Court Cases

(1803) Marbury v. Madison • William Marbury (one of Adams' midnight appointments), sued Secretary of State Madison to force

delivery of his commission as a justice of the peace in the federal district; Marshall would not rule on it, because he said the law that gave the Supreme Court power to rule over such matter was unconstitutional • • established the policy of judicial review over federal legislation Precedent of the Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of federal laws

(1810) Fletcher v. Peck • • Georgia legislature issued extensive land grants to Yazoo Land Company; afterwards, it was Court ruled that the original contract was valid and could not be broken

considered corrupt, so there was a legislative session that repealed the action

(1819) Dartmouth College v. Woodward • • • Republicans back the president of the college, Federalists backed the trustees president try to make it a public institution (instead of private) by having the charter revoked ruled that even though charter was granted by the king, it was still a contract and thus could not be

changed without the consent of both parties (1819) McCulloch v. Maryland • • state of MD tried to levy a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States (to protect ruled against state, b/c state had no right to control an agency of the federal gov't

the competitive position of state banks)

(1824) Gibbons v. Ogden • • • NY state had granted monopoly to Ogden of Hudson River. Gibbons obtained a permit from Ogden sued, and state ruled in his favor Marshall ruled that it was interstate commerce and could not be regulated by a state (only Congress

Congress to operate steamboat there

could) - the monopoly was then voided (1831) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia • Court refused to hear case, which the Cherokees brought forward, b/c GA had abolished their tribal

legislature and courts (said that because the tribe was a "foreign nation, the decision should be made by the Supreme Court) • Marshall said they really were not foreign nations (they just had special status)

(1832) Worcester v.Georgia

• • •

GA state gov't said any US citizen who wanted to enter Cherokee territory had to obtain permission GA law was overturned, b/c the federal gov't had the constitutionally mandated role of regulating Jackson said of Marshall "John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it"

from the governor trade with the tribes

(1842) Prigg v. Pennsylvania • • Court ruled that states did not have to enforce the return of fugitive slaves Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (MD) - Pro-South

(1842) Commonwealth v. Hunt • Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that unions and strikes were legal

(1856) Dred Scott v. Sanford • • Dred Scott, (slave from Missouri), had been taken to Illinois (a free state) by his owner for several ruled that he, as a slave, was not a slave, and could not sue in court

years, so he sued for his freedom

(1877) Munn v. Illinois • upheld Granger Laws that regulated railroads

(1886) Wabash Case (Wabash, St.Louis, and Pacific Railroad Co. v. Illinois) • • ruled one of the Granger laws in Illinois was unconstitutional because it tried to control interstate restricted state regulation of commerce

commerce, which was a power of Congress only

(1895) United States v. E.C. Knight Co. • Congress charged that a single trust controlled 98% of refined sugar manufacturing in the US, but

Court rejected case because trust was involved in manufacturing, NOT interstate commerce (which was what Congress could control), so, trust was not illegal • weakened Sherman Antitrust Act

(1896) Plessy v. Ferguson • ruled that segregation was allowed, as long as the facilities were "separate but equal"

(1898) Williams v. Mississippi

Court allowed literacy tests for voting

(1944) Korematsu v. United States 1. Roosevelt's 1942 order that Issei and Nisei be relocated to concentration camps was challenged

Court upheld it

(1944) Smith v. Allwright • Supreme Court stopped the Texas primary elections because they had violated the 15th

amendment by being restricted only to whites (1950) Sweatt v. Painter • ruled that blacks must be allowed to attend integrated law schools in OK and TX

(1954) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka • • • • NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall challenge decision from Plessy v. Ferguson Court ruled that the separate educational facilities were not equal 1955 - said states must "integrate with great speed" **(note: when Court announces Brown II decision, Montgomery bus boycotts began)

(1957) Roth v. United States • greatly limited the authority of local governments to curb pornography

(1962) Engel v. Vitale • ruled that prayers in public schools were unconstitutional

(1962) Baker v. Carr • required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so that all citizens votes would have equal

weight (1966) Miranda v. Arizona • confirmed the obligation of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights

(1971) Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education • Court ruled in favor of forced busog to achieve racial balance in schools

(1972) Furman v. Georgia

overturned existing capital punishment statutes and established strict new guidelines for such

laws in the future (1973) Roe v. Wade • • based on new theory of constitutional "right to privacy" (first recognized in Grizwold v. Connecticut) invalidated all laws prohibiting abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy

(1989) Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

some states tried to create similar laws unless the life of the mother was threatened . because of this decisions.• • Court upheld a law from Missouri that prohibited public employees from performing abortions.

and the national news media. It was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846. as California. . but they had never before been expressed in such powerful form. school busing. it was growing in power. Outside the South various rightist groups helps. The remnants of the Wallace movement split in 1976. where it is under the coalition of the U. The Roman Catholic church. General Curtis E. American Party is the name of several political in United States history. Taxpayers Party at the present day. S.) heading the ticket. was rooted in the growing conflict between proslavery and antislavery forces in the United States. shortly afterward. pro-state rights and a law-and-order platform with racism inside the wrapper. bureaucrats." beatniks. "national lbieral parties. the Supreme Court." pollsters. they charged. he found a running mate. a nativist political movement in the United States in the 1850's. The party polled 10 million votes.Political Parties American Independent Party George Wallace announced on February 8. 1968 that he would run for president as the candidate of the American Independent Party. The conflict was intensified by the acquisition of new territories from Mexico and the ensuing argument whether or not slavery would be permitted into those territories.5% of the total national vote. Lester Maddox (American Independent) and Thomas Anderson (American) polled 170. the American Independent party still exists in some states.000 votes. The party evolved from antislavery and otherwise discontented elements in the Democratic and Whig parties. The first established American party—also called the Know-Nothing party was founded in New York City in 1849 as a secret patriotic organization under the name of the Order of the Star Spangled Banner. At the present. LeMay. John Schmitz (R-Calif. former Air Force chief of staff. a political party organized in 1848 on a platform opposing the extension of slavery. the highest percentage for a third party since 1924. Know-Nothing Movement. He offered an antifederal government. with Rep. the party received 1. It was eclipsed in the early 1850's by the new Republican Party.670 votes. Such nativist sentiments had long existed among many Americans. His appeal was to racist Democrats in the South where many democratic candidates supported him. In 1972.080. He derided intellectuals who he called "pointed heads. and it potentially could exert political control over a large group of people. Know-Nothings claimed that the immigrants—who were principally Irish and Roman Catholic threatened to destroy the American experiment. which incorporated free soil goals.000 and 160. American Party The Free soil party. but it was his appeal to the dissatisfied that threatened to make serious inroads to the old party strength. was subservient to a foreign prince (the pope). or 13.

H. 1888 it nominated presidential candidates. exclusion of socialists. They attracted many Northern Whigs to their point of view along with an important number of Democrats.591 votes at the November election. Publicly backing Millard Fillmore as a presidential candidate in 1856. Randall for vice president.. the nativists wreaked havoc with their votes in 1854 in the existing party system. the Know-Nothings were already in decline as a national party by 1856. continued separation of church and state. clandestinely throwing their support on election day with powerful effect to sympathetic candidates. the party’s tenets were those of the American Republican Party founded a few years earlier which had subsequently changed its name to the Native American Party. Nations for president and C. which seemed sympathetic to much of their nativism and offered additional appeals on other important issues. they won more than 21% of the popular vote and eight electoral votes. They won sweeping victories at the state and congressional levels. but the party was spent as a national force before the election of 1860. In the 1924 elections a similarly named party sought Ku Klux Klan support for its candidates. Anti-Masonic Party Timeframe: 1 . and to have the Protestant version of the Bible read daily in classrooms. the nativists said. a strong navy and coastal defense.In several Northern states as early as the 1840's there were local nativist parties that drew support from the Democratic and Whig parties. nativist party members had worked through a number of secret societies.C. At the convention held in Washington. Gilbert O. The old parties. Their state and national platforms demanded that immigration be limited. to restrict public-school teaching to Protestants. and that a 21-year wait be imposed before an immigrant could become a citizen and vote. on August 14. D. anarchists and other supposedly dangerous persons. and enforcement of the Monroe doctrine. nominated at Columbus. many members joined the Republican Party. Despite their strength and appeal. The party platform advocated 14-year residence for naturalization. Know-Nothing parties remained strong in a number of Northern states in the late 1850's. For a time it seemed as if the Know-Nothings would be the main opposition party in the United States. Its candidate. Saying that they knew nothing about such activities. on obtaining naturalization. The Whigs appeared helpless before them. Beset by differences over the slavery issue. free schools. James L. Their platform was inspired by the fear and resentment of native Protestants at the flood of the Roman Catholic immigrants from Europe. This party also gained a negligible fraction of the vote. Curtis of New York. Southern Whigs also joined because of growing sectional tensions caused by the reintroduction of the slavery issue into national politics in 1854. They also sought to limit the sale of liquor. The Democrats. By the early 1850's there was a trend to organize nationally against the presumed immigrant threat. were supported by the aliens. that politics be "purified" by limiting officeholding to native-born Americans. Among other parties so named was one organized in Philadelphia in 1887. had not confronted the danger. Ohio on June 3. it was charged. who. Originally. the party needed their votes and catered to their whims. recieved only 1. and chiefly Ireland. voted themselves into political office in large cities. Essentially.

Y. Constitutional Union Party Timeframe: . was arrested in 1826 and charged with stealing and indebtedness. He was convicted and jailed. formed in New York in 1828. Palmer. membership dwindling in the decade 1826-1836 from 20. When fifteen of these candidates were elected to the state Assembly. churches.000 to 3. Thurlow Weed in 1828 established in Rochester. The Anti-Masonic Party was the first party to hold a nominating convention and the first to announce a platform.. The political effect of the entrance. who was planning to publish a book which revealed the secrets of the order. 26.The Anti-Masonic party was founded in 1827-28. In 1826. general approval of Masonry suffered a sudden. apparently as pretext for seizing him. it nominated William Wirt of Maryland for the presidency and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania for the vice presidency. The party also gained members in Pennsylvania. There was a rapid proliferation of anti-Masonic papers. perhaps because George Washington and other statesmen and soldiers of the Revolutionary period had been Masons. his AntiMasonic Enquirer and two years later obtained financial backing for his Albany Evening Journal. an iternant worker. On Sept. especially in the Eastern states. for the first time. Thurlow Weed. Masonry in New York received a nearly mortal blow. 1831. convening in Baltimore. New Jersey. After the elections of 1836. which became the chief party organ.000. N. in the first quarter of the 19th century membership is a Masonic lodge was almost a necessity for political preferment. Connecticut. joined together in the condemnation of the order. the Freemasons long continued exempt from criticism. although never proved. however. of a third party into a United States presidential election was to draw support from Henry Clay and to help President Andrew Jackson (who was a Mason) win reelection by a wide margin. Rhode Island. chiefly as a result of the mysterious disappearance of Willam Morgan of Batavia. a Freemason. Morgan. it eventually was absorbed into the new Whig Party. reflected the widespread hostility toward Masons holding public office. Indeed. led the press attack on Free-masonry and endorsed anti-Masonic candidates for New York State offices in the election of 1827. Although secret societies in general were frowned upon by early 19th century Americans. The Anti-Masonic Party. and Ohio. including sections of the press. Massachusetts. that fellow Masons had murdered Morgan. By 1832 there were 46 in New York and 55 in Pennsylvania. New York. It did win a considerable amount of seats in the 23rd congress and survived until 1834 when several prominent leaders founded the Whig Party or switched to the Democratic Party. an anti-Masonic party formed in 1828 and held its first convention. This incident touched off an Anti-masonic movement. reportedly kidnapped shortly afterward. William A. dramatic reversal as the Morgan incidend came to an end. and antislavery elements. publisher of the Rochester Telegraph and the Anti-Masonic Inquirer. It was popularly believed. Vermont gave the party seven electoral votes and elected an Anti-Masonic governor. Together with the National Republican Party. the Anti-Masonic party declined. Opponents of Freemasonry.

called for reconciliation of the sections through a compromise of the slavery issue. The Constitutional Union Party was a short lived political party formed chiefly of the remnants of the American Party and the old-line southern wing of the Whig Party. Douglas and John C. It was eclipsed in the early 1850's by the new Republican Party. Kentucky. its founders presented no platform other than a vague appeal for adherence to the Constitution. the party had its founding convention. where it was called "National Union" in the invitations. as the party was dissolved. Meeting in Baltimore in May 1860. organized for the election of 1860. Bell trailed the Republican candidate. Persuaded that the agitation over the slavery question could lead only to the disruption of the Union. Breckinridge. and the two Democratic nominees. Stephen A. which incorporated free soil goals. At the convention. Kentucky. The party evolved from antislavery and otherwise discontented elements in the Democratic and Whig parties. the Whig" and the Whig policies in the Republican platform. and the enforcement of the laws. and the laws of the United States. who was the favorite of the American contingent. The platform adopted by the party advocated support for "the Constitution of the country. but without success. and Tennessee with 39 electoral votes. in the ensuing months. The conflict was intensified by the acquisition of new territories from Mexico and the ensuing argument whether or not slavery would be permitted into those territories.1 The Free soil party.6% of the total). In the November election the Constitutional Union party found its greatest strength among conservatives in the border states. and nominated John Bell of Tennessee for president and Edward Everett of Massachusetts for vice president. With the coming of the Civil War the Constitutional Union Party disappeared from the political scene. a political party organized in 1848 on a platform opposing the extension of slavery. was rooted in the growing conflict between proslavery and antislavery forces in the United States. the Union. He carried the states of Virginia. and Tennessee. the union of the States. where the effects of civil conflict were especially feared. and Edward Everett was selected for the vice presidential nomination. which he did not want In the North the Bell movement attracted remnants of the "Americans" and old Whigs. Abraham Lincoln. Democratic Party Timeframe: . The party carried Virginia. The failure of Fillmore in 1856 and the new-found conservatism of the Republicans caused many former Whigs such as Thomas Ewing of Ohio to support "Lincoln.658 popular votes (only 12. although the ticket was supported throughout the nation. John Bell was selected over Sam Houston of Texas. The formation of the party was prompted by the desire to muster popular sentiment in favor of the Union and against southern secession." but took no stand on the slavery issue. receiving 591. Leaders of the party.

Calhouns followers. National chairman August Belmont of New York led the "War Democrats" in support of Lincoln’s conduct of the war and "sound money programs. and rallies. . a war Democrat. the Democratic party developed the characteristics it retained until the end of the century. and mercantile-agrarian lines. thus denying that a state could refuse to obey the law. Northeastern demands for the protective tariff and Southern demands for tariff reduction. under the starkly new leadership of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. called a special state nullification convention to proclaim the federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the jurisdiction of South Carolina. Vallandigham of Ohio became the spokesman for the "Peace Democrats" who criticized Lincoln’s conduct of the war." The issue divided local as well as national Democrats. this did not please Southern Democrats. new factional groupings emerged along East-West. Van Buren’s administration hedged on Jackson’s unionist view by agreeing in part to a Calhoun sponsored resolution which said that a state had jurisdiction over slavery within its borders. and Calhoun’s view that any state could nullify a national law. conventions. for president and giving him a peace platform to run on. Democrats argued that the federal government should do nothing the states could do for themselves. McClellan. Jackson had to stradle Western demands for internal improvements and Northeastern objections to large federal expenditures. slavery still remained an issue. The Democrats. seeking to punish their leaders. However. President Lincoln in the mean time recruited Governor Andrew Johnson of Tenesee. Southern Democrats began to split between pro-Calhoun nullifiers and pro-Jackson unionists. and statewide committees. Thus the major source of the party’s cohesion was its strong organization. a Civil War general. The result was electoral disaster. Problems erupted with the slavery issue when it came to the annexation of Texas. However. However. party leaders as Lewis Cass and Stephen A. had lost the election to the House of Representatives.1 In the 1830s. with its local. district. Douglas supported "squatter sovereignty". Rejecting "King Caucus" the Jacksonians were soon joined by Senator Martin Van Buren leader of New York’s political machine. The Democratic organization. Democrats spillet into two camps. the former war hero Andrew Jackson. After the Southern Democrats seceded from the party and the nation. the "barnburners" and the "hunkers. despite receiving the largest number of popular votes. leaving everything in control to the smallest denominator. not intent to drop the issue. In the presidential elections of 1824. spread everywhere to promote the party and principles." Representative Clement L. for his vice-presidential nominee. when president. war-peace. Jackson. drawing up lists of voters. but in economic and social policy it stressed the responsibility to act cautiously. joined the emerging Republicans. as many northern Democrats. It was willing to use national power in foreign affairs when American interests were threatened. These defections cost the party northern support. in 1864 succeeded to nominating George B. acted to reinforce a coalition. which enabled it to fight in elections effectively and shape government decisions. Thus the Jacksonians built an alliance between those on the West and Eastern city organizations. He received from Congress a force bill that empowered him to use armed forces. and built the foundations of the party. Jackson responded with a proclamation declaring the federal government sovereign and indivisible.

but were strongly resisted by traditionalists. the first Catholic to be . backfired against the Wilson administration when large numbers of German-Americans and Irish-Americans protested with their votes against involvement on the English side. a Progressive split in the Republican party helped elect Woodrow Wilson twice." The South closed ranks to deatlock the national convention of 1920. From this election emerged Samuel J. He oversized federal patronage to distribute. part of which went Republican for the first time ever in reaction to the social and cultural values represented by Smith.The Republicans charged the Democrats for disloyalty. which he promoted vigorously and successfully. Bryan endeavored to forge an alliance out of agrarian discontent in the South and Midwest. Tilden became the governor. and in the next election ran as the Democratic nominee. At the beginning of the 20th century the Democrats’ minority among voters remained central to their interest. The nominee turned out to be Horace Greeley. Horatio Symour agreed to a "soft money" platform while he was a "hard money" leader. and made it an effective campaign slogan for the rest of the century. Problems generated in the 18th Amendment set the "wets" against "drys. but was opposed by Democratic protectionists. The national convention in 1924 was stalemated between the urban-ethnic wing and the older Bryanite-southern groups. However. William Jennings Bryan led the free silver cause and was supported as well by the Peoples’ Party. After a stalemate. Tilden. social changes and government encroachment. as three groups fought for control in an increasingly harsh atmosphere. Nevertheless. In 1928. Wilson conceived his party leadership as a parliamentary role. The tactic. as they opposed the draft. Cleveland returned the Democrats to control of the White House after twenty-four years of Republican rules. One bloc comprised the traditional Democrats behind New York’s Grover Cleveland. The silverites dominated the national convention. Currency and tariff policies became the major issues of the Cleveland era. Democrats became absorbed in the problems of postwar inflation and agricultural depression. They provoked a revolt and found William Jennings Bryan a presidential candidate who overthrew Cleveland. The third faction was made up of the groups in the South and the West reacting against the industrial economy. shaping his approach to his legislative program. and "wet" Al Smith were the leaders of two factions in the party. Angry farmers wanted a shift of government intervention towards there behalf. Tilden was an instrumental factor in the winning candidacy of Grover Cleveland. party fationalism got out of hand. popular at first. known as "waving the bloody shirt" always hurt the Democrats in close elections until powerful emotional memories faded. they still espoused the conventional policies of limited government activities. and the need to establish a balance between silver and gold currencies. and the gold delegates refrained from voting. Within two years. complicated by a rising output of silver mines. A second group consisted of the urban political machines. Though he lost. and his patronage and other organizational needs of his party. which won the support of immigrants by helping them adjust to conditions in the country. By 1924. "dry" Wilson. and the Presidency until 1884. As the minority party. Factional interests debated "hard" versus "soft" currency and credit policies. They did not regain control of either house of Congress until 1874. Around this time. who had defected from Grant’s administration. Cleveland struck hard for tariff reduction. the nomination of Irish Catholic Al Smith broke the solid South. Without a leader. The Great War. the Democrats turned to endorse the 1872 Liberal Republican nominee.

Truman also appointed the Committee on Civil Rights to develop race-relations. Roosevelt brought the Democratic message to the White House and solidified and expanded the new Democratic commitment to the poor ethnic constituencies in city districts. the Castro regime . the basic character of the Democratic appeal began to change in a gradual and then rapid manner. under Democratic leadership. as Kennedy’s New Frontier program included new protections for civil rights in the South and for bringing blacks into the ranks of the Democratic party. Truman had become president within a year. gaining Truman support of union members. Roosevelt acquiesced to Southern pressures by withholding support for Vice President Wallace. the government expanded its role in social welfare and economic regulation. Increasingly. a disenfranchised public looked to the Republicans as abandoning their interests while the Hoover presidency spent money on private interests. Russel of Georgia and Sen. Robert F. the Democrats became a party of vigorous government intervention in the economy and on social issues. The election came at a time of a grave national economic crisis. Stevenson of Illinois was the compromise choice over the sectional candidacy of Richard B. Kennedy had a major responsibility for the implementation of civil rights legislation and registration. The Kennedy-Johnson campaign conducted a thoroughly united campaign that brought a narrow victory. but it so inflamed the South that Democratic regulars in Southern states supported a Dixiecrat ticked led by Wallace. The 1960 election also brought a further breakup of the one-party solid South. passed the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman’s veto. Kennedy in 1960 and were able to pass much vigorous legislation. particularly in large cities. The reawakening of memories of the New Deal and the depression President Truman’s campaign helped bring him back for a second term. At the next national convention. who had gained credibility and prominence through investigations of defense spending. such as the blacks who had previously gone Republican. as the South prepared to reassert itself. The Republican Congress. In the 1930s and 1940s. World War II witnessed a new factionalism. urban machines were working to incorporate new constituents into the party. The Republicans were victorious with their election of Dwight D. Kennedy’s victory demonstrated that Catholicism need not be the handicap that it was for Al Smith. willing to regulate and redistribute wealth to protect those least able to help themselves.nominated. Franklin D. Eisenhower. Truman. Traditional Democrats surged at the polls and the party won over new groups. In the mid-20th century. Despite efforts to avoid a candidacy. Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. The Result was a New Deal coalition which lasted in a dominant role for more than 30 years. he raised the Democratic turnout by a substantial percentage. ideological New Dealers fought to establish a loyalty pledge that would bind delegates to the convention’s choices. and instead giving the nomination to Harry S. seeking to limit union activity. Governor Adlai E. upon Roosevelt’s death. Overseas. Stevenson however made efforts to improve party organization and serve as an active spokesman. At the grassroots level. The Democrats regained power with the election of John F. Urban political machines brought to the party a commitment to social welfare legislation to help immigrant constituents. Labor unions now had potent vote getting capacity and urban Democratic machines were attempting to modernize themselves.

but it showed dissatisfaction with Democratic rule nationwide. Former governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia swept the primaries and succeeded in unseating President Gerald Ford in a close contest in which labor. and the Republicans maintained control of the Senate. In the midterm elections of 1986. inspired by the restlessness in the party. blamed for an economic downturn. The Democrats. In 1992. and the South joined to bring a Southerner to the presidency. and Ross Perot. the 1994 midterm elections brought a stunning defeat to the Democrats as the Republicans gained control over both hoses of Congress. The Vietnam War provoked many to challenge it on its anti-Communist foreign policy. at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968. the Democrats strengthened their hold in the House and Senate. though his presidency was plagued with scandals and campaign finance problems. Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas was able to regain the Presidency for the party after winning over President George Bush. but the party bounced back after the excesses of Watergate and the tapering off of the war induced fervor. the Democratic nominee for president. Apathetic voters failed to pay attention to campaign. with a ticket of the former vice president Walter Mondale were defeated in the 1984 elections by a greater margin than in 1980. His campaign ended in overwhelming defeat. they handed the President reelection. The Democrats lost more than a dozen seats in the House. the South and West carried the Republicans to victory. the Democrats won control of the Senate and gained modestly in the House.of Cuba defeated an American-sponsored invasion by anti-Castro exiles at the Bay of Pigs. Bill Clinton was able to pull off a reelection in 1996. blacks. and changing economic issues shifted the center of gravity within the party and continued to drive many away. Issues such as inflation gravely hurt the party. after twelve years of Presidential rule by the Republican parties. the revolt of the youth against the draft and on matters of personal behavior and discipline contributed a strong challenge. the police culminated in street battles with groups of protesters. Many anti-war Democrats turned to the candidacy of Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy. Governor Dukakis of Massachusetts had chosen Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate. where Carter ran for reelection. as Lyndon Johnson announced that he would not seek renomination. led to the nomination of George McGovern. and missing the major issues. However. Kennedy also increased Communist pressure on South Vietnam by sending military aid. With the country in a recession. New nominating rules. as fewer voters remained loyal to them. The clash of social values. At the same time. Political parties at this time were in general decline. the Democrats succeeded in rallying the public around a call for change and a commitment to domestic jobs programs. Democratic Party Timeframe: 1 . Although in 1988. However. Democratic support in the South had eroded.

had lost the election to the House of Representatives. a war Democrat. Jackson had to stradle Western demands for internal improvements and Northeastern objections to large federal expenditures. leaving everything in control to the smallest denominator. Van Buren’s administration hedged on Jackson’s unionist view by agreeing in part to a Calhoun sponsored resolution which said that a state had jurisdiction over slavery within its borders. After the Southern Democrats seceded from the party and the nation. not intent to drop the issue. slavery still remained an issue. as many northern Democrats. President Lincoln in the mean time recruited Governor Andrew Johnson of Tenesee. but in economic and social policy it stressed the responsibility to act cautiously. National chairman August Belmont of New York led the "War Democrats" in support of Lincoln’s conduct of the war and "sound money programs. acted to reinforce a coalition. The Democrats. and rallies. McClellan. thus denying that a state could refuse to obey the law. for his vice-presidential nominee. and statewide committees. drawing up lists of voters. conventions. which enabled it to fight in elections effectively and shape government decisions. The result was electoral disaster. Rejecting "King Caucus" the Jacksonians were soon joined by Senator Martin Van Buren leader of New York’s political machine. In the presidential elections of 1824. in 1864 succeeded to nominating George B. a Civil War general. this did not please Southern Democrats. despite receiving the largest number of popular votes. with its local. spread everywhere to promote the party and principles. under the starkly new leadership of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. Southern Democrats began to split between pro-Calhoun nullifiers and pro-Jackson unionists. Thus the major source of the party’s cohesion was its strong organization. new factional groupings emerged along East-West. for president and giving him a peace platform to run on. Jackson. Jackson responded with a proclamation declaring the federal government sovereign and indivisible." The issue divided local as well as national Democrats. when president. However. Thus the Jacksonians built an alliance between those on the West and Eastern city organizations. Democrats argued that the federal government should do nothing the states could do for themselves. Vallandigham of Ohio became the spokesman for the "Peace Democrats" who criticized Lincoln’s conduct of the war. district. the "barnburners" and the "hunkers. war-peace. and built the foundations of the party. It was willing to use national power in foreign affairs when American interests were threatened. Northeastern demands for the protective tariff and Southern demands for tariff reduction. called a special state nullification convention to proclaim the federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the jurisdiction of South Carolina. . The Democratic organization. and mercantile-agrarian lines. Democrats spillet into two camps. and Calhoun’s view that any state could nullify a national law. However. Problems erupted with the slavery issue when it came to the annexation of Texas. Douglas supported "squatter sovereignty". seeking to punish their leaders. the Democratic party developed the characteristics it retained until the end of the century.In the 1830s. He received from Congress a force bill that empowered him to use armed forces. These defections cost the party northern support. party leaders as Lewis Cass and Stephen A. the former war hero Andrew Jackson." Representative Clement L. joined the emerging Republicans. However. Calhouns followers.

In 1928. Tilden. The tactic. and "wet" Al Smith were the leaders of two factions in the party. Currency and tariff policies became the major issues of the Cleveland era. They provoked a revolt and found William Jennings Bryan a presidential candidate who overthrew Cleveland. The Great War. popular at first. known as "waving the bloody shirt" always hurt the Democrats in close elections until powerful emotional memories faded. Cleveland returned the Democrats to control of the White House after twenty-four years of Republican rules. Cleveland struck hard for tariff reduction. but were strongly resisted by traditionalists. Tilden was an instrumental factor in the winning candidacy of Grover Cleveland. the Democrats turned to endorse the 1872 Liberal Republican nominee. After a stalemate. but was opposed by Democratic protectionists. and in the next election ran as the Democratic nominee. The third faction was made up of the groups in the South and the West reacting against the industrial economy. Democrats became absorbed in the problems of postwar inflation and agricultural depression. party fationalism got out of hand. social changes and government encroachment. Wilson conceived his party leadership as a parliamentary role. backfired against the Wilson administration when large numbers of German-Americans and Irish-Americans protested with their votes against involvement on the English side. Horatio Symour agreed to a "soft money" platform while he was a "hard money" leader. Without a leader. complicated by a rising output of silver mines. the first Catholic to be . At the beginning of the 20th century the Democrats’ minority among voters remained central to their interest. One bloc comprised the traditional Democrats behind New York’s Grover Cleveland.The Republicans charged the Democrats for disloyalty. who had defected from Grant’s administration. "dry" Wilson. Around this time. However. the nomination of Irish Catholic Al Smith broke the solid South. Factional interests debated "hard" versus "soft" currency and credit policies. as they opposed the draft. William Jennings Bryan led the free silver cause and was supported as well by the Peoples’ Party. and made it an effective campaign slogan for the rest of the century. and his patronage and other organizational needs of his party. From this election emerged Samuel J. which he promoted vigorously and successfully. The silverites dominated the national convention. and the Presidency until 1884. Problems generated in the 18th Amendment set the "wets" against "drys. and the need to establish a balance between silver and gold currencies. Though he lost. Tilden became the governor. a Progressive split in the Republican party helped elect Woodrow Wilson twice. shaping his approach to his legislative program. As the minority party. By 1924. part of which went Republican for the first time ever in reaction to the social and cultural values represented by Smith. Angry farmers wanted a shift of government intervention towards there behalf. which won the support of immigrants by helping them adjust to conditions in the country. as three groups fought for control in an increasingly harsh atmosphere." The South closed ranks to deatlock the national convention of 1920. A second group consisted of the urban political machines. Bryan endeavored to forge an alliance out of agrarian discontent in the South and Midwest. He oversized federal patronage to distribute. Within two years. They did not regain control of either house of Congress until 1874. Nevertheless. and the gold delegates refrained from voting. they still espoused the conventional policies of limited government activities. The nominee turned out to be Horace Greeley. The national convention in 1924 was stalemated between the urban-ethnic wing and the older Bryanite-southern groups.

The Republicans were victorious with their election of Dwight D. the basic character of the Democratic appeal began to change in a gradual and then rapid manner. Roosevelt acquiesced to Southern pressures by withholding support for Vice President Wallace. Roosevelt brought the Democratic message to the White House and solidified and expanded the new Democratic commitment to the poor ethnic constituencies in city districts. Truman also appointed the Committee on Civil Rights to develop race-relations. the government expanded its role in social welfare and economic regulation. Eisenhower. Truman had become president within a year. urban machines were working to incorporate new constituents into the party. Traditional Democrats surged at the polls and the party won over new groups. Despite efforts to avoid a candidacy. The Democrats regained power with the election of John F. Kennedy’s victory demonstrated that Catholicism need not be the handicap that it was for Al Smith. gaining Truman support of union members. the Castro regime . Increasingly. The 1960 election also brought a further breakup of the one-party solid South. Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. Stevenson however made efforts to improve party organization and serve as an active spokesman. he raised the Democratic turnout by a substantial percentage. who had gained credibility and prominence through investigations of defense spending. ideological New Dealers fought to establish a loyalty pledge that would bind delegates to the convention’s choices. Kennedy had a major responsibility for the implementation of civil rights legislation and registration. Labor unions now had potent vote getting capacity and urban Democratic machines were attempting to modernize themselves. and instead giving the nomination to Harry S. upon Roosevelt’s death. a disenfranchised public looked to the Republicans as abandoning their interests while the Hoover presidency spent money on private interests. In the 1930s and 1940s. Governor Adlai E. passed the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman’s veto. particularly in large cities. At the grassroots level. Urban political machines brought to the party a commitment to social welfare legislation to help immigrant constituents. Truman. such as the blacks who had previously gone Republican. Franklin D. The reawakening of memories of the New Deal and the depression President Truman’s campaign helped bring him back for a second term. as the South prepared to reassert itself. World War II witnessed a new factionalism. the Democrats became a party of vigorous government intervention in the economy and on social issues. The Result was a New Deal coalition which lasted in a dominant role for more than 30 years. seeking to limit union activity. Stevenson of Illinois was the compromise choice over the sectional candidacy of Richard B. Robert F. Overseas.nominated. The election came at a time of a grave national economic crisis. as Kennedy’s New Frontier program included new protections for civil rights in the South and for bringing blacks into the ranks of the Democratic party. under Democratic leadership. Kennedy in 1960 and were able to pass much vigorous legislation. The Republican Congress. In the mid-20th century. At the next national convention. Russel of Georgia and Sen. The Kennedy-Johnson campaign conducted a thoroughly united campaign that brought a narrow victory. but it so inflamed the South that Democratic regulars in Southern states supported a Dixiecrat ticked led by Wallace. willing to regulate and redistribute wealth to protect those least able to help themselves.

the Democrats succeeded in rallying the public around a call for change and a commitment to domestic jobs programs. Bill Clinton was able to pull off a reelection in 1996. as Lyndon Johnson announced that he would not seek renomination. The Vietnam War provoked many to challenge it on its anti-Communist foreign policy. but the party bounced back after the excesses of Watergate and the tapering off of the war induced fervor. New nominating rules. Apathetic voters failed to pay attention to campaign. Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas was able to regain the Presidency for the party after winning over President George Bush. and missing the major issues. the Democratic nominee for president. the revolt of the youth against the draft and on matters of personal behavior and discipline contributed a strong challenge. The Democrats. the police culminated in street battles with groups of protesters. though his presidency was plagued with scandals and campaign finance problems. but it showed dissatisfaction with Democratic rule nationwide. At the same time. they handed the President reelection. with a ticket of the former vice president Walter Mondale were defeated in the 1984 elections by a greater margin than in 1980. With the country in a recession. and Ross Perot. In the midterm elections of 1986. at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968. the Democrats won control of the Senate and gained modestly in the House. and changing economic issues shifted the center of gravity within the party and continued to drive many away. as fewer voters remained loyal to them. Kennedy also increased Communist pressure on South Vietnam by sending military aid. The Democrats lost more than a dozen seats in the House. Many anti-war Democrats turned to the candidacy of Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy. Governor Dukakis of Massachusetts had chosen Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate. led to the nomination of George McGovern. and the Republicans maintained control of the Senate. However. In 1992. the Democrats strengthened their hold in the House and Senate. Former governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia swept the primaries and succeeded in unseating President Gerald Ford in a close contest in which labor. the South and West carried the Republicans to victory. Federalist Party Timeframe: 1 .of Cuba defeated an American-sponsored invasion by anti-Castro exiles at the Bay of Pigs. after twelve years of Presidential rule by the Republican parties. However. and the South joined to bring a Southerner to the presidency. Issues such as inflation gravely hurt the party. where Carter ran for reelection. blamed for an economic downturn. His campaign ended in overwhelming defeat. Although in 1988. The clash of social values. blacks. the 1994 midterm elections brought a stunning defeat to the Democrats as the Republicans gained control over both hoses of Congress. Democratic support in the South had eroded. Political parties at this time were in general decline. inspired by the restlessness in the party.

The Federalist Party was born out of the controversy over adoption of the proposed Federal Constitution in 1787-1788, before the American party system itself had been conceived. A well-defined Federalist party did not exist before 1794. After Washington's inauguration in 1789, debate arose in Congress and the cabinet over the proposals of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, subsequently enacted into law, that the national government assume state debts, fund the national debt at par value, and charter a national bank. The opposition to Hamilton rallied around Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Congressman James Madison. Hamilton pushed through schemes for paying the foreign debt, restoring national credit, and assuming state debts. A United States bank and postal system soon followed, as well as a protective tariff and bounty system to develop manufactures and agriculture. The effortless crushing of the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 gave ample evidence of the new national strength. In the meantime, the refusal of the Federalists to form an alliance with France had fused the Democrats and the Republicans, the two opposition groups to which most of the Antifederalists belonged. Thomas Jefferson organized and James Madison joined the new Democratic-Republican Party. Not until these congressional debates over Jay's Treaty of 1794 did two parties emerge clearly: the Federalist party led by Hamilton and the DemocraticRepublican party of Madison and Jefferson From then on, the Federalists championed commercial and diplomatic harmony with Britain, domestic stability and order, and strong national government under powerful executive and judicial branches. The most influential of the Federalists besides Hamilton were John Adams and John Jay, and Fisher Ames, Roger Sherman, Jonathan Trumbull, Rufus King, John Marshall, and the members of the "Essex Junto". By the end of his second term Washington had become closely identified with the Federalists. Washington's Farewell Address of 1796, prepared in association with Hamilton, may be read as a basic text of Federalism. Washington's vice president, John Adams, was elected president as a Federalist in 1796. Adams retained Washington's cabinet officers and sought to continue his predecessor's policies. He prosecuted an undeclared naval war with France, and after the Federalists had gained control of Congress, he supported the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. But Adams met increasing opposition within his own party from the Hamilton faction, especially over his military priorities. When, as much to undercut mounting Democratic-Republican opposition as to end the war, Adams opened negotiations with France in 1799 and reorganized the cabinet under his own control, the Hamiltonians broke with him. His actions probably enhanced the Federalist party's position in the presidential election of 1800 but not enough to defeat Jefferson. The party was irreparably split. In the waning days of his presidency Adams was able to conclude a peace with France and to appoint moderate Federalist John Marshall as chief justice. Long after the party was dead, Marshall preserved its principles from the bench. Finding themselves in the opposition, the Federalists at last created a well-disciplined system of state party organizations and adopted the trappings of democracy in order to lure the voters. Concentrated primarily in the Northeast, they also assumed more of the aspect of a sectional minority. Neglecting ideological consistency and turning against their previous commitment to strong national power, they opposed Jefferson's popular Louisiana Purchase of

1803 as too costly and destructive of Northern influence. As a result, they continued to lose power at the national level, carrying only Connecticut, Delaware, and part of Maryland against Jefferson in 1804. Strong opposition of Jefferson’s Embargo Act, however, reinforced the Federalists. In 1808 they carried every New England state except Vermont, and also won in Delaware, in parts of Maryland, and in North Carolina. Moreover, the War of 1812 proved so unpopular in the North that in the elections that year, New York and New Jersey also voted Federalist, along with the remainder of Maryland. This resurgence was only temporary, however, for when the war ended, the northern commercial sections withdrew their support. Meanwhile, many of the party’s old leaders were gone, leaving Rufus King and Charles C. Pinckney leading the party. Other Federalist leaders, as a result of the Hartford Convention of 1814 had been driven from public life. In 1816, the Federalists carried only Massachusetts, Connecticut and Delaware, and by 1820 when they failed to have a national candidate, they ceased as a national party. Locally, Federalists managed to retain control in Connecticut and Delaware until after 1820 and in Massachusetts until 1823. The party also lingered for some time in Maryland and North Carolina.

Free-Soil Party
Timeframe: 1 The Free soil party, a political party organized in 1848 on a platform opposing the extension of slavery, was rooted in the growing conflict between proslavery and antislavery forces in the United States. The conflict was intensified by the acquisition of new territories from Mexico and the ensuing argument whether or not slavery would be permitted into those territories. The party evolved from antislavery and otherwise discontented elements in the Democratic and Whig parties. It was eclipsed in the early 1850's by the new Republican Party, which incorporated free soil goals. Free soil became a political movement and slogan in the 1840's. Abolitionists in the North had already stirred antislavery sentiment, and government plans for annexing Texas created fears that this territory might enter the Union cut up into as many as six slave states. These fears were reflected in the Wilmot Proviso of 1846. The achievement of the small abolitionist Liberty party in defeating Henry Clay's presidential aspirations in 1844 demonstrated that political abolitionism could be effective. The refusal of the two parties, Whig and Democrat, to endorse principles of the provio convinced the opposition groups of the need for a new party. The major groups involved in the organization of the Free Soil party at a convention in Buffalo, New York, were the abolitionist Liberty Party, the antislavery Whigs, and a radical faction of the New York Democrats, the Barnburners, who had broken with the state party when it came under control of the conservative Hunkers.

Led by Salmon P. Chase and John P. Hale, free-soilers, abolitionists, and others convened in Buffalo, N.Y., in August 1848 to set up a broadly based party. Among those present were discontented New York Democrats known as Barnburners," headed by former President Martin van Buren, who became the convention's presidential nominee. The Free soil convention nominated Martin van Buren and Charles Francis Adams as candidates for president and vice-president, respectively, adopting a platform opposed to the extension of slavery and calling for a homestead law and a tariff for revenue only. The slogan of the party ws "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Van Buren polled 291,616 votes in November; more important, the Free Soil party elected fourteen congressmen and two senators. The Compromise of 1850 created more ardent free-soilers, who were outraged by its fugitive slave provision and were generally fearful of the expansion of slavery westward. Such increasing partisanship, however, did not help the Free Soil party itself. Hale, its presidential candidate in 1852, polled only 156,297 votes. By 1854 the crisis over slavery in the territories had reached proportions beyond the resources of the party, and free-soilers flocked to the Republican party. The passage of the KansasNebraska Act and the duel over whether Kansas was to be a free or a slave state turned the North irrevocably toward free soil. Finally, the Dred Scott Case of 1857, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in effect, that slavery could not be constitutionally restricted to the Southern states, made abolitionists out of most free-soilers and laid the ground for a final confrontation with the slaveholders. Louis Filler Antioch College

Greenback-Labor Party
Timeframe: 1 The greenback idea came up again in March, 1875, when a national convention met at Cleveland to organize a new party. This was soon followed by a nominating convention at Indianapolis in May, 1876, which named Peter Cooper President. Its platform included the repeal of the Resumption Act of 1875 and issuance of legal tender notes convertible into government bonds with an interest rate not to exceed one cent a day per hundred dollars. Peter Cooper was a well known philanthropist and did not lead much of a campaign. In the next two years, the party grew rapidly and Labor Reformers had greatly aided the cause and a conference at Toledo in February, 1878, arranged a farmer-labor partnership under the name "National" party, but it became better known as the Greenback Labor Party. In fall elections the third party won a million votes and fifteen members of Congress. The Greenbacks sought labor support which called for an issuance of the greenback and a bimetallistic money policy. The labor groups desired Greenback support for a reduction of working hours, establishment of a labor bureau and a curtailment of Chinese immigration. In the following year, economic conditions in the nation improved and interest in politics among farmers and workers decreased. At the national convention in Chicago on June 9, 1889 agrarian and labor delegates, including members of a Socialist Labor party composed their differences and adopted a platform.

Ed Clark. She became the first woman in United States history to recieve an electoral vote. By 1980. elected to Congress in the Greenback wave of 1878. the Libertarian party was proud that the Libertarian candidates for Senate recieved over one million votes. candidates of the newly formed Reform Party came in third place. painful process. Weaver made an active campaign. speaking in all parts of the country and giving a leadership that it needed to dispel the impression it was a refuge for radicals. this was greatly dwarfed in 1996. albeit one through ideology rather than political presence. Yet. nominated Roger MacBride and David Bergland on the presidential ticket. B. they were able to recieve ballot status in 32 states but still only recieved a little amount of popular vote--common for third parties facing the system set up in laws by the two established political parties. and political newcomers hoped to create an alternative to the old parties. and Randolph of Alaska became the first Libertarian legislator. in 1990. and were at this time first considered as a political force. Former Congressman Ron Paul of the Republican Party left to join the Libertarian party. However. the Libertarian party recieved the most press coverage. a Libertarian candidate for Governor of California. as did all . offering the public a look at what the libertarian party had to offer.578 votes. The Libertarian party continued to grow in a slow. the Louisiana congressional candidate James Agnew recieved 23% of the vote. winning 175. but would still not be able to win. recieved 5% of the vote. a philosophy professor at the University of Southern California. The next election. ahead of every Libertarian candidate in the race. standing on firm principles of individual freedoms and a commitment to government non-intervention. and the Alaskan gubernatorial candidate Randolph recieved 13% of the vote. Dissillusioned Republicans. The campaign by Ed Clark ran extensive television advertisements. with running mate Jo Jorgeson. who was a Civil War veteran and a former Republican. in New York city. Chambers of Texas was named for Vice President. Weaver of Iowa.370 votes. in the home of David Nolan. was nominated as the presidential candidate. and the vice presidential candidate was Tonie Nathan. Libertarian congressional candidates were able to recieve up to about twenty percent of the vote. Its last national campaign was for the 1884 elections where it ran Civil War general Benjamin Butler. In 1996.J. The first national convention was later held in Denver. the Libertarian party had recieved ballot status in all 50 states. the highest total for a nationally organized party since 1914. Colorado. In the election they received only 308. The next national convention. when in every race. Libertarian Party Timeframe: 1 The Libertarian Party was founded in 1971. on December 11th. Two years later. Democrats. John Hospers. The return of prosperity and the success of the Resumption Act however removed agrarian and labor discontent. In the ensuing years the party continued to decline. A decade later.The convention named for President General James B. This year. the Libertarian party made significant headway. but eight Greenback Labor candidates were elected to Congress. and the party made their most impressive showing. the Libertarian party ran Harry Browne as their presidential candidate.

the Liberty party candidates polled only around seven thousand votes. Hale withdrew his candidacy. In 1848. Since 1840 the Liberty party had gained recruits and newspaper support and was becoming a threat to the two major parties in close northern states. and Judge William Jay. this increased visibility was not enough. but thereafter the party nominated candidates for local elections and gained strength. Chase presided over Buffalo.third political parties. this time polling 62. being shut out from the televised presidential debates. Arthur Tappan. a heavy third party vote might reduce the Whig vote and elect Polk over Clay. a "fringe group. Hale and Leicester King. At a state convention in Warsaw. who were increasingly called by the media. the party leaders urged the members to vote for candidates of the newly organized Free Soil party instead. 1839.300 votes. Yet. officially adopted the party name. James G. along with other third party candidates were allowed to speak on Larry King Live and in third party debates. on April 1. 1848. Libertarians at this time were dissilusioned by the fact that they were overshadowed by the new Reform Party. delegates from six states confirmed the nominations. the Liberty party was in a difficult position. and the Libertarians still recieved less than one percent of the presidential vote nationwide. was tentatively nominated the Liberty Party’s candidacy for president. where it aimed to swing the balance of power. which led to the demise of the short lived Liberty party. When Texas became a major issue. The Libertarian candidate. Chase. with Francis J. Birney attempted to explain it in terms of local issues. In the ensuing 1840 national elections. which could have secured the election of Henry Clay. New York. The leading initiators of the anti-Garrison movement and the new party were the New York philanthropists Gerrit Smith." Liberty Party Timeframe: 1 The Liberty Party was the first antislavery party. As such. Lemoyne for vice president. Birney had accepted a Democratic nomination for the Michigan legislature. Polk. . making it seem as if there was a Liberty-Democratic bargain to defeat Clay. grown out of a split in the ranks of the American Anti-Slavery Society between followers of William Lloyd Garrison’s radical program and a conservative group which held that abolitionist aims could be best obtained by orthodox political means. New York on November 13. appearing in Whig newspapers. who gained significantly higher visibility since the founding of the Reform Party by Ross Perot. New York for the convention of the Free Soil Party on August 9. and many people with Libertarianistic positions joined the Reform Party instead of them. Birney. committed against Texas. although the Liberty party had nominated John P. but tipped it in favor of James K. where Birney promised not to agitate the slavery issue. At a national convention in Albany. The party was also hurt by a forged letter. and declared abolition of slavery to be the single plank in its platform. 1840. Salmon P. Birney was nominated again in November 1844 and ran with Thomas Morris. but that hurt his candidacy. an abolitionist crusader and one-time Alabama slave-holder. and the Ohio antislavery stalwart.

would later united in the next elections of 1836 to form an opposition Whig party to attack Jackson’s presidency. the Adams-Clay group had never been effectively organized into a party.National Republican Party Timeframe: 1 While Jackson was establishing control over the Democratic Party. such as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. They vigorously attacked Jackson for his spoils system and for his handling of relations with Great Britain with regard to the Maine boundary and West India trade. probably would have withdrawn had the National Republicans and Antimasons been able to unite later on one man. Public meeting halls were filled with his speeches where he reiterated his devotion to the "American System" and criticized the administration and was ready to go before the country with the same policies Adams had favored and the same economic appeal. and after the defeat in 1828 it lapsed into the status of a discredited minority with little strength outside of New England. One of its chief organizers was the journalist Ignatius Donnelly who was the leader of the Farmer’s Alliance. The new National Republican group was having its troubles. Both were Democratic-Republicans and were distinguished by such designations as "administration" and "opposition" or Adams men and Jackson men. The National Republicans took issue with the leading policies and acts of Jackson. the People’s Party was the successor of the Greenback-Labor party which was formed in the 1880s. as they remained committed to the protective tariff. assuming the name National Republican began to form. federal support for internal improvements. edited by Joseph Gales and William W. where Clay joined Webster in 1831. the recognition of the Supreme Court on Constitutional questions and the importance of the balance of power given by the Senate. In the campaign of 1828. Soon after Henry Clay had seized upon the Maysville veto. . Wirt. The leaders of the National Republican party. Seaton. these opposing groups had no official names. National leadership was supplied by the Senate. But the campaign did not turn on these points as other movements such as the Antimasons sprung up. Aggrieved farmers furnished the driving force and most of the votes. labor’s role was significant but only secondary. the opposition. The National Intelligencer was at the center of the opposition. People's Party Timeframe: 1 A product of the Populist movement. and only portions of the mid Atlantic states and the Ohio valley could be regarded as fighting ground. About 1830 the term "National Republican" began to be used by the Clay following thus combining the old party name with the adjective which suggested its policies. the Antimason nominee. his presidential campaign was underway. which had ignited the Agrarian west for decades previously.

but then its influence was declining and ceased to exist by 1908. limitation of the Presidency to one term. but called a conference at St. Walter Gresham. Few . Supplementary resolutions. the party nominated James Baird Weaver for the presidency. The platform that was adopted called for the free coinage of silver and the issuance of large amounts of paper currency as inflationary measures that it hoped would ease the financial burdens of the nation’s debt-ridden farmers. but not so much in the South. the People’s party split over the issue of continued alliance with the Democrats. and Senator James Kyle. electing senators by popular vote. Louis and secured Bryan’s nomination. The conference in St. the nominating convention set for Omaha in July. the People’s Party was the successor of the Greenback-Labor party which was formed in the 1880s. Weaver lost but received more than a million votes and 22 electoral ones." After Bryan was defeated. Louis to secure the cooperation of farmer. further restriction of undesirable immigration and contract labor. In the West. Aggrieved farmers furnished the driving force and most of the votes. In 1900 the Democrats renominated Bryan and the anti-Democrats nominated Wharton Barker. People's Party Timeframe: 1 A product of the Populist movement. abolition of the Pinkerton detective system. with fourteen hundred delegates present including labor representatives. Louis adopted a platform. One of its chief organizers was the journalist Ignatius Donnelly who was the leader of the Farmer’s Alliance.A small group in the Southern Alliance called a convention. as Southern Alliance men refused to leave the Democratic party. and recall. In 1892. The spirit of the convention carried into the West. the next election gave the Populists a hard choice. Two thirds of the platform was a bitter indictment of the American economic system and a condemnation of the two parties. adoption of initiative. 1891. labor’s role was significant but only secondary. and people participating in the government by means of a referendum. instituting a graduated income tax. The convention formed the People’s party. who they supported and endorsed for the presidency. They reunited in 1904. for sentiment that the South was against a third party because of successes with the Democratic party. However. and an end to subsidies. 1891. Few Southerners came. and several Populist candidates made it to Congress. They managed to win control of the Democratic convention in St. With the Democrats taking a lot of their issues. A small group in the Southern Alliance called a convention. which met at Cincinnati on May 19. which had ignited the Agrarian west for decades previously. as the Democrats under William Jennings Bryan stole much of their thunder. and other liberal groups. a coalition with the Democrats on electoral tickets resulted in a victory of five and a number of state and Congressional successes. becoming "Popocrats. rigid enforcement of the eight-hour law. with fourteen hundred delegates present including labor representatives. nationalizing the railroads. declared for the Australian ballot. which met at Cincinnati on May 19. labor. not regarded as part of the platform. referendum. Its other demands included abolishing the national banking system. over a choice of Colonel Polk.

The Progressive Party. With the Democrats taking a lot of their issues. and recall. Robert La Follette. Two thirds of the platform was a bitter indictment of the American economic system and a condemnation of the two parties. associating with the presidential campaigns of Theodore Roosevelt. a dynamic leader of the Progressive Movement. Supplementary resolutions. instituting a graduated income tax. The platform that was adopted called for the free coinage of silver and the issuance of large amounts of paper currency as inflationary measures that it hoped would ease the financial burdens of the nation’s debt-ridden farmers. the People’s party split over the issue of continued alliance with the Democrats." After Bryan was defeated. They reunited in 1904. The conference in St. Louis adopted a platform. not regarded as part of the platform. Louis to secure the cooperation of farmer. and several Populist candidates made it to Congress. was founded after a bitter fight for the Republican presidential nomination between William H. rigid enforcement of the eight-hour law. labor. Progressive Party Timeframe: 1 The Progressive Party was the name used to designate several political organizations in the United States. Weaver lost but received more than a million votes and 22 electoral ones. However. Taft’s dismissal of Gifford Pinchot as chief forester angered Roosevelt. limitation of the Presidency to one term. as the Democrats under William Jennings Bryan stole much of their thunder. The spirit of the convention carried into the West. soon grew impatient with Taft’s relatively cautious approaches to reform. the nominating convention set for Omaha in July. In the West. Roosevelt. referendum. Its other demands included abolishing the national banking system. In 1892. the next election gave the Populists a hard choice. Robert La Follette and Theodore Roosevelt. and people participating in the government by means of a referendum. first known colloquially as the Bull Moose party. as Southern Alliance men refused to leave the Democratic party. At the .Southerners came. but not so much in the South. who they supported and endorsed for the presidency. They managed to win control of the Democratic convention in St. Taft. nationalizing the railroads. over a choice of Colonel Polk. further restriction of undesirable immigration and contract labor. the party nominated James Baird Weaver for the presidency. and other liberal groups. and Senator James Kyle. declared for the Australian ballot. adoption of initiative. Walter Gresham. but called a conference at St. In 1900 the Democrats renominated Bryan and the anti-Democrats nominated Wharton Barker. becoming "Popocrats. a coalition with the Democrats on electoral tickets resulted in a victory of five and a number of state and Congressional successes. and an end to subsidies. The convention formed the People’s party. abolition of the Pinkerton detective system. for sentiment that the South was against a third party because of successes with the Democratic party. Louis and secured Bryan’s nomination. and Henry Wallace. who was an ardent conservationist. electing senators by popular vote. but then its influence was declining and ceased to exist by 1908.

most La Follette supporters switched to Roosevelt. prohibition of child labor. Charging that both major parties advocated policies that would lead to economic crisis and a war with the Soviet Union. incensed at Taft’s conservative bent. They disappeared after the 1952 election. Progressive candidates for state and local offices did poorly. but later accepted the nomination of the Progressive party. frustrated by conservative domination of both parties. a liberal coalition. and Wallace left the party. Although the Progressives greatly outpolled Republicans in the election the net result was a victory for the Democratic candidate. A third Progressive party was formed in 1948 by dissident Democrats.S. the LaFollettes scored many victories. women’s suffrage. He expected support from blacks. and other reforms. but disappeared in 1946. formed the League of Progressive Political Action. Under the Progressive ticket. Fearing that a formal party organization would be infiltrated by Communists. Wallace was nominated for the party’s presidential nominee. the support of the Communist Party damaged the Progressives.4% of the vote. His candidacy was thus supported by the Socialist Party. LaFollette’s sons organized a Progressive Party in Wisconsin. Wheeler was nominated for vice-president. stricter regulation of industrial combinations. and the party dissapeared in 1916 when Roosevelt returned to the Republican Party. saying he was as fit as a bull moose. With former vice-president Henry Wallace and Tugwell among their leaders. formed the Progressive party. after being defeated for nomination as a Republican. and the repeal of the Taft-Hartley Law. In 1934. decided to run for president on his own. Wallace only received 2. but the nomination went to Taft because Taft controlled the party machinery. entry into the Korean War. Robert La Follette. they favored high-level international conferences. However. and other such laws. and anti-inflation measures such as price and rent controls. It also supported farm-relief measures. intellectuals and other groups that admired his militant liberalism. Many liberal Republicans went to the new party which nominated Roosevelt for president and Hiram W. In 1924. His platform called for tariff reform. Reform Party Timeframe: 1 . The party advocated government ownership of public utilities and labor reforms such as collective bargaining. lower taxes for persons with moderate incomes. as the Democrats and Republicans attacked them as Communist-dominated. In 1950 the party was further weakened when it denounced U. Woodrow Wilson. LaFollette received 17% of the popular vote but only carried Wisconsin. most of whom had been prominent in developing the New Deal program. popularly called the Progressive party. he ran as an independent. Senator Burton K. curbs on the power of monopolies. They advocated rights for all minority and political groups.Republican convention in June 1912. The progressives maintained their right to accept support from any group backing their program. nominally a Republican. Roosevelt. Johnson for vice president.

Ross Perot ran on an independent ticket.000 voters signed petitions. Richard Lamm. was first to declare his intent of running with his running mate. calling its anti-NAFTA stance "right-wing. many more liberal voters stayed away from the Reform Party. the requirement to put the Reform Party on the ballot was to get 89. which had the earliest deadline in the nation. but Richard Lamm continued to press claims of unfair treatment in the primary process. more than 124. For example. Ross Perot soon after entered the race as well. as voters figured that he would not win the election. 1995 Ross Perot announced on Larry King Live that he was determined to help form a new political party. However.000 signatures more than the 51. where 61. in order to give those who supported him in 1992 a voice in future elections. Polls showed that nearly two out of every three voters wanted a new political party. a prominent Republican candidate." after the city where they had a . In Texas. The response from the public was unexpectedly in favor of starting the Reform Party. called Ross Perot and the Reform Party a "mortal threat the Republican Party. and party of a group of independents dubbed by the media as the "secret seven" who intended to try to make runs for independent candidacies. Ross Perot chose Pat Choate.596 signatures were required. leaders of the Reform Party fought against an internal splinter group. Judge Howard granted the Arkansas Reform Party full ballot access and ordered the state to pay all costs for blocking the voters’ right of freedom of association. the goal was to either form a new political party in each state or to place candidates on the November 5th ballot. more than 161.007 voters to switch their party affiliation and join the Reform Party.S. It was not believed that the Reform Party could accomplish this goal. Depending on state laws. candidates from both established political parties looked for ways to attract the "Perot voters"—now the "Reform Party voters. This time around. Ed Zschau. in Arkansas the Reform Party won an historic legal battle. there was much speculation about whom would make a try for the Reform Party presidential ticket in 1996.000 voters signed on.904 signatures the state required. In North Carolina. where he discovered overwhelming pockets of potential support from those disenchanted by the two established political parties.000 California voters joined the Reform Party. as it had never been done before. This was 100. in 1992." Ross Perot easily won in a landslide. in California. For example.000 voters signed Reform Party petitions even though only 65. while Richard Lamm appealed to Reform Party voters to "pass the torch. During this time.The previous election year. a prominent economist and protectionist. as his running mate. Following the 1992 elections." In all. called the "Shaumberg Group.540 signatures were required. After the Arkansas Supreme Court denied the Reform Party ballot access for the election of officials at all levels of government. including half of all Republicans and Democrats. Richard Lamm had first shown interest in the party when he made a keynote speech at the party’s California convention earlier. In only twenty days. U. becoming the first new party to be recognized by the state in more than twenty years. the Reform Party had found need to challenge state laws to ensure the process is open and fair to all Reform Party candidates. in trying to get ballot status in many states. Federal District Court Judge George Howard ruled from the bench that Arkansas’ conflicting state laws were unconstitutional. On September 25." In the coming elections." During the election and in the aftermath. Soon thousands of concerned Americans began petitioning their state governments. a former governor of Colorado. Ross Perot lost support. Pat Buchanan. more than 166. In Florida. more than 110.

unlike the election before that when he did not have a party ticket. In May 1856. such as former congressman David Boren. During the previous campaign. The Shaumberg group did succeed in alienating more voters from the Reform Party. Sumner infuriated Rep. more anti-slavery Republicans began to run for office and be elected. stated potential support for the Reform Party. and became a threat to the ideas put out by the Democrats. which invalidated the Missouri Compromise by splitting the Missouri territory into free-soil and slave states. free men. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts experienced this danger firsthand.convention. building on the name Republican. They emphasized absolute opposition to the expansion of slavery into any new territory. Traficant later released a press release that he would be the keynote speaker at the Reform Party of California convention. Representative James Traficant. Republican Sen. the FEC decided that the Shaumberg group was only a small minority in the Reform Party. the networks rejected him. However. However. Others. Butler of South Carolina. and the Republican party began to grow. the Republicans and Know-Nothings won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives in 1854. they cooperated with the northern Know-Nothings. free labor. When Ross Perot. they nominated John C. Freemont for the Presidency. a Democrat. In the coming elections. who had no power or national party began to cooperate with the "Anti-Nebraska" Democrats to form the Free-Soil Party. They began to organize a new party in 1854. stated on Washington Journal on the C-SPAN network that Ross Perot was right all along. most of whom were former Whigs. who tried to wrest control of the party away by petitioning the FEC. Republican Party Timeframe: 1 The Republican Party had been created. free speech. Reform Party grassroots efforts continued to mount in the fifty states in which the party established itself. reviving the old term employed by the Jeffersionians. The same year. Many northern Whigs. . As tensions mounted over the slavery issue. who had refused the offer of being Ross Perot’s running mate during the election to preserve his position at the university at which he worked. in 1997. showed interest in the Reform Party. attempts to reach voters by the media were quickly blocked by others. as the anti-Catholic nativism would add to an appealing platform of the new party. Ross Perot was also shut out from the presidential debates. many prominent members of the established political parties. and that since the two parties were alike. a third political party was needed. even with the risks involved with taking this stance. including Andrew F. he delivered a passionate anti-slavery speech in which he made critical remarks about several pro-slavery senators. Together. although alienating potential supporters by his failure to oppose immigration. with the slogan "Free soil." He won about a third of the popular vote. seizing the opening given to them by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. In 1856. attempted to buy air time for an infocommercial regarding campaign finance reform. Frémont. and refused. fed up with the corruption and irresponsibility already imbued in the political system. who did not know what to make of the internal brawls in the party.

Republicans continued being elected to the White House. In 1860. Grant won the presidency easily and was re-elected in 1872.Preston S. and the country was plunged into a civil war. the son of one of Butler's cousins. their candidate. arguing that they had a common belief in the need for a strong government action in society. moderate and radical Republicans debated bitterly over war aims. and being plagued by scandals in his administration. Their efforts were ineffective due to massive racist campaigns by the southern Democrats. Lincoln. President Lincoln was able to play one faction against another. who felt his family honor had been insulted. Then. Brooks. Republican Rutherford B. After the election. Southern opinion hailed Brooks as a hero. Two days later. Brooks walked into the Senate and beat Sumner unconscious with a cane. and the Department of Justice and the Weather Bureau were established. Factionalism continued to divide the party. But. demanded heavy emphasis on their concerns and were not enthusiastic about the party’s other commitments. another group. In the 1860s. But Sumner stood by his principles. and the aims of the Reconstruction period. painful convalescence. Civil War hero Ulysses S. the Liberal Republicans. The moderates agreed with the radicals on the abolition of slavery. was elected to the presidency. Republicans tried to appeal to the South by appealing to Whig groups there to join with newly enfranchised blacks. intimidating all voters in the South. in "waving the bloody shirt" against the South and the Democrats. This was an effective campaign tactic. fought against the party’s unwillingness to do anything about it. in one of the most bitterly disputed elections in American history. embracing a tradition established by George Washington. and after a three-year. Instead. In 1868. the Republican party was also troubled by internal dissension. Prohibitionists and those who wished to exclude foreigners. The Civil War and the Reconstruction period following the war gave the Republican Party a solid core of strength and permanence. resisted the reformers. The Republican support for black rights waned when those in the party percieved that this issue was costing the party the needed votes. the southern states reacting by seceding from the Union. but this did not help gain support in the South. President Grant did not run for re-election in 1876. At the same time. Hayes won the presidency by the margin of one electoral vote. Republicans were united being the crusade of the Civil War. which had gone on record opposing a third term for any president. the party began to nominate increasingly moderate candidates. Although this was true. Meanwhile. and for a generation afterward the used this patriotic fervor to denounce Democrats as traitors. under Grant the Republican commitment to sound money policies continued. cooperation between the White House and the Democratic-controlled House of . This incident electrified the nation and helped to galvanize Northern opinion against the South. but rejected the attempt to reshape the South’s social and economic structure and imposing racial equality. fully exploited and created by the Republican Party’s propaganda. needing money to run the campaigns. Although he seemed a bit bewildered by the transition from the military life of a general to being president. and after his death the party continued until the radicals’ failure to oust President Johnson from office. The party bosses. he returned to the Senate to continue his struggle against slavery. Republicans controlled most elective offices in the northern states during the war. disgusted by corruption in the Grant administration. Because of connections of the Democrats to the south.

a group of Republicans known as the progressives sought to balance the party’s commitment to the industrial elite with the use of federal power to correct some of the worst excesses of the monopolies and rusts that dominated the Republican Party. Many Republicans were also upset because President Wilson excluded Republicans from negotiating the treaty and said that only Democrats in the Congress would allow victory in war. who had promoted progressive measures when in office. The Republicans’ ability to draw on rural. but had popular majorities in only three of them. Hayes managed to keep his campaign promises. a reform faction that refused to back James G. Theodore Roosevelt. Republicans were able to reunite and thus once again become a majority party. who had led them into the depression. but infighting proved most divisive among the Democrats. which began during the administration of Herbert Hoover. the presidential candidate in 1884. At the same time. The party’s platform. and aiding farmers. who. and thus lost its faith in the Republican Party. small-town. highly sophisticated economy. Conkling's "Stalwarts" and the "Half-breeds" which stood between them.Representatives was nearly impossible. During the 1890s. The entry into World War I raised some new issues that once again led to divide the Republican Party. incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. At the 1880 convention. Increased voter strength made the Republicans a majority party in the country for a generation. helped the Democrats win the presidency for the first time in thirty years. took measures to reverse the myriad inequalities suffered by women in that period and adopted the merit system within the civil service. angered both liberals and conservatives within his party. Republican state platforms advocated government intervention to prohibit or limit liquor consumption and to shape school curricula in order to promote certain Protestant and American values posed by the immigrants who were tied to the Democratic party. increasingly emphasized the promotion of industrial values. Republicans were often openly hostile to the new waves of eastern European and Irish immigrants that were transforming the nation’s cities. party factionalism continued. The presidential nomination went to Warren G. Blaine. and western voters was counterbalanced by the Democrats’ solid core in the South and among urban immigrants. despite resistance from some Republican leaders. The defection of the mugwumps. Harding. Nevertheless. The 1920 platform pledged the party to serve as the guardian of prosperity by such measures as raising tariffs. However. an intense political battle split Republicans into three hostile camps. and his successor was Calvin Coolidge. once elected. The Harding administration was swept by corruption. and Republican policy aided the emerging. As progressivism and war waned. later became the presidential candidate of the Progressive Party. and he swept every region outside the South. restricting immigration. both major parties were hurt by the rise of agrarian protest. Roosevelt selected Taft as his successor. and beginning in the 1890s. which included administration supporters. pledged to Puritanical ideals. they eventually split over plans for signing the charter of the League of Nations. their collapse at the polls following in 1896. The Republicans won five of seven elections between 1868 and 1892. The Great Depression. Though most Republicans in Congress supported the ongoing war measures. led to destroy America’s belief in the dream of unlimited prosperity. The disastrous economic collapse and . He cautiously withdrew federal troops from the South to allow them to shake off the psychological yoke of being a conquered land.

and this gave the Republicans their best issue since the Depression. the C. The Hoover administration had a slow and limited response to the problems. In response to their losses. nominating Landon for President. As president. supported by Eastern businessmen. Republicans in Congress sought new leaders and principles. and this played a part in the popularity of Republican senator Joseph McCarthy’s crusade against Communist subversion in the 1850s. the Republicans sought a way to build their national following. Nelson A. and continued Democratic policies. The new Republican platform endorsed New Deal objectives but condemned some of its methods. Senator Barry Goldwater. Republicans. Republicans lost control of the Senate and more ground in the House as well. he later won re-election.I. his popularity intensified when he attended a conference in Geneva. making it ineffective and seemed to be indifferent to the people. The moderates looked towards General Dwight D. Disliking political management. when he attacked the Army. When new leaders failed to bridge the gulf between conservatives and liberals in the GOP. Rockefeller. At the loss of the Republicans next election. Richard Nixon helped lead a unified party to a narrow victory in the 1968 race against Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace. while the others did not play on the issue. who issued blanket indictments of the New Deal. they nominated Wendell Willkie. he would resign as head. the former led by Taft continued to oppose the New Deal. The conservatives thereafter controlled the party machinery and increasingly impressed their stamp on the party’s principles and actions. first turning to condemning deficit spending techniques and New Deal policy. in fact. this issue died down and be became disgraced. which started out as a strong reaction against radicalism. A split still remained between conservative and moderate republicans. Eisenhower did little to build the party. leaving Gerald Ford in power. At the next election. one faction of the Republican party was behind Hoover. ethnic groups. who had helped win the passing war. governor of New York. In 1950. to carry their standard in the 1952 elections. became identified after 1972 with the Watergate scandal. Party leaders argued that they represented a family oriented America. Reagan wasa backed by a coalition of Republicans and conservative . this pattern repeated in 1986. Eisenhower. Senator McCarthy charged that the State department was infested with Communists. A temporary Democratic resurgence followed with the election of Jimmy Carter in 1976. now began to take a stricter anti-Communist line in their rhetoric. However. isolationist. The Republicans regained control of the Senate but did not achieve to gain a majority in the House. was a representative of the conservatives. His administration. an internationalist who was even closer to the values expressed by the New Deal. emerged as a spokesman for the party liberals. In the midterm elections of 1986.O supported him and Lewis said that if Willkie did not win. Recognizing the New Deal’s popularity. working hard to recruit influence in the South and among urban. Yet another split between conservatives and liberals weakened the Republican party during the course of the next decade. including deficit spending. on the other hand.extraordinary high employment following the crash made a mockery of Republican claims. Eisenhower won twice with smashing victories. but the conservative tide returned when the Republican candidate Ronald Reagan won an overwhelming victory in the next elections. Nixon was the first President since 1848 to take office with both houses of Congress controlled by the opposition. which eventually led Nixon to his resignation under the threat of impeachment.

S. However." After the election. free men. They began to organize a new party in 1854. free labor. building on the name Republican. In 1856. a delegation from Israel sat face to face with Palestinians for the first time in thousands of years. the party lost ground in both houses of Congress. disappointed at a turn in Gingrich’s leadership to one which held more appeasement to Democratic proposals. In the coming elections. and became a threat to the ideas put out by the Democrats. in what was termed as the "Republican Revolution. as the anti-Catholic nativism would add to an appealing platform of the new party. and the Republican party began to grow.Democrats in Congress. Frémont. although alienating potential supporters by his failure to oppose immigration. a list of conservative proposals which helped shape the agenda. In the wake of Operation Desert Storm. and for the first time in 12 years. they cooperated with the northern Know-Nothings. Republican Party Timeframe: 1 The Republican Party had been created. Relying on his illustrious military experience. Many northern Whigs. the 1994 election brought a dramatic reversal as the Republican Party gained control over both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954. the Republicans and Know-Nothings won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives in 1854. Freemont for the Presidency. reviving the old term employed by the Jeffersionians. Democrats controlled both branches of government. Republicans in the party began to split. As a result of his leadership after the war. However. most of whom were former Whigs. who had no power or national party began to cooperate with the "Anti-Nebraska" Democrats to form the Free-Soil Party. free trade. often referring to the enemy as "Dole-Gingrich." as Representative Newt Gingrich laid forth their new "Contract with America". seizing the opening given to them by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Republicans stormed in. The Democrats painted the Republican party as maligned. they nominated John C. with the slogan "Free soil. free speech. which invalidated the Missouri Compromise by splitting the Missouri territory into free-soil and slave states. and embarked on a program which sought to increase the nation’s military strength and curtail many of the social welfare programs in the previous administration. The gradual erosion in Republican party strength in Congress was matched by a loss at the head of the ticket. Together. he brought together an unprecedented coalition to maintain the forces of law in the Persian Gulf region. policy in such critical areas as nuclear disarmament. President Bush laid a solid groundwork for U. 1996 marked defeat again as Senator Bob Dole embarked on a failed Presidential campaign. trying to destroy social security and other entitlement programs." He won about a third of the popular vote. Although Vice president Bush won the presidential election for the Republicans. . They emphasized absolute opposition to the expansion of slavery into any new territory. President Bush's popularity soared to record levels. The Republicans retained the same number of seats in the Senate and gained nine seats in the House. the Middle East peace process and the future of NATO.

he delivered a passionate anti-slavery speech in which he made critical remarks about several pro-slavery senators. Lincoln. another group. the party began to nominate increasingly moderate candidates. Two days later. Meanwhile. he returned to the Senate to continue his struggle against slavery. In 1868. demanded heavy emphasis on their concerns and were not enthusiastic about the party’s other commitments. Butler of South Carolina. more anti-slavery Republicans began to run for office and be elected.As tensions mounted over the slavery issue. The moderates agreed with the radicals on the abolition of slavery. Republicans tried to appeal to the South by appealing to Whig groups there to join with newly enfranchised blacks. In the 1860s. and for a generation afterward the used this patriotic fervor to denounce Democrats as traitors. Southern opinion hailed Brooks as a hero. arguing that they had a common belief in the need for a strong government action in society. painful convalescence. Then. including Andrew F. The Civil War and the Reconstruction period following the war gave the Republican Party a solid core of strength and permanence. but rejected the attempt to reshape the South’s social and economic structure and imposing racial equality. Sumner infuriated Rep. Republican Sen. This incident electrified the nation and helped to galvanize Northern opinion against the South. Prohibitionists and those who wished to exclude foreigners. But. Preston S. President Grant did not run for re-election in 1876. At the same time. and the country was plunged into a civil war. who felt his family honor had been insulted. Republicans controlled most elective offices in the northern states during the war. In 1860. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts experienced this danger firsthand. and after a three-year. This was an effective campaign tactic. Brooks walked into the Senate and beat Sumner unconscious with a cane. fully exploited and created by the Republican Party’s propaganda. the son of one of Butler's cousins. Although he seemed a bit bewildered by the transition from the military life of a general to being president. Civil War hero Ulysses S. the Liberal Republicans. embracing a tradition established by George Washington. Brooks. But Sumner stood by his principles. the Republican party was also troubled by internal dissension. moderate and radical Republicans debated bitterly over war aims. Republicans were united being the crusade of the Civil War. but this did not help gain support in the South. Factionalism continued to divide the party. and the aims of the Reconstruction period. in "waving the bloody shirt" against the South and the Democrats. Although this was true. Because of connections of the Democrats to the south. Republicans continued being elected to the White House. Grant won the presidency easily and was re-elected in 1872. under Grant the Republican commitment to sound money policies continued. even with the risks involved with taking this stance. intimidating all voters in the South. Their efforts were ineffective due to massive racist campaigns by the southern Democrats. President Lincoln was able to play one faction against another. and being plagued by scandals in his administration. disgusted by corruption in the Grant . their candidate. which had gone on record opposing a third term for any president. In May 1856. and after his death the party continued until the radicals’ failure to oust President Johnson from office. and the Department of Justice and the Weather Bureau were established. the southern states reacting by seceding from the Union. The Republican support for black rights waned when those in the party percieved that this issue was costing the party the needed votes. was elected to the presidency.

their collapse at the polls following in 1896. a reform faction that refused to back James G. and beginning in the 1890s. party factionalism continued. Harding. During the 1890s. who had promoted progressive measures when in office. and aiding farmers. The defection of the mugwumps. later became the presidential candidate of the Progressive Party. The Republicans won five of seven elections between 1868 and 1892. The party’s platform. and Republican policy aided the emerging. needing money to run the campaigns. who. the presidential candidate in 1884. Instead. both major parties were hurt by the rise of agrarian protest. He cautiously withdrew federal troops from the South to allow them to shake off the psychological yoke of being a conquered land. Roosevelt selected Taft as his successor. in one of the most bitterly disputed elections in American history. but had popular majorities in only three of them. At the 1880 convention. fought against the party’s unwillingness to do anything about it. Many Republicans were also upset because President Wilson excluded Republicans from negotiating the treaty and said that only Democrats in the Congress would allow victory in war. Theodore Roosevelt. The 1920 platform pledged the party to serve as the guardian of prosperity by such measures as raising tariffs. once elected. they eventually split over plans for signing the charter of the League of Nations. Conkling's "Stalwarts" and the "Half-breeds" which stood between them. increasingly emphasized the promotion of industrial values. However. angered both liberals and conservatives within his party. despite resistance from some Republican leaders. Republican state platforms advocated government intervention to prohibit or limit liquor consumption and to shape school curricula in order to promote certain Protestant and American values posed by the immigrants who were tied to the Democratic party. small-town. Hayes won the presidency by the margin of one electoral vote. restricting immigration. Blaine. highly sophisticated economy. Increased voter strength made the Republicans a majority party in the country for a generation. Hayes managed to keep his campaign promises. Nevertheless. an intense political battle split Republicans into three hostile camps. took measures to reverse the myriad inequalities suffered by women in that period and adopted the merit system within the civil service. The entry into World War I raised some new issues that once again led to divide the Republican Party. and . which included administration supporters. The presidential nomination went to Warren G. incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. resisted the reformers. At the same time.administration. Republicans were often openly hostile to the new waves of eastern European and Irish immigrants that were transforming the nation’s cities. a group of Republicans known as the progressives sought to balance the party’s commitment to the industrial elite with the use of federal power to correct some of the worst excesses of the monopolies and rusts that dominated the Republican Party. Though most Republicans in Congress supported the ongoing war measures. helped the Democrats win the presidency for the first time in thirty years. The Republicans’ ability to draw on rural. Republican Rutherford B. cooperation between the White House and the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives was nearly impossible. Republicans were able to reunite and thus once again become a majority party. and western voters was counterbalanced by the Democrats’ solid core in the South and among urban immigrants. but infighting proved most divisive among the Democrats. As progressivism and war waned. The party bosses. After the election.

O supported him and Lewis said that if Willkie did not win. who had led them into the depression. At the next election. in fact. In response to their losses. including deficit spending. Nixon was the first President since 1848 to take office with both houses of Congress controlled by the opposition. Eisenhower did little to build the party.I. who had helped win the passing war. emerged as a spokesman for the party liberals. making it ineffective and seemed to be indifferent to the people. nominating Landon for President. and his successor was Calvin Coolidge. an internationalist who was even closer to the values expressed by the New Deal. governor of New York. which started out as a strong reaction against radicalism. and this played a part in the popularity of Republican senator Joseph McCarthy’s crusade against Communist subversion in the 1850s. ethnic groups. to carry their standard in the 1952 elections. When new leaders failed to bridge the gulf between conservatives and liberals in the GOP. working hard to recruit influence in the South and among urban. Republicans in Congress sought new leaders and principles. Senator McCarthy charged that the State department was infested with Communists. The disastrous economic collapse and extraordinary high employment following the crash made a mockery of Republican claims. The Hoover administration had a slow and limited response to the problems. was a representative of the conservatives. . isolationist. The Harding administration was swept by corruption. Nelson A. now began to take a stricter anti-Communist line in their rhetoric. However. The Great Depression. his popularity intensified when he attended a conference in Geneva. who issued blanket indictments of the New Deal. he would resign as head. on the other hand. Yet another split between conservatives and liberals weakened the Republican party during the course of the next decade. this issue died down and be became disgraced. Party leaders argued that they represented a family oriented America. they nominated Wendell Willkie.he swept every region outside the South. His administration. which began during the administration of Herbert Hoover. The moderates looked towards General Dwight D. and continued Democratic policies. Republicans. Rockefeller. The conservatives thereafter controlled the party machinery and increasingly impressed their stamp on the party’s principles and actions. pledged to Puritanical ideals. one faction of the Republican party was behind Hoover. while the others did not play on the issue. Recognizing the New Deal’s popularity. A split still remained between conservative and moderate republicans. he later won re-election. the Republicans sought a way to build their national following. The new Republican platform endorsed New Deal objectives but condemned some of its methods. In 1950. became identified after 1972 with the Watergate scandal. led to destroy America’s belief in the dream of unlimited prosperity. and thus lost its faith in the Republican Party. first turning to condemning deficit spending techniques and New Deal policy. and this gave the Republicans their best issue since the Depression. At the loss of the Republicans next election. when he attacked the Army. which eventually led Nixon to his resignation under the threat of impeachment. the former led by Taft continued to oppose the New Deal. Disliking political management. Senator Barry Goldwater. Eisenhower won twice with smashing victories. leaving Gerald Ford in power. the C. supported by Eastern businessmen. Richard Nixon helped lead a unified party to a narrow victory in the 1968 race against Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace. Eisenhower.

and embarked on a program which sought to increase the nation’s military strength and curtail many of the social welfare programs in the previous administration. and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts because the party’s leading figures. this pattern repeated in 1986. a delegation from Israel sat face to face with Palestinians for the first time in thousands of years. As president. The Democrats painted the Republican party as maligned. The Republicans regained control of the Senate but did not achieve to gain a majority in the House. In the wake of Operation Desert Storm. However." After the election. Whig Party Timeframe: 1 The Whig Party formed in the opposition of President Andrew Jackson and constituencies in the Democratic Party.S. the opposition had called themselves Whigs. President Bush's popularity soared to record levels. a list of conservative proposals which helped shape the agenda. and Jackson’s inauguration in 1829 began the period of opposition and prepared the ground for a coalition of political forces which formed the Whig Party. in what was termed as the "Republican Revolution." The National Republican party was the precursor to the Whigs. but the conservative tide returned when the Republican candidate Ronald Reagan won an overwhelming victory in the next elections. the party lost ground in both houses of Congress. Relying on his illustrious military experience. disappointed at a turn in Gingrich’s leadership to one which held more appeasement to Democratic proposals." as Representative Newt Gingrich laid forth their new "Contract with America". Although Vice president Bush won the presidential election for the Republicans. the 1994 election brought a dramatic reversal as the Republican Party gained control over both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954.A temporary Democratic resurgence followed with the election of Jimmy Carter in 1976. the Middle East peace process and the future of NATO. President Bush laid a solid groundwork for U. often referring to the enemy as "Dole-Gingrich. Reagan wasa backed by a coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats in Congress. trying to destroy social security and other entitlement programs. As a result of his leadership after the war. . free trade. The anti-Jackson groups drew upon the political history of two revolutions. policy in such critical areas as nuclear disarmament. However. the American and 17th century English. for their name. The Republicans retained the same number of seats in the Senate and gained nine seats in the House. he brought together an unprecedented coalition to maintain the forces of law in the Persian Gulf region. Democrats controlled both branches of government. 1996 marked defeat again as Senator Bob Dole embarked on a failed Presidential campaign. The gradual erosion in Republican party strength in Congress was matched by a loss at the head of the ticket. The Republicans stormed in. In the midterm elections of 1986. Republicans lost control of the Senate and more ground in the House as well. and for the first time in 12 years. In both cases. Republicans in the party began to split. united only by this opposition. this time they united against "King Andrew. Henry Clay of Kentucky. The different leaders of the party clashed in their views.

Most of Tyler’s cabinet resigned in protest. Northern Whigs had already moved to the Free Soil Party. to support the Liberty party candidate. acceded to the presidency. Calhoun’s supporters. Clay made the President’s veto of a bank recharter a key issue. which had been formed earlier. provoking northern abolitionists. With disunion threatening.Webster was more of a nationalist than Clay. wanted to capture the presidency in 1852 on the Union movement. The Whig split ensured a victory for the Democrat Polk. concerned with slaveholding rights. Calhoun broke his alliance with Jackson and joined the Whigs when he realized that he would not be the next Democratic president." The program had strong appeal to merchants and manufacturers practicing interstate commerce. In 1840. and embittered the Whigs by vetoing the bills which they had meant to restore the rechartering of the Bank of the United States. strong in New York and Pennsylvania. leading many influencing politicians as William Seward and Thaddeus Stevens into the party. Clay and Webster tried to compromise the main points of sectional friciton. known as Conscience Whigs opposed the Cotton Whigs in the pro-slavery states. federally sponsored communication projects and other internal improvements. Fillmore. Webster. and with him the future of the Whig cohesion. Clay refused to take a definite stand on the Texas annexation issue. the Whigs won the presidency in 1848 under Zachary Taylor. John C. widened with the nullification crisis. and his membership in the party was withdrawn. The Whigs won. However. Later that year. John Tyler. now Fillmore’s secretary of state. and the Whigs endorsed him. but Harrison died one month in office. were lead to the Whig party. Once the Mexican War had been declared. The Whig ticket consisted of William H. They ran a "Log Cabin" campaign which was the first to use major political propaganda and electioneering. as they defected to those parties. who opposed its admission as a slave state. continuation of the national bank. The former Whig president. Harrison for president and John Tyler for vicepresident. In 1844. Despite this dissension. both men encouraged a program of tariff protection. Southern Whigs thought the Democrats more receptive to their interests. President Taylor blocked their moves. both major paries accepted the Compromise of 1850 and the Whigs reverted to nominate Winfield Scott. However. and a conservative public land sales policy. Clay and Webster died. Antislavery Whigs. who had been a Jacksonian Democrat. the Whig Party nominated Clay for president. The rise of the Republican and the American parties furthered the Whig downfall. . and his death on July 9 made Millard Fillmore the president. accepted the American nomination. Its call for moderation and Union became more ineffective as the Civil war neared. Another source of recruits was the AntiMasonic party. but Jackson handily won reelection. controversy over admitting or excluding slavery from territory gained in the war further splintered the party. This was fully described in Clay’s "American System. The Whig Party never recovered from the death of their two great figures.

(b) the desire for religious freedom as with Maryland. (c) the natural extension of a natural port in South Carolina. before Columbus. Columbus came to America looking for a trade route to the East Indies (Spice Islands). often speaking different languages.S. Other southern colonies sprouted up due to (a) the desire for more tobacco land as with North Carolina. Chapter 02 . but did find a cash crop in tobacco. Other explorers quickly realized this was an entirely New World and came to lay claim to the new lands for their host countries. III. there were an estimated 400 tribes. The biological exchange cannot be underestimated. Jamestown.Settling the Northern Colonies . or (d) as a “second chance” colony as with Georgia. II. Chapter 03 . The coming together of the two world had world changing effects. Spain and Portugal had the head start on France and then England. On the bad side.New World Beginnings The over-arching theme of chapter 1 is the Old World meeting and clashing with the New World. It’s inaccurate to think of “Indians” as a homogeneous group. II. These people were very diverse.. They found no gold.The Planting of English America The over-arching theme of chapter 2 is that the English colonies quickly gained a foothold and grew along the Atlantic coast of America. European diseases wiped out an estimated 90% of Native Americans. there were many different Native American tribes. I. VA was founded with the initial goal of making money via gold. In what’s today the U. In the New World.Themes Chapter 01 . Food was swapped back and forth and truly revolutionized what people ate. I.

proud. crusty. MA was founded with the initial goal of allowing Pilgrims. due to (a) religious dissent from Plymouth and Massachusetts as with Rhode Island. New Englanders developed a Bible Commonwealth—a stern but clear society where the rules of society were dictated by the laws of the Bible. IV. Taken altogether. And they were unique in that (a) New York was born of Dutch heritage rather than English. Plymouth.American Life in the Seventeenth Century The over-arching theme of chapter 4 is that the American colonies quickly became unique as compared to any other land. Taken altogether. The Southern colonies were dominated by agriculture. stern. Brought as slaves. Whisky Rebellion). Paxton Boys. backwoodsy. and very industrious. This good-vs-evil society is best illustrated by the Salem witch trials. pious. family oriented. And. Religion shows this blend clearly. (b) the constant search for more farmland as in Connecticut. Nathaniel Bacon and his followers took to arms to essentially get more land out west from the Indians. VI. black Americans blended aspects of African culture with American. Their society. III. Other New England colonies sprouted up. They held the stereotypical qualities of both regions: agricultural and industrial. the southern colonies were inhabited by a group of people who were generally young. I. Food and music also showed African-American uniqueness. independent-minded. Chapter 05 . and (c) just due to natural growth as in Maine. I. V. Bacon’s Rebellion is very representative of the struggles of poor white indentured servants. II. the northern colonies were inhabited by a group of people who grew to be selfreliant.The over-arching theme of chapter 3 is that the northern colonies were started out of religious fervor and they largely grew out of religious fervor. Chapter 04 . will be repeated several times (Shay’s Rebellion. down home. and (b) Pennsylvania thrived more than any other colony due to its freedoms and tolerance. industrious. as African religious ceremonies mixed with Christianity. A truly unique African-American culture quickly emerged. and later Puritans.Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution . The Middle Colonies emerged as the literal crossroads of the north and south. ironically. that each region quickly assumed its own personality. II. and in opposition to eastern authorities. restless and industrious. namely (a) tobacco in the Chesapeake and (b) rice and indigo further down the coast. III. This theme of poor whites taking to arms for land. was very intolerant itself and any dissenters were pushed out of the colony. to worship independent of the Church of England. sharp in thought and sharp of tongue.

the British crown needed money and figured the Americans could help pay for the war. While separated. and naval stores. the ethnicities were knowingly or what mingling and melting together into something called “Americans. New France was made up of fur trading outposts. The northern colonies held what little industry America had at the time: shipbuilding. III. Following the French and Indian War. trade. slaves. Pennsylvania was German. I. and (b) France controlled the area of Quebec and along the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River. New England was largely from English background. Chapter 07 .” III. an estimated 90%.The over-arching theme of chapter 5 is that the American colonies quickly became unique from any other country.The Road to Revolution The over-arching theme of chapter 7 is how England repeatedly forced its laws and regulations down the unappreciative Americans’ throats. Both were “established” meaning tax money went to the church. The French and Indian War saw the English defeat France. Two dominant cultures emerged in the 1700s in North America: (a) England controlled the Atlantic seaboard from Georgia to Maine. and Scots-Highlanders. II. they blended into “Americans. France was totally kicked out of North America. and eventually led to bloodshed. This started the French and Indian War. Chapter 06 . IV. the southern coast African-American and English. the Appalachian frontier was ScotsIrish. II. Swiss. they were fine. They were scattered and lived with and often worked with the Indians in the forests and streams. . Most people were farmers. There were two main Protestant denominations: the Congregational Church up north. The Americans were very diverse for that time period. fishing. The south dealt with crops. but the two cultures began to rub against one another in the Ohio Valley. whaling. and the Anglican Church down south. and there were spots of French. England and France cannot live together that close.Duel for North America The over-arching theme of chapter 6 is that England defeated France to gain control over North America. Poised for growth were the “backwoods” faiths of the Baptists and Methodists that grew by leaps thanks to the Great Awakening. rum running. Although they came from different origins. New England consisted of towns made up by farmers. New York was Dutch. Like cats and dogs.” I. Although the people came from established nations. I. IV. They cleared the land and pushed the Indians out. iron works.

American Secedes from the Empire The over-arching theme of chapter 8 is that America drew out the American Revolution.II. IV. Two things showed the Articles as being too weak to the point of being sterile: (a) it could not regulate commerce and the money situation was growing dim fast and (b) Shays’ Rebellion frightened many to the possibility that mobs might just take over and the government might be too weak to stop them. Due to these reasons. and in doing so. and approved. won. The Constitution was written as something of a balancing act between strengthening the government. Even though most Americans would be considered moderates at the time.The Confederation and the Constitution The over-arching theme of chapter 9 is that the new nation started out of fear of a strong government. experienced generals. a much better navy. Also. Therefore. the Articles were very weak on purpose. II. The culmination of the patriots’ activities came at Lexington and Concord. Nearly every advantage on paper went to Britain during the revolution. Conditions deteriorated and radical patriots brought matters to a head in events such as the Tea Party and Boston Massacre. more money. training. And then. The Articles of Confederation. American employed a drawn-out strategy where the war drug on for six years. . V. America was very big and and ocean removed from England. when the American Revolution began. the Declaration of Independence was written. I. They had better troops. The Americans had on their side heart and geography. Meanwhile. notably the Stamp Act. IV. laws were passed to restrict American trade. better weapons and equipment. the first government set up after the American Revolution. III. but also a system of checks and balances were put into place to ensure no one branch becomes like the king had been. out of necessity. The Treaty of Paris 1763 legitimized the new nation. the Constitutional Convention was held. signed. Chapter 08 . III. Perhaps due to necessity rather than plan. yet making sure it doesn’t get too strong to take over. Chapter 09 . as the war waged. II. The resulting government was indeed stronger. the economic policy of mercantilism dictated that England try to keep its hard money within the British Empire. The taxes and regulations that followed were not received well by the Americans. America won by constantly withdrawing to the nation’s interior and moving on to fight another day. So. the radical patriots were the ones making things happen. III. I. strengthened the government. was structured out of fear of a too-strong government.

The U. Jefferson’s actions were sluggish. (b) starting a tax on whiskey. Troubles in North Africa and between England and France emerged.” They declared the War of 1812 with England.S. III.S. get the U. but both Washington and John Adams kept the America out of war. II. Alexander Hamilton.Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic The over-arching theme of chapter 11 is that although Jefferson floundered a bit with foreign affairs. Chapter 11 .S. The Louisiana Purchase came as a complete surprise and quickly doubled the size of the U. His theory was that the only way to avoid war was to stop interaction between U. After some negotiating. and defend the “free seas. mostly with the promise of the Bill of Rights. ships and Europe.S. on a solid foothold. Turmoil broke out Europe with the French Revolution.IV. did this by “sticking up” for herself against Britain in the War of 1812. I. trade and enrage the merchants and businessmen up North. the fantastic Louisiana Purchase seemed to make up for everything. Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton developed a plan that included (a) starting a national tariff. This was best for the U. nearly got sucked into European issues. But. With the Bill of Rights quickly ratified.S. Trying to again avoid war with England or France. young western Congressmen wanted war to possibly gain new land. Politics quickly fell into two camps: (a) those who followed Thomas Jefferson became the “Democratic-Republicans” and (b) those who followed Alexander Hamilton became the “Federalists.” IV. Chapter 10 . the top problem the new nation faced was financial in nature.S. II. The overall effect was to kill U. .Launching the New Ship of State The over-arching theme of chapter 10 is that President Washington. to squelch Indian troubles. the Constitution was ratified. IV. proved itself to the rest of the world. (c) setting up a national bank. This caused American patriotism to surge. The U.S. James Madison picked up where Jefferson left off with the embargo in trying to avoid war. III. and (d) paying off the national debt. Jefferson bumbled around with an embargo. Chapter 12 . and especially Secretary of State I. Jefferson’s election was considered a “revolution” because he represented the common people for the first time. V. mostly between England and France.The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism The over-arching theme of chapter 12 is how the young U.S.

II. IV.S. Andrew Jackson felt he’d been robbed the presidency in 1824. over slavery. (b) U. III. II.S.S. Changes were foreshadowed including women beginning to work outside the home. A conflict started to brew between the north and the south. Chapter 15 . Both of these groups were looked upon with suspicion. and (d) the Pony Express. III. political power fell to the people more than any other time in history. surprisingly won at sea. headed up by hungry Irish and Germans seeking a better life. Chapter 14 . lost in Canada. and (c) the Monroe Doctrine warned Europe to “stay away!” Chapter 13 . I.Forging the National Economy The over-arching theme of chapter 14 is that American began to “grow up” economically in the early 1800s. popular. I. mass politics had grown into the circus-like monster that it’s known as today. Mostly. Jackson distrusted banks—he thought they were tools for the rich to milk money off the poor. He vowed to win for the people’s sake.The Ferment of Reform and Culture . IV. The nation became “smaller” and tied together more closely thanks to (a) railroads being built. By the time William Henry Harrison ran for president in 1840. The trouble was worked out. The war was not universally supported. The U.The Rise of a Mass Democracy The over-arching theme of chapter 13 is that through Andrew Jackson. After the war. as with the “American System” to build up the economy. the North opposed the war since it was bad for trade. could focus on herself. and (d) the U. In terms of expansion. A wave of immigration came over starting in the 1840s. II. (b) Oregon and Florida became American lands. IV. England fighting had a few themes: (a) U.S. but they were hard workers and did well for themselves. led by Eli Whitney’s “interchangeable parts” Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaping machine paved the way for modern agriculture. the U.I. a few things happened: (a) the Missouri Compromise drew an East-West line to separate slave and free states. The issue was the tariff (import tax) and whether the south had the right to “nullify” or wipe it out. and did so. (c) the two split in the Chesapeake. The factory system was in its infancy. won the big battle at New Orleans. This motivated the regular folks to political action. but it foreshadowed bigger trouble to come. III. He killed the National Bank and threw the whole banking system into chaos. The South and West generally favored the war. (c) steamships. vs. (b) canals such as the Erie.S.

and then did it. Life as a slave could be wildly varied—some slave owners were kind toward their slaves. In the long run. Chapter 16 . and equality. It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and. Free public schools began in large measure. Cotton ran the South before the Civil War— it was "King Cotton. Southerners countered that northern workers were treated even worse than slaves. Many "utopia experiments" began. small farmers. like the First Great Awakening. III.S. III. and women were created equal. I. Most simply failed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned.Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy The over-arching theme of chapter 17 is that the United States chose to pursue a national policy of expansion called “Manifest Destiny. the white majority (who owned no slaves). Chapter 17 . chose to expand it’s borders. V. slaves. Slave owners. IV.S. V. The overall mission was to perfect society and create true equality.” The U. free blacks. slaves were not free to do as they pleased. they felt the way to save the family was to ban alcohol. In all situations. temperance (no alcohol). There was push to ban alcohol called "temperance. And William Lloyd Garrison printed "The Liberator". Abolition (move to abolish slavery) began with the Quakers. . The Mormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great Salt Lake." The entire southern economy was based on cotton. II. the U. IV. The South had developed a pyramid-like social structure. The "Second Great Awakening" began in the 1830s. was led by passionate and emotional preachers. some were immensely cruel.The over-arching theme of chapter 15 is that Americans began to recognize problems and began attempts to clean them up. The major areas were religion. From top-to-bottom: planter aristocrats. They asserted that all men. I.The South and the Slavery Controversy The over-arching theme of chapter 16 is that antebellum (pre-Civil War) society in the South was built on slave labor. Northern factory workers exploited then fired their workers. VI. Frederick Douglass became the main spokesman against slavery. women's rights. had a vested interest in their slaves. NY. I. II. likely got the better end of the deal. A boundary dispute with England over Maine was settled peacably. a radical abolition newspaper. The first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls." This was led by the ladies. they said.

but it wasn’t enforced.S. The South cried foul saying it gave a view of slavery that was too harsh and . The answer to the question was hammered out in the Compromise of 1850. now it was a big question mark.Renewing the Sectional Struggle The over-arching theme of chapter 18 is that the nation again fell into sectional dispute over slavery and states’ rights. voted him in. and England. it’d been hanging in the balance. likely got the better. mainly between the U. Uncle Tom’s Cabin drove a wedge between the Northerner and Southerner. Since the Texas revolution. Again. popular sovereignty opened the Great Plains to potential slavery. The election of 1844 saw James K. It was shared land. Polk run on a Manifest Destiny platform. IV. IV. it failed. the prize of California that Polk had wanted. so it was annexed in 1845 III. III. the U. When the Mexican-American war was over. V. The North—South rift was widened with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. but this time. In it’s place. “Will new lands won from Mexico have slaves or be free?” II. the 49th parallel was agreed upon. American lawmakers finally decided it was too good of a prize to let slip by. So was all of the modern American Southwest. This angered the Southerners. Americans liked the idea. was obtained.II.Drifting Toward Disunion The over-arching theme of chapter 19 is that compromise had prevailed earlier over the slavery issue.S. It repealed the Missouri Compromise which had kept the peace for a generation. Chapter 19 . Whereas the slave-land issue had been settled. A tougher fugitive slave law was a major concession to the South. I. It said California was to be free.S. After some negotiating over the border. I. Oregon was next on the list of lands to seal up. Texas finally joined the U. popular sovereignty (the people decide) for the rest of the lands. Chapter 18 . The main question facing the nation was. and he went after California.

The North relied on numbers to their advantage. Abe Lincoln won a very sectional race for president over 3 other candidates. After Ft. The Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision was huge. but it cemented each section’s feelings on the issue. Kansas became the battleground over slavery. In 1860. Bloodshed resulted. the South hoped for England to intervene on their side. Chapter 20 . IV. He won. largely because Uncle Tom’s Cabin had convinced the English people of slavery’s horrors. This never happened. III.unrealistic. II. Although he lost to Stephen Douglas for Illinois Senate. The idea was that King Cotton’s dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. all new lands were possible slave lands. Since slavery there was to be decided by popular vote.” The border states never left. . Effectively then. The South had promised to leave the union if Abe won. keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. All along the South felt that England would help them. and the South indeed seceded. Abe Lincoln arrived on the scene. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. I. It said that Congress or a legislature cannot outlaw slavery in the territories. V.Girding for War: The North and the South The over-arching theme of chapter 20 is that both sides prepared for war. and the border states were in the balance. II. Throughout the war. Abe would make concessions to “keep them happy. VI. he made a name for himself there. each side passionately fought for their position. A financial panic in 1857 added to the chaos and uncertainty. Sumter started the war.

Southern blacks saw some brief improvements.III. And the South began to lose battle after battle. “What to do with the southern states?” The more moderate Republicans. the quick-victory approach seemed to have been a mistake. Turning point battles. and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River. After they lost at Bull Run. (b) Gettysburg which effectively broke the South’s back. pulled back up North and left Southern blacks “hanging out to dry. industry. A northern loss on “the Peninsula” at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. lost out to . Chapter 21 . money. III. navy.S. Both sides turned to a draft. which the North won.The Ordeal of Reconstruction The over-arching theme of chapter 22 is that the South was placed under strict watch for years after the Civil War. until the U. He did so by starting the “Union Party” made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan. The North thought they could win in a quick war.” General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. the question was. After the war. took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”. “You don’t change horses midstream. like Lincoln and his successor Andrew Johnson. The South started the war winning.” I. Chapter 22 . IV. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. II.The Furnace of the Civil War The over-arching theme of chapter 21 is that the North wore down and then forced the South to surrender. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population. the nation’s first. I.

. They were no longer slaves. Army pulled out of the South as part of the Compromise of 1877. but many others were not and Grant was unwilling to fire them.S. Economically. these years were good politically. When the U. III. anti-Chinese II. Each was concerned only with getting their party reelected. The end result was little different and little better than slavery.. V. a presidential election was essentially a tie. Army to pull out. For Southern blacks. but with little other options. As a result. blacks voted and were often elected to state legislatures and Congress. President Ulysses S. I. II.Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age The over-arching theme of chapter 23 is that the Republicans and Democrats fell into an era of do-little politics. Also. Tensions rose over race and ethnicity. freed blacks fared worse. The southern states were not allowed to reenter the U. In 1877. they largely became sharecroppers. Reconstruction was over and southern blacks were left to fend for themselves. Chapter 23 . Grant himself was clean.S. This left the southern blacks on their own—southern whites reasserted their power. Grant’s administration was riddled with corruption. The South was divided up into military districts.S. A compromise was worked out. Their top priority was to get their party reelected.S. little actually got done in the government. until the North’s stipulations were met.the Radical Republicans who desired to punish the South. The political parties fell into the trap of serving themselves more than the people. III. and the South got the U. Since whites wanted nothing to do with the U. IV.

A class of millionaires emerged for the first time ever. the beginnings of anti-trusts began (to bust the monopolies) and organized labor got a jumpstart (although they were still rather ineffective). .sentiment ran high and the Chinese were actually banned from immigration. Railroads. were to be the skeleton on which the nation’s economy would be built. I. After the war. many of the mega-industries. along with steel. Before the Civil War. bring it back to the people. they were out to make money. III.Industry Comes of Age The over-arching theme of chapter 24 is that America’s economy turns from agricultural and handiwork to industrial and machine work. Unfortunately. V. The government did reach the billion dollar level for the first time. IV. This was a farmer and worker movement that sought to clean up the government. the Industrial Revolution forced the American city to gain dominance over rural America. grew at the expense of the “little man’s” interest. This type of wealth was championed by “Social Darwinism” where the strong win in business. II. As businesses. and help the working man out. Populism started. Chapter 25 .America Moves to the City The over-arching theme of chapter 25 is that in the late 1800s. railroads boomed and were critical to the nation. Chapter 24 . This was largely due to military pension plans. The plans were very popular and revealed the goal of the legislators—pass something that will get me reelected. But the working man cried foul. railroads had become important. IV. To right these wrongs. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rockefeller made fortunes. and they did. like railroads.

Miners looking for silver and/or gold fled to Colorado and Nevada seeking quick fortune. others to fight. poor/unhealthy work conditions. This meant the Native Americans were forced out for farmers. and “nativism” (antiimmigrant feelings). the vast majority didn’t. Army as “hostiles.” II.B. III. if only slightly. I. over-crowdedness and sanitation problems. Cattle became king in Texas as cowboys drove herds north to the Kansas railroads and reaped quick money. insects.The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution The over-arching theme of chapter 26 is the West was opened up for settlement. miners. III. Farmers struggled out west due to several problems: weather. Washington & W.I. but all were cleared out. corrupton. Cities grew because factories grew. Problems arose as cities boomed.S. IV. outgoing “Gibson Girl. though most were still at home. and low prices for their crops. . The Industrial Revolution kicked into gear in America in the late 1800s and factories needed workers. high mortgage rates. More women worked. They disagreed on how to help blacks —Washington encouraged blacks to obtain a practical skill at a trade school. high railroad shipping rates. The “new woman” was idealized by the althletic. The problems included: exploitation of immigrant laborers. Chapter 26 . DuBois were the top black leaders. II. DuBois encouraged blacks to study anything they wished. Booker T. even academic subjects. Native Americans out West faced two options: agree to settle on a reservation or fight the U. A few found it. so people flocked to the cities.” Some chose reservations. IV.E. and ranchers. The roles of women began to change.

This party sought “cheap money” (or silver money) in order to create inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debts.S. Progressives and “muckraker” writers attacked city corruption. poor living and working conditions. the Philippines.S. The farmers’ struggles led to the People’s (or Populist) Party. mostly in the Caribbean and the Pacific. . and other smaller islands. Chapter 27 .Empire and Expansion The over-arching theme of chapter 27 is that America took over new lands.Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt The over-arching theme of chapter 28 is that reformers called “Progressives” sought to clean up America on behalf of the people. The U. Each of these ills saw laws and/or Amendments passed to attempt to better the condition. This opened the Asian giant to international trade. The Spanish-American War saw the U. corporate greed. IV.V. The Progressives grew out of the Populist (or People’s) Party and sought to correct injustices. Puerto Rico.S. II. there. I. gain Hawaii. Teddy Roosevelt became a vigorous president who obtained and built the Panama Canal. managed to get an “Open Door Policy” with China.S. The Philippines proved to be hard to handle since the Filipino people didn’t want the U. Guantanomo Bay in Cuba. but also increased animosity toward the U. They waged a guerilla war and resented American control until it was turned back over to the Philippines after WWII. III. alcohol. Chapter 28 . His “Big Stick Policy” toward Latin America increased America’s influence. II. I. Teddy Roosevelt became the best-known and most active Progressive. and women’s right to vote.

notably the Lusitania. Chapter 29 . That is. II. however. for parks and conservation. . V. usually out West. but Taft began to stray from Roosevelt’s ways and the two split. German subs began to sink sinks carrying Americans. Wilson hated war and wanted American foreign policy to be fair and just to all. war had begun. he broke up a few high-profile companies that he said were monopolies (or trusts). IV. he ordered the US Army to chase Pancho Villa in Mexico. He also obtained huge tracts of land. Busting trusts and thus creating competition was to benefit the average person. He attacked the tariff as too high. Chapter 30 . Roosevelt picked Taft to follow him.The War to End War The over-arching theme of chapter 30 is that America reluctantly joined WWI. banks as corrupt by the rich. IV. she then threw herself into the war effort with full force. III. forced this peaceful president to take military action. Teddy Roosevelt made a name for himself as a “trustbuster”. for the time being. In Europe. I.Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad The over-arching theme of chapter 29 is that Woodrow Wilson was an idealist (he had high principles and would not bend them for practical purposes).III. Conditions in Latin America. Wilson tried to keep America out of the war. Wilson won the presidency mainly because Teddy Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate and split the Republican vote with Taft. In the Atlantic ocean. Wilson was an idealist and progressive who sought to clean up problems. and did. and trusts as milking the people. Notably.

The “Scopes Monkey Trial” illustrated the new controversy of evolution vs. V. to limit “New Immigrants” from Italy and Poland. At the Treaty of Versailles. Anti-immigration ran high as well. the US Senate rejected the Treaty/League. and establishing a body to prevent future wars. They set the goals of free seas. VI.I. Chapter 31 . II. III. IV. The Americans focussed their military effort in protecting Paris from the Germans. Wilson agreed to allow England and France to punish Germany for the war. the first since the Civil War. They didn’t wish to turn over America’s decisionmaking to a foreign body like the League of Nations. A “red scare” struck America in the 20s. creation. Fear of communism resonated through society and was fueled by mail bombings and illustrated by the Sacco and Vanzetti executions. selfdetermination after the war. In return. II. A military draft was instituted. President Wilson outlined the war’s objectives with his Fourteen Points. and specifically. they agreed to start Wilson’s “League of Nations. .American Life in the "Roaring Twenties" The over-arching theme of chapter 31 is that America clipped along through the 20s at a fast pace and ran through many cultural changes. I. Women went to work more than they’d ever done and black soldiers were drafted into the military into segregated units. III. Laws were passed to limit immigration.” However.

America entered into policies of “isolationism” whereby the US just wanted to look after herself and leave Europe alone. V. and coupled with over-buying in the stock market. . President Harding had several scandals underneath him. Three Republican presidents were pro-business. and restoring confidence in banks. Businesses had a good run in the 20s and consumers bought products wildly. Hoover was very reluctant and slow to take government action. FDR quickly got many New Deal programs passed. construction projects. following a “handsoff” approach by government. kind of a throwback to late 1800s. The general philosophy was: the government will start massive projects and spend huge quantities of money. These programs hit on all walks of life. Chapter 33 . The economy and consumers got to running too fast. II. IV.S. initiated the Stock Crash and Great Depression.IV. II. notably the Teapot Dome Scandal over oil. III. Chapter 32 . housing. economy and jolt it right up out of the Great Depression. Hoover held the same ideas with his “rugged individualism” phrase. Emphasis was placed on creating jobs. I. The goal was to re-invigorate the U.The Great Depression and the New Deal The over-arching theme of chapter 33 is that FDR led the federal government into his massive New Deal programs. and this will “jump-start” the economy. I. When the Stock Crash hit and Great Depression started. often on credit or with an installment plan.The Politics of Boom and Bust The over-arching theme of chapter 32 is that 20s politics were a time of corruption and business running wild. Coolidge was very pro-business.

from the Depression. FDR wanted peace.S.S. though the New Deal may have helped the economy a bit. III. still wanted to stay out. until he asked for more Supreme Court judges and was finally told. and . The first goal of the U. fought a two-front war: in Europe and in the Pacific. but events slowly drew the U. Though FDR was popular. After watching Hitler go on the move. Chapter 35 . When it became evident that both Japan and Germany were marching toward militarism. Spain became a dictatorship. closer and then into WWII. IV. This effectively gave the dictators a “go-ahead” sign. in the war was to mobilize. it did not boost the U. Events showed war as inevitable.S.S. when Pearl Harbor was attacked. I. As the situation overseas deteriorated.S. FDR (and Europe) made it clear they wanted peace. others that it did too little. England and France went to war.Franklin D. FDR pretty much had his way with Congress. The U.America in World War II The over-arching theme of chapter 35 is the U.” All told. IV.S. Finally. there were critics to the New Deal—some saying it did too much. Chapter 34 . V. the U.S. Japan attacked China. began to support England and France more openly with words and supplies. and Italy and Germany did as well. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War The over-arching theme of chapter 34 is that dictatorships overseas forced FDR to stray from American issues and look outside of the U. entered WWII. I. “No. then steadily fought to overwhelm the enemy.III. This meant signing up thousands of troops. he finally broke a pledge to not attack Poland. To win. the U. America mobilized its massive resources of people and materials. II.S.

In the Pacific.S. or not letting communism spread.S. II.S. The U. II.S. Chapter 36 . the atomic bomb drove Japan to surrender. chose opposite sides of the fence. For example. Then. In Europe. and Western Europe).” Finally. With the Marshall Plan. IV.S. “island hopped” over four years from Hawaii all the way to Okinawa and were “knocking on Japan’s door.” This policy was drove foreign policy until communism fell in 1989. The production boom of WWII jolted America out of the Great Depression. was the basis of the “Truman doctrine. and start building bombers. III. the U. the policy of containment was challenged. the U. the U. the massive D-Day invasion drove the Nazis back to Germany where Hitler committed suicide and his generals surrendered. Opposition to communism would dominate foreign policy for over 40 years. the U. The Marshall Plan. and her allies worked from North Africa up through Italy and toward the “soft underbelly” of Germany. When North Korea invaded South Korea. The policy of “containment”. it was time to stop making sedans. III. and U.The Cold War Begins The over-arching theme of chapter 36 is that post-war America found a new prosperity economically and a new enemy in communist Russia.S. Men (of all races) went to war and women took the jobs the men had left.switching the American economy over to war. . IV. entered the Korean War to uphold the Truman Doctrine. The war affected all Americans. NATO (alliance between U. gave billions to rebuild western Europe.S.S. I. With other nations torn up by war. America enjoyed an economic dominance for three decades following WWII.R.

the Vietnam War drug throughout the decade. “McCarthyism” played off of. at home.. the foundation of the civil rights movement was laid with events such as the Brown v.The Stormy Sixties The over-arching theme of chapter 38 is that the 1960s were a decade of upheaval. IV. added to the tension.S. II. such as America’s U-2 spy plane being shot down.S.S. Plus. then redeemed himself by standing up to the U. III.R. I.S.R. American enjoyed its new prosperity and bought up loads of consumer items to go along with new homes. Abroad. But. Chapter 38 . John Kennedy bumbled over foreign policy with his failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. The Cold War dominated culture. JFK also sent U. a new “arms race” of nuclear weapons. “advisors” to South Vietnam. and a “space race” to develop satellites and rockets began. II. Incidents between the U. The Civil Rights Movement gained steam and reached full boil with Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream Speech. The “baby boom” also began. and U.S. I. . in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Board of Education case and Montgomery bus boycott.Chapter 37 . cultural changes were staggering. The goal was to prevent communist North Vietnam from taking over non-communist South Vietnam. America’s fears of communism.” The Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act were large steps forward toward ending discrimination.The Eisenhower Era The over-arching theme of chapter 37 is how 1950s America entered a period of conformity where middle-class America largely shared the same ideals and to do differently was a major no-no. III. Black—white segregation in the South became rigid. and added to.S.

Chapter 40 . Nixon was brought down by the Watergate Scandal. Chapter 39 . in music. young people rebelled against the conformity of the 50s. This was mostly due to increased oil prices and resulting inflation. The economy began to slow.IV. . during the seventies. IV. presence in Vietnam after the Tonkin Gulf Incident. mixed with the Watergate scandal. and in the idea of “questioning authority. in drug use.” V. gas prices tripled and inflation reached double digits by 1980. II. III. He struggled as president with (a) the economy which took a nose-dive and (b) foreign affairs as he was unable to deal with U. Nixon got into trouble for “obstructing justice” and telling people to keep quiet about it. hostages taken in Iran. (b) he significantly escalated the U. Lyndon Baines Johnson fought two “wars”: (a) at home.S. This was seen mostly in the hippies.The Stalemated Seventies The over-arching theme of chapter 39 was that America’s post-war economic prosperity began to take a sharp slide downward.S. In the 60s. the norm for many became to not follow the norm. it was a decade without tremendous progress. I. The scandal involved a break-in and mic bugging at the Democratic headquarters. Generally speaking. he started the “Great Society” in attempt to make America the place everyone had dreamt it would be. Though times were certainly not bad. Culturally. Jimmy Carter was elected as a Washington outsider.The Resurgence of Conservatism The over-arching theme of chapter 40 is that Ronald Reagan returned America to more traditional policies and values.

Conservatism emerged through Reagan who supported tax cuts. IV. trade policies with China. III. Bush and the U. led by George H.S. Iraq invaded Kuwait. Most of these were over-estimated and did not pan out. I. Entering the White House in 1992. In 1991. II.R. The 2000 election between George W. the Republicans. Bush took the “War on Terror” overseas to Afghanistan and Iraq.S.S. Two years later. and a strengthening of the military. and likely the most II.S. . entered and then left.S. calling the U.S.I. largely due to increased military spending. the “evil empire. Gorbachev’s actions within the U. III. including chaos in Somalia where the U. Chapter 41 .America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era The over-arching themes of chapter 41 is that Bill Clinton and the federal government largely bumbled through eight years of presidency yet enjoyed a robust economy. won large numbers in Congress. ethnic fighting in the Balkans where the U. Clinton came with a desire to make several liberal reforms such as gays in the military and universal government-sponsored health care. This started an international effort to oust Iraq. Bush and Al Gore was the closest in history. Reagan took a strong stance against communism. tensions began to soften. The national debt increased dramatically.” When Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union. Then they also over-estimated the call for change. And George W. Problems abroad were also a thorn in Clinton’s side. led by Newt Gingrinch. and NATO tried to clean up the mess.S. IV. would eventually lead to communism’s fall in 1989. “supply-side” economics that helped businesses.R. W.

III. Chaos in the streets remained. and the rest of the story is still being written.S. set up a new Iraqi government. VI. I. Believing Saddam Hussein had “WMDs” (weapons of mass destruction) Bush and Congress elected to attack Iraq. This motivated President Bush to attack Afghanistan in hopes of (a) ousting the Taliban rulers and (b) uprooting the terrorists. V. Women broke into many places formerly reserved for men. Chapter 42 .controversial. Personal computers are the norm and the internet came in a boom (and a bust). by hijacking airplanes. but also for colleges such as Ivy League schools and military schools. Hussein was captured and the U. This was true for both jobs.S. The high-tech sector has revolutionized the modern nation. The rich did get richer. Births to unmarried women also increased dramatically. and they paid an increasing percentage of the total taxes. IV. (b) a large rise in Latino immigration. On September 11. and (c) a rise of “multiculturalism”. The rich-poor gap widened as the wealthy got wealthier during the ReaganBushClinton years. 2001. Demographic changes are seen in (a) baby boomers aging. V.The American People Face a New Century The over-arching theme of chapter 42 is that America faces new challenges in the future. Gore got more popular votes. Bush got more electoral votes and won. but after counts and recounts in Florida. II. A handful of tech firms and founders became instant billionaires. however. radical Muslim terrorists attacked the U. Family make-up began to change dramatically as divorce increased sharply. .