The Great Transformation Time Span: 1896 To 1915

Massive waves of immigration, a headlong economic boom with the growth of prairie agriculture and urban industry transform Canada between 1896 and 1915. Those who shape the new society include peasants from Eastern Europe, in search of free land; socialists who try to mobilize an emerging urban working class; and campaigners for temperance and women's suffrage. The dizzying pace of change also brings ethnic intolerance and racism, particularly against Asian immigrants. As well, growing tensions over Canada's role in the British Empire help put an end to Sir Wilfrid Laurier's reign in 1911. When World War I breaks out, a burst of enthusiasm in English Canada and resistance in French Canada foreshadows domestic conflict as wartime pressures grow.
An unprecedented age of prosperity and massive immigration transform Canada at the turn of the 20th century. Canada's first francophone leader, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, leads a country marked by Prairie boom times and massive industrialization. Those who shape the new society include peasants from Eastern Europe, in search of free land; socialists who try to mobilize an emerging urban working class; and campaigners for temperance and women's suffrage. The dizzying pace of change also brings ethnic intolerance and racism, particularly against Asian immigrants. As well, growing tensions over Canada's role in the British Empire foreshadow divisive times to come as the First World War looms on the horizon.

Ordeal by Fire Time Span: 1915 To 1929 Canada's heavy military role in World War I (60,000 dead in a population of 8 million) transforms its society, its politics and its place in the world. The horror, bravery and sacrifice of trench warfare are evoked in Canada's great battles: Ypres, the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Courcelette and Passchendaele. The domestic consequences of Canada's war effort are also wrenching - the conscription crisis of 1917 marks a low point in English-French relations. After the war ends, labour revolts in Winnipeg and across the country raise fears of a Bolshevik insurrection. The return to stability in the mid-1920s lasts only briefly as the crash of 1929 plunges the country into economic chaos.

Canada's heavy military role in World War I (60,000 dead in a population of 8 million) transforms its society, its politics and its place in the world. The horror, bravery and sacrifice of trench warfare are evoked in Canada's great battles: Ypres, the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Courcelette and Passchendaele. The domestic consequences of Canada's war effort are also wrenching - the conscription crisis of 1917 marks a low point in English-French

Formulas for molecular compounds A molecular formula shows the type and number of atoms in a molecule y y y y y type of atom indicated by element symbol number of atoms per molecule indicated by subscripts (if greater than one) o H2O contains 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom per molecule. After the war ends. hydrogen.relations. CF4. 1. and 16 u. Na2CO3 contains 2 atoms of Na and 3 atoms of O for every 1 atom of C. 20 hydrogens. atoms in formulas are sometimes grouped to show how they're connected in the molecule o Methanol is usually written as CH3OH to show that 3 hydrogens are bound to the carbon and another hydrogen is bound to the oxygen. contains four fluorine atoms and one carbon atom per molecule. molecular weight = sum of weights of atoms in the molecule o The molecular weight of CH3OH is approximately 12 + 4*1 + 16 = 32 since the carbon. y Formulas for ionic compounds y empirical formula o o gives the elemental composition of a compound formula lists elements present by element symbol subscripts give ratios of ions or atoms in the compound CuSO4 contains 4 atoms of O and 1 atom of S for every 1 atom of Cu. The return to stability in the mid-1920s lasts only briefly as the crash of 1929 plunges the country into economic chaos. the third formula is the least informative because it shows only the numbers and types of atoms in the molecule. the second formula emphasizes that one hydrogen is different from the others. o Acetic acid can be written as CH3COOH or as HC2H3O2 or C2H4O2. and seven oxygens. o (CH3CH2)4P2O7 molecules contain 8 carbons. groups that appear more than once in the molecule are enclosed in parentheses o CH3(CH2)3CH3 could be written as C5H12. respectively. two phosphoruses. and oxygen have atomic weights of 12. labour revolts in Winnipeg and across the country raise fears of a Bolshevik insurrection. o Carbon tetrafluoride. but all information about the structure of the molecule would be lost. y writing ionic empirical formulas . The first formula shows how the molecule is put together.

nitrate (NO3-). formulas and charges of common polyatomic ions should be memorized! formulas for ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions are written as usual. 4. 5.0 u + 3×16.0 u (NH4)2SO4 2× 14. 2. name the anions 1. except: o o put parentheses around polyatomic ions whenever there are more than one don't break up polyatomic ions (write Ca3(PO4)2. anions last Potassium ions (K+) and chloride ions (Cl-) combine to give potassium chloride.0 u 40. the name of compound is cation name followed by anion name Na2S contains sodium ion and sulfide ion. including charge write the anion formulas. not Ca3P2O8) . SnCl4 contains a tin cation and four chloride ions. sulfate (SO4-) polyatomic ions retain their identity within ionic compounds.0 u is the sum of atomic weights for atoms in the formula Na2CO3 2×23. CaBr2 Aluminum ions (Al3+) and sulfide ions (S2-) combine to give aluminum sulfide.0 u + 4×16. Each chloride carries a -1 charge. 3. and in many reactions y y names.0 u Na O H Na C O N H S O Polyatomic ions y y y definition: ions formed from more than one atom examples: ammonium (NH4+). The compound is sodium sulfide.0 u + 2×4×1. hydroxide (OH-). so the tin must have a +4 charge. name the cations  recall that the names of transition metal and main group cations must include their charge as a Roman numeral. write the cation formulas.0 u + 12.1. the formula weight NaOH: 23.0 u 132. KCl Calcium ions (Ca2+ ) and bromide ions (Br-) combine to give calcium bromide. including charge combine enough cations with enough anions to give a total charge of zero  trick: swap charges as subscripts  don't write charges when the ions are combined use the simplest (lowest) cation-to-anion ratio possible list cations first. 2. The compound is tin(IV) chloride.0 u + 1. Al2S3 naming ionic compounds from formulas 0.0 u + 16.0 u 106.0 u + 32.