Cellular Respiration

using glucose and oxygen, it produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy ATP

an alcoholic or lactic process ensues. not enough energy is produced for them to be able to survive. energy. It is this transport chain that creates the final product. otherwise known as the citric acid cycle. This chain can regenerate NAD. the Krebs cycle. Another feature that aerobic organisms possess is the ability to be able to regulate the control of substrate oxidation in accordance to how much energy the cells require. Instead. causing fermentation to occur. The aerobic respiration process is more complex. very little ATP is actually produced. in the form of ATP. It also creates electron carriers known as NADH. in the case of most organisms. This means that. which creates an electron transport chain. This is why most anaerobic organisms are so small. Because of this. ATP is the form of energy that drives the metabolic process (Plaut. . makes much more ATP.Anaerobic respiration means that the cellular respiration process does not require oxygen. 2007). either ethanol or lactate can be produced. From this. In this form of respiration.


H+ goes through gradient when electrons pass in ETC. . H+ inside goes through ATP synthase to make ADP -> ATP.Electrons flow to NADP+ and combine to make NADPH Water splits. and H+ goes into the thylakoid. oxygen goes into the atmosphere. Electrons go to PSII.

breaks up into two molecules. This carbon is left behind as the cycle continues. The energy that was released is used to raise the energy of the molecules reacting in the cycle. As the wheel turns it pushes the two smaller wheels. Carbon dioxide enters and G3P comes out. 7.1.) 4. . Now let's view the entire Calvin cycle in this abbreviated form. In Out Three CO2 One G3P Nine ATP Nine ADP Six NADPH Six NADP To make a molecule of glucose requires 6 turns of the cycle. This final animation will continue for three cycles. some is lost as heat. so it will require three turns of the cycle to provide the necessary carbons to make one molecule of G3P. As the reactions in the cycle continue. 3. (But remember that not all of the energy that is released is available. A carbon atom from carbon dioxide enters the cycle and joins with a five carbon molecule that is present. For each G3P that is produced. G3P has three carbons. It might help you to understand all of this if we look at what goes in and what comes out of the Calvin cycle in tabular form. The bonds connecting this carbon atom to hydrogen and carbon are much higher in energy than the original C-O bonds of carbon dioxide. 2 . one G3P can be removed for making glucose and other organic molecules. ATP and NADPH leave the green wheel and enter the Calvin cycle where they provide the power to turn the Calvin cycle wheel. The cycle repeats continuously. Since glucose has six carbons. A carbon atom (actually connected to other atoms not shown here) breaks off and is available to be used to make G3P. Notice that light and water go into the noncyclic photophosphorylation wheel. When three cycles are completed. 9 molecules of ATP and 6 molecules of NADPH are required. it will take two G3Ps or six turns of the cycle to make one molecule of glucose. 36 ATP + 18 ATP = 54ATP) The final drawing represents a summary of the entire process of photosynthesis. The five carbons that remain. Further energy is supplied by the oxidation of NADPH to NADP. a high energy molecule that has three carbons. Light provides the power to turn the wheel. So.The six carbon molecule that results. 3 carbon dioxide molecules must enter the cycle. after which a molecule of G3P will be removed for making glucose and other organic molecules. The ADP and NADP from the Calvin cycle return to the light dependent reactions. (3 x 12 NADPH = 36 ATP. it requires approximately the equivalent of 54 ATPs to make a molecule of glucose. each time making a carbon atom available for G3P. 6. Study the animations above until you understand what is happening. Why? Because of the second law of thermodynamics. Another ATP is dephosphorylated to ADP to provide the necessary energy. 5. ATP is dephosphorylated (loses a phosphate) to ADP. Each molecule of NADPH can be considered to be roughly equivalent to 3 molecules of ATP in terms of energy. Eighteen molecules of ATP will be dephosphorylated and 12 molecules of NADPH will be oxidized. each with three carbon atoms. To provide energy. combine and continue in the cycle.