Lacadena ² modern day scholar who recently wrote down a full syllabary of V and CV signs for the Aztec

language. Also has worked on the Mayan language. Parpola ² modern day Indus script scholar who has made perhaps the most widely accepted sign list of Indus script to date (~450 or so) Theorizes that Indus script encodes Dravinian language Fischer ² modern day American scholar who claims to have deciphered the Phaistos Disk by comparing the words to Linear A and Cypriotic. Assigned syllabic values to about ¾ of the Disk and translated that the disk was about the Greeks sailing to Naxos. Also claims to have worked through rongorongo, and ´foundµ 3 signs that talk about mythological procreation Taharqa ² king in the Egyptian Nubian era; mentioned in the King James Bible; didn·t follow primogeniture; provides a context for Meriotic decipherment as his name is mentioned in that script. Griffith ² English professor in the early 1900·s who claimed to have deciphered Meroitic script on the basis of altars which were new inscriptions and provided him with a larger corpus. He compared hieroglyphs and cursive inscriptions to understand Meroitic. Identified 23 cursive signs and compared funerary inscriptions with hieroglyphics because these had repeated signs at the beginning and end. Identified phonetic values of signs with a biscript that had both Egyptian and Meroitic hieroglyphics. Motecuhzoma ² Aztec ruler whose name was used in the decipherment of Aztec writing. Tek means lord Pernier ² Led Italian team to Crete in the early 1900·s. Claimed to have found Phaistos Disk in 1908. However, could possibly be a hoax. Churchward ² wrote ´ Lost Continent of Muµ where he writes that Easter Island is actually previously a continent from which the people of Polynesia descended. British. Wrote it in 1926. Marcus ² Zapotec scholar believes that the staff symbol represents a spearthrower. Using pottery from San Jose Mogote and Monte Alban, she attempted to show the movement of the Zapotec center from San Jose Mogote to MA. Also, using signs from the Codex Mendoza and a conquest slab at MA, she proposed an equivalence relationship between the two. Modern day American Tolkien ² J.R.R. Tolkien is a British writer from the 1950·s or so. Created fake languages like Elvish and writing systems like the ´Tengwarµ and ´Certarµ alphabets Englert ² was a Bavarian friar who lived on Easter Island from 1930·s on and wrote a book that provided an in depth account of cultural practices, history and language Indus Seals ² clay seals that record the Indus script. Most are small seals with a few number of signs, so although there are a good number of seals, the corpus itself is still small. The Indus script is read left to right, top to bottom, right to left. Defined by repetition

but if we assume that this is a syllabic script. Associated with synoikism (consolidating of homes) where people moved close together and built a city wall. Where the Danzantes monuments were found. found on easter island and ancestor to many Polynesian cultures. Is the family where most European and Indian languages come from. Related to Sanskrit Mixe-Zoquean ² language believed to be associated with Epi-Olmec writing for geographical reasons Indo-European ² also believed to be potentially related to Indus script. Repeating geometric patterns incised into the pots. 5 = ^ 10 = X 100 = C or a squiggly thing. Discovered in 1902 and had cult like status because no other Isthmian script was discovered until 1986 (La Mojarra stela) Lapita pottery ² comes from Lapita.Etruscan numbers ² based on Greek numbers and later evolved into Latin numbers. It is evidence for how Polynesians migrated Monte Alban ² later site of Zapotec culture after San Jose Mogote. About 45 distinct signs. New Caledonia. Tolkien drew upon it to create his languages Tuxtla Statuette ² jade statuette that shows a man dressed as a duck (duckbill statue!) and had Isthmian inscription.C. In addition. Believed to represent tortured war prisoners and usually are depicted with a sign that Marcus deciphered to mean ´staffµ Anglo-Saxon Fuporc ² a runic system to record Old English that had about 30 characters and was used from the 5th to 11th centuries. Corpus is small ² Tuxtla Statuette and La Mojarra Stela Dravidian ² language that later became the south Indian languages. Believed that the ancestors are from SE Asia and spread. Possibly script for Mixe-Zoquean language (although this is based purely on geographic location) Has a similar calendrical system to Mayan writing. Study how pottery changed in order to figure out where people came from. Thought it could possibly be a hoax since some signs found on the Phaistos Disk were also found on Lycian tomb walls Epi-Olmec ² Isthmian. numbers are defined as being how far away from a certain value (17 = 3 away from 20) Danzantes ²name for a set of ´dancerµ monuments discovered in Monte Alban. because the dice made sure opposite faces added up to 7. We know from the Tuscania dice what the numbers from 1-6 are. Proto-Polynesian ² is where rongorongo is supposed to have come from . Building L! San Jose Mogote ² early center of Zapotec culture People took name from day they were born Phaistos Disk ² ´artifactµ discovered in create in the early 1900·s that is said to be the first ´type-setµ document as it is dated to about 1600 B. 1= I. then Mackay·s formula tells us we·re missing about 10 signs.

enumerate examples of each b. Mostly Aztec-spanish Biscripts.Nahuatl ² language of Aztecs. Two sister languages Mackay·s formula ² uses the number of total signs v. Structural hallmarks that set apart . Essay I. Rabbit Reed Flint and House. Intro a. L^2/(L-M) ² L = S Omnilingual ² name of a book about Martian languages written by piper. Long Count ² system of 3 wheels to represent years beings with 0. Refers to language of Martians. 2 script Rebus principle ² eye for I Aztec year signs ² 4 of them. inner for 13 numbers and outer for 20 named days.C. the number of distinct signs to estimate how many signs there should be in a syllabic system. Lacadena found a full syllabry of V and CV signs Phoneme ² /b/ and /p/ the smallest indivisble unit of sound.0. Aztecs did lots of calendars. (enou)gh and f! or unpronounced letters) c. Non-arbitrary order Decipherment ² 5 pillars. Years were named by the first day of the year. Works to show a distinct year only once every 52 years. Known language.0. Yet do these script reflect name or action? Featural script ² all signs are related to sound values. Minimal pair ² appear in same environment (bin & pin) but have different meanings. They cycle. Linear A/Linear B. Patterned use of signs with relation to other signs. Derived from known systems like Cypriotic. Natural script: i. 13 numbers and 20 days. Corpus. Fray Bernardino de Sahagun ² wrote about Aztec in Nahuatl and Spanish. Context. Define artificial versus natural script. Type of Script Bilingual/biscript ² 2 languages v. 2 interlocking wheels.0. Biscript. historical development ² strange elements that have historical basis but no longer make sense ² evolution of language and script (ph. Each phoneme can be pronounced differently in different environments Cognate ² two words that come from the same proto-language.0 which is August 13th 3114 B. 260-day calendar ² 13 * 20. Mayan calendar. Picture biscript ² script used as captions for pictures.

Evolves organically and is often based upon older languages ² often has proto-languages or sister languages. IV. 14 vowels i.Francis Lodowick . Lack of repetition with artificial scripts ² no allograms generally iii. Symbols correspond to related sounds and/or mechanics of language ii. nonarbitrary arrangements. i. V.e. Structural hallmarks that either differentiate or align them with natural writing systems Example 2 Example 3 Conclusion! Artificial script ² one that·s been created by a single person or group at one particular time.e. B and P are mirror images and one is voiced other is not.e. This creates a non-arbitrary order of signs. Universal Alphabet. Consonants are loopy ² they·re grouped by the type of consonants. Review b. Omnilingual means something that ´supersedes languageµ The script has: 30 signs ² alphabet 10 vowel ² long vertical symbols. the one without a hook is voiced i.38 consonantal. the alphabet is often arbitrary. short ² vowels. Division between tall versus deep versus short letters. B and P look very similar. Reflect non-organic.e. Beam Piper for Omnilingual that creates a language and writing system for Martians. distinct from latin alphabet. consonants and vowels look very different. There are 48 signs i. 20 consonants ² short horizontal letters over and underlining which indicates capitalization (similarity in structure) Hook = plus sign. Vowels are straight Shavian Alphabet ² Androcles and the Lion was written in this script by Ronald Kingsley Reed to honor George Bernard short. 40 letters at least. T and D as well. knife = minus sign . Often has ´things that don·t make senseµ i. III. deep ² tall rotated by 180 degrees Structural differences The one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds is something that doesn·t exist in natural languages (ie gh/ph/f) The patterned relationship between signs also does not exist in natural languages Martian Invented by H. Natural script ² one that has been created by many people over a long period of time. Example 1 a. 3 criterion: 1-1 relationship between sounds and letters. the signs are not patterned and have no relationship to one another Featural Scripts: Common theme is that signs are not arbitrary and that images are related to their sound values so the sign shape is part of a patterned relationship to other parts of the sign.II. Tall ²unvoiced consonants. There is a hook to show that it is unvoiced.

uses minor changes to differentiate between voiced and unvoiced signs One to one relationship between signs and sounds Structural similarities Comes from the evolution of language. Structural differences Logical names for elements ² very logical so not a historically based system. has other sister languages ² so in this sense it is most similar to a natural script. Items would all of logical names in that it always described itself which helped in the decipherment of the language (biology in Martian = life knowledge) The structural similarity between vowels and consonants is not seen in natural scripts Tolkien ² Tengwar Script 36 consonantal characters. (both alphabet and syllabary) 5 different signs that sit above letter which signify vowels Read left to right Can be used to write a number of languages include Quenya and Sindarin (which are sister languages) Cultural context is provided by a map that explains cultural context and history of each language Structural differences: Logical to differentiate the mechanics of vowels and consonants by putting vowels above consonants Visual similarity in the letters Again.New words can be created by simply putting old words next to each other Decipherment: Scientific Universal ² Periodic table of elements with only one way to arrange it logically based on atomic mass. Names are logical and end up with Martian lexicon (nonhistorical language). Most people invent only one language whereas he invented a proto-language that was then involved in many ways. Made sure that these sister languages sounded different. Quenya sounds Latin/Finnish and the others sound more Welch .