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Umesh Nair April 25, 2005

1

Introduction

This document is prepared to answer a puzzle posed by R. Nandakumar in his blog http://nandakumarr.blogspot.com/2005/04/glass-bulbs-puzzle.html. I had tackled this problem a while back, when my friend Sharad Kedia asked this question in Mentor Graphics India puzzle group. My solution is given below. Sharad used eggs while Nandakumar used bulbs. That is the only diﬀerence.

2

Question

You have two eggs. you need to ﬁgure out how high an egg can fall from a 100 story building before it breaks. The eggs might break from the ﬁrst ﬂoor, or might even survive a drop from the 100th ﬂoor – you have no a priori information. What is the largest number of egg drops you would ever have to do to ﬁnd the right ﬂoor? (i.e. what’s the most eﬃcient way to drop the eggs and determine an answer?) You are allowed to break both eggs, as long as you identify the correct ﬂoor afterwards. After you’ve solved the above problem, generalize. Deﬁne the break ﬂoor as the lowest ﬂoor in a building from which an egg would break if dropped. Given an n story building and a supply of d eggs, ﬁnd the strategy which minimizes (in the worst case) the number of experimental drops required to determine the break ﬂoor.

3

Notations

**For discussing the solutions, the following notations are used in this chapter.
**

n r

= Binomial coeﬃcient n Cr =

n! r!(n−r)!

1

2. So.e] D[f.Nd − 3 f[4.Nd ] = F3. This can be continued like this: Let f[d. d2 − d(d − 1) ≥ 100 2 2 . we need to ﬁnd d such that F[d.Nd − d(d − 1) 2 (1) Now. 3. we should span them in such a way that every sub-case should take Nd drops in the worst case. the solution is quite obvious.Nd − 1.2 + Nd − 3 = 4. so the next drop should be at Nd + Nd − 1 = 2.2.2. Now we have Nd − 1 drops left. 2.Nd ] = d.e] E[f.. Nf . the right ﬂoor can be found by trying ﬂoors 1 − Nd ..Nd − 1 f[3.2. requiring Nf drops.e. The minimum number of eggs needed to test f ﬂoors in d drops.1 Particular solution for 100 ﬂoors and two eggs Initial solution If there is only one egg. So. so that if it breaks. F[d.d] ≥ 100. the initial drop should be from ﬂoor Nd .Nd ] = Nd f[2. There is nothing better than trying at every ﬂoor 1. to solve the particular problem.2 + Nd − 2 = 3. The minimum number of drops needed to test f ﬂoors with e eggs. .2.F[d.d] d e Nf Ne Nd = = = = = = = = The highest ﬂoor that can be tested with d drops and e eggs. .Nd ] = F2.2 + Nd − 1 = Nd + Nd − 1 = 2.Nd − 6 ..Nd ] denote the ﬂoor that need to be tried at the dth drop when there are e eggs and we know the correct number of drops Nd . and we ﬁnally ﬁnd the minimum number of drops Nd needed for Nf ﬂoors. . Drop counter Egg counter.Nd ] = F1.2. When there are two eggs. A given number of ﬂoors (= 100 in the question) A given number of eggs (= 2 in the question) A given number of drops 4 4. f[1.

Please read further.2.14] = 39 f[3.2.d d2 + ≥ 100 2 2 d2 + d − 200 ≥ 0 Solving for equality.14] = 99 That is only 11 drops.14] = 90 f[3. I realized we need to start from the top for an eﬃcient solution. and the 12th drop can be at 100. See section 5. Now the values are f[1.14] = 69 f[3. 90. An attempt to reduce the number of drops to 13 fails. 46. we would have a unique solution.2.2. because we will be stuck at 91 after 13.14] = 60 f[3. 55..14] = 77 f[3. still we need 14 drops.14] = 50 f[3. and we cannot determine where it breaks between 92 and 100 if it hasn’t broken yet2 . we get −1 ± √ 12 + 4. With 14 drops and two eggs.2.2 A simpler solution Somewhere in the middle of the solution given above. 4. If the break ﬂoor is one 13.2.2. 26.2. 63.14] = 14 f[2.200 = 13. 91. 25.65 2 d= So the least value of d is 141 . Here is that approach: 1 It is unfortunate this doesn’t solve to an integer. as I mentioned.2.2. A second thought revealed that we can arrive at a solution by doing only that and without doing any other complicated calculations. do we need only 12 drops? Not really.2.14] = 84 f[3. 88. we can test upto 105 ﬂoors. 70. If the above quadratic equation has only one positive root. to tempt the solver to make a wrong conclusion that only 12 drops are necessary. 85. 2 May be this is another trap. 36.2. we have many solutions.14] = 95 f[3. Perhaps it is intentional.14] = 27 f[3. 3 . 38 etc. 81. Because of this. So.65 or −14. 76.

95. 45. FNd −2 = 97. as explained in section 4.2] for any given d. 99.2] = 3 F[3. the third at 3. 5 5.2] ) The ﬁrst attempt is to ﬁx Ne = 2. 4 . 34.2] = 6 F[4.. 94. 99.e] . FNd −4 = 90 etc. What if we have got another egg and another drop? We can try that egg ﬁrst.2] = 10 etc. 85. 5. 79.1. 98 or 97.2] = d. for the previous drop.Let us abbreviate f[d.(d − 1) = 2 2 (3) F[1. and then computing the maximum F[d. so F[d. and it takes 14 drops.e] for some d and e.Nd] as Fd . FNd −3 = 94 (with 97. 55. In order to get this eﬃciently. 22. Now. 97.(d + 1) d. 9 and this is a solution.2 A recurrance relation for F[d. 96 or 97.(d − 1) 2 (2) d. or FNd = 100. the second at 2.2] = 1 F[2. 100).d − or F[d. so that after it is broken. Counting like this we get the drop ﬂoors from the top are 100.d − 1. let us say we know F[d.e] The next attempt is to generalize for any Ne .2] = d2 − so that d. 90. 72. 64. The second egg is reserved for the 100th ﬂoor. The ﬁrst drop should be at d. we need FNd −1 = 99. (so that the remaining 2 drops could be used at 99 and 98/100). 99. Now. we might have broken all the e eggs by now.2. the resulting problem is ﬁnding F[d.d − 3 etc.1 General Solution General solution with 2 eggs (expression for F[d.

This means. d] if d < e. so that 1.e] + F[d.e−1] + F[d−1.e] + 1)th ﬂoor ﬁrst and try that egg.e+1] + 1 or F[d. we have (e + 1) eggs and d drops left. If it doesn’t break. We will go to the (F[d. (6) (7) (5) (4) ----------------------------------------e=1 e=2 e=3 e=4 e=5 -----------------------------------------d = 1 1 d = 2 2 3 d = 3 3 6 7 d = 4 4 10 14 15 d = 5 5 15 25 30 31 d = 6 6 21 41 56 62 d = 7 7 28 63 98 119 d = 8 8 36 92 162 218 d = 9 9 45 129 255 381 d = 10 10 55 175 385 637 d = 11 11 66 231 561 1023 d = 12 12 78 298 793 1585 d = 13 13 91 377 1092 2379 d = 14 14 105 469 1470 3472 d = 15 15 120 575 1940 4943 d = 16 16 136 696 2516 6884 5 .e] = f [d. we have e eggs and d drops to tackle F[d. if it breaks. which we know we can. with which we can cover another F[d.1] = 1 F[d.e] + 1 with the obvious specializations F[1.e+1] ﬂoors.e] ﬂoors. So. F[d. initially we have (d + 1) drops and (e + 1) eggs. we get the recurrance relation F[d+1.e+1] = F[d. Here are the values till d=16 and e=5.e] = F[d−1.1] = d Also. 2.

let us calculate F[d+1. because some cases do not require Ne drops. The maximum number of ﬂoors that can be tested using d drops and e eggs is given by e F[d.e] . 11. How will we solve it? We know we need 6 drops. E[f.d] etc. 6. For example. we need only 4 drops in the example.6 Finding general expressions In this section. we are trying to arrive at formulae for F[d. at 26.e] . 37. we can infer that.e] By observing the case with 6 drops and 4 eggs (see ﬁgure 1 on the next page). So we proceed as given in ﬁgure 1 on the following page 6. We have 56 ﬂoors and 4 eggs. 6 . Now. the problem is reduced to ﬁnd how many unique paths are there. in the optimal case. if the break ﬂoor is 1. the ﬁrst egg will survive 26 and break at 41. D[f.e] = i=1 d i (8) Proof by Induction: This proof uses the well-known identity3 n n + k k+1 = n+1 k+1 (9) Let 8 is true for some d and e. For example. if the break ﬂoor is. 4 and 1. It is less than 2Ne .e] . say.1 A particular case with 56 ﬂoors and 4 eggs Let us take a particular case big enough to analyze. 3 This can be proved easily by observing the Pascal’s triangle. It is already clear that a particular path and result set correspond to a particular ﬂoor. each break ﬂoor corresponds to a deﬁnite unique path. See [1].2 Finding general expression for F[d. the second egg will survive 33 and break at 37. So. So. the third egg will survive 35 and 36. giving the break ﬂoor 37. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the break ﬂoor and the result set in a path.

3 4/2:4 3/2:7 2/2:9 1/2:10 5/3:11 3/2:14 2/2:16 1/2:17 2/1:12.3/1:1.6 1/1:8 4/3:18 1/1:19 2/2:20 1/2:21 3/3:22 1/1:23 2/2:24 1/2:25 6/4:26 3/2:29 2/2:31 1/2:32 2/1:27.2.13 1/1:15 2/1:5.28 1/1:30 4/3:33 1/1:34 2/2:35 1/2:36 3/3:37 1/1:38 2/3:39 1/2:40 5/4:41 1/1:42 2/2:43 1/2:44 3/3:45 1/1:46 2/3:47 1/2:48 4/4:49 1/1:50 2/3:51 7 3/4:53 1/2:52 1/1:54 2/3:55 1/2:56 Figure 1: Particular case with 6 drops and 4 eggs .

e] = F[d.e+1] + 1 e = i=1 d−1 d−1 + +1 i i i=1 e+1 d−1 d−1 d−1 + + .+ +1 (10) 1 2 e−1 1 2 e d d+1 d+1 d+1 + + + .e+1] = F[d−1. Proof by derivation: Consider the example worked out.F[d+1. the validity of the expression is proved by induction.e] + 1 e−1 = i=1 d d + +1 i i i=1 e = = = d d d d d d + + .... Table 1 on the next page lists the number of eggs broken (0 or 1) at each drop corresponding to each ﬂoor.. with 56 ﬂoors.+ 1 2 e d−1 d−1 d−1 + + + ... 8 on page 6 is true for d=1.e−1] + F[d.e+1] also.. 4 eggs and 6 drops. we can ﬁnd F[d. e=1.+ +1 1 2 e+1 d−1 d d d = + + + ···+ +1 1 2 3 e+1 = e+1 (11) = i=1 d i Since eq..+ + + + . F[d.. 8 ..+ +1 1 2 3 e e i=1 d+1 i d +1= d+1 = 1 d+1 1 because Similarly. Let us consider in which drops the eggs break in each case.e] + F[d−1.

. the total number of cases is 6 + 15 + 20 + 15 = 56.1. 0 0 0 0 Drop # 3 4 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 .0. 2.0.. Exactly three eggs will be broken in 5.0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 1 . So.0) ⇒ 40. That is in 6 cases.0. 1 0 1 0 Table 1: Number of eggs broken in each drop We can observe the following from this table: 1.1.0..1.(1.0. Exactly four eggs will be broken in 6 4 6 2 6 3 = 15 cases.. two eggs will be broken in 2 ﬂoors .e] = i=1 d i which is (8)..0. No eggs will be broken in only one case . .. .. .0. (0. This can be generalized with d drops and e eggs.1) ⇒ 56. which will cover all the ﬂoors considered. Exactly two eggs will be broken in 4.0. . e F[d.. .0.0. .1. 9 . (0.Floor 1 2 3 4 5 . (0.0) ⇒ 25. 1 3.0) ⇒ 52. .... 1 1 0 0 6 1 0 . .0. e eggs will be broken in d e .0.0..0) ⇒ 48.. = 20 cases. (0.0.0. In d drops. We need not consider this case.0.0. Exactly one egg will be broken in six cases . So. .0) ⇒ 55 and (0. 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 .when the break ﬂoor is > 56. 1 egg will be broken e e in 1 ﬂoors.0. .0. = 15 cases.. 54 55 56 > 56 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

given the number of ﬂoors f and the number of eggs e. 6.d] Not even tried it so far. The original puzzle is in this form where f = 100 and e = 2. and ﬁnd where F[d. ﬁnd the minimum number of drops needed to ﬁnd the break ﬂoor. 10 .e] The task here is.6. The best way to tackle this problem is to use eq.e] equals or exceeds f .4 Finding general expression for E[f.e] yet. 8 on page 6 for each d(d ≥ e). I could not ﬁnd a straight formula for D[f.3 Finding general expression for D[f.

References [1] R. Knuth. Patashnik. 1994. Concrete Mathematics.E. Addison-Wesley. and O.L. 2nd Ed. D. Graham. 11 .

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