombinncion de huecos y electrones cercn de ln union PN; si estc se Ita polarizndo dircctamcuic. 1,:1 17 pucde ser rojn, timbar, amarilla, verde e illfr<11"oja 0 invisible (sc usan en controles remote).

(~)Convirtiendo CA a CC

..A E,

Una de las Iunciones Imls importantes de los diodos, es convertir CA en CC, a este proceso se Ie II a tria rectificaci/m y se dice que el diodo cst:! trabajando como lIll rectificador.

A continuacion, vamos a explicar este proccso detnlladamente.

J Durante el primer mcdio ciclo, fig,,!'a 120. el tCT minal superior de In fuente de CA es positive COil respecto a] terminal inferior. Por 10 tanto, cI anodo del diodo es positivo con rc~t~? al catodo y el dinda conduce In corricnte. _~

J Durante el sl.'f!lIJ1do mcdlo cicio. 1.'1 terminn] Sll pcrinr de la fucntc de C/\ e s ilcgativn con re spccto nl

rnrMER MEDIO elC! () .

r

r: ---. ~f" -"'---' > C~;~~I;:~~~O

• ( <,

(f DIOl1() S O/\SICO

~ ... __ .... f I1IT ll1lCI\OOn

I

1 r---- - ,....1----·--)

;j 1---- I <

1 .- ... --.-~- . .(',

0-_.- ------ -- J

J \ .

I '~~--- ... "

_'-- .. ' . .

,~/\UOA

I ig. ,120

terminal inferior. Pur III I::nlr), eI ()l1pdo del diodo cs negative COli ICSpC'ctn :11 critodo y cl diodo 11(1 conduce conic-lite.

" . Como la corricnto :dlnl1;t sc nlimr-ntn pcrmancn temcnte, se rcpite eI I" "(TSf) j' (,hlcrll'1I10S ell I:! reaistencia de car g:l, 1111:\ conirl1tc conrinuu pulsantc que sube y bnja. Nnl~' <jlll' ,'11 I" miiad drl ticrnpo 110 h:1V corrieutc.

As! hemos C('I1\TII iell! ('/\ CI1 CC, r liminando mcdio cicio de 1:1 CI\, ('("1'(' sr- vc ell h IIgmtl 121.

,_------------- ...

. -_. -----_ ... _ .... _. --_ .. _- . -----.

Corrlento continua pulsante

r i<]. 121

138

La salida cs tOil icutc continua pulsuntc ~,-C.I), C0l110 mucstra Ia figula 112 .

Rectificaci6n de media onda

~ 0 + \,~UDA

t\

-+0 -

I'··~··J

~

,>

"

7- d

1;·9

r;:

'.~..-"

.-

z ,~

.. :.... ....

FonM/\ DE orm/\ /\ U\ ENll1/\l);\ DEL 1 n/\HsronMADan

I

FORM/\ DE V I.I'~ i A

ONDA DE ccr A V _~_. __ .... I,___1 -L J

L/\ S/\UD/\ DEl r

cmcuno CON DlODO I

Aunqnc este tipo de .ircuito se ,ha usado ampliamcntc ('II Iueutes de pcxer economicas, Sf prcscntall dos problemas a saber:

J I". La H,tfific:tcic'lll de nudin ontln es i"cfici('I1I(~

La conversion de CA ell CC climinando la mimd de la CA cs deficiente. Dcbernos encontrar In manera ' de rccupcrar cl mcdio cicio que se ha perdido; Iigura

123, .

v2( . La .( ndilidd611 <Ie merlla ondn·----;;;------ c~·~~'~e'~~::=:~:c::;lcad~~------- ... -- ... dlficil d~ filtrrtt 0 su:n;h~tr :

, f~ Para to~~et1~ ccr a una CC'Sllave, que es la qbe entr~gah las baterfas, hay que llennr los espacios 'que hay entre. los. pulses. Esto se conoce como flltrado' y- se i hace . generalrnclltc por medio de cbndensadores electrolfticos. Naturnlmcntc. serfa ifMs f~clt "llenrir los espacios" si estos no estuvieran tAll separados. i.

. J .

I' Si Pltdi~'ramos recupernr cl mcdio ciclo perdido >' 'cblocarld eritre los ciclos positives. tendrfamos recti'f1cncl6rl de onda complete.

J~tdifictH:!(l11 d~ GIUin rnmpletn i' :

. Por rnedio de este proceso se utilizan los dos se-

ihiciclo~ de 1:\ serial de CJ\. ,

I ,

I . .

! Se puede renlizar ell dos formas difcrentcs: a) COil dos diodes y un transformndor con toma centra! en Cit secundario y b) con UII puente rectiflcador fonnado plJr cuatro diodes y un transfonnador ~enciJlo. En Iii Figura 124, se puede ver el circuito

'(tctificador de onda cornpleta can dos diodos.

0-

1'1 -----

Rectlflcacl6n de onda completa

• , _".' _r

110 v

, .

'COil dos

,·.diodos

....... ~ .•. ~ ... , ·,;/.,:L';,

.. j.

,. .

'~'vVamos h estudlar el circuito que utillzn cuatrb dio~dos, ya que es e1 mris emplcndo en laprrictica.

"

En' ia rlgurd t25 sc muestrn cl circnito disefindo

para producir una rect i [icncion de oncln complela COil :: cuatro diodes; cs:a configurnc ion se conoce COIllO spuente reclificador. "

.,

I-

, I Ut salida de corrlcntc a la carga, todnvla b co,triente continua pulsantc, pew sc hu rccuperado cl ~tnedio ciclo negative que se hubfa perdido en In

Irectiflcacion de media onda. ../'

o

Con cuatro ,diodos

rig. 125

En la figura 120, analizarernos c6mo trabaja el tect ificador eli puente:

'. I

Durante el primer medio ciclo positivo, el terminal superior del transformador es positivo y el terminal inferior es negativo.IfnLa secuencia del flujo

de corriente sera asf: \

Rectlflcacl6h de onda completa

c-b###BOT_TEXT###quot;I),)

.-'

., I""

Fig. 126

'70':o-,~"·FO

t - La corriente Ilega al punto A y pasa entonces a D I, esta no puede pasar por 02, debido a su polarizacion .

I'

2" Cuando la corriente lIega al pun to S, ~sta pas a a la rcsistencia de carga. No puede pasar por D4. debido n su polarizaclon.

3- Cuando la corriente lIega al puntoC, enouentra a 1)3 y 1)2, entonces pasa por D3, yaque por D2

no puede pasar debido a su polarizaclon, ,

4 - Cunndo la corricnte llegn al punlo D y encuentra el terminal superior del transformador.iipuede pasar por D4 por su polnridad, entonces pasa por cl tralisforll1ridor?-PAhora vcamos qtle pasa ell el medio ciclo negative:

CEKrr. Cur.tO nd..icn rll ~Itc"~riic" A,ilirl2&1 . U"iMd 2 139

J h .IPle'_" i "

I'eriur .del lnills!','llllad.,11 ('S l"'~b:\ll

Related Interests

    () y (" :' 'l1lltHti Inferior es posltivo. La U III irntc telldl:1 cntouces In siguic nte sccucnr ia 0 CIII 11 11!l, COIllO mucstra la

    figurn 127 . •

    .----- .-- _--------- "._- -----"._._---_.-

    j i,

    ,Rectificaci6n con cualre <fi.d.s ~

    : ---".-- ... ~.-.. . :;:

    I 'I 127 i t:ti!t~, ~:~s·;:;;;:: .. ~;.=:~:~~:~:'~7~~.~~~::!:.j:;~·:;'T~!:::~: s: ...

    J tj eoj';;t~f') 0

    1- LI corricnte Ifq::1 pI illlf'IP:d 1)llIllpl) ')"I>iud R 1:1 polnridad de Ill'> lIi"d'I'; I';l'.;nr:i pOI I )" basta cl 11111110 B,

    2- Dcbido a Ia IH >1:11 i,h 1 d.' ,) 1 . la ePI r ;('II'l' I'as~r.~ a

    la resistencin ric l':lll',:1. -:

    ~

    .1- Al llcgnr al punto 5~!:t «"lil'II~'.~, 1(1111:1 vl camino de 02. ya qur: SII :llif ,In ex P()SIIIVO,

    ~ ,

    4- FiIl3Imc.l1lc, til ~lylllltn'1\ Ia c~~tl' t-tH'ontrara

    cl terminal puSItI\,U (1L:1'1al1lt)I~,l1afttlF. "J,:J '

    Lo anterior se pucde rq,I:1lIl!r cll' lu Siglli('l1tc manera:

    Ell cI media ciclo J1'l'~ili', () C()IlClIICCIl (d'.'j:lli pasilr fa corrientc). los di~ldns I) I v J),~, Ell ('I 1111'''io clclo nc~atl vo conutlccI1ClS cI i( ldll:'; I r.~ v I ) 1.

    Ell 'el P;lllt~~,t<J. tCI1CIlIl'~; ddiciellcia dc cJ~gas ncgrujvas. En ./'1,11111(0 Il, 1~'11(,1I1(lS n;l'('~;(1 de cM-gas

    negal ivas. 1 - ,

    I '

    Entoncc s siclllple t('l1dl"I1Hl<; IIn;1 r!.llt icntc que vu desdc B a C,lo 10 qr«: ('II 1~(laS I,alablil'> ';igllifica: C

    est:) a rnaY0'lpot('llci:J1 '1"(' II ' :

    ,

    f

    I'

    1 "I 12!l

    I

    1110

    Iliellll"nilt:IJI:1. I". ,:111.;1 L',I, Iii 1,'''61 .::, '.

    continua pulxnnte, Pl'IO con todos 10:' II1cdios ciclu:. prcscntcs CII In forma de onda, ningupa parte dc fa CA se ha perdido, como muestra la figura 128.

    ® C,il11() prnhur diollll'\ ron d IIII;II'imfh';'

    , Usando su multfmetro en I~ posid6n de ~hmios, listed pucdr prohat la condiclou dc' un diode para saber si cst;, "\lCIlO 0 111:110.

    El diodo es till dispositive de umi sola vfn y Ie 'pcnnite a la corricnte Ilulr solnmcnte ('II linn (Ii· rcccion. Si uxtcd midc con su multfmctrn CIl la Inn ciun ohmios. till diodo con las puntas de prueba ell lIlW dircccion y lucgo En la olm. ustcd debe vcr lin;! /esistcncia tl1l1Y pcqlleiia ell lIila (firc(xiULI y una rt

    sistcllcia IlIIly alta ell b o(ra, vcr figura 129,

    ~ Si eli la prucba dd diodo COli cll1l1r1llmctro, midc uiut nita rcsistcnciacn umbns dircccionesvsignifica que cl dinclo estti abicr (0 y tcndrri que reernplaznrlo.

    , Si cd ia prucha del diodo, sc rnide tina baja resistcncin en ambas dirccciones, siguificn que eldiodo cs(a en corto y tendrri que rccmplazarlo.

    Pruebas de diodes

    Tratamos COIIJO sc construyen los diodes y sus tipos mas cornuncs. Investigarnos algunas de las aplicncioncs mas cmplcndas como: detccci6n de radio, sulchco, rcgulncion de voltaje y circuitos rcct I Iicadorcs. Fi na lmerite, estudiamos In opemelon OC un puente rcctificador para convertir

    CA en CCP. '

    En ln lcccirin 5, vimos como los diodes. trabnjando COIllO puertas de una sola vla, pueden convertir C/\ en Cc.

    ~.~-- , I ""' , -------~, - --_ -

    , .• '.. , "'j

    Lerd6tl\ (; I

    . _, --' -~--.--..:....----"--,.-,-.--.---------- .. -,-- .. --

    ,

    ,i C oud ensntl or es

    ~' 'I ,

    : 'I

    " .!

    ()h.krh(;~ '.,1

    til c~ln ktcion e~ltlcfirtrr"" '.<:~

    C9'" QII~ es \lp pOhden~:IlI(lr y pnrn que sc usn. Q}'''' Cojno se construye till coudensndor.

    tI ,f. Ln§ cnrncterfstlcns hilsicns (Ic vnrios lilHiS de

    cohden~iHIotes. _

    v1 ,f. Chmo furWlolHlI1 In.<; condensndores ell lns ftlerllt~ de ~6c1er.

    , n~l esta tccciOIl pJrlr"lldizalclllos,.~ll I(J~ aspectos mas inrportnntcs de los condcusndorcs coli el fin de cntcndh su Iuncionarnicnt« y SII nplicacioll ell los dlf'crci1.td tI,'blifos elect I {'lIicos.

    ~Olle'('~ tit! ('IlI"'1'11~;!"lql' I,

    , ~. Vf~ tOHJch~~dores !'!' cr}.i,lr,ollclrl~ (',lec}rie.o.f1"c (l''''dc~tld bler-grd elcctrlcn. I:" esc nspectn es ~mllJnr

    n t"Ht,hllt~rr~1 ver Iigurn 1 ~O. :

    ; ,",. ", ,I:"

    1 ",I,., t '. ,I.

    j ,,'

    ehtregarla en tin proceso de carga y dcscargn, par to cunl es, htU)' util. Adt;mt1s la ca~ga t. descru gn puede vnrlar segun Ins caracterlsllcns fr~ ca~ de ~J. como muestra la rtgura 13,1.

    I'

    Il"tNllltUtJO Itl. ,iV.IMIO. /l1.C,UNOS CONOI:NSllDO'1FS 1 Mllel 1,1/111 "11\;' tJlIl1r.ll1l trr;flllCIl aut= o rnos

    I

    laMA CJtrtrA C/IN1 IQIIO bE llt:MI'O cl\nGM Y IJ€SCM1G"" Ut-.l, COtlDt=,NSMXlI1

    rig. 13;

    ~~

    cj)folmt s{' tort.~'nrlr nn ('();U'rn.'mdor

    V lMsienmente todos los condensadores estdn formados pot dos placas tn~taficas separadas por un.ais-

    ladot., '. I

    Las placas metalicas se Iabrican genera I mente con Hmiha de alumlnlo delgado y toman Iormas dlferen'td seg\in el tipo de condensador.

    1 ' '

    \jEsa el!Crgrn elfclrirn. fonl1n~1rt ,lJOt ~:u gas ncgnti- /121 alslnnte, conocldo como dieMctrico. puede ser

    vas. y posJlJvn~, 'n puedc rcclbir eI condchsador de, de Rite. vidrio, mica, papeles encerados e~peciaJes 0

    tlI,H1, fj:f(ctfn~ d~ (tt, oscilndor 0 de otrn fuente de elec-: de olros mnterlales: flgura t 31 .

    IrrCI{!mf. . .: . " _ j

    ,/ Los cOI1Uc;,sndQr{'~ son tall COIJ1tIllC~ ell los clr- . (j). ~1I"~'fn11lH"ic"'(J de tin condensndon ..

    l'tlild~ tomb tlls rf~i~lcllcla~. Estos sc cncuentmn en' <":(,tll<l nlnmccun ('n('r~f:1 cI~dH(':1

    tctS!'llldos los circultos cIccI! icos o clcctronlcos: ('(,110 :'~il1'hhh,nd()lc~ cle l:1dk" :1IllplHidHlmes. tclcvlsorcs, h-nl!~Il,ls(,tcs. ICl1lPOl izadorcs, nlnrnms, COll-: troles. lillirli\(,1!~5 de Ilnsl: Iotogntficos, controlcs parlt molbres tie corricnte nlternn . fucntes de poder v mu-

    I/rho~ otros. ! ,V:fl11ljh";:"1f'i!,'(I~ 'O~ ('p",klls:tdOlI''l

    J,tl C\)iJd~')~nJor es lJ" compouente que poetic rrt.nlleennrcliCi-gfa e I~cttit'a fcrr,'llfltnlllit'l,te p:ita Iucgo

    ~ Como menclonamos anterlormente. 11 condensa dor nlmaccnn cnctgfa electrlcn en sus placns. Unr placa llena con eleclrones (-) a III otrn plarn, rCY~ diendo electrones y quednndo con exccso de carg: posit iVA (+). EI tesultAdo es una bntetfrl tempora].

    Porn entender c,6mo ocurre este frl16mel1o. es tudiemos qu~ ocurre cuando conectnmos un cobden sndor dlreclamente Ii una Fuente de CI1('1 g(n com

    tlnn baterfa. .

    lIAnte!: de concctnr cI condcnsador las dos placas estrin electrlcnmente neutrales, nlngunn ticne cxceso o Iulta de electroncs.

    vAl conectnr III baterfn, los clectrones del terminal ncgntlvo corren II llennr In plncn A del condcnsndor, at tenet un lugar a donde Ir.

    J Al mlsmo t1CII1Jlo. c1 tcnnlnal positivo d,~ In baterra ntrae 0 sncn los electrones llbrcs de In placn U del condcnsndor, como mucstrn In Ilgurn LB.

    Ademds, los clectroncs que lIeg:1I1 n In plrtdi 1\, nyudnn n expnlsar los elccuones de la plncn 11; de estn mancrn el condensador se CarWl,

    Durante este proccso de cntgn. In con icnte esl~ circulando por todo el clrcuito, pero no circulard por muchotlempo ya que cl proceso de carga es tnuy

    dpido. . .,

    En cuestlon , de scgundos cI coudcnsndor est~ .. lleno ". es declr, no pucdc nccptnr ttliis elcctroncs ~ en In placa A. hi enhcgnr tll~S en In placn B. Est~ , 10,.llIIen'e cnrgndo y nhnnccnnndo r"cr~r.

    . Sf desconcclamos C{;nil,lclnlllcntc ln bntcrfn -del circuito, d condcnsndor contlnrin almnccnnndo In cnrga (energfn), hnstn que se pier(;.1 pot las fugas del dielectrico (j se dC.H:<tr1!Ue hncia otro cirrl/iro.

    1\ <, n

    - - ~ ,

    '-------- ~ , I ~--!--.:'-===-

    _ . rig. 133

    , I' ," ~ "

    1112

    (J

    8omblllo--<-

    Flg,13·1

    .",

    SI concctumos nhol:l ell d d~clIll() una l:il11p:l!<l, por ejemplo, ct condcnsmlor se dccargnr~ n 11;1 ve s de estn, ctlrcndicllclose brevemcnte.Ln descnrgn COIllO ln cnrgn, solo d~Iran{ lIII corto "elrod!) (Ie

    ;\ tlempo.

    J!:!4j Unldnd de mcdlrln

    rJ La cnntidad de cargn 0 energla eledrica que pucde alrnacenar tin condcnsador se conoce. como capaci-

    tancia y se mlde en faradios: .

    Un Iaradlo, es la medlda de la cnpacidnd de !til condensndor pnra almacenar cargas electricas.

    Debido n que un Iaradio es una uil1dad nnly grande de almacenamlento, los condensadores se miden en unid3d.e~ mds pequefias que reciben el noiil!m' de microfaradios, que es equlvalente a una rnlllonesima parte de un faradio, 0 en picofaradios, que equlvalen a una mlllonesima parte de un microf nradio.

    ,.

    . Algttllns ,veces- !;~ utiliza el , Mtmlno micro-

    _ mlerofaradio en lugRr de picofaradior .

    . tIe nqur tin tdiirilen d~ las unldades:

    F "" faradic

    _ mf 0 Jlf ~ microfaradlo . '

    mmf 0 JIJ-lf 0 pf "" mlcromlcrofaradlo 0 plcofaradio

    _ J A?em~s de ~slar claslficados por:u capacidnd de carga erl Jamdios, los condensadores ticncn otra

    . caraclerfstica llarnada voltaje de trabajo y que determina e! voltaje que soportan entre sus placns sill dallarse.

    'EJemplo . Un condensador puedc ldentiflcarse C0l110

    Cl ~ 50 ~tf/ 200 voltlos

    ,'. . ~

    Esto quiere declr que tlene una capacidnd de nlmacennmiento de 50 microfaradios y soporra IIIj

    I

    ~ .. -- ~.;,+~-.

    voltn]e hnsta de idO voltlos. No se puede nlimentnr

    . con n1tis d~ 2(>q volUos porque puede explolnr. .

    tf t!H t~ bnktld renl los cohdcnsndorcs se deben , : ut'iliz .. :it toli tlHIt t:aprtddrtd, de ,ct dob!« del voltaje

    que se le v, A ripllc:ir ell el circuito, por 10 tanto: slemi~: 'ilre se debe co~,ocd In c6pacitnncin y ln cnpncklad de ; ;'\l11nnejo devoftnj~ del, condensador.

    iJr.'~(h~tr~ ~'It>' (f~t;~i~llrhHl 1:1 cn,,:wltni1d:1

    . LbS fnhtord flue dclcrmjll:tll hcnhtid:ul de cnrgn

    qile pnedd, nlmacenar till condcnsador soli:

    I .

    J - Et trtt~i:Hio (te stis t,lncns

    J - Ln d(st!mdn eittre sus plncns \of

    . ,

    J - td tlp,o (Ie rilslndor 0 diel~etrico que utlllzn.

    ESludiflre!Ji.s cndn una de dins [n evemcnte.

    JJ Mcflhln ('r h'{ 1,lnt'ft<;

    "l1del,llOs vcr f:kil"wI1n: ell la lig."':! I Yl, que II1lc,ttrn~ ,",is . ~tl1"dl's sc:'" Ins 1),lncas, ,de till CI)IHtCllspt1ol' .. Ihas tICl:II~'IH':s y cnrgas I)OSI!'V~S, sc I'm'dell i;'l:lllc.lar Y flor CII(k hay Ilt:lynl rap:lClI:1tlCl:l.

    f

    'r

    ': :

    /

    f -. • J ~ •

    ~l dbndclldJot A cun plncns III~S pC<lllellR~. nlnuicena h,~Ub~ chtM que el condcusmlor lJ.

    ~; 'j', .. \

    J "1.'if~"d:1 ~ht't (' "tnrns,)o .

    LD)";7~:"'-, .

    J Micntrns tnds t.,tn sh In \H~Inl1c1h entle hs 1,lncas, figtir:i I ~6, "t,t~lts r{Hnde sent ln .(:nlmdd~( de cnrgn 0 cnpucltancla. COIIIO lns plnr ns ( cl condensador A csMn In~s ccrcauas, cndn placa puede teller Inns efecfq 0 inth.lCl1cia sobre la otrn.

    0,/ Co'n~ pl:tcns igtlnlcs, ct coudensndor 1\ tiette el' doble de trllirtcitnncia que cI condcnsndor B. ;

    ~l'Ir;() ,it- j~slliht~', (I <lid6" ,ko .

    J UI tlpo de nislatifc (l diclcctrit"o dcte, minn ln "alli· ' , Ii ad {tI~tlt"te del coudcnsudor y - por 10 tll"le, ta C!lntld~(' "~ ciHft!{ ~tle pticde a hnnccunr eil S\l~ Jllaca~

    Distancia

    ,

    . ',' . ~ "

    ! sin que se pasen 0 haynn Iugns de una placn a _ ofr~;

    fi~mtn.· .

    Los mejores dlelectricos sort aquellos que p"ed,en ser de lgados, 10 que permlte colocar mhy cerca Ins - lJlncas y lener capacidades altas sln aumentnr mucho ef tamaflo.

    cEnAMIC"

    rig. 137

    "i

    Los condensadores se divlden ell dos grnndcs ramitl:1s:. fijos y variables. A su vez, cndn Familia ~ tiene dlferentes divlslones segiln Ja forrnn y los matcriales ernplendos en su conslrucclon.

    - Los prindrnld tipos de cOl1de"~ado'Cs Iijos son: los de "npe, los de disctf 0 cerdmicos r los

    ~ electroltilcos. En los variables los dos principnles ti"o~ son: los dielectricos de Rife y los de pldstico.

    "(

    U Conrlensndures fijus de pnpel

    '. : Los;, condensadores de p,npei util!zfl.1l CO!TlO dlel~c{hco till pape! de alta calidad tralado especialmente: Figura 138.

    Pant sus placas se ulilizRn l~mJt1tts de alull1init~ de . Alta pureza y en SU fabricrid6n se eurollan capas altetnndrts de ldmlna y de pape].

    i ..' .

    UCondf:'nsndorcs de «fisc. de cern mica n

    ccrtimlcos I

    , Lo~ ,cnndcl1s:tdorcs ccrrimlcos emple~JfI "" mnletint dielectrlco Inbrlcnrlo a partir de tienn :f\lmJioll,

    rf.kn· ClUJ" n.(.iel?.I~ Urcr,<1",'", ApliClJot1 . I),,;,hl') 1 i

    rig. 139

    J Los

    Related Interests

      :"()IC~ COl1l1J1W'; lk cstns {"(lll{kllC;ndCllcs I1I1:IIC:l1I dt's!!!' fI.S I'r: hnsln 0 . .'" itF.

      I'nra S\I ('''I1~truC! .. i{,,,. so (Icpositn 1I1ln enpn 0 plnrn de plntn Cit los dll~; 1a(los de 1111 disco de e~ntmica, nsf las plncns c~I:i" en cstrccho cbntncto con c1 dirl'~~rico, (~nl11(\ tllnr.~II:1 1:1 rig.trn 1:19.

      / l . .oS condensudorc s de rlisco de ccrrluric n Iicncn unn buenn lelnci"" 1:1111:1;;0" cnpacil:}l1ci:t.

      ,/

      .__-------------_._------_._----.

      Ole'~cttlc. de cet~'nlca

      "

      COl 11)1 JC ronts CON !)/\fIO II .. ~II

      or:: "tAt" ~

      I . ,'la, 139:

      , ',' :. . ~:~ ~~:;.u~i;~.t£::.;';1~:: ~.:ltt.·.; .. ~ .. *' ··da.:¥u~d;·..:W;:_;;l;; , , .·M·.·.·.· ..•• :

      L/ ( '(Ir1('l'I1~:1 "niTS drd lofit koo;

      L(IS comlcusadorcs ckctJotrlicos pucdcn tcncr cnpnchlnd lI1:is r,ralldc dchido u su Imilniio. Por 10 tnuto, Still atllplt:lltlcl1lc 1Ilili7:1dos COlllo cillldells:1- dorcs de filtro CII I:-Is fll(,l1lc; dc Ilod('l.

      S .. I ' I I

      1I C(lI1st, lIl"ClOI1 t'~ ;t '~f) 1 :rl'a : IIUILII UII:-I tJ ;lea 0

      (,/'(ldo de nlumini» !J"': ('~t:1 rccllhidta con tina pclfculn (I cnpn tie (_l·ddp (It- nlumini« qlle Ionnu cl dicl~clrkd: un ckcl, ,"H., If.jllidll :it-ilill.l'llllui ci,Indti o se.gy"d:t Illaca y s(' '",,"cela cnll un ("!lndllclnr mcttilk'n.

      1i14

      Ct; "

      ,. ---- "NODO

      P"PEl ronoso IMPREGNADO coN t:U:Clnotrnco oue "ACE DE CArODO

      , ..

      ALUMINIO CATODO----

      rig 1.,0

      . :

      .,'

      Ell la practlca i se enrolla sobre el ti.J1000 un papel poroso que est~ impregnndo COIl el diel~chico. 1J1- bldo It este tipo de consttucd6n, los condensndorcs electrolltlcos estan polarlzados, esto es, Iiencn un terminal positlvo y U!10 negativo: figura 140.

      Los condcnsndotcs variables SOli nqucllos a los que se lcs puede vnrlar SlI cnpncklad p<.lt II rruill~. ' t11·cdnkos. Estos SC eucucntrnn en rnngos de J pf hnsta 3fJ5 pf Y viench run dieldctrlco de nile 0 de

      pMstlco.

      Estos 5011 demaslndo grandes en compmnci!'!11 n ln capncldnd (flle sutnlulsiran. se encuetttran t"inclpalmente en OS clrcultos siutonizndores y de njustc de los radlo-receptores y de los trnnsmisores. "licncu In ventn]n de ser Il1t1Y estnbles y dur ablcs: sin e-nbargo, pueden varlnr con 13 humedad del nile.

      Sfnrbofos t'Squ(,lIl:1fk,oS

      Ell la figura I ~ I, mostrnmos el sfmbolo csquetnritico del cOlldeJ1sruJot, en el cual se mucstrn su pohtrlzncldn. La lfnea curva indica el terminal que debe conectarse a tierra 0 at negative de 1:1 parte

      del clrcnito (jue corresponde. . • .

      ,.

      ..

      Polarlzaelen

      1'\ Esle lado T. I \ es ttorra ""'-=

      . '

      , rig. '-11

      .- ... ~. ~~

      I

      Sftnbolo

      _L

      '---r/l."~S I MILE

      -, t I . f-12

      Vl\tlIAO'-~

      .:"

      .' . Los cotldeU~ttdote~ vnrlubles 0 njustnbles se tef"c\ ~enlnn co~ hntt rt~d:ii, como mnestrn .In rigtrht f..f2.

      'j Los cOlHt(.H~tiJ()h~~ th f()~ dtclllh;~ ,

      Vfledr611lco~ I'

      t:Otle~frif~~O ~\~dmi~ilsn(tore~ c-tt ~Hlc y eft pnrnlelu ': ." ,.

      Con ta cb,i~~i6h en parulelo que se muestrn en la figurn. f t1j, e~ po~lble nirrnentnr 13 cnpdcldnd total del condensddor, yn t}tle de estn rorum se numcntn el InmnH6 (fe fit~ ,)I:l~ris.

      ," ""

      r

      . ,

      J CtnidehS9dote~_ ~n naralalo

      r" . rr,·' " . I

      ~ . ,

      o IOT.I\l2Jlr .

      . '

      .. ~ ..

      ..........

      'u' .

      . ~'. " ...

      I .'

      . ~. .

      At cOllect~r coltdcl1~rltforc~ en sclie ( hgura 1t1~), se rcbdjn In c~tfrtcldrld (t,ttlt. Esto ocune porque se auuieulu In dlshllicht entre tits ')Inclt~. Adcmds estn 'cotH1~!ltHcloft ~". ~e.tie "IUrenln fa: cnp:t.~idnd. de n~ntle)o d~ voltn]e. b, rI ejetl1r'o, In cnpacldnd de voltnje es el dobJe de tin condensndor sencillo.

      , Pnra. hnlJ:it 1:1 cnpucitnncin lolal de qllldcmnilotes to'ocn(fo.~ ~h j-J:Uflfclo, sninmnos c:lda 11110 de 105

      . valutd de I~A.~~I~de"s:Hlntcs. .' ,\

      v~; I tt.:: ct. C2" C3 + en 1"',

      . I'dJlt fll1i~ot fa tnp~;d'3I1cia fOf:i,"l:1f n c.ohdcn-

      sndores ell serle, :tlllie-mllos In sigulel1ie fOllUula:

      I • ; I "; f-'-' .;.,.:.. .• ""' •• ,""',.::.... .. -------'--.-----i

      I " ""

      . ,

      Ct~

      ,

      ~'- + ..

      C2

      '.' .

      Cl

      , Cit.

      ___ ._L __

      rg.l-1-1

      1 mfd/50V

      '\ . \ ,

      \ '

      1 mrd, sov

      .TorAl ... 5 ( f/2 ) ~r I fOOl.}

      I,

      . ,

      v' bloquehtlUd la CC Y i1ASb"do IA 'eA

      51 coneetamos corrlente c~ntlnuitJe ti~n "bnt("tfa a ttav~s de las placas de un coridensador, una enmente nutnt a trav~!I def clrculto, como se muestra en la ngtlt1t tas.

      Condet1sadot cat{lddo

      ,l,.J:d2]

      car' ado rig. 1 <15

      , besvu~s de que el conden~l1do~ se hn ern r,mlo no

      , habrtt nlnguna corrlente clrculando ert el clrculto.

      (

      ~ . j Cuando se conecta un ~ene'riidor de CA coli sus do.q JtUdn~i A y D, A ttav~s de un condensndor: por . ; un rt1o.menIO la SAlida A ~~ ,)QSitlvA Y.!Jt ~l1lidn n

      '.' negailva. , ;L' t/ \

      Por 10 tanto, un~ cottieflte t1uld a ~nv~s del elrculto para cargar eI capacitor; Ilgura I ti6.

      I , . I ~ .

      . k.

      !,'

      .. "
      ~ coniente eonsctada
      V'
      ...
      ... Generador "

      ... !

      , 1/ '

      1'1 . .._,"

      t:-+ '

      CApaclior

      t., \.', "

      6
      ~
      ~
      .t 3
      VOlloT 2
      .", : f J Por 10 tnlltn, Ilodeil1o~ ver ClIft:: sl cbhectatnns UI1 yoltnje de CJ\ It tntv~~ tic un coudensndor, una

      , .' torricnle nltcrnn fluid slempre n trnvcs del clrculto. "'\ '

      I I I 'J bl ~eBdnt1dli cnpaciUva

      v AJ(, podenuis ( ec r que Wf cone ensador oquea , ,

      , el fWJO de la corriente ('0111;111111 ypermlte el P(l.5(} de b' .' d I' t 0 -

      'Jlrhos que en el clrculto e a figma 5.' '

      , hi corriente alterna. , " . tepernos en la placa una sellal de menos de 2 VI'P •

      u 1 . . I' tal vet'ust~ se p' regontar~' porqu~ 1 '

      ~ Q\le p:ts:mi SI una [ucutc de conicnte cant nun y "

      unn de corricntc alternn se cnmhinnn ell el cirqlito de " i ".;,,' :j'll E' t .. ,' . b . n P . u ta nue n s IIJ. A:\ nnnli

      . I . I ? ~il'll" ,it';' IiI'; S ~e!luna uea reg n 'I 0 evn t ( • -

      lin com CI1S.I( or . .~ ;":\:1. J ,!;:j ".; ~l;; ,,' otro lmportanie conceplo sobre condensadorcs.

      [!n I'a ~igtlrn 1119. VCII10S ,lIilU s~fi~'ll de ~r I:~~'~' ! ~ "IAun cuando los condensadores ertnltan el rnso , vpp tOll1bll1:ldns can till

      Related Interests

        ollaJ~ de CC de ~ \I '" qH~: ,i,."'" )a' cA, ,a traves de ellos se ofrece "mn cicrta

        . i' ' sicl6ri al paso de ella. ' ,. ;

        Podemos decir hllllbicn. que tcncmos ulld serial , de 2 VPl' de corricnte altrrua, con "" valor promedld ~ de if vo 1I0s, porque CI vllIM liH_ltilcdio de lInlt sefinl

        U6

        Capacitor

        rIg. t 47

        i, ! CtH1I1do In polnrldad de lAS sntidns se lnvierte, eI condensador se ddcnrgar~ de nuevo coli III nueva polnridnd. C01110 se muestrnen In figOlrl,H7.

        , ~Por 10 tanto. uun conlente nuirlf n I~:t

        Related Interests

          ts del clrtllj!o pero en In dilctd6h opuestn.

          Cunndo' el gcnerrulor de CJ\ cnnrbln de nuevo In polnridnd de Ins snlldns. Hllrt corricnle fluid de 'nllevo A trnves de.l circuito prn a descargnr el cotidcnsntlor y cntgnr1iJ {·tnt vez con In nueva poln-

          rhlnd, C0l110 muestra In figllt:t I tiR. I

          -:

          '~

          Oenemdor de CA

          ------

          ~t!ste proceso continu31d mientrns ~i_je el gene~ rndor de Ct\ est~ltabnJ:tlldo.

          ---'----_._- .. '

          FI • 149

          "".' .•• ' 1 '"

          " ,,) ;.""" , '" ". ) ~ .

          de CA, es ~l componente de tt de ~ste: t!t\ esle c~sb

          de 4 voltlos, " .

          SI conectamos a esta [uente de' voltaje especial.

          un resistor a trav~s de un condehsador como se muestra .en hi nguht. t 50, d tr.avi~ d~ Iii cnrgn.: lendremos s610 una sefial de CA de menos de 2 Ypp 'I

          : YUh valor promedio (cornpot1ente, de tC)de cern.

          ~. "

          Esto sIgnifieR que ti tniv~s del resistor, {~ndrelJl(;S-1 la sellal de CA sin un voltaje de CC, poi()\le el

          condensador 10 bloquea. ..

          ...

          " {'

          - ~ I -I

          I

          I

          CD ,J'li!ilC,lanclit capliclilva, V

          2

          4 Volt.

          ,rig. 150;

          , Podemos llamarla oposici6n que los condensndotes ofrecen It la cA clrculando a traves de ellbs, ~eac,a"da capacltiva.

          . '

          i

          .. • J i§l --_____ 1l ~ ?~~tt

          . Como j:te~ capncltiva es tmh oj,b,icl6n .1 xe ~_.;._t _

          nuJo de ld cortlente, esta se mlde en ohmlos como Itt 6.28 x P x C

          reststenciA. ~l:", i, ,I ":

          EI vafot'cfJ IJ te~~tD"dll copncltivn que tUI condensador dntd 3 UIIII sefinl de CA, es una Iunclrin de 11\ capaeitltncil:t del condensador y de ln frecuencln de '

          la seRaJ. • j j

          'f r ",

          Atjuf est~ lli t6rmuin para cnlculnr lIn tenet,"ttd:t,

          cnpacliiva <,XC)! . 1 L· XC ~ 1.592.:i ohmlo s

          .j f7\ La ley de ohm en IRfortna bdsictl , es aplicable

          ~f--+----'o--- tanto pant til CA como pitta ta ce.

          .;,' {.,l \u Ii I t ~ .Y-I

          V-, ,t, , '. R '

          E, ,_" rt, 'Aft<- .

          Yfc(, ~ It .. de donde: V ". Voltaje det generador

          R =:! Reslstencla en Ohmlos

          ke~-- 6.2~ x p,.Jt C

          , '

          Dondei:

          ,

          6.2~ es UM constante

          ,

          xe ~ Reactancla cnpncltiva en Ohmlos

          , , ,',

          F tt::tecuendrt en J Iertz

          C b Capacltancln en rn.rndto~

          I I' :

          , ,

          Ejemplo:

          Declmos -due tenernos un clrcuito con -un generadorde CA que produce una selial de CA de , 50 Vrrns cori WU' Irecuencia de 100 fI~ y con un conderisador de t tnt conectndo :t to~ termlnalesde est~ generadon cQ.tt1o se muestra en lit Ilgura 151.

          ~', . i " , " ,'i

          Para clilcutdt fn corrlente que f1uiJl~ Ii trav~s del drcult~. primern tenemos (Iue conocer fa reaclancla cavadt1vll qtle ,el condensador presentnrd. Despll~s de estb; npfitRttlOS ttt ley de bllln para calcnlar hi

          corrierite. ' " :

          ,I ' , .,) , __.... ,

          Calcularernos fa renctancln criprtdtlvit asf: ~ ~Jp 1

          , ; \ '( 'f'> -_:...J-o \

          ~ fir (. ( I CI \ r-') I

          ~ ': L :f'f:'-~-!- r IJ,»z:;(: ~-,-'

          /"' <\_ .'_ 't'~".~ - ---- J

          f", ", , .. '.

          Condensndot 'J "J"

          '--___ IVN~

          ~\c:;

          ,.~'" , Xc ... ----

          628xFxC

          \, ',',

          .,1 :.

          fig. 151

          ; 1

          Xc ~ , ~

          6.28 dOO ~ to' ,

          1

          Xc =-------:--"'"!"-"

          6.28 X to -4

          SI tenernos un drcuho con un geriefador de C/'\ y un condensador.. 10 que' ~e .opone at Ilujo ide corrlente sent la reaclancia capilcltlva' del cbn-,

          den~ador; ., , j~';

          " La expreslon de 13 le~ de Ohm putt ~~te circl~ito

          , Setil: . " ' ',' /

          It:T1 ~

          Altom calcnlemos ta corrlente que nuifl1 n 1t9v~~ det clrculto de la Ogunt 151. Yli tenemb~calclllnrfn 111

          Xc del coi1detlsador . "

          " • Cf:::.Pjf C?'1~

          f'.: V ,('; ,~" )-'},

          V 1=Xc

          50 Vrrns

          1=

          1.592.3 ohm los

          1 ~ 0.03 tAmp. rms '

          Nota: Cuando usted exptese et valor de IJn voltnje de CA, corrlente o poteficflt , se dittl sf' el valor es plco, plco It pleo 0 rms -. En Iii' tnllyorfli de los cnsos es dAdo eri trns, de 10 conttitritJ; se especlfichr~ qu~

          Upb d~ va tot se da, iI'

          ,'itetoddt1 de rose ell COrld(>hsnJ(t~es ' .I,

          En un clrculto con generador d~ CAy un , rHlstor, el volta]e y III corrlente estdn"et1 Inse. Es

          ,

          I~XP('I·ilitell. os de elec(r(;nica

          , I

          "fi rc,,"!U i'~11

          ,',

          A 1:11 cstc ITIOlllC'IlIn del cursu. yn COIl(1CC'ITlOS los Iltll1l'ip:lles ('()I1'f)Olll'IIICS clcctronicos. hCl1lOS visto y pntrlir ado (Oil I iagram:ls clcctronicos y planes, adeI1m~ l",Illdi:mlOs qlle CS till circuito clcctrrinico con

          :d~lllll ,,~ cjelllpln·; de apar:llos scncillos. I

          . I.

          :;l ('011101:1 IIH't(Jdofogfa de ~Sfc tur:~() e s ii, del ti~1e-'

          ....

          11111 11'1'" leo . I'r:klko. con nlllt'ho cnfnsis trl 1:1 parte

          d6 pr;kliclls. I pI,l'S cOl1Sid('Ia'"0s que sill dlas cs lmJ1~~,ihk "pICI,,"'r c lcctrrinicn), ircmos presC'll!,:ll1do ~*I'cr imculux rclac ionadox COil li:ls !el11:1,S uuludos ('(JI' ('Ilill ,I" 1'lllll11ll'IHln 111:1';

          Related Interests

            Related Interests

              1'1 ilk:lI 1:11r'1l1 f;I "S I lid i;u 1;1.

              1 ,

              ", 1';,,;1 (";1(1;; (')(I'('Iin1('''IIIS 111Iil,an:11l0S t'I "pinto-

              1~);I,d" ('orr,n 11('11 ;""krrl:' P' indp:ll y :JI/:II1lnS ('(JII,,,i,.

              nentes electronieos de los que hcmos esiudiadJ ell las lecclones anteriorcs.

              v Elprotohoard

              (}!lC cs tin " IH'()~()h(i:II!' "

              • ,c "I' ~ ',; '.' ~ . - • • . ,,' 0 • ,. I

              EI .. Protoboard " !) I:,hlno sill <;"''':,,llIrno;. ("; "" clcincuto qtle 1I0S PCi111ill' ('II~;;l1llhlil" clrrultos delll() nicos sill usar soldndurn. Psln pt'rrnlle una «(111<; truccion rripida y segl1ra, In que es ilknl pnrn n.p{' ,IIIH'IIlnril"11.

              I I

              Unu ver. <JIIC cI rinuito <:11 cXl'l'I il1lt'"Iaciljl1 ('11 rl I pro'oho:1nJ nl~ Irllll:ll:llll1o "II Iurma s:.Ib:I:I('fh. i:1, ~:I'

              f1~ I

              ,~(l . )

              J ,___...--..-, \ It . ., " " ..

              ~ >- ! r= 1 ( '~ [c 00000000000000000000000000(10

              , :"" - ) I~ I( UlHJlJlHJUO[Joonno0[10000000000(1(J

              ,10,1,,,, ,t<;.t("; 1",,}1p': t~1.II) ufli,',,'; Ie [](lUnUDUDOOO(J(J[]()OOOoOOOOODo[l[)

              ""1/,, ,.II"~~/:(J"I:II') ....... [lJUUUllLJ[)OoO()[JIJr)U{lOoOOOOOODO(1[)

              '.J" ,,' pl':Iil,', -""~-f j-t LJU(JOIJu,oOOO[JOUUOOOr;:lii.ii'''''tOOUO

              / / 1.5mT ') .-- - - prrr~1 celltro

              / .k f-t " 11 " 11 " " " " If 11111111 11 II If 11 I M 111 fIliI! ftlBI II" II ,

              I II " II " " " " " " 1111 II " " i I " " II " I I II " II " 1111 " II I U U [J(JU(J [JfJ [J 00 [JUUUtl OU 000 oUOUOo(1U

              OUUUULJUUUUUUIJUUUUULJOOUOUUOOUU 00000000000000000000000000000

              'rJ(lIJ1Hl nr rru m nr u u m rmn nn OtJOIII'

              'n I 11 '" n r 1111111 II ! 11 • [11111 n rail rn tl t) (J r," .I

              L I1 II :J

              1~~~I!!!'!1111111111111111111

              [

              (_

              ~. • to • .,.,~,,:,. ~L.

              VI'; I () I 'nil

              " :: .... ~ .... ,., __ ...- __ ~e ._~ III iL~.11 I 11\.1 1

              i i" f..', §;~:Qt..;;\ ..... ###BOT_TEXT###quot;~tRffi:L;;"lAt:Hii;h.·.,=.,;:~:l':tL§_l%1%ftOOmM5ill2M\Mh{Mth'h'MaxmUlt¥' :®M~oo~,i~~

              (I.'K IF - Cursu IJ,hiro ell' Elcctranlc« A,)/iwd'l' r-:XI"'r;"'rnl(),~ - tJn;d"tI I 7

              '-,. .r

              ".) :':_0

              \,

              Related Interests

                () y (" :' 'l1lltHti Inferior es posltivo. La U III irntc telldl:1 cntouces In siguic nte sccucnr ia 0 CIII 11 11!l, COIllO mucstra la

                figurn 127 . •

                .----- .-- _--------- "._- -----"._._---_.-

                j i,

                ,Rectificaci6n con cualre <fi.d.s ~

                : ---".-- ... ~.-.. . :;:

                I 'I 127 i t:ti!t~, ~:~s·;:;;;:: .. ~;.=:~:~~:~:'~7~~.~~~::!:.j:;~·:;'T~!:::~: s: ...

                J tj eoj';;t~f') 0

                1- LI corricnte Ifq::1 pI illlf'IP:d 1)llIllpl) ')"I>iud R 1:1 polnridad de Ill'> lIi"d'I'; I';l'.;nr:i pOI I )" basta cl 11111110 B,

                2- Dcbido a Ia IH >1:11 i,h 1 d.' ,) 1 . la ePI r ;('II'l' I'as~r.~ a

                la resistencin ric l':lll',:1. -:

                ~

                .1- Al llcgnr al punto 5~!:t «"lil'II~'.~, 1(1111:1 vl camino de 02. ya qur: SII :llif ,In ex P()SIIIVO,

                ~ ,

                4- FiIl3Imc.l1lc, til ~lylllltn'1\ Ia c~~tl' t-tH'ontrara

                cl terminal puSItI\,U (1L:1'1al1lt)I~,l1afttlF. "J,:J '

                Lo anterior se pucde rq,I:1lIl!r cll' lu Siglli('l1tc manera:

                Ell cI media ciclo J1'l'~ili', () C()IlClIICCIl (d'.'j:lli pasilr fa corrientc). los di~ldns I) I v J),~, Ell ('I 1111'''io clclo nc~atl vo conutlccI1ClS cI i( ldll:'; I r.~ v I ) 1.

                Ell 'el P;lllt~~,t<J. tCI1CIlIl'~; ddiciellcia dc cJ~gas ncgrujvas. En ./'1,11111(0 Il, 1~'11(,1I1(lS n;l'('~;(1 de cM-gas

                negal ivas. 1 - ,

                I '

                Entoncc s siclllple t('l1dl"I1Hl<; IIn;1 r!.llt icntc que vu desdc B a C,lo 10 qr«: ('II 1~(laS I,alablil'> ';igllifica: C

                est:) a rnaY0'lpot('llci:J1 '1"(' II ' :

                ,

                f

                I'

                1 "I 12!l

                I

                1110

                Iliellll"nilt:IJI:1. I". ,:111.;1 L',I, Iii 1,'''61 .::, '.

                continua pulxnnte, Pl'IO con todos 10:' II1cdios ciclu:. prcscntcs CII In forma de onda, ningupa parte dc fa CA se ha perdido, como muestra la figura 128.

                ® C,il11() prnhur diollll'\ ron d IIII;II'imfh';'

                , Usando su multfmetro en I~ posid6n de ~hmios, listed pucdr prohat la condiclou dc' un diode para saber si cst;, "\lCIlO 0 111:110.

                El diodo es till dispositive de umi sola vfn y Ie 'pcnnite a la corricnte Ilulr solnmcnte ('II linn (Ii· rcccion. Si uxtcd midc con su multfmctrn CIl la Inn ciun ohmios. till diodo con las puntas de prueba ell lIlW dircccion y lucgo En la olm. ustcd debe vcr lin;! /esistcncia tl1l1Y pcqlleiia ell lIila (firc(xiULI y una rt

                sistcllcia IlIIly alta ell b o(ra, vcr figura 129,

                ~ Si eli la prucba dd diodo COli cll1l1r1llmctro, midc uiut nita rcsistcnciacn umbns dircccionesvsignifica que cl dinclo estti abicr (0 y tcndrri que reernplaznrlo.

                , Si cd ia prucha del diodo, sc rnide tina baja resistcncin en ambas dirccciones, siguificn que eldiodo cs(a en corto y tendrri que rccmplazarlo.

                Pruebas de diodes

                Tratamos COIIJO sc construyen los diodes y sus tipos mas cornuncs. Investigarnos algunas de las aplicncioncs mas cmplcndas como: detccci6n de radio, sulchco, rcgulncion de voltaje y circuitos rcct I Iicadorcs. Fi na lmerite, estudiamos In opemelon OC un puente rcctificador para convertir

                CA en CCP. '

                En ln lcccirin 5, vimos como los diodes. trabnjando COIllO puertas de una sola vla, pueden convertir C/\ en Cc.

                ~.~-- , I ""' , -------~, - --_ -

                , .• '.. , "'j

                Lerd6tl\ (; I

                . _, --' -~--.--..:....----"--,.-,-.--.---------- .. -,-- .. --

                ,

                ,i C oud ensntl or es

                ~' 'I ,

                : 'I

                " .!

                ()h.krh(;~ '.,1

                til c~ln ktcion e~ltlcfirtrr"" '.<:~

                C9'" QII~ es \lp pOhden~:IlI(lr y pnrn que sc usn. Q}'''' Cojno se construye till coudensndor.

                tI ,f. Ln§ cnrncterfstlcns hilsicns (Ic vnrios lilHiS de

                cohden~iHIotes. _

                v1 ,f. Chmo furWlolHlI1 In.<; condensndores ell lns ftlerllt~ de ~6c1er.

                , n~l esta tccciOIl pJrlr"lldizalclllos,.~ll I(J~ aspectos mas inrportnntcs de los condcusndorcs coli el fin de cntcndh su Iuncionarnicnt« y SII nplicacioll ell los dlf'crci1.td tI,'blifos elect I {'lIicos.

                ~Olle'('~ tit! ('IlI"'1'11~;!"lql' I,

                , ~. Vf~ tOHJch~~dores !'!' cr}.i,lr,ollclrl~ (',lec}rie.o.f1"c (l''''dc~tld bler-grd elcctrlcn. I:" esc nspectn es ~mllJnr

                n t"Ht,hllt~rr~1 ver Iigurn 1 ~O. :

                ; ,",. ", ,I:"

                1 ",I,., t '. ,I.

                j ,,'

                ehtregarla en tin proceso de carga y dcscargn, par to cunl es, htU)' util. Adt;mt1s la ca~ga t. descru gn puede vnrlar segun Ins caracterlsllcns fr~ ca~ de ~J. como muestra la rtgura 13,1.

                I'

                Il"tNllltUtJO Itl. ,iV.IMIO. /l1.C,UNOS CONOI:NSllDO'1FS 1 Mllel 1,1/111 "11\;' tJlIl1r.ll1l trr;flllCIl aut= o rnos

                I

                laMA CJtrtrA C/IN1 IQIIO bE llt:MI'O cl\nGM Y IJ€SCM1G"" Ut-.l, COtlDt=,NSMXlI1

                rig. 13;

                ~~

                cj)folmt s{' tort.~'nrlr nn ('();U'rn.'mdor

                V lMsienmente todos los condensadores estdn formados pot dos placas tn~taficas separadas por un.ais-

                ladot., '. I

                Las placas metalicas se Iabrican genera I mente con Hmiha de alumlnlo delgado y toman Iormas dlferen'td seg\in el tipo de condensador.

                1 ' '

                \jEsa el!Crgrn elfclrirn. fonl1n~1rt ,lJOt ~:u gas ncgnti- /121 alslnnte, conocldo como dieMctrico. puede ser

                vas. y posJlJvn~, 'n puedc rcclbir eI condchsador de, de Rite. vidrio, mica, papeles encerados e~peciaJes 0

                tlI,H1, fj:f(ctfn~ d~ (tt, oscilndor 0 de otrn fuente de elec-: de olros mnterlales: flgura t 31 .

                IrrCI{!mf. . .: . " _ j

                ,/ Los cOI1Uc;,sndQr{'~ son tall COIJ1tIllC~ ell los clr- . (j). ~1I"~'fn11lH"ic"'(J de tin condensndon ..

                l'tlild~ tomb tlls rf~i~lcllcla~. Estos sc cncuentmn en' <":(,tll<l nlnmccun ('n('r~f:1 cI~dH(':1

                tctS!'llldos los circultos cIccI! icos o clcctronlcos: ('(,110 :'~il1'hhh,nd()lc~ cle l:1dk" :1IllplHidHlmes. tclcvlsorcs, h-nl!~Il,ls(,tcs. ICl1lPOl izadorcs, nlnrnms, COll-: troles. lillirli\(,1!~5 de Ilnsl: Iotogntficos, controlcs parlt molbres tie corricnte nlternn . fucntes de poder v mu-

                I/rho~ otros. ! ,V:fl11ljh";:"1f'i!,'(I~ 'O~ ('p",klls:tdOlI''l

                J,tl C\)iJd~')~nJor es lJ" compouente que poetic rrt.nlleennrcliCi-gfa e I~cttit'a fcrr,'llfltnlllit'l,te p:ita Iucgo

                ~ Como menclonamos anterlormente. 11 condensa dor nlmaccnn cnctgfa electrlcn en sus placns. Unr placa llena con eleclrones (-) a III otrn plarn, rCY~ diendo electrones y quednndo con exccso de carg: posit iVA (+). EI tesultAdo es una bntetfrl tempora].

                Porn entender c,6mo ocurre este frl16mel1o. es tudiemos qu~ ocurre cuando conectnmos un cobden sndor dlreclamente Ii una Fuente de CI1('1 g(n com

                tlnn baterfa. .

                lIAnte!: de concctnr cI condcnsador las dos placas estrin electrlcnmente neutrales, nlngunn ticne cxceso o Iulta de electroncs.

                vAl conectnr III baterfn, los clectrones del terminal ncgntlvo corren II llennr In plncn A del condcnsndor, at tenet un lugar a donde Ir.

                J Al mlsmo t1CII1Jlo. c1 tcnnlnal positivo d,~ In baterra ntrae 0 sncn los electrones llbrcs de In placn U del condcnsndor, como mucstrn In Ilgurn LB.

                Ademds, los clectroncs que lIeg:1I1 n In plrtdi 1\, nyudnn n expnlsar los elccuones de la plncn 11; de estn mancrn el condensador se CarWl,

                Durante este proccso de cntgn. In con icnte esl~ circulando por todo el clrcuito, pero no circulard por muchotlempo ya que cl proceso de carga es tnuy

                dpido. . .,

                En cuestlon , de scgundos cI coudcnsndor est~ .. lleno ". es declr, no pucdc nccptnr ttliis elcctroncs ~ en In placa A. hi enhcgnr tll~S en In placn B. Est~ , 10,.llIIen'e cnrgndo y nhnnccnnndo r"cr~r.

                . Sf desconcclamos C{;nil,lclnlllcntc ln bntcrfn -del circuito, d condcnsndor contlnrin almnccnnndo In cnrga (energfn), hnstn que se pier(;.1 pot las fugas del dielectrico (j se dC.H:<tr1!Ue hncia otro cirrl/iro.

                1\ <, n

                - - ~ ,

                '-------- ~ , I ~--!--.:'-===-

                _ . rig. 133

                , I' ," ~ "

                1112

                (J

                8omblllo--<-

                Flg,13·1

                .",

                SI concctumos nhol:l ell d d~clIll() una l:il11p:l!<l, por ejemplo, ct condcnsmlor se dccargnr~ n 11;1 ve s de estn, ctlrcndicllclose brevemcnte.Ln descnrgn COIllO ln cnrgn, solo d~Iran{ lIII corto "elrod!) (Ie

                ;\ tlempo.

                J!:!4j Unldnd de mcdlrln

                rJ La cnntidad de cargn 0 energla eledrica que pucde alrnacenar tin condcnsador se conoce. como capaci-

                tancia y se mlde en faradios: .

                Un Iaradlo, es la medlda de la cnpacidnd de !til condensndor pnra almacenar cargas electricas.

                Debido n que un Iaradio es una uil1dad nnly grande de almacenamlento, los condensadores se miden en unid3d.e~ mds pequefias que reciben el noiil!m' de microfaradios, que es equlvalente a una rnlllonesima parte de un faradio, 0 en picofaradios, que equlvalen a una mlllonesima parte de un microf nradio.

                ,.

                . Algttllns ,veces- !;~ utiliza el , Mtmlno micro-

                _ mlerofaradio en lugRr de picofaradior .

                . tIe nqur tin tdiirilen d~ las unldades:

                F "" faradic

                _ mf 0 Jlf ~ microfaradlo . '

                mmf 0 JIJ-lf 0 pf "" mlcromlcrofaradlo 0 plcofaradio

                _ J A?em~s de ~slar claslficados por:u capacidnd de carga erl Jamdios, los condensadores ticncn otra

                . caraclerfstica llarnada voltaje de trabajo y que determina e! voltaje que soportan entre sus placns sill dallarse.

                'EJemplo . Un condensador puedc ldentiflcarse C0l110

                Cl ~ 50 ~tf/ 200 voltlos

                ,'. . ~

                Esto quiere declr que tlene una capacidnd de nlmacennmiento de 50 microfaradios y soporra IIIj

                I

                ~ .. -- ~.;,+~-.

                voltn]e hnsta de idO voltlos. No se puede nlimentnr

                . con n1tis d~ 2(>q volUos porque puede explolnr. .

                tf t!H t~ bnktld renl los cohdcnsndorcs se deben , : ut'iliz .. :it toli tlHIt t:aprtddrtd, de ,ct dob!« del voltaje

                que se le v, A ripllc:ir ell el circuito, por 10 tanto: slemi~: 'ilre se debe co~,ocd In c6pacitnncin y ln cnpncklad de ; ;'\l11nnejo devoftnj~ del, condensador.

                iJr.'~(h~tr~ ~'It>' (f~t;~i~llrhHl 1:1 cn,,:wltni1d:1

                . LbS fnhtord flue dclcrmjll:tll hcnhtid:ul de cnrgn

                qile pnedd, nlmacenar till condcnsador soli:

                I .

                J - Et trtt~i:Hio (te stis t,lncns

                J - Ln d(st!mdn eittre sus plncns \of

                . ,

                J - td tlp,o (Ie rilslndor 0 diel~etrico que utlllzn.

                ESludiflre!Ji.s cndn una de dins [n evemcnte.

                JJ Mcflhln ('r h'{ 1,lnt'ft<;

                "l1del,llOs vcr f:kil"wI1n: ell la lig."':! I Yl, que II1lc,ttrn~ ,",is . ~tl1"dl's sc:'" Ins 1),lncas, ,de till CI)IHtCllspt1ol' .. Ihas tICl:II~'IH':s y cnrgas I)OSI!'V~S, sc I'm'dell i;'l:lllc.lar Y flor CII(k hay Ilt:lynl rap:lClI:1tlCl:l.

                f

                'r

                ': :

                /

                f -. • J ~ •

                ~l dbndclldJot A cun plncns III~S pC<lllellR~. nlnuicena h,~Ub~ chtM que el condcusmlor lJ.

                ~; 'j', .. \

                J "1.'if~"d:1 ~ht't (' "tnrns,)o .

                LD)";7~:"'-, .

                J Micntrns tnds t.,tn sh In \H~Inl1c1h entle hs 1,lncas, figtir:i I ~6, "t,t~lts r{Hnde sent ln .(:nlmdd~( de cnrgn 0 cnpucltancla. COIIIO lns plnr ns ( cl condensador A csMn In~s ccrcauas, cndn placa puede teller Inns efecfq 0 inth.lCl1cia sobre la otrn.

                0,/ Co'n~ pl:tcns igtlnlcs, ct coudensndor 1\ tiette el' doble de trllirtcitnncia que cI condcnsndor B. ;

                ~l'Ir;() ,it- j~slliht~', (I <lid6" ,ko .

                J UI tlpo de nislatifc (l diclcctrit"o dcte, minn ln "alli· ' , Ii ad {tI~tlt"te del coudcnsudor y - por 10 tll"le, ta C!lntld~(' "~ ciHft!{ ~tle pticde a hnnccunr eil S\l~ Jllaca~

                Distancia

                ,

                . ',' . ~ "

                ! sin que se pasen 0 haynn Iugns de una placn a _ ofr~;

                fi~mtn.· .

                Los mejores dlelectricos sort aquellos que p"ed,en ser de lgados, 10 que permlte colocar mhy cerca Ins - lJlncas y lener capacidades altas sln aumentnr mucho ef tamaflo.

                cEnAMIC"

                rig. 137

                "i

                Los condensadores se divlden ell dos grnndcs ramitl:1s:. fijos y variables. A su vez, cndn Familia ~ tiene dlferentes divlslones segiln Ja forrnn y los matcriales ernplendos en su conslrucclon.

                - Los prindrnld tipos de cOl1de"~ado'Cs Iijos son: los de "npe, los de disctf 0 cerdmicos r los

                ~ electroltilcos. En los variables los dos principnles ti"o~ son: los dielectricos de Rife y los de pldstico.

                "(

                U Conrlensndures fijus de pnpel

                '. : Los;, condensadores de p,npei util!zfl.1l CO!TlO dlel~c{hco till pape! de alta calidad tralado especialmente: Figura 138.

                Pant sus placas se ulilizRn l~mJt1tts de alull1init~ de . Alta pureza y en SU fabricrid6n se eurollan capas altetnndrts de ldmlna y de pape].

                i ..' .

                UCondf:'nsndorcs de «fisc. de cern mica n

                ccrtimlcos I

                , Lo~ ,cnndcl1s:tdorcs ccrrimlcos emple~JfI "" mnletint dielectrlco Inbrlcnrlo a partir de tienn :f\lmJioll,

                rf.kn· ClUJ" n.(.iel?.I~ Urcr,<1",'", ApliClJot1 . I),,;,hl') 1 i

                rig. 139

                J Los 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                Ell la practlca i se enrolla sobre el ti.J1000 un papel poroso que est~ impregnndo COIl el diel~chico. 1J1- bldo It este tipo de consttucd6n, los condensndorcs electrolltlcos estan polarlzados, esto es, Iiencn un terminal positlvo y U!10 negativo: figura 140.

                Los condcnsndotcs variables SOli nqucllos a los que se lcs puede vnrlar SlI cnpncklad p<.lt II rruill~. ' t11·cdnkos. Estos SC eucucntrnn en rnngos de J pf hnsta 3fJ5 pf Y viench run dieldctrlco de nile 0 de

                pMstlco.

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                lin com CI1S.I( or . .~ ;":\:1. J ,!;:j ".; ~l;; ,,' otro lmportanie conceplo sobre condensadorcs.

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