# JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

CHAPTER 9: ELECTRONICS
9. 1: USES OF THE CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (C.R.O) 9.1.1: Thermionic Emission 1. What is Thermionic Emission? Thermionic Emission is the release of electrons from a heated metal cathode. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 2. (a) Label the figure of a vacuum tube:

Figure 9.1

towards electrons (b) The figure shows «««« emitted are accelerated ««««.. the anode by the high potential difference between the cathode and anode. «««««««« cathode ray (c) A beam of electrons moving at high speed in a vacuum is known as a ««««««.. 3. Factors that influence the rate of thermionic emission Effect on the rate of thermionic emission Factor Temperature of the cathode When the temperature ofof the cathode increases, the When the temperature the cathode increases, the rate ofrate of thermionic emission increases. thermionic emission increases. Surface area of the cathode AA larger surface area of the cathode increases the of larger surface area of the cathode increases the rate thermionic emission. rate of thermionic emission. The rate thermionic emission is unchanged, when the The rate ofof thermionic emission is unchanged, when Potential difference the potential difference increases, but the emitted potential difference increases, but the emitted electrons between the anode and electrons accelerate faster anode. accelerate faster towards the towards the anode. cathode. 9.1.2 Properties of Cathode Rays 1. List the four characteristics of the cathode rays. They are negatively charged particles. (i) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««.. They travel in straight lines. (ii) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««. They possess momentum and kinetic energy. (iii) «««««««««««««««««««««««««« They are deflected by magnetic and electric field. 1

JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

(iv) «««««««««««««««««««««««««« Energy Change in A Cathode Ray

Figure 9.2

By using the principle of conservation of energy, 1 mv 2 ! eV , 2 2eV Maximum velocity of electron, v ! m

v = velocity of electron V = Potential difference between Anode and Cathode e = Charge on 1 electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C m = mass of 1 electron = 9 x 10 -31 kg

1. In a cathode ray tube, an electron with kinetic energy of 1.32 × 10-14 J is accelerated. Calculate the potential difference, V between the cathode and the accelerating anode. [ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C] Solution: 1 Kinetic energy ! mv 2 ! eV 2 -14 1.32 v 10 ! 1.6 v 10 19 V
V ! 8.25 v 10 3 V

2. In a vacuum tube, a cathode ray is produced and accelerated through a potential difference of 2.5k . Calculate« (a) The initial electric potential energy of the cathode ray. (b) The maximum velocity of the electron.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution: (a) lectric potential energy ! eV ! 1.6 v 10 19 v 2.5 v 10 3 ! 4 v 10 16 J (b)

1 mv 2 ! eV ! 4 v 10 14 2

v2 !

4 v 10 14 v2 9 v 10 31

v ! 8.89 v 1016 ! 2.98 v 10 8 ms -1

3. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode in a CRO is 3.5 k , calculate the maximum speed of the electron which hit the screen of CRO.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution:

1 mv 2 ! eV ! 1.6 v 10 19 v 3.5 v 10 3 ! 5.6 v 10 16 2

2

JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

v2 !

5.6 v 10 16 v 2 ! 1.24 v 1015  31 9 v 10

v ! 1.24 v 1015 ! 3.53 v 10 6 ms -1

9.1.3 Structure of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

1. Label all parts of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope below.

Focusing Anode Cathode X-plate
Acceleration Anode

Fluorescent screen

Filament

Y-plate

Figure 9.3

2. Fill in the blank all components and its functions. Main part Component Filament Function When a current passes through the filament, the filament becomes hot and heats up the cathode. Emits electrons when it is hot.

Cathode

Electron gun

Control Grid

Control the number of electrons hitting the fluorescent screen. Control the brightness of the spot on the screen. Focusing Anode To focus the electrons onto the screen. Accelerating Anode To accelerate the electrons to high speed. To deflect the electron beam vertically. To deflect the electron beam horizontally. To convert the kinetic energy of the electrons to heat and light energy when the electrons hit the screen. 3

Deflecting system

Y-Plates X-Plates

Fluorescent screen

Glass surface coated with a fluorescent material.

Solution: V ! 1. Vp = (Y-gains) v (h) 2 Effective voltage or root-mean-square voltage.5 v 2. (b) To measure a short time intervals «««««««««««««««.4 : The working Principle of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope. calculate the value of Vpp. Vpp = (Y-gains) × h 1 Peak voltage. The uses of cathode-ray oscilloscope are: (a) To measure a D.s = Vp 2 Short time intervals.5 cm-1.C voltage: The unknown voltage. V = (Y-gain) × h To measure a A. Vr. If the CRO in figure uses Y-gains of 1. of divisions between two pulses × time-base value. Fill in the blank the structure of CRO. 1.1. To measure a D.1..C voltage: Peak-to-peak voltage.0 ! 3.5 Uses of the CRO. Brightness Focus Y-shift Y-Gains X-shift Time-base Figure 9.0 V 4 .m. t = no.C or A. Earth X-input 1. (c) To display the waveform «««««««««««««««.4 Y-input 9. 1 2.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9.C voltage «««««««««««««««.

Solution: T ! 4cm v 2 ms cm-1 1 T = 8 ms @f = ! 125 Hz T (c) Sketch the trace displayed on the screen if the settings are changed to 1 Vcm-1 and 1 ms cm-1. The diagram shows the trace on the screen of a CRO when an a.c source. f of the a. Vpp 5 .7 5.5 (a) What is the maximum voltage (peak voltage) indicated? Solution: 1 Peak voltage. Figure 9. The figure shows a trace on a CRO set at 5 Volt per division on the vertical axis.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3.c voltage is connected to the Y-input.0 V (b) Calculate the frequency. (a) Calculate the peak voltage. Figure shows a trace on an oscilloscope for an a.5 Vcm-1 and the time-base is 2 ms cm-1.c source. Solution: 1 V P ! 1. Vp = (Y-gains) v (h) 2 1 V P ! 5 V/div v v 4 divs 2 Figure 9. The Y-gain control is set at 2 V/div and the time base is off.5 Vcm -1 v v 4 cm 2 V P ! 3. Figure 9. If the Y-gain is set to 1. Calculate the value of : (a) Peak-to-peak voltage.Vp of the a.c source.6 VP ! 10 V 4.

Vp.10 8.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (b)Peak voltage.05 s Figure 9. The diagram shows the trace of the two signals on the screen of the oscilloscope.m. f = = = 50 Hz T 20 ms Figure 9. Figure shows the trace displayed on the screen of a CRO with the time-base is set to 10 ms/div. both pulses will be displayed on the screen at a short interval apart as shown in figure below.9 7.m.25 s Speed of ultrasonic waves. t = 5 divs × 10 ms/div = 50 ms @Time interval = 0. An ultrasound signal is transmitted vertically down to the sea bed. (c)Root-mean-square voltage. When two claps are made close to a microphone which is connected to the Y-input and earth terminals. Vpp = (Y-gains) × h = 2V/div × 6 divs = 12 V (b) Peak voltage. f of the wave? Solution: Distance for two complete wave = 2 divs @ Time taken = 2 divs ×10ms/div = 20 ms 1 1 @frequency.s = 2 2 6.8 5 divs Figure 9. Transmitted and reflected signals are input into an oscilloscope with a time base setting of 50 ms cm-1.s Solution: (a) Peak-to-peak voltage. Solution: Length between two pulses = 5 divs Time taken. Vr.24 V Vp = (c) Vr. V ! Hence. What is the frequency. What is the depth of the sea? Solution: Time taken for ultrasonic waves to travel through a distance of 2 d ! time between P and Q ! 5 cm v 50 ms cm -1 ! 250 ms ! 0. Vp = 6 V 1 1 v 6 ! 4. d ! 1200 v 0.25 ! 150 m 2 2d t 6 . The speed of sound in water is 1200 ms-1. Measure the time lapse between the two claps.

11 9.2 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES 9. The fifth electron is free to move through the silicon. The silicon has negative electrons «. «««««««««««.. with «« being used in the formation of covalent bonds. What is the ³doping´ process? Doping is a process of adding a certain amount of other substances called dopants «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« such as Antimony and Boron to a semiconductor. Semiconductor is a group of materials that can conduct better than insulators but not as «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.1 Properties of Semiconductors 1.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Figure 9. good as metal conductors.. 2. The phosphorus atoms have four five ««. the number of free electron.. 7 . valence electrons.«««««««. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 10. complete the statement below. Base on the figure.12 pentavalent Silicon like Silicon doped with ««««««atoms such as ««««« or antimony increases phosphorus ««««. Give the examples of pure semiconductor: Silicon (a) ««««««««««« Germanium (b) ««««««««««. Selenium (c) ««««««««««« 9. to increase its conductivity.. as majority charge-carriers and it thus known as an n-type semiconductor..2. (a) n-type semiconductors Figure 9.

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 2. of the covalent bonds has a missing electron. The Boron atoms have only ««««. hence «««. one valence electrons. The majority charge-carriers in positive holes this semiconductor are the ««««««.13 8 . What is the function of semiconductor diode? The function of semiconductor diode is to allow current to flow through it in one direction «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« only.. 9. This missing electron is called a µpositive hole¶. and this semiconductor is thus known as a p-type semiconductor. p-type n-type Positive hole p-n junction Negative electron Symbol Figure 9.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (b) p-type semiconductors Figure 9. atoms such as «««« three or indium has more positive holes.13 trivalent Boron Semiconductor like Silicon doped with ««««««. Label the p-n junction below and draw a symbol of the diode.2.2 The p-n junction (Semiconductor diode) 1.

the p-type of the diode is connected to «««««««. . What the meaning of rectification? Rectification is a process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode.15 4. - + The bulb is light up  The bulb does not light up  Figure 9. 5.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3. and the nnegative terminal type is connected to the «««««««« of the battery. and the nnegative terminal positive terminal type is connected to the «««««««« of the battery. electrons and holes flow in the diagram. electrons and holes flow in the diagram. the p-type of the diode is connected to «««««««. + The bulb is light up The bulb does not light up Figure 9. (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in reverse-bias. (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in forward-bias. (b) Reverse-biased (i) In reverse-bias. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 9 . (a) Forward-biased positive terminal (i) In forward-bias. Draw arrows to show the current.14  (iii) Draw arrows to show the current.

Figure 9. The figure shows a full-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO.17 7. R.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 6.16 (ii) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor. Figure 9. a To CRO Figure 9. The figure shows a half-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO. (i) Draw arrows to show the current flow in the first half cycle and to show the current flow in second half cycle in the diagram. (i) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the timebase is on.18 10 . (ii) Sketch the waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the time-base is on.

««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««« (c) The collector. 1. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. What is a transistor? A transistor is a silicon chip which has three terminals labeled as base. Emitter. B Emitter..3 TRANSISTOR 9. State the function for each terminal in a transistor. collector and emitter. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 9. a To CRO Figure 9. providing electrons to the collector.1 Terminals of a Transistor..JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (iii) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor.. C: Receives the charge carriers from the emitter (E) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. E n-p-n transistor 3. What is the function of the capacitor? Acts as a current regulator or smoother.19 8. (b) The base. C Collector. E : Acts as a source of charge carriers. B Base. C Base. E p-n-p transistor (a) The emitter. 11 . Collector.. Draw and label the symbol of n-p-n transistor and p-n-p transistor. R. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 2. 3. B : Controls the movement of charge carriers (electrons) from the emitter (E) to the collector (C)..

Supply energy to the base circuit : «««««««««««««... BE CE Ib Ic Base circuit : «««««««««««««.. The voltage across Rx and Ry can be calculated as follows. Ie Figure 9. Limit the collector current : «««««««««««««. Potential divider : «««««««««««««. Collector current : «««««««««««««. Potential divider : «««««««««««««. ¨ Rx Vx ! © ©R R y ª x ¸ ¹V ¹ º ¨ Ry VY ! © ©R R y ª x ¸ ¹V ¹ º 12 .. Limit the base current : «««««««««««««.... No Ic 2. Supply energy to circuit.. Collector circuit : «««««««««««««. The working circuit of a transistor used as a potential divider can be connected as shown in figure.21 (Ic >>>>(Ib No Ib. Base current : «««««««««««««.3.20 (b) Transistor circuit with 1 battery. R1 R2 E1 E2 Rx Ry Remember: Ie = Ib + Ic Ie > Ic > Ib Ie Figure 9.2 Transistor circuit 1.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9. (a) Transistor circuit with 2 batteries... : «««««««««««««...

V across resistor P is 2V and resistance P is 10 k.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) Figure shows a transistor circuit. The bulb can be lighted up when potential difference.. Calculate the maximum resistance. S so that the bulb is lighted up. Solution: ¨ Rp ¸ ¹V Vp ! © ©R R ¹ Bulb p º ª s ¨ 10 v 10 3 ¸ ¹ 2V !© © R  .

the base voltage will«««««. 2. Complete the statement below. are being used to form a zero potential divider.23 IB IE The switching action is produced by using a potential divider. ! 20 k. IC flows to light up the bulb. IB switches on the transistor. In a working circuit variable resistor shown in figure. RX Battery voltage Base voltage RY Figure 9. v 10 3 ¹6 V 10 ª s º R S  10 v 10 3 ! 30000 R S ! 20000 . RX and a ««««««««««. However. a resistor. the base current. A large collector current. If the variable resistor is set to zero. if the resistance of the variable resistor is increases increased. 1.2.3 Transistor as an Automatic Switch. and off the transistor switches «««. Figure 9.22 9. What type of transistor is used in an automatic switch circuit? Transistor n-p-n «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 13   IC . the base voltage is «««. When the base voltage reached a certain minimum value.

Therefore. R IC 1k. (a) Light Controlled Switch (i) Complete the statement below. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 14 .24 6V Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that functions as a light controlled switch. low In bright light. 10 k. the LDR has a very «««. (LDR) has a very high resistance in the ««.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3... (ii) Complete the table below. Condition Daylight Darkness RLDR low high VLDR low high R high low VR high low Transistor (ON or OFF) OFF ON Remember (Ic >>>>(Ib (iii) How can the circuit in figure be modified to switch on the light at daytime? The circuit can be modified by interchanging the positions of the LDR and resistor R.. the resistance of the LDR is very ««« and the voltage across the LDR is high ««« enough to switch on the transistor and thus lights up the bulb. to switch on the transistor. large In darkness..« and a low bright light resistor resistor in ««««««. the base low voltage of the transistor is too ««. The LDR and R form a potential divider in the circuit. This circuit can be on used to automatically switch «« the bulb at night.. light-dependent resistor dark The «««««««««. IE LDR Figure 9. resistance compared to R. R is a fixed «««««.

Temperature RThermistor VThermistor High Low low high low high R high low VR high low Transistor (ON or OFF) ON OFF Remember (Ic >>>>(Ib 15 .25 Alarm Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that function as a heat controlled switch. Its resistance becomes very ««« when it is drops cold.. drops considerablely compared to R. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. (iii) Complete the table below. (ii) What is the function of a diode is used in the heat-controlled circuit? To protect the transistor from being damaged by the large induced e.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (b) A Heat-Controlled Switch (i) Complete the statement below. resistance compared to R.. the relay switch is activated and the relay is switched «««. the base voltage of the transistor is too low to switch on the transistor. thermistor high A «««««. At room high temperature.f in the relay ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. IC drops to zero. The circuit can also be used in a fire alarm system. its «««««. the thermistor has a «««. the base voltage VB is high enough to switch ««. resistance When the thermistor is heated. Thermistor Diode RB Relay R Figure 9. When the thermistor is heated. its resistance «««« rapidly. Therefore.. When the «««««.m. on Therefore. on transistor is switch on. the transistor. coil when the collector current.is a special type of resistor..

change in the base current.4 Transistor as a Current Amplfier 1. S? To control and limit the base current.. A «««. R? To change the base current. Complete the statement below. Name the type of the transistor used. QA when the resistance of R is reduced? The readings on miliammeter and microammeter increase. When a transistor is in the µOFF¶ state. n-p-n transistor «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 3. 16 (b) (d) .JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (c) What is the function of the rheostat. R2 R1 QA mA IC R IB IE Figure 9. currents flow in the base and in the collector circuit. (a) Explain the meaning of the µON¶ state of a transistor. A transistor is said to have two states. change in the collector current. the µON¶ state and µOFF¶ state. IC... IB. there is no current in the base and in the collector ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« circuit. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« What is the function of the resistor. IC is primarily determined by the base current big small «««««««.2. mA and microammeter. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 4. The magnitude of the «««««««.. The current amplification can be calculated as follows: Current Amplification ! (I C (I B 2. When a transistor is in the µON¶ state. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Explain the meaning of the µOFF¶ state of a transistor. What will happened to the readings of the miliammeter.26 A transistor functions as a current amplifier by allowing a small current to control a collector current larger current. IB will cause a ««..

What is a logic gate? A switching circuit that is applied in computer and other electronic devices.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 9.4.4 Logic Gates 9. Gates Symbol Truth table Input A A AND gate B Y 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 0 0 1 Input A A OR gate B Y 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 1 1 1 Input A NOT gate A Y 0 1 Output Y 1 0 17 . «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 2.1 Analysing Logic gates 1. Complete the table below.

A 0011 1100 Y 0100 B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 0 Output Y 0 1 0 0 Figure 9.4. Find the output Y for each combination of logic gates.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Input A NAND gate B A Y 0 0 1 1 Input A NOR gate A Y B 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 1 1 1 0 Output Y 1 0 0 0 9.2 Combinations of logic Gates 1.27 P 18 .

JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 2. A 0011 P 1100 Y 1000 B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 0 Output Q 1 0 1 0 Y 1 0 0 0 Q 1010 Figure 9.29 Output B 1 0 1 0 X 0 0 0 1 Y 0 1 0 0 19 .28 3. 0011 A B 0101 X 0001 Y 0100 B 1010 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Figure 9.

P Q Q Q Figure 9.30 Output B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 1 0 Q 0 1 1 1 Y 0 1 1 0 R S The truth table: Input P 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 Figure 9.31 Output R 1 1 1 0 Q¶ 1 0 1 0 S 1 0 1 0 20 .JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 4. A 0011 P 1110 Y 0110 0111 B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 5.

On a hot day or daytime ± On a hot night «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 21 . Cool logic ³1´. Input J L Air-conditioner Heat detector eys: The light detector (Input J): In the day.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 6. Light detector Input K Figure 9. The heat detector (Input ): Hot. logic ³1´. logic ³0´. state the conditions in which the air-conditioner conditions in which the air-conditioner will operate and function normally. logic ³0´.32 (a) Complete the truth table below: Input J 0 0 1 1 K 0 1 0 1 Output L 0 1 0 1 (b) Based on the truth table in (a). Figure shows a logic gate system which switches on an air-conditioner automatically. . At night.

Cathode rays consists of A. It can be deflected by electric field. The deflection would be greater if the potential difference is greater. Light rays from hot filament A. 7. Beams of fast moving particles D. The figure 9.34 shows the trace displayed on a CRO with the Y-gain control is turned to 3.0 V 5. Light rays from a screen C. A beam of electrons is being deflected due to a potential difference between plates P and Q.34 Which of the following is not true? A. 2. 4. It is formed by joining an n-type and a p-type semiconductor. Fluorescent particles B. Which of the following is not a property of cathode rays? A.5 V 5. The semiconductor becomes an ntype. It travels in a straight line. 2. C. C. B. D. It is positively charged. The conductivity of the semiconductor increases. D. B.5 V 15. E. C. D. Atom P is a trivalent atom.5 V 7. C.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Reinforcement Chapter 9 Part A: Objective questions 1. Which of the following is not true about diode? A. What is the maximum value of the potential difference being measured? Figure 9. In p-type semiconductor A. C. D. C. B. B. 35 shows the arrangement of silicon atoms after an atom P is doped to form an extrinsic semiconductor. The number of the holes are less than the number of electrons. B.75 V/div. Figure 9. The potential at plate P is positive. D. The number of holes are equal to the number of electrons. P Figure 9.33 Q Which of the following statements is not true? A. B.35 3. 22 . It can only conduct electricity when it is connected in forward in forward bias in a circuit. The deflection would be greater if the electrons are moving faster.5 V 12. The electron beam will return to straight line if a suitable magnetic field is applied between the plates. The figure 9. The majority charge carrier is electron. It can be deflected by magnetic field. The majority charge carriers in the diode are electrons. The number of the holes are more than the number of electrons. It can be used to rectify alternating current. 6.

The figure 9.37 shows a circuit consisting of two diodes and a bulb. Figure 9. P and Q only B. Replace the diode with a new one. D. P. C. Connect a resistor in series with the bulb.37 components connected in a circuit. Q.c. C.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 8.36 shows a rectifier circuit. Device Q acts as a rectifier. Increase the number of bulbs. B. Reverse the connection of the diode. IE and collector current. and four electronic 23 . emitter current. R and S only D.c to a. Q and S only 11. What needs to be done to light up the bulb? Figure 9. The rectifier circuit would still work if device P is reversed. Q and R only C. A rectifier changes d. 9. P. P. the bulb does not light up. IC? A. R and S. Which of the following bulbs will light up continuously when the switch is on? A.38 Figure 9. 10. Which of the following statements is true? P Q Figure 9. D. Which of the following circuits shows the connect directions of the base current IB. B. When the switch is on.36 A. The figure 9. Device P allows current to flow in any directions.38 shows four identical bulbs.

JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 12. 42 shows a transistor circuit being used to amplify sound.. The function of a transistor is the same as that of two diodes. The figure 9. Figure 9. IB = IC C.speaker Figure 9.41 Figure 9. IB IC 16.c current but allows a.39 13. Figure 9. M-microphone C.. T is an npn transistor B. A transistor can act as a relay switch. Speaker amplifies the sound. 7 k. A transistor can act as an amplifier B. The figure 9. When the potential difference across the thermistor is 3 V and the resistance of the thermistor is 1000 . Figure 9. A transistor is a combination of two types of semiconductors.40 shows a transistor being used as a current amplifier. B. As a rectifier C.42 Which of the following is not correct about the circuit? A. R1 and R2 act as potential divider.41 shows a circuit consisting of a transistor which acts as an automatic switch.39? A. 5 k. 6 k. C. The capasitor prevents d. IB > IC B. C.43 Which of the following is the output signal? 24 . What is the function of the transistor circuit shown in figure 9.Capacitor S.43 shows a logic gate circuit with input signals. E. Figure 9. As a switch device D. the resistance value of resistor. D. C. D. As a modulator 14. R is . The figure 9. 17. A.40 Which of the following is correct? A.c current to pass through it. 3 k. As an amplifier B. Which of the following statements about a transistor is not true? A. 4 k. IB < IC 15. X and Y. D.

The figure 9. 1110 D. 2 x 3 = 6V «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (c) Determine the time for one complete oscillation on the screen.45 Which of the following logic gates can be used to represent J and ? J AND NAND OR NOR Figure 9. J Figure 9. B. Emission of electrons from the surface of a metal by heat.46 (a) Explain what is meant by thermionic emission. AND B. NOR C.44 shows a logic gate circuit. Scale: 1 division = 1 cm The Y-gain is set at 3 V/cm The time base is set at 5 ms/cm Figure 9. NAND 20. 2 x 5 = 10 ms «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 25 .JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 18.44 The truth table for the combination of tree logic gates is as follows. NOR NOR AND AND Part B: Structured Questions. 45 shows a combination of three logic gates in a logic circuit. 1. D. OR D.46 shows a trace obtained on an oscilloscope screen when an a. When inputs P and Q are both 1 output Y is 1. C. Figure 9.c voltage is connected to the Y-plates of an oscilloscope. What is gate X? A. The figure 9. 0101 19. 1010 C.c voltage. The figure 9. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (b) Determine the peak voltage of a.43 Which of the following is the output signal Z? A. 0110 B. A. Y Figure 9.44 shows the combination of three logic gates.

c voltage? f =1/T=50 Hz «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (e) With the same a.47 (a) When the polarity of the a.c voltage applied to the oscilloscope. D1 and D3 ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.c supply voltage is negative at A.c supply has a frequency of 50 Hz..48. (b) When the polarity of the a. Figure 9.5 ms/cm and the Y-gain setting is altered to 2 V/cm. 2.48 26 . state the two diodes which are forward biased. sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor. the time-base setting is altered to 2. sketch the new trace would appear on the oscilloscope. Figure 9.c supply voltage is positive at A. state the two diodes which are forward biased. The a. D2 and D4 ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (c) Using the axes in figure 9.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (d) What is the frequency of the a. Voltage/V Time/ms Figure 9. 47 shows a full wave bridge rectifier. R. On the space below.

A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons.50 When pressed. sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor R parallel with the resistor. The charging of the capacitor by the power supply and the discharging of the capacitor «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« through the resistor will smooth the output. Voltage/V Figure 9. 12 V Logic gate A B X 240 V Relay switch 0V eys: Buttons A and B : X Output : Motor Figure 9. A and B for a two-storey building. A: Up button B: Down button The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons.50 shows the circuit that can be used to activate the motor.49 Time/ms (e) Explain how the capacitor causes the voltage across the resistor to vary with time in the way that you have drawn. Motor is activated. logic ³1´ logic ´0´ logic ³1´ 27 .49. Figure 9. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 3. Not pressed.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (d) On the figure 9.

draw the logic gate symbol in 3(a)(ii).51 240 V R Motor 28 . complete the truth table. the relay switch is activated and the lift door will close. Figure 9. Name the logic gate in the circuit in the figure 9. If the light dependent resistor detects light. Figure 9.50. LDR. AND Gate ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« In the space below. «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (c) The door of the lift is fitted with a light transmitter and a detector which is a light dependent resistor.51 shows an electronic circuit for the control system of the lift door.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) The truth table below shows the operations of the logic gates in a lift motor control system. (iii) (b) Why is a relay switch needed in the circuit? Activates large current in the main secondary circuit supply// small current «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« at the output cannot activate the motor. Input Output A 0 0 1 1 (i) (ii) B 0 1 0 1 X 0 1 1 0 Using the keys given.

A bigger base current flows and activates the transistor ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« .A big collector current flows through the relay switch and activates the ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« circuit of the door motor. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« (ii) Complete the circuit in figure 9. the lower the resistance of the resistor. ± High light intensity produces lower resistance and high base voltage ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« . LDR.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (i) State the relationship between the resistance and the intensity of light received by the light dependent resistor. Resistor Light dependent resistor (iii) Explain how the circuit functions. ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 29 .51 by drawing the resistor and the light dependent resistor using the symbols given below. The higher the light intensity.

X.52 (i) (ii) Figure 9.53.52 and figure 9.53 are identical. Relating the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs.55 shows four circuits W.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Part C: Essay Questions 1. Y and Z. compare the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs. [1 mark] (b) A semiconductor diode is made by joining a p-type semiconductor with a n-type semiconductor.53 What is meant by a direct current and an alternating current? [2 marks] Using Figures 9. Describe and explain the production and the characteristics of a p-type semiconductor and a n-type semiconductor. (a) The diode.52 and 9. [5 marks] (iii) State the use of a diode. [4 marks] 2. Figure 9. Circuit W Circuit Y Circuit X Circuit Z 30 . deduce the function of a diode. each has an ideal transformer and the circuit are used for the purpose of rectification. Figure 9. bulb and battery in circuit X and circuit Y of figures 9.

Type of rectification Characteristics of output current Explain the suitability of the above aspects and hence. and a rheostat R3 as shown in figure 9. R1 = 1k. IC recorded by miliammeter A2 is shown in figure 9. [6 marks] 3. and R2 = 56 k.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (i) (ii) (iii) What is meant by rectification? [1mark] Explain the working principle of a transformer. Y and Z in figures 9. A1 IB 6V T Figure 9. The collector current. The battery supplies a voltage of 6 V to the transistor circuit.57(a). Study the circuits W. A student carries out an experiment to determine the relationship between the collector current IC to the base current IB of a transistor.56.55 and consider the following aspects: Type of transformer The number of turns in the primary coil and in the secondary coil. Rheostat R3 is adjusted until the current IB detected by microammeter A1 is 10 QA. A2 R2 = 2k. IC R2 = 56k. [3 marks] You are asked to make a 12 V battery charger. X.56 Transistor T is connected to fixed resistor R1 =1k. determine the most suitable circuit to make the battery charge. 2 1 0 mA 3 4 5 (a) IB = 10QA 31 31 .

30 QA.57(e) and 9.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Rheostat R3 is then adjusted to lower value so that microammeter A1 gives IB = 20 QA. 40 QA.57(c). 9. 9.57(b). The corresponding readings of IC on miliammeter. 9. 2 1 0 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 mA mA (b) IB = 20QA (b) IB = 30QA 3 4 5 0 1 2 1 0 2 3 4 5 mA mA (c) IB = 40QA 2 1 0 3 4 (d) IB = 50QA mA 5 (e) IB = 60QA 32 32 . A2 are shown in figure 9.57(d).57(f). 50 QA and 60 QA.

. Ic is directly proportional to IB «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 4. 40.8 (c) (d) On a graph paper. Power amplifier loudspeaker Volume control Microphone Figure 9. Based on your graph. record the collector current.58 shows a microphone connected to a power amplifier. (b) From the figure in 9. 30. The sound becomes louder if the volume of the amplifier is turned on to increase the power.8 1. IB/QA 10 20 30 40 50 60 IC/mA 0.57. 50 and 60QA.1 3.6 2.58 33 ..9 4. draw a graph of IC against IB. determine the relationship between IC and IB.«««««««««««« The collector current. an amplified sound is given out through the loudspeaker.4 3. IC (ii) the responding variable : ««««««««««««.. IC when IB = 10. Tabulate your results for IB and IC in the space given below.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) For the experiment described identify« The base current. IB (i) the manipulated variable : . Figure 9. (iii) the fixed variable The supply voltage : ««««««««««««. When the microphone has detected a sound. 20.

(v) The procedure of the experiment.JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Using the information based on the observation of the brightness of the bulbs. (b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b). rheostat and others. (vi) The way you would tabulate the data. (vii) That way you would analyse the data. (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus. In your description. Choose suitable apparatus such as a diode. (iii) List of apparatus and materials. (ii) Variables in the experiment. (a) Make one suitable inference. 34 . state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment.

0 IC/mA (vii) Plot a graph of IB against IC IB/QA IC/mA 35 . miliammeter. connecting wires.0 125. microammeter.100. mA QA Battery R Battery (v). (c) (i) Aim: To determine the relationship between base current and collector current of a transistor amplifier circuit.0 50. IC is recorded. 4 (a) Inference : The strength of the output signal of the amplifier depends on the input current of the amplifier.The steps are repeated for the values of microammeter.0 75. the larger the output current.The readings of the miliammeter for collector current. IC Fixed variable : Supply voltage (iii) Apparatus and materials: npn transistor. (b) Hypothesis: The larger the input current in an amplifier circuit. .The rheostat is adjusted until the readings of microammeter for base current. (iv) Functional arrangement of apparatus.0 100. .JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Scheme Part : No. (vi) Tabulation of data: IB/QA 25. IB = 50. rheostat. IB Responding variable : Collector current. (ii) Manipulated variable: Base current.125QA. 75. IB = 25 QA. 2 batteries.

a secondary coil is in a changing magnetic field. The most suitable circuit to be used is circuit Z.Function of a diode: Diode only allows current to flow in one direction only. (iii) -It must be a step-down transformer to step down the voltage from 240 V to 12 V.In a alternating current.As a result. the bulb is not lighted. a changing magnetic field is produced. majority of the charge carriers are the free electrons.Circuit Y : the diode is reversed biased. 36 . -The ratio: The number of turns in the secondary coil 12 1 ! ! The number of turns in the primary coil 240 20 A full-wave rectification is better than a half-wave rectification. A smoothing capacitor is required to change the pulsating d. .In a p-type semiconductor. .In a n-type semiconductor. because a halfwave rectification loses half the input power as heat. majority of the charge carriers are the positive holes. Scheme Part C : No.f at the two ends of secondary coil. . the bulb is lighted.m.c to a constant d.The changing magnetic field is linked to the secondary coil through the laminated iron core.A n-type semiconductor is produced by adding pentavalent impurity material such as phosphorus or arsenic to silicon. (ii) -When an alternating current flows in the primary coil. (ii) .JPN Pahang Teacher¶s Guide Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Scheme Part C : No. . . 1 (a) (i) ± In a direct current. this procedures an induced e. 2 (i) Rectification is a process of converting alternating current to direct current.Circuit X : the diode is forward biased. the current flows in one direction only. (b) ± A p-type semiconductor is produced by adding trivalent impurity material such as boron or gallium to silicon. the current changes reverses it direction periodically. . .c. .