TiO2 (Titanium Dioxide, Titania

)
Family: Glass Weight: 79.900 Expansion: 0.144 Fusion: 1830C

(Sources: Titanium Dioxide, Rutile) -Titania is a complex material because it opacifies, variegates, and crystallizes glazes. It also modifies existing colors from metals like Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu. -In amounts below 1% titania can dissolve completely in a glaze melt. In slightly greater amounts it can give a bluish-white flush to transparent glazes (depending on their amount of alumina). -Above 2% it begins to significantly alter the glaze surface and light reflectance properties through the creation of minute crystals. This crystal mechanism gives soft colors and pleasant opacity, and breaks up and mottles the surface. In the 2-6% range, it increasingly variegates the glaze surface. Many potters add titania to their glazes or paint on overglaze titania washes for this purpose. -Large amounts (10-15%) will tend to produce an opaque and matte surface if the glaze is not overfired. They will also subdue color and can add sparkle to the surface. As much as 25% can be absorbed by some lead glazes. Up to 0.8 molar can be used to effect crystal melts in glossy glazes. -Although titania will form a glass by itself, it is not highly soluble in silica melts. However, it is considered by some as a glass former in certain circumstances since it can stiffen the melt and stabilize the fired glass against leaching (i.e. it is used in lead frits to lessen the solubility of the lead). -Titania can act as a modifier and within a narrow range it will combine with fluxes to make a glass. It can also act in a flux-like way in very high silica melts. -Minute amounts (i.e. 0.1%) can be used to intensify and stabilize colors (i.e. iron can be altered to produce yellow and orange). It can alter and intensify existing color and opacity in a glaze. Titania can be reduced to produce colors in keeping with the elements present. If highly reduced it can yield a red, with iron the color could be yellow, brown or green. Other combinations can yield blues, greens, yellows. Titania is oxygen-hungry and will quickly oxidize from its reduced state if given the chance. -Glazes containing titania are phototropic and can change color slightly by the action of

toward yellow) when heated.  Glaze Color .Off-white Titania in significant amounts (+5%) will almost always contribute to a glaze opacity of mottled and variegated character. Lead greatly enhances the yellow at low temperatures. Properties  Fusion .e. the surface effect is usually crystalline in nature. They can also be thermotropic in that they can change color (i. .Red In high fire matte glazes.1870C Titanium can be used as an opacifier.Variegation Titania is a classic addition to produce mottled and variegated effects in all sorts of glazes.White Additions of 5-10% titanium to many types of glazes produces yellow and light tan coloration. The more you use the greater the effect (up to 10%).light.  Surface Modifier .  Glaze Opacifier . iron oxide and titanium can produce red colors. a phase diagram of Al2O3 and TiO2 shows a eutectic at 80% Al2O3 at 1705C demonstrating that TiO2 does 'react' with the second most important ceramic oxide. -TiO2 is considered an impurity in ball clays and kaolins used to make porcelain because it can react with any iron present to form rutile crystals which detrimentally affect body color and tranlucency.  Glaze Opacifier . However. -Some have chosen to treat TiO2 as an 'inert' with respect to the chemistry of the glaze.

-At higher oxidation temperatures it is valuable to provide a smooth transition from .ZnO (Zinc Oxide) Family: Flux Weight: 81. However.e. -In moderate to high amounts it acts to produce mattes and crystalline surfaces. It is a late and vigorous melter for low fire glazes and thus useful in fast fire applications. However zinc metal in a more molten glaze is also more reduceable. these surfaces can be rough enough to cause cutlery marking. -ZnO starts its fluxing action around 1000C (i.8 molar) and cooled slowly. making it more vigorous. -ZnO is a low expansion secondary flux which is handy to prevent crazing if used for. It improves elasticity so that glazes which might otherwise craze or shiver will fit. In smalls amounts zinc helps in the development of glossy and brilliant surfaces the way lead did. high expansion fluxes. -At middle temperatures. -Zinc can improve durability in some glazes. -At low temperatures small amounts can have a marked effect on gloss and melting. especially if supersaturated (up to 0. or instead of. -It does take time for zinc to volatilize and meanwhile it does encourage the melting process to begin earlier in stoneware applications. although at temperatures below Orton cone 03-02 it is not normally an active flux. Pure Zn metal melts at 419C and then boils and vaporizes at 907C. In others it can reduce resistance to acid attack.094 Fusion: 1800C (Sources: Zinc Oxide) -Together with PbO it is considered one of the metallic oxide fluxes. -ZnO can extend firing range. zinc can be used as a major flux in amounts to 5%. bristol glazes) whereas by itself ZnO does not melt until 1975C.400 Expansion: 0. -ZnO is easily changed to Zn metal by the action of CO and H2 in the reduction phase of a gas-fired kiln (and possibly poorly ventilated electric kilns).

iron. BaO and CaO it is one of the Alkaline Earth group of oxides. even in small amounts.White/Off-White In larger amounts ZnO can produce opacity or whiteness in glazes. -Zinc can have amphoteric qualities if it is used with boron. greens.026 Notes -Together with SrO. -Zinc has a complicated color response. browns. Magnesia) Family Flux Weight 40. Zinc is common in fast fire glazes. or chrome. pinks and is not recommended with copper.Co-efficient of Linear Expansion 0.sintered to melted stage. . -In certain mixtures it is very powerful. It can have harmful and helpful effects on blues. this article rationalizes the problem in terms of chemistry MgO (Magnesium Oxide. It exhibits refractory properties and can contribute to the development of a crystal mesh surface. Properties  Fusion . Linked Articles  Unwanted Crystallization in a Cone 6 Glaze Someone is having a problem with a cone 6 glaze going glossy and crystallizing.300 COLE .1800C From The Oxide Handbook  Glaze Opacifier . It has a cubic crystal structure. The melting power per unit added drops quickly as the amount used exceeds 5%.

-In high temperature glazes it acts as a flux (beginning action about 1170C) producing viscous melts of high surface tension and opaque and matte glazes. MgO is refractory at lower temperatures. it may be harmful to some under-glaze colors. baria. it is not as refractory. it does work well in earthtone and pastel glazes. When mixed with CaO. The mechanism is phase separation of the suddenly melting MgO. -Does not volatilize. so much so that it can be used to increase opacity. -MgO is a light oxide and generally is a poor choice for glazes to host bright colors. When introduced into a glaze it should preferentially replace calcia.050 . and act as a check to glaze fluidity in a manner similar to alumina (e. to prevent devitrification or the tendency to produce crystalline surfaces). MgO readily forms eutectics with other oxides to melt at surprisingly low temperatures. magnesium carbonate). Adding too much will generally move the surface texture toward matte or dry. However. Likewise.Co-efficient of Linear Expansion 0. especially in reduction firing (dolomite matte). and zinc before the alkalis to maintain surface character.e. -Zircon and Magnesia melt at 2800C making them the highest melting oxides. especially in high temperature reduction firing.900 COLE . Mechanisms  Glaze Matteness .-Like CaO. to perform as a matting agent (i. Like CaO. MnO (Manganous Oxide) Family Colorant Weight 70. -It can act as a catalyst in low temperature bodies assisting the conversion of quartz to higher expansion cristobalite (which reduces crazing).g. Remarkably. -The surface tension of MgO-containing melts is less of a problem in reduction. -It is valuable for its lower expansion and crazing resistance. its melting action drastically accelerates at high temperatures. but MgO can also produce matte effects at lower temperatures as a refractory melt-stiffening additive.Fatty Matte Magnesia is well known for the pleasant vellum 'fatty matte' and 'hares fur' tactile and visual effects that it produces around 1200C.

Mechanisms  Glaze Color .Notes -Manganese monoxide exists only above 1080C where the dioxide form disassociates to release its oxygen. Manganese browns have a different. -Manganese fuses and dissolves very well above 1200C in oxidation. it will dissolve to a greater extent in a hotter melt. -Manganous oxide is unaffected by reduction. a flux which immediately reacts with silica to produce violet colors in the absence of alumina. even running down the ware. and purples. -Smaller amounts are easily dissolved in most glaze melts.  Glaze Color . and amount of manganese will all affect the results. but is normally considered. at its best.Brown . half of the oxygen disassociates to produce MnO. however. browns. -Above 1080C. often more pleasant character than iron browns. In most cases it is a very minor oxide. This means that if more than about 4% MnO is used. the oversupply will precipitate on cooling leaving a network of crystals in a manner similar to iron in high fire reduction. Manganese dioxide by itself can be used and will fuse well. -Manganese is a constituent in many igneous rocks. glaze fluidity. Like iron. Speed of cooling. but does occur in much greater amounts in some slip and highly stained materials. -Manganese is a colorant using in bodies and glazes. and thus occurs in many clays weathered from these parent rocks. -High temperature glazes well above 1080C can use large amounts of manganese to produce very metallic bronze-like surfaces. metallic surfaces are likely. in oxidation slips and glazes above 1200C. It is thus a color contributor in many traditional and historic slip glazes. In large amounts in a glaze (i. the manganese will precipitate and crystallize. browns in its presence. producing blacks. around the 5% threshold. 20%).e.Brown Very pleasing tan-brown reduction fired glazes can be achieved with 5% manganese dioxide in reduction.

however. producing blacks. Violet Purple colors can be produced in glazes of high alkali (KNaO) and low alumina. manganese can give coffee color browns when used with tin and dull browns in lead and low alkaline glazes. For example. Iron can also be used. and purples. a mix of 8 iron.Black Manganese and cobalt mixture produce black. browns.In glazes below 1080C. -Manganese is a constituent in many igneous rocks.e. 20%). and thus occurs in many clays weathered from these parent rocks. around the 5% threshold.5 cobalt make a raw black stain. -Smaller amounts are easily dissolved in most glaze melts. In large amounts in a glaze (i. especially in combinations with cobalt (look for a frit with this profile for best results). -In glazes below 1080C.  Glaze Color . Mechanisms  Glaze Color . It is thus a color contributor in many traditional and historic slip glazes. MnO2 (Manganese Dioxide) Family Colorant Weight 86.050 Notes -Manganese dioxide exists only below 1080C. In most cases it is a very minor oxide.Purple. . but does occur in much greater amounts in some slip and highly stained materials. metallic surfaces are likely. it can give coffee color browns when used with tin. 4 manganese dioxide and 0. -Manganese is a colorant using in bodies and glazes. the manganese will precipitate and crystallize.900 COLE . The presence of alumina assures brown (if it is lacking colors will be violet).Co-efficient of Linear Expansion 0. above which the dioxide form disassociates to release its oxygen (see MnO for more information).

-It is normal to use as much as possible in any glaze to keep expansion low. and brilliant. ball clay. kaolin. Thus the particle size of the parent material is often important in determining whether contributed silica affects the chemistry and/or mineralogy or acts as an aggregate. to prevent crazing. Mechanisms  Glaze Matteness . -With boron and alumina. increases acid resistance. Note. etc.035 Notes -The principle. increasing it raises the melting temperature. more durable.SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide. A ratio of 5:1 is matte. -Adjust this in relation to fluxes to regulate melting temperature and gloss. The high alumina stiffens the glaze melt preventing it from solidifying to a flat surface. lowers expansion. that in certain boracic and feldspathic compositions it can increase crazing so that other low expansion oxides may be needed to reduce glaze expansion.. -Increase it at the expense of B2O3 to make glaze harder. . participates directly in the chemical reactions taking place to build silicate glasses. -Decreasing SiO2 increases the melt fluidity. Normally comprises more than 60% of most glazes and 70% of clays. The silica:alumina molar ratio is considered a good indicator of this type of matteness. and often only glass forming oxide in glaze. it has the lowest expansion of all oxides.Co-efficient of Linear Expansion 0. 10:1 is glossy. Boric oxide and silica can be interchanged to glaze melting temperature. Special purpose formulations which lack silica often compromise structural stability and strength. and increases devitrification. flint mineral particles act as a filler and behave as an aggregate.High Alumina Low silica high alumina glazes produce matte effects. however. -In clay bodies. Silica) Family Glass Weight 60. and enhance body/glaze fired strength. increases hardness and gloss. while SiO2 in feldspar.100 COLE .