ORACLE

INTRODUCTION DATABASE DESIGN AND QUERYINGTOOLS SQL VARIATIONS AND EXTENSIONS STORAGE AND INDEXING CONCURRENCY CONTROL AND RECOVERY SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

and an application server with close interpretation to the database server. .INTRODUCTION ORACLE was founded in 1977 by LARRY ELLISE .oracle sells business intelligence tools including query and analysis tools. in addition to directly related to database development and management . it has held a leading position in the relational database market .BOB MINER and ED OATES . data-mining products .

Ø Has tools for data ware housing. Include tools for form development . Ø ORACLE DESIGNERS : Translates business logic and data flows into schema Definitions Supports e-r diagrams . oracle warehouse builder . and object analysis and design.information engineering.DATABASE DESIGN TOOLS: Ø Available in oracle developer suite. Ø . reporting and querying.i2ee applications.data modeling . java and x-ml-based development.

QUERYING TOOLS: It allows users to drill up and down on result sets . Ø . pivot data and store collections. Ø Reports can be published in a variety of formats such as SPREADSHEETS (or) HTML.

Ø § Allows transitive closure style calculations in a style SQL structure. Ø § CONNECT BY: UPSERT : Upsert operation combines update and insert . .SQL VARIATIONS &EXTENSIONS: Oracle supports a large number of language constructs and also has its specific syntax (or) functionality. MULTITABLE INSERTS: WITH: ØMODEL: Ø § Allows array alegbra calculations on relational data. v A FEW EXAMPLES OF ORACLE SQL EXTENSIVES ARE . Ø § Allows multiple tables to be updated based on a single scan of new data.useful for merging new data with old data in data ware housing applications.

Java. ØTable functions:produce sets of rows as output. Ø for type hierarchies.OBJECT RELATIONAL FEATURES: Oracle as extensive support for object-relational constructs including .and used in from clause of a query. ØMethods:written in PL/SQL. Ø Object views:provide virtual object table view of data. Ø attributes of the objects. Ø Object types:A single inheritance model is supported Collective types:oracle supports variable-length Object tables:provides a relational view of the arrays.C. .

user logon or logoff. .TRIGGERS: Oracle provides several type of triggers Row triggers ØStmt triggers Ø § by the DML operations § Row triggers execute once for every row that is affected Statement trigger is executed just once per statement. Oracle also triggers on a variety of events.server error messages.like database start_up or shutdown.and DDLstatements.

• Temporary tablespace. v oracle database has the following tablespaces: • System tablespace. these may be either files managed by the operating system (or) law devices. each table space . v . in turn consist of one or more physical structures called data files .STORAGE AND INDEXING: Ø Table spaces: A database consists of one or more logical storage units called table spaces . • Tablespace to store user data.

v Data segments:Each table in a tablespace has its own Index segments:Each index in a tablespace has its own index segment. Ø v data segment where the table data are stored unless the table is partitioned. each contain data for a specific data structure. v Roll back segments:segments contain undo information so that an uncommited transaction can be rolled back. . vTemporary segments:segments are used when a sort operation needs to write data to disk or when data is inserted into a temporary table.Ø SEGMENTS: The space in a table space is divided into units called segments .

here it requires a unique as the index key.records are stored in an oracle B-tree index instead of in a heap.that is storage location of a row in a table is not based on the values contained in the row.a table can have a column whose datatype is another table.that is. In a cluster .rows from different tables are stored togather in the same block on the basis of some common columns.Ø A standard table in a oracle is heap organised.and is fixed when the row is inserted.the content of the row affects the partition in which it is stored. Oracle supports nested tables. However .if the table is partitioned. Index-organised tables In an index organized table. Tables .

such as col1+col2*5. Ø Bitmap indices use a bitmap representation for index entries.which can lead to substantial space saving where indexed column has a moderate number of distinct values.most commonly used type is what oracle called a B-tree index.Ø Indices Oracle supports several different types of indices. Function-based indices . Ø Bitmap Indices In addition to creating indices on one or multiple columns of a table.oracle allows indices to be created on expressions that involve one or more columns.

Materialized Views: Query performance benefits substantially. Advantages: Bacup and Recovery are easier and fater.updating it when the tables that were referenced in the query are updated.and this feature plays a major role in oracle’s ability to support very large databases. Loading operations in a data warehousing environment are less intrusive. . Oracle maintains the materialized result.Ø Partitioning: Oracle supports various kinds of horizontal partitioning of tables and indices. Ø The materialized view feature allows the result of an sql Query to be stored in a table and used for later query processing.

§Index fast full scan:fastest way to access the data. •Cluster and hash cluster access:The processor accesses the data by using the cluster key.Ø Execution Methods: Data can be accessed through a variety of access methods: § getting information about the blocks that make up the table. §Index scan:The processor creates a start and or stop key from conditions and uses it to scan to a relevant part of the index. §Index join:The processor can use an index join to generate the relevant information without accessing the table. Full table scan:The query processor scans the entire table by .