The Study of American Government (Chapter 1) Two Basic Questions: 1) Who governs?

-- The distribution of political power in a society; To what ends?-- goals values policies of a society Basic Political Concepts power: The ability of one person (or group) to get another person (or a group) to act in accordance with the first person’s (group’s) intentions. Resources of power: force, wealth, numbers, organizational skill, legal talent, etc. Authority: the right to use power; formal authority --the right to use power that is vested in a government office. Legitimacy: political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution--e.g. U.S. Constitution Democracy-- rule of the people (broad definition) Types: a. Direct or Participatory democracy: a political system in which all or most citizens participate by either holding office or making policy. The town meeting, in which citizens vote on issues, is an example of participatory democracy. It has its origins in the ancient Greek city-states which Aristotle wrote about. Another example is the initiative/referendum device (direct legislation by the people by-passing state legislatures) which a number of states, mainly midwestern and western, have. Note discussions of Proposition 13, Proposition 187 and the California Civil Rights Initiative (Proposition 209). Initiative: a procedure allowing voters to submit a proposed law to a popular vote by obtaining a required number of signatures (see page 10). Depending on the state, initiatives require between 5 and 15 percent of those who voted in the last election to sign a petition Referendum: The practice of submitting a law to a popular vote at election time. The law may be proposed by a voter initiative. Referenda also may be used to enable voters to reject measures adopted by state legislatures. Recall: a procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office. If enough signatures are gathered on a petition, the official must go before voters, who can vote to leave the person in office, remove the person from office, or remove the person and replace him or her with someone else. Note the California governor’s recall election in 2003. Initiative, referendum, and recall are elements of direct democracy in the United States at the state level. See discussion on p. 59 in the federalism chapter b. Representative democracy: A political system in which leaders and representatives acquire political power by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote. This is the form of government used by most nations that are called democratic. See Schumpeter’s definition and Madison statement in Federalist #10. Direct v. Representative Democracy: Which is better? advocates of representative democracy stress the filtering notion; the representative acts as a filter, a broker or compromiser of many interests, helps to tone down politics, filter out extreme demands. This type of democracy depends on open, free elections, adequate funding of opposing parties and accountability. advocates of direct democracy: stress virtues of neighborhood or community control -- allow people to decide on issues that affect them; note the controversy over referenda -- do they polarize? When the Framers of the Constitution spoke disparagingly of democracy (see Federalist 10), they were referring to direct democracy and its potential association with fleeting passions and popular demogogues. When they recommended a “republican form of government,” they meant representative democracy. How Power is distributed in a Democracy majoritarian politics: the majority feels so intense that elected officials feel constrained to follow the will of the majority -this can lead to the famous “tyranny of the majority” articulated by Tocqueville in Democracy in America and Madison in Federalist #10. Elite: an identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource -- e.g. power, money, access to media, organizational ability. Four Social Theories of Elite Influence A. Marxist: government reflects underlying forces; class conflict; bourgeois v. proletariat; projection of the communist

revolution in industrialized societies. B. Power elite: associated with American sociologist C.W. Mills. Holds that an interlocking directorate of key military, business, government and communications leaders set the agenda and in effect make the key decisions in American society; democratic forms merely ratify what has already been decided by the elite. C. Bureaucratic view. Max Weber, early 20th century German sociologist advanced the view that in modern societies specialized knowledge and technical expertise held by the higher echlons of the bureaucracy were key factors. The higher level bureaucrats are not accountable or elected by the people. D. Pluralism: premised on dispersion (decentralization) of power through separation of powers, federalism. This theory holds that political resources are widely dispersed throughout the society. All important interests will have some access. The notion of multiple access points is key. If one branch or level of government is unresponsive (e.g., Congress or state legislature) try another (Federal Courts). Note that NAACP strategy from the late 1930s through the 1950s. (See pages 127-134 in Chapter 6 for a discussion of this strategy). Many argue that pluralism mirrors American society the closest of the theories presented here. It is the dominant model in political science for explaining American government. Criticisms: there are two faces of power (visible and hidden ). The pluralists concentrate only on the visible and neglect issues that don’t come before a public forum, issues that affect groups without resources or access. These are called non-decisions. The plight of the homeless and mentally ill in American cities can be considered a type of non-decision. Beyond Self Interest Wilson and DiIulio reject narrow self-interest as basic motivations for American politics. They cite the Founding experience of the 1770s and 1780s and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s as evidence of public spirited behavior. What Explains Political Change The text’s authors refer to changing beliefs about government. In the 1920s the federal government played a smaller role in our lives; since the 1930s we have seen an expansion of government activism, though not on the scale of the European welfare state democracies (see chapter 4). “What Would You Do?” What are the authors getting at? State the arguments for and against initiatives and relate them to the issue of direct vs. representative democracy. The Summary and Key Terms section highlight the most salient points in the chapter. Comprehending these summaries and terms will assist you in studying for exams. Chapter One focused on the lexicon of politics – power, authority, legitimacy, elites, majoritarian politics. Two major theoretical themes were explored 1) direct vs. representative democracy the nature of devices of direct democracy such as initiatives and referenda vs. the Madisonian notion of filters; 2) and Elites and Political Power, Who Governs? – Marxists, elitist theory (C.W. Mills), bureaucracy (Weber), and pluralists Wilson and DiIulio in their “Reconsidering Who Governs?” summary reiterate the basic answers given in the chapter. Most political scientists, including the authors, lean to the pluralist approach, but even they note that resources are not equally distributed. Note the non-decisions critique of pluralism. In discussing change they stress that, at least since the 1930s, we expect more from the federal government. In the “Reconsidering Ends,” the authors stress the tradeoffs among values -- e.g., procedural rights and security. The classic trade-off in the American system is between liberty and equality.


equality of representation.) Act of Separation: significance of “free and independent states” American Revolution 1776-1781 Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 unicameral. 1600-1750 “salutary neglect”-. right of revolution b. State Constitution experience Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 (close to direct democracy–legislative supremacy) Massachusetts Constitution of 1780 (separation of powers. consent of governed. attacks on juridical rights. traditional liberties to which they thought they were entitled as British subjects: trials under judges independent of the King. could not enforce laws or treaties.lack of a national army and navy 6.. could not levy taxes directly 2.) 5 self evident truth organized around Lockian ideas of natural right. Liberty as Goal of the American Revolution. Lexington and Concord (1775) Tom Paine’s radical pamphlet Common Sense--no compromise.) Bill of Particulars (listing of grievances against the British Government and king: attacks on self-government. religious tests. state support of religion. time for revolution is at hand.24) Two Treaties on Government (1690) state of nature. social contract. social contract. no Supreme Court--difficult to settle inter-state disputes 8. no taxation without representation. 1754-1761 Seven Years War (French and Indian War) Pamphlet War 1760-1776 : colonial protests against restrictions on trade and imposition of taxes (“no taxation without representation”) Civil disobedience: Boston Massacre (1770). delegates to confederal Congress were loyal to states 5. property). right of revolution The Declaration of Independence: a.underscored weakness of Articles and even state militias in securing “domestic tranquility” The Philadelphia Convention (May . Boston Tea Party (1773). 23-24) 1. liberty. concern for character formation) Annapolis Convention 1786 -.The American Founding and The Constitution (Chapter 2). June-July 1776 Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence influence of John Locke (p. could not regulate commerce 3.note role of Hamilton-. states could issue paper money 4. e.British government enabled the colonies to develop institutions of self-government and allowed them to considerable economic freedom. state militias primary units of defense-. natural or unalienable rights ( to “revise” the Articles in the new convention in Philadelphia Shays Rebellion Jan 1787 debtor revolt in western Massachusetts-.26) Randolph and the Virginia Plan . military oppression c. power in state government characterized by legislative supremacy Weaknesses of the Articles (pp. 25. unanimity need for amendments 7. economic deprivation (trade and taxes). property qualifications. right to engage in trade without burdensome restrictions.September 1787) Portrait of the Framers (p.

ancients vs moderns Aristotle Locke. the state legislature chose the electors. Whoever wins the popular vote in a state wins all of the state’s electoral votes (unit rule). or where State action disrupts harmony of the union Veto state laws Use military against states Treaties Supreme law of land Executive and Judiciary selected by National legislature New Jersey Plan Unicameral Small states confederation equality of representation Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise) Bicameral legislature (House based on population. It is possible for the popular vote winner nationwide to lose. 22nd amendment (1951) two-term limit Electoral College: each state gets electors equal to the number of representatives it has and its two senators. majority of the people. The Founders and Democracy. Madison virtue interest . Some sets of people selected by the people and others are indirectly selected by the people by their state legislatures and other groups of people who share power. Each state delegation gets one vote. In the early decades.S. England) have power centralized in a national government. treaties. independent of states Representation based on population Power to pass all laws in which States are incompetent. a winning candidate must win a sufficient number of states to get 270 or more electoral votes. Today. Plural (Randolph-. and can void laws passed by the people’s elected representatives. Senate on equality of states) President and Judiciary separated from the legislature and independently selected House 2 year term directly elected. Most European countries (e. 29). Notion of two majorities and concept of indirect democracy.. Government and Human Nature Human nature good enough to make self government under a republic possible.Virginia Plan bicameral Large states Unitary form. 2. Key point: the electoral college has been democratized over time. Judicial review is also a way to limit the power of the people.— The people could be duped by demagogues. 1. see chart p. Both are ways of dividing power. majority of the states. and federalism. Senate 6 year term chosen by state legislatures note 17th amendment (1913) direct election of U. They preserved majority rule. exports slavery: 3/5’s compromise: each slave counted as three-fifths of a free person for representation and taxation purposes slave trade: no prohibition before 1808 fugitive slave provision Key principles in the Constitution: separation of powers (with checks and balances.g.“foetus of a monarchy”) Wilson and Hamilton prevailed a single president see Federalist 70 How long? 4 year term with unlimited re-eligibility. senators Presidency Compromises How many? Single v. Federal Judiciary: President nominates. federal judges are not elected but are appointed for life. the House of Representatives decides. The Founders favored a republic over a democracy because they didn’t want to place too much power in the hands of the people. but not that good to make it inevitable. It decides how to choose them. now voters vote for them by voting a party slate. Senate confirms federal judges have life tenure once confirmed Other Compromises commerce. Though opposed to “rule by the people” the founders not anti-majoritarian. If no candidate obtains a majority.

Bill of Rights were added in 1791. channel interest. disharmony annihilation of states -. Baltimore 1833). Box on Bill of Rights Broad Sets of Liberties Protected by the Bill of Rights 1) Religious and Political Liberties – First Amendment (religion. lack of a Bill of Rights ( lasting contribution) There was a truncated bill of rights in the original constitution: e. Antifederalists thought cultivating virtue was necessary. 5.Sam Adams’ “Christian Sparta” v. Ex post facto law: Ex post facto is a Latin term meaning “after the fact. Incorporation began with a freedom of speech case in 1925. p. Hamilton and Jay (see pp. a retroactive criminal law. prohibition of bills of attainder.summarized by the phrase from Federalist 51: “ambition must be made to counteract ambition”. Madison’s “new science of politics”-. and ambition of men into the cause of stable and decent government through circumstance ( the large republic) and institutional devices ( separation of powers and checks and balances) Federalist Papers newspaper articles written to support the American Constitution during the ratification struggle by Madison. first 10 amendments. no religious test for office but Antifederalists insisted that this was not enough. ex post facto laws. supremacy clause. write of habeas corpus. Connecticut 1965 (see section on women and equal rights in the Civil rights chapter. The state legislatures and Congress are forbidden to pass such laws by Article I of the Constitution. or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge and show sufficient cause for his or her detention. or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier. Bill of attainder: A law that declares a person. New York. Charles Beard An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (1913):were the framers a conspiratorial economic elite intent on protecting their personal economic interests or were they merely representing the economic interests of their states? Did they always agree? Can economic interests conflict? Beard set off a debate. press. It still continues though more . passions.consolidation national government is too centralized presidential powers and standing army fear of judicial review.” A law that makes criminal an act that was legal when it was committed. 34-35) Federalist 10: problem of faction. To govern and pass laws need to for form coalitions. Amendment 10 –reserved powers is the basis for states rights Notes: The Bill of Right now apply to the states through the process known as incorporation where the Supreme Court using the equal protection and due process clauses of the 14th amendment gradually made the provisions of the Bill of Rights apply to the states. The writ of habeas corpus was designed to prevent illegal arrests and imprisonment. sheriff. 32-33). Gitlow v. argument for diversity. necessary and proper clause. 31) Ratification Procedure: 9 states by conventions of delegates elected by the people Antifederalist position on the Constitution (pp. that increases the penalty for a crime after it has been committed. without a trial. 6. The state legislatures and Congress are forbidden to pass such acts by Article I of the Constitution. large republic and pluralism (“a great variety of parties and interests”) moderation –need to accommodate diversity of interests. 143). 8 3) Unnamed Rights of the People and States Rights – Amendments 9 and 10 Amendment 9: used to fashion a right to privacy in the contraception use case of Griswold v. Federalist 51: argument for separation of powers and checks and balances (see p. to be guilty of a crime. assembly) 2) Protections Against Arbitrary Police and Court Action – especially Amendments 4.g. later they were incorporated or made applicable to the states through the 14th amendment– Page 37. extensiveness is a threat to liberty. Writ of habeas corpus: A Latin term meaning “you shall have the body. speech. Originally they applied only to the federal government ( Barron v. power to tax and spend.” A court order directing a police officer.

the majority. that is. 1. having the same interest or passion. although states were given more leeway. B. the framers represented the interests of their states and they did not always agree. Proposals: President draws cabinet from Congress.. either the existence of the same passion or interest in a majority at the same time. Motives of the the Framers Constitutional Reform A. Madison’s solution relies on the size of republics . by their number and local situation. Reduce separation of powers since it can lead to deadlock and inefficiency. Amendment Procedure Box. Remove causes: 1. Key: If the impulse and opportunity to act are allowed to coincide. unable to act in concert and carry into effect their schemes of oppression. allow president ability to dissolve Congress and call for new elections at any time. These people feel that the federal government has gotten too powerful vis a vis the states. Hence the reference to the Constitution as a “bundle of compromises. Control Effect (the solution Madison comes to) view of Human Nature “The latent causes of faction are sown in the nature of man..critical period of the 1780s described by the Federalist perspective. Reduce the Scope of the Federal Government Line-item veto (see p. for Madison this is the mortal disease of popular governments definition of faction: a group in seeking its interests may be advers to the rights of other citizens and the permanent and aggregate interests of the community Proposed Solutions Two methods: A. must be prevented. because it did not expressly condone federal government aid to religion. 45). religion or morality Two ways to undermine the political (electoral) effectiveness of potential majority factions (p. “it is well known that neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as an adequate control. balanced budget amendment. must be rendered.. The proper role of church and state is a major area of contention in the courts and source of political conflict today. or. allow Congress to vote “no confidence” in a president and call for new elections. This is called a party government proposal. p.homogeneity (“impracticable”) B. A23). A21-A25) ostensible theme: problem of factions theoretical significance: the large republic argument statement of the problem -.” commercial republic passage: the interests that develop in “civilized nations” principle task of modern legislation: regulation of interests views of elected officials: advocates and parties of interests can’t rely on enlightened statesmen.destroy liberty (“a cure worse than the disease”) 2. in part.” The Founding Debate Over Church and State: The Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution. force congress and the president to run as a team in each congressional district so that a president will have a congressional majority and end “divided” government. 44 Proposal 2/3 of both house of Congress or 2/3 of states ask Congress to call a constitutional convention(never used) Ratification 3/4 of state legislatures or 3/4 of state conventions Note relationship between extraordinary and nationally distributed majorities ( broad consensus) the case of ERA Federalist Papers 10 and 51 Federalist #10 (pp.recent historians take a more pluralist view. 2. limit appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

. Two ways: create a will independent of the people—rejects this Large republic reiteration of #10 (“multiplicity of interests.” principle of pluralism and countervailing balance: no one interest will become so powerful as to oppress the others Federalist #51 (pp. v. compound republic (federalism) Protecting the weaker (smaller part of society) from oppression of the stronger (larger).. the authors note its evolvement with the 19th amendment and state option (as in Wyoming) before that. With respect to women’s equality. representative democracy and compromise 3. representatives are good in and of themselves -.democracy pure. “defect of better motives” Examples of checks: bicameralism because of legislative dominance president’s veto to fortify the office Two considerations: Protecting the people from oppression from the government..30. The Constitution (pp. tension between liberty and equality Reconsidering Who Governs – here the stress is on the distinction between direct and representative democracy which Madison called a republic. Human nature passages “new science of politics” “ambition must be made to counteract ambition” “need for auxiliary precautions” Dependence on the people as a check is not enough.instead of ‘We the States’?” . Note enormous growth and responsibility of the federal government. will act as filters to moderate intemperate demands..” institutional will and separate selection modes some deviation with the judiciary No branch should have the control over the salaries of the other branches...” signifies one nation -.. v.Patrick Henry (a leading Antifederalist ) “What right had they [the Convention] to say ‘We the People.34-35) and the section on “Government and Human Nature” beginning on p. It allows flexibility. Enduring Questions 1.. A26-A29) Theme: separation of powers. v. Constitution is flexible about ends. republic representative large promises the cure for which we are seeking representation makes possible the large republic. View of Human Nature in the Constitution 2. the advantages of representatives in large districts advantages of federalism Extensiveness: “Extended the sphere. Wilson and DiIulio also note a literal reading of the Constitution would make Congress the first branch but the relationships have evolved. A4-A29) Preamble “We the people.. direct small no cure v. checks and balances constitutional engineering “so contrive the interior structure of government. multiplicity of sects”) These notes are no substitute for a reading of the Papers. Simple vs.will be better governors than the people themselves in a direct democracy. Also consult the box on The Federalist Papers 10 and 51" (pp..

Judiciary -. senators (1913) XVIII. Citizenship for ex-slaves and descendents.S. (1961) XXIV. Two-term limitation for President (1951) XXIII. Reserved powers of the states XI. Jury trial. incorporation beginning with Gitlow v.Section 2 and 3 (presidential powers) III. Inauguration moved up. Religion (establishment. Electoral college reform “distinct ballots” (1804) XIII. New York 1905). Poll tax banned (1964) XXV. Rights of persons accused of crime VI.g. Abolition of slavery (1865) XIV. Presidential disability (1967) XXVI. counsel (note Gideon v. press. Civil suits in federal courts VIII. Brown v. end of lame-duck Congress (1933) XXI. use of due process clause to protect business firms(legal persons) from government regulation during laissez faire era (Lochner v. Legislative -. cruel. Voting rights cannot be abridged by race (1870) XVI.Articles I. Excessive bail.Board of Education 1954 [1868] XV. Right to bear arms III. Executive -. regulation of interstate and foreign commerce. extradition) and guarantee clause V. Repeal of Prohibition (1933) XXII.Supreme Court and lower federal courts Congress creates Note judicial review is not mentioned IV. Amendments Bill of Rights 1-X (1791) I. Electoral votes for D.note ruling in Barron v. Section 8 Enumerated a. Wainwright 1963) VII. New York 1925 -.e. Prohibition (1918) XIX. VII. erection of forts. and unusual punishments IX. Direct election of U. arsenals) Implied Powers derived from the elastic clause (“necessary and proper” clause -.45) There was no time limit for ratification in 1789. assembly II. today usually 7 years (1992) National supremacy and no religious test for federal office Ratification: 9 states by convention . copyrights and patents) b. Baltimore 1833. Quartering of soldiers IV. Griswold v.g. Connecticut 1965) X. economic(taxing. Amendment procedure -.g. national security (declaring war. Congressional pay rise limitation -. raising an army and navy. magazines.a “Rip Van Winkle” ratification (p. use of the equal protection clause in civil rights -. Women’s suffrage (1920) XX. Income tax (1913) XVII.Article I.C. 18 year old vote (1971) XXVII.What states owe each other (e. borrowing and coining money. speech. free exercise). punishing piracies. Restrictions on suits against states (1798) XII. ‘Federal’ article -.a basis for expansion of federal power) II.Proposal: 2/3 of both houses of Congress or 2/3 of states ask Congress to call a constitutional convention Ratification: 3/4 of state legislature or 3/4 of state conventions Note the reasons for extraordinary majorities VI. Unenumerated rights (e. Unreasonable searches and seizures V.


57. Each level retains sovereignty. The conservative members of the Court have put a brake on the expansion of federal powers using the elastic language of the Constitution. Emphasis in recent years on devolution and block grants (see definitions on pages 66. state) governments. strict construction Madison in Federalist #45 presents us with an almost layer cake definition: “The powers generated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Texas v.reserved powers The States and the Constitution. one level may not abolish the other. Section 1) and the potential of gay marriage. 1937 State Sovereignty Wilson and DiIulio write: “It would be a mistake to think that the doctrine of dual federalism is entirely dead. whisky in original package was inter-state. Section 8. Dagenhart 1918 constitutional revolution of 1937 -. p. note potential conflict with the Tenth Amendment -. Calhoun -.g. interstate commerce. graphic (pp. They are referring to the resuscitation of the Tenth Amendment in recent years by the Supreme Court. unitary see box. Federalist McCulloch v.” (p. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. Maryland Typology of constitutional systems: federal.see McCulloch v.Federalism Chapter 3 Definition: a division of powers and constitutional authority between a national and constituent (e. Maryland (1819) two key constitutional questions 1. e. key case in child labor restrictions Hammer v. see pp.Jefferson and Madison respond in the “Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions” advocate interposition John C. 53-54 Federalist #10 diversity and extensiveness: federalism as a response Federalist #28. and 70-71) Question of Boundaries “perpetually arising” -.1835) broad constructionist.expansion of the commerce clause NLRB vs. 1830 tariff controversy. Could Congress create the Bank? 2. 46: different layers of government for different purposes Tenth Amendment -. sold retail intrastate. White 1869 “one indissoluble union” dual federalism: intra v.” Debate over the meaning of federalism: major constitutional issue up to the Civil War Supreme Court emerges as arbiter John Marshall Chief Justice (1801.broad (loose) construction v. 1798 -. Clause 18. 60) Federalism and the American Founding a new hybrid: pre v. 53. provincial. Elastic Language: Article I. Note the emerging controversy over the “Full faith and credit” clause (Article IV.g. and Article VI. . post 1787 meaning. 57). Could Maryland tax the Bank? States Rights Antifederalists Alien and Sedition Acts 1797. confederal. see Box.theory of concurrent majorities. Jefferson -.issue of boundaries perpetually arising Hamilton v. nullification secession Civil War 1861-65. that is. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp.

and recall (definitions on p. (1997) – Court invalidated federal law that required local police to conduct background checks on all gun purchasers.“federal aid junkies” – In 2006. 1). Criminal justice and the banning of guns falls within the purview of the state’s police powers (p.“cooperative federalism” Evaluations: Federalism Good or Bad.importance of the census -. ch. tariffs. safety. clients. 63 – relate to direct democracy. surpluses 3. flexibility” Truman: “increased political activity” Grants-in-Aid land grant colleges.000 feet from a school. Local Governance City or municipal corporation is chartered by state a)special act charter – lists what a specific city can and cannot do b) general-act charters: different powers for different classes (usually based on population) of cities within a state Dillon’s rule: city powers narrowly specified by the state home rule charter–allows a city government to do anything not prohibited by charter or state law. City laws: ordinances Local governments: counties (usually between a state and city) special district governments school districts Federal-State Relations -. U. borrowing capacity of the federal government 4. 30% of state and local spending and 17% of Federal budget goes to aid states Controversy over Homeland Security money – Wyoming received 7 times per capita more than New York State. income tax 2. mobilization and lobbying-. Morrison (2000) Violence Against Women Act of 1994 overturned – violence against women do not substantially affect inter-state commerce. pork barrel politics -. community groups -. and morals of the people of a state.S.S. public works projects.Congress exceeded its commerce clause power by banning the carrying of guns 1. Laski: “parasitic and poisonous” Riker: “perpetuation of racism” Elazar: “laboratories for innovation.Sen. States can enact and enforce criminal codes. This was a violation of the Tenth Amendment by requiring states to carry out a federal regulatory program. v. 59) – state powers that promote the health. Muskie and Model Cities grants to cities. Printz vs.intergovernmental lobby types (pages 66): categorical often matching requirement designed for a specific purpose most conditions attached block consolidation of grants into a broader general grants-. restrict pornography. United States v.allows state and local officials maximum discretion(1972-1987) Rivalry among states -. referendum.movement from the Northeast . States may enact provisions for state and local officials more discretion revenue sharing return of tax receipts back to the states-.formulas based in part on population -. activities of prostitutes. Lopez (1995)-. growth in 1930s. Note the California recall election October 2003. pages 60-62. 1960s reasons: 1. require children to go the school and citizens be vaccinated.Key Cases U.

Medicaid still a federal-state partnership AFDC was devolved. nursing homes come under the Medicaid program Second order devolution: flow of power from states to local government Third order devolution: increased role of non-profits and private groups in policy implementation (e.implications for representation and the electoral college Debate over federal controls mandates note current debate over unfunded mandates. 68-69) activism of courts and public interest groups Slowdown in federal money and state response innovations in welfare. 1780s v. . diversity and local experimentation Page 72 “What Would You Do”? Attempts to convey variation in public policy in a federal system – the topics focuses on the different approaches the federal government and states take on the issue of faith-based initiatives (in light of recent Court decisions on Church-State relations). health care.g.g.. Medicaid was not Reason: Larger constituency for Medicaid -. e. Oregon’s rationing scheme Morton Grodzins: a student of federalism has argued that we have moved from layer-cake federalism to marble-cake federalism Types of grants and the partisan divide (pp. Charitable Choice. health care and job training.1st time since 1954 Types of Block Grants operational: running state programs capital: infrastructure and construction entitlement: income transfer AFDC: transferred to block grant. Deficits b. rational policies v.. efficiency personal freedom cultural variation v.of the Sunbelt -. It has been most evident in the areas of welfare. 70ff) Devolution (pp.including middle-class elderly.g. see box on page 72). Ideological mistrust of federal government c. education. Where is sovereignty located – federal and state governments share sovereignty – dual sovereignty. Reconsidering Who Governs? 1. political parties are weak diversity and fragmentation keeps American federalism alive American Federalism: Competing Values uniform policies v. conditions of aid (pp. 2000. 104th Congress (1994-96) Republican dominated -. 2. How is power divided – devolution revolution and the re-emergence of the Tenth Amendment after a period of federal government expansion. State innovations Congress and Federalism devolution has made headway because of localist orientation of Congress. increasing debate over faith-based organizations. Reasons for Devolution a. 70ff): The current effort to scale back the size and activities of the national government and to shift responsibility for a wide range of domestic programs from Washington to the states. Note different policy domains and time perspectives – e.

S. Lopez. some evidence that the Supreme Court seeks to effect more of a balance on the basis of state sovereignty decisions like U. Reconsidering To What Ends What issues ought to be left to the states? .Growth of federal government’s power vis-à-vis the states. v.


Bill of Rights b. replicated in the 1970s-90s. People of different ideologies (e. Sniderman. Civic Duty: participation. 80). ethnic groups within the larger political culture Foreign observers to U. Percentage of High School Students Agreeing 1924 1977 1989 1999 48 30 55 40 65 38 44 Since the Progressive (c.S. Absence of feudal tradition c.. American liberals and conservatives can share a political culture) Political subcultures: distinctive regional. The reason for economic Inequality is social injustice. The Economic System. If these values are important. An American Dilemma (1944) -a sociological study about race relations in the U.American Political Culture (Chapter 4) political culture -. freedom from. The Lynds’ Middletown studies 1920s. liberty. fundamental assumptions about how the political process ought to be carried out (see box on pg. 83. political speeches. 1900-1920) and New Deal (1930s) eras there has been growing support for regulation of business within a basically market system of free enterprise Americans are more willing to tolerate economic inequality than political inequality. Sears vs. How do we know that the American people share these beliefs? Can infer existence of values by books read. “ a patterned set of ways of thinking about how politics and governing ought to carried out.g. and the conflict of American Creed (belief in equality of opportunity) and American political behavior. Conflict within the consensus. Responsibility for Success or Failure Statement It is entirely the fault of a man 47 himself if he does not succeed.basis for egalitarianism. Hagen (p. Note distinction with ideology. Individual Responsibility: an obstacle to the development of the welfare state Three questions about this political culture. moral and intellectual characteristics (“Habits of the heart”) Elements of American Political Culture a. redistribution of wealth. environmental factors b.” Some scholars have interpreted individualistic values as “symbolic racism” – a kind of plausible camouflage for anti-black attitudes. They believe in maintaining “equality of opportunity” in the economy but not “equality of results.g. referred to on p. Empirical verification of consensus of the core elements of American political culture is reflected in the persistence of “Americanism” in the American vocabulary.a source of profound insights Tocqueville. Tocqueville. .negative liberty. how can we explain the existence in our society of behavior obviously inconsistent with them—e. Liberty -. 3. religious. individual rights e. 78). Gunnar Myrdal. There is a debate among scholars on this issue – Kinder. There is a long-standing commitment to individualism and personal responsibility in the US. Myrdal -. 2. denial of civil rights and equal opportunity.S.consensus on fundamental beliefs.g.g.e. Democracy in America (1835) what makes the American experiment in democracy work? a. Democracy: accountability and majority rule d. commentaries by famous foreigners. -. Equality ( of Opportunity) note distinction with Equality of Condition or Results -. importance of voting rights e. Bryce. election results. if inconsistency is made known people will realign behavior to conform with values. the welfare state c. Civil War. Proved that beliefs are important. 1. conflict between different values within the creed—equality of opportunity vs.

S.Orren Swedish-U.Tocqueville saw this -. Trust in government has declined since the 1960s. Reference to the Civic Culture – Americans had higher sense of civic duty and competence than citizens in Germany. Percentage Agreeing GB Germany 60 77 79 37 65 31 44 54 20 69 Religious Beliefs in America and Europe Statement Never doubt in existence of God.important relationship between religion and American democracy -. and Swedish example Data from the Orren-Verba study Income Equality in the Sweden and the U. Italy France 56 32 56 64 29 . Jeffersonian Democratic—Republicans.2 (p. 14% 68 4% 11 44 13 2:1 15:1 2:1 11:1 17 51 This type of study is used to underscore Americans’ commitment to free enterprise -.S. 85) which compare American political cultural attitudes with the attitudes of citizens in other countries. Founding Experience -. Mexico. 83) and Figure 4. Sources of American Political Culture A. loyal opposition Federalists v.1 (p.S. original sin and human depravity. equality in political.notions of equality of opportunity rather than equality of results U. Puritanical and biblical roots. There are clear guidelines U. Americans are more likely to believe in God and attend religious services. Lockean social contract ideas. Religion-. distrust of authority and of people wielding authoritiy.Cross-Cultural Comparisons (a) The Political System Sweden: constitutional democracy but more deferential than participatory Americans emphasize individualism. Political Party Leaders Social Democrats Democrats Equality of Results Equal Pay Favor Top Limit on Income Income Ratio 21% 58 9% 12 Union Leaders Sweden U.S.S.see Tables displayed below.S. constitutionalism and limited government. Prayer is an important part of my daily life. See Table 4. Income Equality in the Sweden and the U. B. preoccupation with rights.S. Commitment to Free Enterprise -. respect for hierarchy are emphasized.despite First Amendment U.S. economic. Bill of Rights (negative freedom).notions of equality of opportunity rather than equality of results. comparison show that Swedish politicians and union leaders were more in favor of economic equality and putting limits on income than their U. In Japan social harmony.devotion to individualism. Voting participation lagged but Americans participate in other ways. competition. Italy. counterparts. and social relations. 1800 election --great test of trusting others (opponents) with power. is a more religious society than most European nations -. (b) The Economic System from a Cross Cultural Perspective Verba.

The public expresses both support and reservations about faith-based programs. Religion in America Today Believe in God Say they have a personal relationship with God Never doubt God’s existence Say they are seeking to grow in religious faith Pray at least daily Are a member of a church. They help to mitigate individualism in American life. conducive to democracy and a participant civic culture C. 90-91). and many of the leaders were ministers. participant religious culture. Party identification is perhaps the most important political identity transmitted through the socialization process. ceremonial deism. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was rooted in the black churches and gained moral authority from religion. or public religion) were apparent in the reaction to the 9th circuit federal appeals court ruling that ruled that the phrase “under God” violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. Religious groups are major sources of social capital – seedbeds of volunteering and philanthropy. Absence of class consciousness -. Americans’ general feelings about religion (sometimes called civil religion. Martin Luther King. Research by economist Arthur Brooks show that religious people are more likely to give money to charity than seculars as well as volunteer their time. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1907) protestant culture despite separation of church and state. Reference to Horatio Alger stories P. The clergy supported the American Revolution. or other organized religious group Say religion can solve all or most of today’s problems Attend worship services more than once a month Percentage of Adult Americans 96 80 79 76 75 64 61 54 The Civic Role of Religion: Tocqueville saw religion as essential to civic life. synagogue. Religious leaders and ideas were involved in the struggle against slavery (many abolitionists were motivated by religion) resulting in the Civil War (1861-65) and the temperance movement. egalitarianism of American family. there has been an interplay historically between these two spheres of social life. 87. but its influence was indirect not state sponsored. .g. Family as transmitter e. Conservative Christians are an important constituency of the Republican Party and have been active in politics since the 1980s. including religious groups. which led to the 18th amendment (1918). Protestantism and individualism: Max Weber. general religion. A religious revival known as the First Great Awakening in the 1730s and 1740s led to notions of America as God’s “chosen nation. freedom of American children. Faith based programs which would allow religious organizations to deliver social services have entered the policy debate with the 2000 election. What does it mean to be “bowling alone”? Religion and Politics: Despite official separation.about what is good and evil. democratic political values are transmitted. Putnam’s data indicate that fewer Americans were joining voluntary associations. The case is still to be heard by the Supreme Court. mosque. Tocqueville’s ideas have been updated by a leading American political scientist Robert Putnam in his influential book Bowling Alone (pp. The book sparked a debate in American social science. Putnam notes a decline in American civic life and “social capital” – resources that are contributed to community betterment. Jr. This “greater giving” by religious people holds when the recipients of the charity are non-religious organizations as well as religious. notion of the work ethic congregational church structure: miniature political systems.historically Marxist and socialist parties have had little impact even in the Depression ridden 1930s. D.

2 p. disappointment with progress in civil rights.tolerance in the abstract not always in the concrete McClosky-Brill: elite vs. Ways in which the culture wars differ from other political disputes (taxes. following the news. Wilson and DiIulio point out that there are two culture classes ( orthodox and progressive ). “curriculum of inclusion” and the firing of Joseph Fernandez. McCarthyism (1950s) Democracy doesn’t require perfect tolerance: but it does require a political culture that allows for the discussion of ideas and the election of rulers in an atmosphere reasonably free of oppression. Note Putnam’s Bowling Alone studies. Reasons: 1. They are likely to believe that traditional morality is more important than individual liberty and should be enforced by government and communal norms. teledemocracy. Prothro-Grigg support for civil liberties -. greater mobilization There is an important scholarly debate over the culture wars. Watergate and other government scandals Civil Society (p. the conflict is more profound. Wilson and DiIulio point out that there are two culture classes ( orthodox and progressive ). Political tolerance e. Mistrust in government has been linked to wider declines in social and civic engagement. and independent of individual moral preferences. Is not just about what kinds of policies ought to be adopted. counterculture. business regulation. That is the standards that ought to govern individual behavior and social arrangements. fax machines. Note their application to abortion conflict. 2.g. Reasons for the importance of the culture wars these days. relatively tolerant society but periods of intolerance e.g. These issues are difficult to compromise.g. Orthodox view: People who believe that moral rules are derived from the commands of God or the laws of nature. controversy of the decriminalization of some drugs and the funding by NEA of “obscene art”. nativism 19th century. Figure 4. who see economic class as the basic division in society. pornography.The Culture War since 1960s: explosive issues of abortion. talk radio. Compromises are almost impossible to arrange. gay rights. It is animated by deep differences in people’s beliefs about private and public morality. Role of Federal Judges and Courts insulated from public opinon . social interactions with family and friends).3 shows a general decline in the civic health index (e. how is it that such groups (and such rights) survive. Relate to Madison Federalist number 10. commands and laws that are relatively clear. Sacco and Vanzetti). Political scientists like Morris Fiorina believe that the culture war is a myth at the mass level. but what kind of country we ought to live in. The more traditionalist or orthodox will tend toward the Republican Party. Red Scare 1920s (e. 3. drug use. most of us usually can’t agree on which group that should be. membership in civic groups. First Amendment liberties Democratic politics depends on citizens being reasonably tolerant of the opinions and behavior of others. 2. This idea doesn’t make sense to Marxist. 1. Other scholars like Alan Abramowitz note that more people are choosing party affiliation on the basis of the parties’ positions on important cultural and social issues. C-SPAN. 3. Money is not at stake. Pluralistic intolerance—even though most of us are ready to deny some group its rights. They are likely to favor government tolerance and the protection of individual choice. direct mail. progressives toward the Democratic Party. 90 note difference between Eisenhower era and the mid 1960s explain growing mistrust in government -. 91). school prayer. This can impede the development of social capital. (Mis)trust in Government Figure 4. They are about fundamental beliefs and morality. trust in government. mass public support for civil liberties Increasing tolerance since the 1960s Question concerning Political Tolerance: If most people dislike one or another group strongly enough to deny it certain political rights that we usually take for granted.g.Vietnam. most of us don’t act on our beliefs. Political leaders and activists are polarized over culture issues but most Americans are in the middle. foreign policy). Increase in the progressive and secular camp. Progressive view: People who believe that moral rules are derived in part from an individual’s beliefs and the circumstances of modern life.

This is evident in solicitude by the Courts of the rights of persons accused of crimes. Using faith-based organizations in charitable work was an initiative promoted by the Bush administration. Reconsidering Who Governs Change from both the 1950s and 1960s.Charitable Choice memo – should social services be contracted out to religious organizations? The church-state question– Does involving faith-based organizations in the provision of social services with government funds cross a permissible line between church and state. Reconsidering Ends: There is an emphasis on procedural rights. There was a temporary surge of trust after September 11th. detainees as a result of the war on terror. Enduring value: Equality in the U. leans toward equality of opportunity rather than results. Income disparity has gotten wider. The situation in Iraq may re-kindle it a bit but not to the 1960s dimensions. . The culture is still individualistic. note the rulings on the rights of prisoners. Not as trustful as the 1950s but the Vietnam War era fallout seemed to be over.S.