CAPSULE_CAMERA

(EMBEDDED SYSTEMS)

K.DIVYA(III/IV ECE), CH.RAJITHA (III/IV ECE) K.NAVYA(II/IV ECE) divya431@ekathraid.com rajitha467@ekathraid.com navya435@ekathraid.com Phone: 7416961692

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particular kind of application ABSTRACT: An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable, which is specifically designed for a device. Capsule camera is one of those. Here a technique called capsule endoscopy is used which allows us to see places inside the small bowel where other methods cannot reach. Capsule camera is a camera with the size and shape of

Embedded systems that are programmable are provided with a programming interface. WHAT IS ENDOSCOPY? Endoscopy is the examination of the inside of the body using a lighted. light. The patient wears small sensors attached to the abdomen with adhesive sleeves. capsule camera is preferred. battery. which involves sedating A person and guiding a narrow tube with a camera attached down the throat and into the stomach and upper intestinal tract. doctors would have to perform surgery to assess some problems. Capsule endoscopy allows us to see places inside the small bowel where other methods cannot reach.a pill. Industrial The procedure involves the patient taking a small capsule. The finished product is a documentary-like series of photographs that provide a firstperson view of the journey through the digestive tract. either fixed in capability or programmable that is Specifically designed for a particular kind of application device. automobiles. Due to numerous benefits over the traditional endoscopy. As the capsule moves through the digestive system it records images and sends them by radio signal to a recorder worn by the patient on a waist belt. doctors who needed to diagnose digestive problems would either use X-rays or endoscopy. as well as the more obvious cellular phone are among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. CAPSULE CAMERA WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM? machines. Then a doctor takes the disk from the recorder and views the video on a high-resolution monitor. Before endoscopy. INTRODUCTION In the past. . An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software. It contains a miniature camera. medical equipment. cameras. computer chip and wireless transmitter.

The most common endoscopic procedures evaluate the esophagus (swallowing tube). WHY DO WE NEED IT? At the present time. colon. battery. where the miniature camera may help physicians detect sources of bleeding or diagnose disease. light.flexible instrument called an endoscope. the capsule camera is primarily used to Visualize the small intestine. the small intestine is very long (average 20-25 feet) and very convoluted. In general. No available scope is able to . computer chip and wireless transmitter. The target destination for the device is the small bowel. The Imaging Capsule contains a miniature camera. WHAT IS CAPSULE CAMERA? Capsule camera. stomach. endoscopic capsule or video pill is a camera with the size and shape of pill. and portions of the intestine. Whereas the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus. an Endoscope is placed into the body through a natural opening like the mouth or anus. and duodenum) and the colon (large intestine) can be very adequately visualized with scopes (cameras placed at the ends of thin flexible tubes). stomach.

As the capsule moves through the digestive system it records images and sends them A CAPSULE TO SAVE STOMACHS: by radio signal to a receiver/recorder worn by the patient on a waist Belt as the patient goes about his or her regular day. comparable to those from scopes. and for inflammatory bowel disease. The . or endoscope with a tiny camera. The test carries a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting lesions. a doctor takes the disk from the recorder and views the video on a high-resolution monitor. HOW IT WORKS? The procedure involves the patient taking a small capsule. The procedure takes about 12 hours and the final recording is about 8 hours long. The capsule camera travels through the length of the small intestine in about 4 hours. The patient also wears small sensors attached to the abdomen with adhesive sleeves. The main uses today are for detecting the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. A minilens on the tip of the capsule would be connected to a tiny "engine" running off electrical signals. The images are of very good quality. such as Cohn’s disease . and wirelessly transmits two images every second to a receiver carried by the patient. light and radio transmitter inside it. Afterward.traverse the entire length of the small intestine. An antenna would take in the electric signals and send out the data collected and the "brain" behind the whole system would be a microchip operating with hi-tech fluids.

Video images were transmitted via radio signals to aerials taped To the body and the strength of the signal was used to calculate the position . Conventional endoscopy involves a lighted tube being inserted into the gut via the throat or rectum. More important. the images reveal any telltale signs of inflammation or sores. Later. providing about 58.) The camera transmits digital images to a recording device the patient wears on a belt. The patient’s entire test can be copied onto a compact disc for later use in consultation. (The CAMERA PILL TRANSMITTER The physician can stop the fast-moving photos for closer inspection.000 images in eight hours as it makes it way through the patient’s entire digestive tract. all in great detail.device takes two frames every second. Bowel pathologic features. In general. then mark and copy images showing suspected abnormalities. the images on the screen reveal thousands of villi. the recorder’s data is downloaded to a physician’s computer. The finished product is a documentary-like series of photographs that provide a first-person view of the journey through the digestive tract. As the video progresses. It is used to diagnose problems in the gut also. capsule endoscopy provided good views from mouth to colon and successfully imaged small- Disposable device is eliminated naturally. liquids and particles passing through the intestine.

the Norika3 capsule endoscope developed by RF is uniquely painless. These promote greater efficiency in medical Institutions and help improve quality of life for the patients. Preferred by patient over traditional endoscopy . safe and less Patient satisfaction Ease of ingestion Comfort during procedure Convenience Immediate recovery related cardiopulmonary complications invasive alternative 10. "Though it hasn't been in practical use yet.6millimeter lens as well as four LightEmitting Diode (LED) flashing devices to supply light in the dark intestines. as long as the patient is wearing the vest that transmits microwaves to the capsule. Gastrointestinal endoscopes are now recognized as the only medical devices that can simultaneously perform observations. 6. The camera can transmit up to 30 images per minute. 9. It will accommodate a CCD camera of 0. 2. As tiny as a pill measuring just 9 millimeters in diameter and 23 mm in length. 8. 7. 3. Little discomfort Does not require sedation Eliminates potential sedation Offers a simple. 4. The device accommodates a plastic CCD camera with a 0. BENEFITS OVER TRADITIONAL ENDOSCOPY: 1. it expects to market the Norika3 by the end of the year both in Japan and overseas. Although the company says it is still preparing to conduct clinical studies with other medical institutions.41 mega pixels and is likely be initially marketed at $100. The capsule moves painlessly through the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting color images on a real-time basis. diagnoses (tissue extraction). 5.of the capsule in the body. and treatment.

LIMITATIONS OF CAPSULE CAMERA 1. A physician cannot stop the camera’s progress to change the angle or take a prolonged look when it nears suspicious areas. intestinal folds for . There is no air insufflation pumping in air to open up examination. (3) Drug delivery system: Administer drugs directly to the affected area. low power-consumption imaging technology. (5) Self-propelled capsule: Propels (capsule) freely within the gastrointestinal tract.CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE TECHNOLOGY: (1) Technology of capsule endoscope: Compact. wireless Transmission technology. (4) Body fluid sampling technology: Extracts body fluid for diagnosis and analysis. 2. (2) Wireless power supply system: Eliminates constraints on operating time and energy levels.