STAR TOPOLOGY

Star topology, also known as star network, is a computer network topology. It is a common network setup where the computers and other devices on the network are connected to a central or master computer, also known as the hub. The star topology, which is one of the types of network topologies, got its name because the connections of the computers resemble a star. The hub, along with the leaf nodes and the transmission lines connecting them form the topology of a star. The star topology is used mostly in Ethernet and Local Area Networks (LAN). After installation the star topology resembles the spokes of a bicycle wheel. The cabling segments of the topology meet at a central connection point which is known as a router or switch. Each host or computer is connected to the central device or hub with the help of cables that transmit data. An extended star topology is a star network that is expanded and an additional networking device is connected to the central or main networking device. The active star network or star topology has an active central node which prevents problems related to echoes created during transmissions. But in a passive central node, the initial or originating central node should be able to bear up the echoes created during the receptions of the transmission. There is also a delay caused due to a two way transmission. The chances of a failure in the network is reduced when all the systems are connected to the central node. The star topology can also be applied to a bus network. A bus network or bus topology is a central hub which broadcasts transmissions that is received from a peripheral mode to the rest of the peripheral modes that are connected to the network, including the central node. If there is a failure in the transmission in any peripheral node to the originating node, then that peripheral is isolated without affecting the rest of the system. A node consists of workstations, peripherals and file servers that are connected directly to the network hub. The data on the star topology is transmitted through the hub before it reaches its destination. The central hub controls all the functions and transmissions of the networks that are connected to it. The configuration of the star topology is done with the help of optical fiber cable, twisted pair cable or a coaxial cable. There are many star topology advantages and disadvantages. Let's take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of a star topology separately. Advantages of Star Topology A star topology has many advantages. Some of the advantages of a properly functioning star topology are listed below;
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The star topology is easy to install and wire. The star topology gives a better performance than any other network topology as there is no clogging of nodes. In order to communicate between any two devices only 2 links and 3 devices are involved to prevent confusion. The hub also has adequate capacity to handle high utilization by one device, without disrupting the functioning of the other devices. The working of the star topology is simple to establish, understand and navigate. Any fault in the devices connected to the central hub can be detected easily as the malfunctioned device or link is isolated, which allows easy probing into the matter. The faulty and defective parts of the network can be easily replaced. Till the links are replaced, the other devices continue their normal functions without any disruptions.

or connecting additional devices to it. increasing its capacity. as the nodes are highly dependent on the proper functioning of the central hub. with adequate capacity. The traffic of the network is also disrupted if the node that occupies a major portion in the processing capability of the central node is faulty. Disadvantages of Star Topology One of the main disadvantages of the star topology is that if the central hub has some errors. 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices. and navigate. establish. the isolation and centralization it allows simplify fault detection. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices. increases the size of the network very easily. Centralization also allows the inspection of traffic through the network. [edit] Disadvantages y y y y High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub Failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable The performance and scalability of the network depends on the capabilities of the hub Network size is limited by the number of connections that can be made to the hub . as noted earlier. Although this topology places a huge overhead on the central hub. Simplicity: This topology is easy to understand. This facilitates analysis of the traffic and detection of suspicious behavior. This makes the isolation of individual devices straightforward and amounts to disconnecting each device from the others. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the hub. There is a limit to the number of networks that can be connected to the hub and the performance of the entire computer network is monitored by its throughput. the hub can handle very high utilization by one device without affecting others. Benefits from centralization: As the central hub is the bottleneck. Easy to install and wire. Its simplicity obviates the need for complex routing or message passing protocols. as each link or device can be probed individually.y Expansion of the star topology is easy as the format is very simple thus aiding the growth of networking. then the communication between the systems fail. This isolation also prevents any noncentralized failure from affecting the network. Also. The star topology is one of the costliest network topologies and the wiring of the system is a complex process. At most. Advantages y y y y y y y Better performance: star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes.

Easy identification of cable faults. Limited cable length and number of stations. Performance degrade as additional computers are added.y y y y Other nodes may see a performance drop if traffic to another node occupies a significant portion of the central node's processing capability or throughput. Easy to implement and extend. Disadvantage: Require a network to detect when two nodes are transmitting at the same time. . Good compromise over the other two topologies as it allows relatively high rate of data tansmittion. only a single cable is used. the entire network breaks down. no redundancy. Well-suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quick setup). If there is a problem with the cable. Reduced weight due to fewer wires. y y y y y Well suited for temporary networks that must be set up in a hurry. [edit] Disadvantages y y y Limited cable length and number of stations. Easy to install. y y y y y y y Advantages y y y y y y y Easy to implement and extend. Cheaper than other topologies (But in recent years has became less important due to devices like a switch) Cost effective. resulting in faster networks. Does not cope well with heavy traffic rates Difficult to administer/troubleshoot. BUS Advantages: Failure of one of the station does not affect others. Wiring up of the system can be very expensive. Maintenance cost may be higher in the long run. Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run. A cable brake can disable the entire network.

Only one packet can remain on the bus during one clock pulse. Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most distant link). . Commonly has a slower data transfer rate than other topologies. Proper termination is required (loop must be in closed path).y y y y y y Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic (shared bandwidth). It works best with limited number of nodes.