DeLissa Balgobin Bc35D Title : Forensic Science Report Date : 6th april 2011

What is Forensic science?

Forensic science is the process of using science to resolve legal issues. This is done by applying scientific principles to matters in which the law has become involved. Forensic science not only allows for us to learn more and explore our world in new and fascinating ways, it helps us to make the world we live in a much safer place. Treatment of the crime scene: The crime scene is the area where physical evidence can be found which provides links between victims, suspects and the actually crime. there are different types of crimes these require different types of evidence to be collected :Sexual Assault- hair, semen, blood, fibres; Murder- blood, fingerprint, firearm and ammunition, knife ; Drug Raidsnarcotics, packages, chemicals Arson- empty gasoline bottles, molotov cocktails (bottle bomb);Fraud- documents, counterfeit Robbery- tools, paint chips, fibres, glass . The area must be cordoned off by the first officer to the scene(large room or open lot).this officer is responsible for keeping a log book as well as ensuring the evidence(sketches, photos, items) are properly stored and recorded. At the scene photos are usually taken where blood is concerned to analyse blood pattern to determine the forces behind them. There may be passive blood stains due to gravity;

this is an antigen and antibody reaction in which both react with each other to give a precipitate when the test is positive. genital and buccal. The presence of Haemoglobin will accelerate the oxidation of the phenolphthalein by the hydrogen peroxide to produce phenolphthalin which is pink in colour. must have proper documentation. gonococci . This is a sensitive test and can detected diluted stains. smears and smudges. . Spermatozoa and N. swipes. Luminol is used to react with the haemoglobin to provide light in darkened areas. cast off stains from blood bearing objects such as bats or crowbars. The precipitin test is used to determine whether a blood sample is human in nature. packaged properly and stored properly.transfer blood stains due to contact bleeding. Microscopic analysis is done to identify :Red blood Cells White Blood Cells. The test is base on sodium alpha-napthylphosphate and Fast blue turning purple when it comes in contact with Acid Phosphatase. arterial spurts when the blood exits the body at high pressure and projected blood stain patterns due to blood travelling at varying speeds and altered bloodstains due to clots diluted stains and patterns resulting from obstruction by objects. Acid Phosphatase is an enzyme found in high concentration In semen. When semen is suspected the acid phosphatase test is used as well as microscope work. Treatment of evidence: In the preliminary examination of blood. the test is based on the peroxidase – like activity of the haemoglobin in the blood. Swabs can be taken from the following areas: anal. Evidence must be free from contamination.

C). Alcohol is used after to thoroughly clean and precipitate DNA further leaving pure DNA. Once the root is present a dna analysis can be performed using Pcr and Rflp. Primers.G.Another test that is done is the urine test which tests for the presence of creatinine using pitric acid and sodium hydroxide. including stains and liquid samples. This system employs novel paramagnetic particles to isolate clean DNA for use with short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Sample is boiled in solution containing chelating resin beads that bind metal ions such as magnesium.T.PCR components are Nuclease free Water . The organic Method uses phenol chloroform iso-amyl (PCI) which precipitates proteins. Chelex ( Inorganic) Method involves the use of a phosphate buffered solution to free cells from the sample. The Kit used is the Plexor HY from Promega Involves the copying of target sequences (STRS) a million fold in a Thermal Cycler. The DNA is quantified using Real-time PCR.Taq . Techniques used in DNA Processing The DNA is extracted via the inorganic or the organic method. The cells are lysed and DNA is released. Mg 2+] . Analysis is also performed on fibres. Natural fibres are analyzed to determine if human in origin as well as possible ethnic background.STR Buffer [DNTPs (A. The DNA IQ System can be used to extract DNA from a variety of sample types. fats and extraneous material thus leaving DNA in solution. The DNA IQ System is a DNA isolation system designed specifically for forensic and paternity laboratories. Synthetic fibres can be classified and possible manufacturers sourced. which produces a brown orange colour.

.Prepare sample: denature.Electrophoresis and . Load samples .DNA Polymerase.rhodamine) is used to dye tag the internal lane standard .these are then analysed and recorded.The Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis method is also follows:Pour acrylamide gel. The Primers are usually tagged by 2 fluorophores.Scan gelA 3rd fluorophore CXR (carboxy –X. cool and mix with loading dye. green and red.