Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Cabanatuan City GRADUATE SCHOOL Program: Subject

: Professor: Student: Master of Arts in Teaching Major in Science and Technology Teaching Strategies Dr. Juanaria Aquino Cheriedel L. Villorante

Meaning and Importance of Assignment One of the important elements in classroom management is the assignment. It is generally recognized as the most important phase of teaching-learning activities carried on outside the classroom. In most classes, the assignment is the stimulus of the learning activity. In other words, assignment is the pupil’s sailing direction toward the accomplishment of the desired goal. When we speak of assignment in school work, we refer to a specific piece of work to be done by the pupils under certain conditions and in certain ways. It may be a problem to be solved, reading to be done, themes to be written, questions to be answered, projects to be carried through, a practice to be performed, and the like. Assignments is the chief means of directing the pupils’ learning activities outside the classroom or during the study period set aside for the preparation of the lesson for the next day. It serves as a stimulus to learning ability. “To assign a lesson,” says Roark, “is to designate a more or less definite portion of subject-matter to be acquired, assimilated, and put into some form of expression.” Such a definition recognizes four factors as implicit in the concept of the assignment, namely: (1) the task to be done; (2) appropriate procedure for accomplishment; (3) pupil-acceptance of the task and procedure; (4) learning is the product of pupil self-activity. In the language of Bossing, “The assignment applies to that part of the instructional activity devoted to the clear recognition and acceptance of the pupil of the next unit of learning to take place and of the processes by which this learning may be achieved most effectively.” The importance of the assignment in the technique of teaching has remained unquestioned. The assignment offers the greatest opportunity for giving direction to learning activities through the setting up of objectives. It is also the determining factor in directing the development of effective study habits. Johnson and Michael assert that the assignment provides one of the teacher’s excellent opportunities to adapt work to individual activities. The fundamental aim of the assignment is to give the pupils definite work to do and to guide and stimulate them to the performance of such work which will result in educative experience. The assignment period should be devoted partly to motivation. Study is most effective when highly motivated. The assignment should point out a goal to be reached and an ideal to be realized. It is the pupil’s sailing direction.” It should be a spur to interest, a challenge to effort, and a guide to thought. In giving the assignment the teacher should try to bring out the interesting aspect of the lesson and suggest interesting types of activities. The teacher must also regard the assignment period as a time for cooperative thinking and suggestion. 1

The ego involvement which obtains from giving students a proprietary interest in their own course will cause them to indentify with the work.The importance of the assignment to the teacher cannot be overlooked. This somewhat narrow view of assignment making has resulted in almost complete domination by the teacher of assignment.e. The development of good assignments is the essence of the teacher’s work. and adequately explained assignments as valuable organizing factors in study and learning. The teacher should gauge the difficulty of work so that success is possible for each pupil or student. These processes are obviously interrelated. One hour class period required one or more but not more that two hours. It also provides an excellent opportunity to grasp indications of interests when it is at its height and to adapt work to individual needs and abilities. demonstrations are all a part of introduction to anew place of work. that successful accomplishment is impossible in the time available for preparation. with consequent loss of interest on the part of the learner. student participation. based on nature and functions rather than length per se. and how to go about doing so. Questions. As such the first principle is that assignment should provide for individual differences. The youngster learns what to look for. practice and testing are separate entities. One time devoted to assignment there is no general agreement among educational experts on methods of determining the amount of assignment. Pupils should be involved in the assignment process. initiative. The general practice in colleges and universities here and abroad is to base the length of the assignment to the length of the recitation period. The assignments have also been considered as a specification by the teacher of materials to be read or studied or work to be accomplished by the students. helping students find a direction for their energy. The adequacy of present procedures may be largely due to a belief that assignments. The assignment is largely a matter not of information but of motivation. must be the ultimate determiner of the time devoted to assignment. Adequacy. and when treated as such should result in better motivation of pupils. and imagination are involved in the process. The teacher must always bear in mind that the pupil is taking other subjects that require assignments. The assignment offers the greatest opportunity for the teacher to do good teaching. Still widely used is the procedure of assigning a certain number of text pages or chapters to be read by students and little else. i. The assignments determine the learning to be experience by the pupils and the teaching to be done by the teacher. Good assignments give pupils a mental set which makes them anticipate future steps in learning. or problem. effort. Classroom teachers should avoid long assignment. and should result in better group morale and enthusiasm. teaching. It is in the assignment that new work is developed and groundwork for understanding is realized. If daily assignment is the rule. This is done despite the fact that overwhelming evidence supports clear cut objectives. The ratio should be one hour to two hours or less. Furthermore. Time. Assignment should also arouse interest and make for continuing motivation through a unit of work. illustrative materials. 2 . the assignment gives the teacher opportunity to select from his wider and richer experience of range of activities that will meet the educational goals which have been established. it would be wise to question the adequacy of an assignment that did not require 80 to 100 minutes class period. Suggestions about how to look at a problem leads to more rapid and efficient learning.

5. experiences and interests. This general type of assignment is characteristic of the child-centered movement. Cooperative or group assignment 9. The following are other functions of an assignment: 1. and to suggest ways to overcome them. theme. Page-by-page assignment Chapter assignment Problem assignment Topical assignment Project assignment 6. Unit assignment 8. encouraging and directive. The subject-matter 3. To anticipate special difficulties in the advance lesson. thus: 1. Syllabus assignment 10. contract. This general type of assignment is the characteristic of the traditional school. 3 . To connect the new lesson with one just completed so that the pupil may gain a whole view of the subject. and job type. 7. topic. 5. Functions of the Assignment According to Risk “one of the purposes of the assignment is to teach the pupils how to study. This type considers the child’s ability. The method of teachings Kinds of Assignment The most common types of assignment used in teaching are the following: 1. Drill assignment 4. exercise and question type. 2. 6.Bases of Assignment The following are suggested as bases of assignment: 1. 3. To create the proper attitude toward the performance of the work assigned. The pupils 2. 3. and makes learning more stimulating. 2. Contract assignment 7. The aim of the subject-matter 5.” It is certain that the assignment should contribute materially to training pupils to this end. To make the pupils see why they should do the work. unit. 4. To point out clearly and concisely to the pupils just what is to be done or what they are supposed to do. 2. It is based upon the nature of the child. problem. 4. To show how the work is to be done. New-type assignments – Such as the project. Instructional materials available Other educational writers have classified assignments into two major types. Old-type assignments – Such as the page-by-page. To provide adequate provisions for individual differences.

That the pupils will be accountable for the assignment. should be written on the board for explanation. The Amount of Assignment 4 . The assignment should be flexible and adapted to the needs of the individual pupils. 1. The assignments. 12. the ability. to grasp its thought and meaning. and suggestive. The assignment should be well planned and well organized. helpful. That the pupils have the time. 3. 13. experience. It may be given at the end of the period. 2.Things to Be Assumed in Giving Assignment When a teacher assigns a lesson in textbook or other sources he must assume the following: 1. 6. in all honestly. home conditions. 8. The assignment should be. The assignment should be well understood by the pupils. The assignment should prepare the pupils for the effective execution of their work. of some practical. The assignment should be perfectly clear and definite. if long. use in itself. 2. The assignment should stimulate the thinking and reasoning power of the pupils. but by the amount of thinking and mental energy and time required for its preparation. 10. or be useful in the pupil’s daily life. interest. and to comprehend its ideas and interpret them. 9. The assignment should be concise but detailed enough to enable the pupils to understand the task assigned. 5. When to Give the Assignment The writer gives the following suggestions on when to give the assignment for the consideration of the reader. not by the number of pages or chapters or of problems. and available time for study. 5. the necessary means. The assignment may be given at the beginning of the period. Requisites of a Good Assignment The assignment is studied in advance and planned with as much acre as any other phase of instruction. The assignment should be adapted to the pupil’s ability. The assignment should be carefully planned and should call more or less reorganization of subject-matter. 4. The assignment must be checked by the teacher to see that it can be effective. has made preparation for assigning the lesson. That the teacher. That the teacher has mastered the subject-matter sufficiently well to know how to plan the work to be assigned and how to divide the unit lesson units. 4. if possible. 2. and has formed a plan of study for the class that is reasonable. The assignment should be adjusted to the time available to the pupils. 3. has measured the lesson carefully. 11. 7. It may be given in the course of the discussion or recitation. That the pupils have the ability to do the work independently. 3. A good assignment must conform to the following requisites: 1. and a favorable opportunity to prepare the lesson assigned.

The amount of material to be assigned must vary with the age and maturity of the pupils and the nature and newness of subject-matter to be learned. The argument which proves conclusively that pupils do not learn to work independently is found in their inability in the elementary grades. There is danger in either direction. Even when the pupil has supposedly been required to do much thinking. Giving Assignments in Various Grades In our school system the assignment in the primary grades has been neglected on the belief that pupils are too young to do independent work. It has often happened that the direction and help offered by the teacher have tended to make the pupil dependent. The nature of the subject and the relative difficulty of the advance work should also have much to do with the length of assignment. utterly unable to do the piece of work for himself. however engage in exercises which give practice in reading. The length of the assignment should be determined taking into consideration the difficulty of preparation on the part of the pupils and their ability to accomplish the work assigned. These activities under a competent teacher provide real opportunities for pupils to developed habits of accuracy. and the like. numbers. or following directions. drawing conclusions. and assimilation of knowledge. It should be reasonable in length. As a matter of fact.The length of the assignment is an important matter to consider in developing the habit of preparation. A too difficult assignment is likely to interfere with the habit intended to be formed in the preparation of the lesson. coloring. In the intermediate grades. In these grades the pupils have acquired the fundamental techniques in reading. The assignment should be neither too short nor too long. home conditions. organization. They should be given constant practice in the collection. It cannot be denied that what we sometimes call good teaching does not accomplish this desired result. Of course we cannot expect pupils in the primary grades to work very long at independent lesson assignments. the ability to study independently should develop rapidly. the next step whenever an obstacle has been encountered. Too long assignments may result in bad study habits. extra-curricular activities. one can hardly begin too early to form study habits. drawing. The pupils in the intermediate grades should be learning to work independently for longer and longer periods of time. The teachers in the intermediate grades should always be conscious of the necessity of developing the best possible habits of study. as in the case of too long a lesson. writing and oral language. The primary grades present many opportunities for developing independence in learning. For. too difficult a lesson is likely to interfere with the habit of lesson preparation. in the high schools and even in the college to use their 5 . and independence in carrying on a study project without interference by the teacher. An assignment given in advance to cover the work for one day should be assumed to require a much shorter time than an assignment given to prepare the class for a unit to work to cover several days or the entire work. the teacher has sometimes weakened his work by continually stepping in to purpose. The length of the recitation period. but should be proportioned to other assignments. The primary school pupils can. The types of assignment in these grades do not differ from those of the primary grades except in matter of emphasis and amount of materials. and the amount of time required to do the task must also be taken into consideration in judging the length of the assignment.

The assignment must be well motivated to create a desire or willingness on the part of the pupils to do the work. The teacher may find it necessary to return to rigid assignments and gradually create abilities that will make for independence and self-reliance in matter of study. 3. This is one of the most important outcomes of education or a desirable end of education in the teaching process. The use of audio-visual aids or objects. The following devices are suggested for consideration: 1. Principles to Be Observed in Giving Assignment In giving the assignment the following principles must be taken into consideration by the teacher: 1. Because of the lack of proper training which at present exists in most of our elementary schools. 2. 7.time wisely. 4. and the teacher who can attain it and not lessen efficiency of class preparation is in this respect truly a master teacher. 4. The teacher must bear in mind that the student is not adequately trained of future life until he will go to outside sources on his own initiative and verify and supplement the text of the discussion. 2. The extent to which his experiences in this respect are met will be in general a function of the earlier training to which the pupil has been subjected. There are several devices that can be used to improve the assignment in teaching. how to attain the goal. 6. This lessening cannot be done at once. 5. This again means that the teacher must gradually lessen definite assignments and expect dull preparation on the part of the pupil. The use of guide study sheet. 9. The method to be employed and the materials to be used by the pupils should b discussed. The pupils must however have shown some ability to study before detailed supervision of this sort can be lessened. The pupils in the elementary grades should be told in detail just what to aim for. 3. The content of the assignment must be well known to the teacher so that he can evaluate it in terms of the needs of the class. The chief function of the assignment is to teach the pupils how to study. 6 . The pupils must be given an opportunity to ask questions about the assigned lesson or the task to be performed. The use of guide questions or problems. and how to determine when he has attained it. it is not safe to assume that high school students can be relied upon to study effectively unless fully definite and detailed assignments are made in both the basic text and supplementary materials. but must come gradually as the pupils develop. The teacher difficulty must be cleared or be unlocked. Devices Used in Improving Assignment The success of the recitation depends upon the effectiveness of the assignment. The method of checking up to be used in the assignment must be indicated by the teacher. 8. The teacher wants to help the pupils to do active studying but at the same time they must keep in mind that it is their duty to make them self-reliant and resourceful. The purpose or aim of the assignment must be known to the pupils. The use of pre-test. The teacher should employ visuals aids or material devices to stimulate interest and to make the assignment clear in the minds of the pupils.

10. 11. 12. The teacher must never give the assignment as a form of punishment. The reference materials selected by the teacher must be made available to all students. 14. 13.The teacher must make use of the blackboard in explaining the assignment. 7 . The assignment must be meaningful to the students. The psychological principles of apperception should be utilized in giving an assignment of a developmental nature.