IB History The Weimar Republic -By 1918, Germany was in shambles because the armies were in retreat, the navy

was in mutiny and the population was rioting because they were being starved by the British blockade. -On November 9th, the Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated, and a civilian government took over from him on the advice of General Hindenburg and Ludendorff. -In January of 1919, the people elected an Assembly who made a constitution for the new republic. The Parliament was called the Reichstag, and was run by proportional representation. There would be an elected President as well, who could dismiss the Chancellor or the Prime Minister, and govern by decree (don't need Parliament's approval to pass laws) during an emergency. -Friedrich Ebert was the first President, and a socialist. He was not a revolutionary, and he believed that the Parliament should just run the way it was running. -The Spartacists (Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg) wanted a Communist-style revolution in Germany, and in January 1919 they led a rebellion in Berlin against the new government. -The Frei Korps put a stop to it quickly, and they were ex-servicemen who were violently opposed to communism. -So, Berlin was too dangerous for the new government, so it was set up in Weimar instead. in June 1919, Ebert was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which put Germany at the feet of the Ally countries. Because of this, the Weimar Republic was forever associated with this humiliation, and many Germans despised them because of it. -The Socialists, The Catholic Centre Party, and the Democratic Party supported the government, but were abused by those who were opposed to it, the Nationalists (rich land-owners who wanted the Kaiser back and set up the Frei Korps and hated communism) and later on, by the Nazis. -The Frei Korps tried to forcefully take over in Berlin in 1920. This was called the Kapp Putsch (it was led by a man named Dr. Kapp), and it would have worked, if only all of the workers hadn’t decided to go on a general strike and paralyze the city. The Reichswehr (professional army) fled the city and refused to defend. Nothing really happened to the rebels though, because even the judges hated the government and wanted the Kaiser back. -These rebellions against the government could have been stopped more easily, but the country was in economic shambles after the Treaty. The combination of political and economic crisis is what proved to be fatal for the Weimar Republic. -In 1923, there was serious inflation because they lost both actual money (reparation payments) and the ability to make any money (industrial output and any of their profitable territories.) They simply printed off more money, but from 1921 onwards, the value of a mark plummeted. After falling behind on reparation payments to Belgium and France, they decided to take over Ruhr (industrial heartland of the country) in January 1923, and not leave until they got the coal they wanted themselves. The workers went on strike, and industry halted. -Only the rich could keep up because their land and factories grew in value alongside the prices. The middle class was suffering though, and began listening to a man named Adolf Hitler, and Austrian who served in WWI as a good soldier. -Hitler wanted to avenge the Treaty of Versailles, he hated Jews, and wasn’t too keen on Democracy. -After seeing the invasion of the Ruhr, and how the horrific economic conditions, he attempted the Munich Putsch (seizure of power) in Bavaria with his Nazi party (National Socialist German Workers Party). They hoped to get power here, then go to Berlin. Ludendorff came with him from a beer hall to the Bavarian Parliament on November 9, 1923. The 3000 Nazi Storm Troopers/SA/Sturmabteilung were shot at by the Bavarian Police. Some died, and Hitler was sentenced to a light sentence of five years, but was released after just nine months. This made Hitler seem like a hero for many people, and he also


learned how to conduct himself (don’t get power by force alone.) -1924-1929 were considered a good time for Germany, because of Stresemann, who was Chancellor for three months, leader of the small People’s Party, and then Foreign Minister until he died. Stalin -Communist Russia wanted to be a great industrial and agricultural power, hence their symbol of the intertwined hammer and sickle. But this was a desire, not a reality for them. We can look at Lenin's New Economic Plan, and see how the allowance for small private trade and small private ownership proves this, because it demonstrates how the economic system was in shambles. -The majority of the peasants were desperately poor, but there were a few people, called Kulaks, who owned a little bit of land, employed other peasants, and owned a little bit of machinery (which was rare, because Russia was so technologically behind the West,) and sold their surplus harvest to the cities. Everyone sort of hated the Kulaks, who were the least bad off in a very bad situation. -The Communist Party was split up in two branches, the Left Opposition (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, who thought that the only way for Russia to grow and survive economically would be if they expanded and modernised their industry rapidly) and the Right-Wing Deviationists (Bukharin, and Rykov, who wanted to stick to Lenin's NEP at all costs.) -Trotsky’s people advocated the spread of Communism and of revolutions in already developed countries, because once they too became communist, they would be able to help out the economically backwards Russia. This was called, International Socialism. -Stalin’s take on the matter was completely different, because he thought that the only thing Russia ought to be focusing on was Russia. If they could perfect the socialist system in their own nation, they wouldn’t have to worry about anything else. This notion was called, Socialism in One Country. How poetic... -Stalin was a moderate, because he needed the support to defeat his rivals like Trotsky, who many people hated because he was a relatively new member of the party, and the older members were envious of the respect he was garnering. In 1917 after patching-up a dispute he had with Lenin, he rejoined the party, and moved up the power-ladder very fast. -Stalin had no trouble in finding other people who disliked Trotsky, so he teamed up with Zinoviev and Kamenev to get Lenin's Testament shelved (which advocated Stalin's removal from office) and to argue against all of Trotsky's propositions. In 1935, they got Trotsky ousted as Commissar for War. -In 1926, after new elections in the Central Committee, Stalin felt it was safe to oust Zinoviev and Kamenev, whose support he no longer had need of since new supporters were now in the Committee. He teamed up with his old opposition, Bukharin, to do this. They were put on Show Trials (they weren’t actually allowed to defend themselves, and they were forced to wrongly admit to crimes like conspiring with Trotsky to take over the Soviet Union) because they were afraid for their families or because they thought their deaths would help the country, or simply because of torture. -In 1927, Trotsky was forced to leave the country, and in 1928, Stalin won enough support to become the leader of the party. Soon after, in 1929, Stalin turned against his last ally, Bukharin, and ousted him as well. He faced the Show Trial and execution as well. -Stalin was a master schemer, so the fact that all of the other politicians had underestimated him (Trotsky called him a Grey Blur, and said that he was mediocre and forgettable) helped him to easily switch alliances until he got the position that he wanted. -Now that Stalin was in the position of utmost authority, he felt it was safe to start acting on the problems the country faced, and he did this ruthlessly. Ironically enough, the plan he settled on implementing was the one his great opponent Trotsky advocated in his day, the rapid modernisation and industrialisation of Russia. Stalin’s reasons for doing this lay in his fear of having Communism stamped out by the economically ready and industrially superior Western nations like the US and Britain. If Russia could catch up to them, they would not have to worry.


-Stalin immediately began system of having three Five Year Plans, where they would start off by trying to triple their industrial production in heavy industry (coal, oil, iron, and steel), then to double and triple them again, and to then switch to light industry, like manufacturing consumer goods, so the Russian people would have a better standard of living. -The First Five Year Plan (1928-1932) dug mines, sunk oil wells, and built factories. They began to tap into their natural resources, and new cities were beginning to spring up in the mountains, and previously uninhabited areas. The workers were forced to work very fast and very hard, or else they faced life in labour camps called Gulags. They offered Capitalist-style incentives to the workers. The authorities claimed that the First Five Year Plan reached it’s goals a year early, but this is only true about the oil industry. Nonetheless, huge improvements were made, even if they were made under very high pressure and the workers were terrified. -The Second Five Year Plan (1933-1937) continued the conditions of the first one. -The Third Five Year Plan (1838-1842) was sort of a failure, because of the Second World War, and the necessary switch they made to armament manufacturing instead of consumer goods manufacturing. -Because of the Five Year Plans, the standard of living for the industrial workers in Russia really improved, but it’s good to keep in mind that these improvements came at a cost. Many people were sent off to Siberia because of their absenteeism in the workforce, and their lack of productivity sent them to the harsh conditions of the labour camps. Illiteracy went down, there was free medical care, and there were pension and sickness benefits. -To switch to the other part of the Communist symbolism, those who were represented by the sickle instead of the hammer were still suffering at this point. -Lenin’s NEP had improved agricultural output, but the communists believed that they couldn’t continue allowing all of the small private ownership of the Kulaks, because communism entailed that land should be farmed in collective farms (Kolkhozy) or in farms owned by the state (Sovkhozy.) -The peasants were happy about this, but the Kulaks weren’t. They resisted by burning their crops and livestock instead of handing them over to the government. Within two months, about half of the peasants in the country had been uprooted and had to change their entire style of living. Stalin swiftly dealt with the Kulaks by sending many of them of long treks to the middle of nowhere, where many of them just died. About 5 million died like this, and another 5 million peasants at least died during the famine of 1932-33, that was partly caused by the fact that so many Kulaks burned their fields and animals. -To quell this disruption, Stalin granted concessions to some peasants, allowing them to have a few of their own animals and vegetable plots, and allowing them to keep 10% of what they make and share it amongst themselves instead of getting wages. -By 1937, about 90% of the farmland had been collectivised. By the fifties, the numbers for agricultural output finally reached their 1928 standards. Collectivisation wasn’t the huge success that the Five Year Plans were, but they still made improvements and modernisation still took place. This was all at a grave cost, though. Many people died. -The Ukraine was called the bread-basket of Russia, and it was the part of the Soviet Union that made the most grain. Because of this, the small little breaks in collectivisation weren’t tolerated here. -The Sovkhozy would be organized by the state with workers who would be paid regulated wages, while in a kolkhoz the system of payment was different. In Marxist theory this would turn the workers on the Sovkhozy into proletarian workers as they would be working for a wage using materials that were owned by the State. In both systems, a system of internal passports prevented movement from rural areas to urban areas. Initially, Sovkhozy farms were the ones which were created by the state confiscating large estates, while kolkhozes were typically created by combining smaller farms together. -Stalin was becoming increasingly more paranoid as the years rolled on. The murders and exterminations of opponents were up until now, justified as being necessary for the progress of the nation. But now, the murders that were happening were only a result of Stalin’s fear of being replaced or


a stupid thing to do. They government did nothing to stop the abuse of Black Americans. the presidents cut taxes so people could actually buy things. and Roosevelt met in Teheran. -There were the Poor Man Clubs that were closed down thanks to the Christian Women’s Groups. The pact was supposed to last for ten years. No one bought this extra stuff. the Fordney-McCumber tariff made foreign goods more expensive. the chief of the Leningrad Communist Party. -Hoovervilles were little shantytowns that were set up in and around bigger cities after people got evicted from their homes and were forced to live in shacks they made themselves. navy. There was a secret part of the pact. when they just made too much. and they cut down on immigration from Southern and Eastern European countries. so people got laid off. and rather weak.) was there for the first part of the depression. The final communiqué also stressed the need for cooperation through the United Nations in meeting the problems of peace. and once again. -There was a lot of racism. About a third of the entire officer corps disappeared in this manner. because it left the army in tatters. where the two countries carved up Poland between themselves. Prices fell. the Soviets were guaranteeing that they would not enter the war. -In 1922. Agreement was reached on the scope and timing of operations against Germany. What was meant by the terms of the pact was that if Germany attacked Poland. and new fashions that didn’t involve as much old timey fabric. This was in all reality. 1939. -The same thing happened in industry. then the Soviet Union would not come to its aid. -President Hoover (Rep. Stalin reaffirmed his pledge to commit Soviet forces against Japan after the defeat of Germany.There was a lot of over-production. -In 1934. so there was economic isolationism. Kirov. it was to be handled amicably. and he believed that Americans should fend for themselves. If there were ever a problem between the two countries. but bad for Europe. it lasted for less than two. and Gangsters stepped in to take control of the illegal liquor trade in Speakeasies. A separate protocol pledged the three powers to maintain the independence of Iran. in the 1920’s. and did nothing to help to state of the country. Roosevelt and the New Deal -WWI was good for the US. Eventually. thus not open a second front for Germany. if Germany went to war against the West (especially France and Great Britain) over Poland. Stalin. . -The Stock Market crashed in October of 1929 when people freaked out and sold all of their shares (that were bought with borrowed money) when a few shares began selling at high prices. -Other countries put up their own tariffs in retaliation. -There were new forms of energy. -In November 1943. so they bought Americans instead. was murdered. Also. -The Purges were when anyone who was thought the disagree with Stalin or his government in the air force. everyone had a washing machine. and this gave Stalin an excuse to start a campaign against all of the old Bolsheviks of his early days. etc. and everybody was happy. Prices collapsed because of this. even when the Europeans regained the ability to make their own stuff. including plans for the Allied invasion of France. 4 . -The Nazi-Soviet Mutual Non-Aggression Pact was signed on August 23. Stalin also had the head of the NKVD (secret police) shot (Yagoda) and all of his senior staff. and farmers couldn’t pay their mortgages and the banks took their farms from them. So. Thus. no one could buy anything so more people got laid off. The American presidents encouraged their people to take advantage of the need for American goods after Europe was virtually in ruins after the war. Americans didn’t stop making a lot. Churchill. so coal and cotton demand went down. or army was killed.having his position threatened.

-He immediately began to make changes. and after climbing the political ladder in the country. that Spain was under the control of Ferdinand VII. In the end. -The National Housing Act reduced rents and built new homes. and their hours of work and wages were fixed by the Fair Labour Standards Act of 1938. and it was on fire. and then only the banks that were truly reputable and reliable were allowed to reopen. -Eventually. -Because of this. that France was now under that rule of Louis XVIII. The Second New Deal would follow from 1935-1939 would be concerned with improving welfare services.” 1820’s-1840’s -Metternich did not believe in having a compromise with liberalism or nationalism. starting with his 100 days of tackling immediate problems. Roosevelt needed to convince the people that their money would be safe in banks. -10000/25000 banks had shut down after everyone freaked out and took their money out. -The Second New Deal gave Americans the Social Security Act. -He took to the field again. and 1944. but escaped. -He was defeated ultimately by the British and Prussian armies at Waterloo. he was sent to St. it was WWII that helped the country get out of unemployment the most. -The Wagner Act gave trade unions the legal right to negotiate wages for their members. he was the picture of conservatism. and rallied with surprising support in France. which provided pensions for the old. The Fall of Napoleon. -Wealthy business-men didn’t like FDR. von Hardenberg (Prussia). and Russia Metternich’s “System. since the peace they achieved lasted around 40 years. they were forced to leave. -FDR was re-elected in 1936. -In 1814. 1940. Then. in hopes of gaining a balanced system of power. 1812 & 1815 -Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812 -His Grand Army was only 1/3 French. won 42/28 states.-FDR was a Democrat who came from a rich Dutch American family. and other border/territorial disputes were settled. -He believed that loyalty to a dynasty was of the utmost importance. Among other things. -The Federal Emergency Relief Act gave $500 million to the hungry and jobless for work. and there was a lot of fear of growing Communism in the USA. Metternich (Austria). de Talleyrand (France). Austria. -Important people there included Alexander I (Russia). 5 . -The Economy Act cut down the salaries of state employees & prohibition was abolished. widowed and maimed. the First New Deal from 1933-1935 would create jobs and set the USA on the road to recovery. and died. -The Emergency Banking Act closed all of the banks in the country for four days so people could stop taking out their money. 1815 -All European states sent representatives after the downfall of Napoleon. and Lord Castlereagh (Britain). -The decisions that France was not allowed to keep all of their acquired territory. -Four powers dominated during the congress: Britain. because this was dangerous for Austria. -Roosevelt started the traditions of the Fireside Chats. probably because of Russian defensive action. and saw this as a way to unify Europe. he was sent to Elba. The Congress of Vienna. -Reached Moscow in September. -He didn’t believe in any moves that got Germany closer to constitutionalism in German states. Prussia. Helena in South Atlantic. -The Congress was for the most part successful.

he believed that “traditional elites must join with the nationalists to survive. -For the most part. -Austria was no longer part of Germany. and it marked the uprising of imperialism and military power on the part of Germany. which was bad for the south and for church (property taken). these national improvement lessened Nazi support. Nice to France. -Central Europe could have been swayed to submit to liberal political reform and unification.1926 . causing the People's Party to lose support. and expelled the Bourbon Dynasty from there. and France had to pay severely.) This was an obstacle for Hitler and the Nazis because it lessened their support. many members of the Nazi Party ended up getting shot and killed at the hands of the Bavarian police. Stresemann angers the German nationalists by stopping the resistance in the Ruhr. (Minister-President of the Prussian Cabinet and Foreign Minister. Modena. putting Napoleon III in the presidential seat. the Second Republic was established.Liberal/Nationalist Revolts. Italian/German Unification. as it was part of his plan to create a unified Germany. and Bismarck advised the offer to be accepted. But. -In Germany. and Napoleon III was captured. Austria gives up Venice.The German mark inflated more than it ever had. and monarchs remained in power. 1924 -The Dawes Plan was implemented. -In France. thanks to Stresemann’s agreement with them to start paying their debt again. -The immediate cause for the war was when the throne of Spain was offered to a Prussian. Bismarck was the main man responsible for unification. and in 1859/60. Once again. This was an opportunity for the Nazi party to gain more influence and votes. -In 1866. -Bismarck believed in Realpolitik (politics based on severe rationalism). and they ended up crushing these revolts.Stresemann began to make many improvements in Germany in this year including stabilizing the German currency by installing the Reichsmark. and Prussia won. because there were fewer depressed Germans to appeal to.Franco-Belgian troops withdrew from the Ruhr in this year. . in 1860. 1925 .Hitler led the Munich Putsch in November. he got power in Prussia. he put Bismarck in charge of the Prussian Cabinet. . there was a 7 Week War because of the Schleswig territory issue between Prussia and Austria. -France was not equipped with modern military patterns. Also. and Emilia-Romagna saw nationalistic movements. . -The Treaty of Brussels brought an end to the war.” -In 1862. 1848 -A series of republican uprisings against European monarchies occurred in this year. 1870-1871 -This war was waged on Prussia by France. but it was rejected because of French protest. these states unified with Piemont. and ended up getting arrested. where he was a reactionary. Bismarck made an alliance with Austria. -In 1866. and France declared war in July. and the Second Orleanist Kingdom was in power in France. France and Germany now saw each other as mortal enemies. and in 1870 Lazio is returned.On September 24. the French army was defeated. and the French occupy the area around Rome (Lazio. -Italian unification left Rome the capital. (The Dawes Plan. 1960’s -The Italian states of Parma. so this caused people who were suffering (mainly the German middle class) to listen to Hitler.) -Garibaldi. -Aggression ensued on both sides.) -In 1864. because he wanted to get Holstein and Schleswig for Prussia and Austria respectively. -Eventually. -Piemont gives Savoy. led a movement in Sicily. .Germany was 6 . he learned how to conduct himself. and to calm the traditional elites. the liberals were let down. Timeline of Hitler and the Nazi Party 1923 . Kaiser Wilhelm I tried to get the military up and running again. Tuscany. and the reserves they had along the Rhineland were not enough. starting in Italy. but the monarchies in power had strong militaries. this caused administrative issues in Austria. Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck was a driving force behind the war. and this was a contributing factor to the First World War. and making their way across the continent to Austria and Germany. leaving the country very centralized. but at the end of it.Germany signed a series of Locarno Treaties that improved international relations. The improvements that Stresemann made to the nation was an impediment for Hitler and the Nazi Party. and did so. This obstacle kept Hitler in jail for a little while.

-Hitler cleared out of office anyone he didn't trust. and the country was divided into districts that were controlled by a Gauleiter who Hitler appointed. the Centre Party. this year hinted at what was going to be an economic depression when unemployment went up and the agricultural industries were declining. The Reichstag (Germany’s Parliament) was no longer the centre of political control. thanks to Stresemann. 1933 -When von Papen left. 1931 -Unemployment hit 4 million in Germany in May of this year. Conversely. which allowed him to make laws without the Parliament’s consent for four years.) -Hitler encouraged rivalries between people underneath him. -The United States called back its loans from Germany. Hitler won 13 million. and this problem once again worsened the state of the country. 1932 -During the elections of March of this year. so this was advantageous for the Nazis. They could just randomly pick whoever they ‘suspected’ and put them into ‘protective custody’ which was imprisonment without a trial. while Hindenburg won 19 million. This very quickly and very easily gave him dictatorial power in Germany. -The Gestapo (secret police) was under the control of Heydrich. Support for Bruning and his party. -General Hindenburg called an election in September. 1930 -The German Chancellor. the Centre Party. -The conditions in Germany worsened. which caused the support for the Nazis to rise. therefore fewer people to appeal to. support for the Nazi Party went up. These occurrences were all advantageous for the Nazis. by decree. Heydrich and Himmler. and the Nazis got many more votes. -Hitler began his assault on Communism as soon as he got into power. who Hindenburg thought he could use to settle the crisis and then throw away. 1928 -Even though support for the Nazi Party was lessening as the German economy prospered. and Hitler abolished the titles of both Chancellor and President and made himself the Fuhrer of Germany. and the world really began to face the truth of the economic depression that was rapidly affecting them. whose leadership was lacking. and the trade unions until the only legal party left was the Nazi Party. 1929 -Stresemann died in this year. so the Nazis were catching up in terms of support from the people. because there were fewer problems in the country that he could promise to fix. 7 . This made support for the Nazi Party skyrocket. This left the door wide open for Hitler to make his move. von Papen was replaced by Hitler as Chancellor. where the farmers were already beginning to suffer because of the state of depression of their industry. -Himmler controlled the regular police and the SS (who were in charge of the labour camps. and was replaced by Franz von Papen. so there were more people for Hitler to appeal to and to get support from. -Hitler then stopped the Socialists. so they were the most influential party in the Parliament. like Goering and Goebbels. because he would be able to do what he did best: amass support by appealing to emotions publicly. plummeted. -Two days later.Unemployment reached 6 million this year. -The elections in July saw a rise in Nazi support to 38%. This new acceptance into the international forefront made things more difficult for the Nazi Party and for Hitler.allowed to join the League of Nations. because Bruning was now governing without the Parliament’s consent. Bruning cut unemployment and welfare benefits. while the conditions for the Nazis got better. . 1927 .Hitler was allowed to make speeches in Bavaria again after the Munich Putsch. -Bruning resigned from his position as Chancellor in May. so this fuelled Nazi support even more. -Hitler put through the Enabling Bill. and eventually he outlawed them. The National Socialist State -Herrenvolk --> master race -Hindenburg died in 1934. and they had to seek out and destroy any possible enemies of the party. -The Nazis were getting more and more support in the rural areas. This was a good thing for him and his party. -Von Papen lifted the ban on Hitler’s SA. he was replaced by yet another incapable leader. so it lessened the threat of them wanting to compete with him. von Schleicher who left after he was refused the ability to govern by decree by Hindenburg.

Jewish civil servants were dismissed. -Unemployment was combated with things like cheap housing for the workers. homosexual. Kuche. and in 1937 Pope Pius XI condemned the Nazis. a priest. He started a Luftwaffe. He wanted Autarky. The Three Images of War 8 . Hitler then shut down church schools. -In 1933. (Kids. including Roehm. and von Schleicher was killed. This brought an end to unemployment. -Young girls started at 10 in the Young Maidens. Fritsch and the War Minister were forced to resign. with him at the helm. The army now had to swear a personal oath to the Fuhrer. the Nuremburg laws stopped Jews from marrying any Non-Jews. Kirche. and holding citizenship. Kinder. and lawyers. Hitler didn’t want these things. -In 1938. he signed a Concordat with the Catholic Church where they promised to leave each other alone. -Hitler wanted to increase their exporting. Hitler cleaned up most of the Anti-Semitism to look good globally. and decreased how much they exported. and they had to teach what the Nazis said about Jews being biologically inferior. -Experiments to replace natural materials with synthetic ones failed. Goebbels and Goering took this opportunity to take down any of their personal rivals. and it’s what Hitler called all this. shops. but 20000 Jews were sent to labour camps in 1938. -The Concentration Camps and the deliberate extermination of Jews didn’t start until 1942. -The problem was that they could not make enough raw materials on their own to sustain themselves. Because of this. Cooking. a year of labour service had to be done. controlled the imports of raw materials. Church. -Hitler’s Minister of Economics. The Protestant Church also resisted. and no more striking. -In September of 1935. and they could make arms. or a Socialist. He didn’t shake any black people’s hands (he could either shake everyone’s or no one’s. because all the raw materials had to come from the government. but was against the Treaty of Versailles. there were many Nazis who liked the socialist ideas. and many were beaten to death. The workers got perks like cheap theatre tickets and vacations.) -All of the teachers had to join the National Socialist Teacher’s League or be sacked. Hitler began his rearmament policy and a year later. but put on a socialist show at the party’s beginning to attract more supporters. who led the SA. -Roehm wanted big firms to be nationalized. voting. -In 1933. and it was when Hitler ordered the SS to move against the SA. By 1935. This reduced unemployment. Wehrmacht meant armed forces. they were forbidden to go into many public places like swimming pools and park. there were also two years of military service. the Commander and Chief of the army. where synagogues were burnt. and the SS organised an attack on Jewish property in Germany during the Crystal Night. It ended up being so that they rose how much they imported. They had to learn girly stuff. because he’d lose rich supporters and the people who were in the Reichswehr. and their Youth groups went all West Side Story. Between 18 and 25. businesses were destroyed. This meant that firms had to make what the Nazis said. -In April 1933. Schacht. a Communist. -The Night of the Long Knives happened on June 30 of 1934. which was economic self-sufficiency. goods. a gypsy. and to scrap the professional army and replace it with the SA. they could join the Hitler Youth. They increased iron imports so that heavy industry could be increased. Priests and Nuns were sent to the camps. The Navy made big boats. -In 1938. Dr. -Young boys started in the Pimpfen at 6. Von Papen narrowly escaped death. These people included Ernest Roehm. This would be fixed by having other countries that had the things that they needed come under Nazi influence and control.-Hitler in reality hated Socialism. -In 1934. the SA led a boycott against the Jewish doctors. there were no more trade unions. then at 10 took a test to go the Jungvolk. a German diplomat was shot by a French Jew. and big construction projects like the Autobahn. there was conscription. reduce their importing. He chose no one’s. and end unemployment. then went on the League of German Maidens at 14. At least 100 Brownshirts were shot. After 1935. But this didn’t last long because the Catholics didn’t like the Nazis. and Hitler became the Minister of War.) -Life was good if you weren’t a Jew. At 14. -During the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.

e. Good state is one in which there is a fair distribution of wealth.: demanding physical activities. Supported by Confucius to present day behavioral scientists. this theory has not much practical value when attempting to eliminate war.e. More difficult to define what constitutes a ‘good state´ Marxists define it in economic terms. Non-Proliferation treaty) Transfer of authority from national Gov. Education: humans to be educated with a love of peace and hatred of war (there are human societies where war is unknown) Cultural exchanges (better understanding btw peoples) Screen Potential leaders: ensure that they are not predisposed towards violence. Therefore. It does not address the most common form of warfare since 1945: civil war.e. sovereignty of people. to regional or global organizations (i. UN) World Government! Criticisms: Alliances in the past arguably have been as much responsible for the outbreak of war as they have been useful in preventing it. i. USA and allies define it in political terms based on multi-party democracy. War As the Result of the Internal Structure of States: Argues that wars are caused by ‘bad states´ / i.: Gov. Far too general for any practical use. If war is caused by human nature then so is peace.Kenneth Waltz War as the result of Human Nature: States that war is the outcome of the very nature of human beings. German Responsibility: 9 .: EC. Implication: to prevent war one must change human nature! Optimists: human nature can be modified to make war less likely Pessimists: Human nature cannot be changed and war is inevitable.: an unpopular government engages in a war against another state in an attempt to promote internal unity. Things that could be done to Change Human Nature: Offer alternatives to war i. The Origins of the First World War 1.e. Criticisms: Human nature is infinitely variable.: NATO. … Fundamentalists Islam defines it in terms of a states which bases itself upon the word of God. War as the result of the Structure of the State System: Argues that war is the result of the nature of relations between states. What is a ‘bad state´? In recent past bad = autocratic.e. of a state will represent its own interests and in the event of a serious clash in interests there will be war. Implications: Groupings of states in an attempt to promote the wellbeing of all / establishment of an alliance which would deter attack on an individual state / disarmament programs (i.

Alliances. Unable (unwilling?) to restrain/control Slaw nationalism even though it was a force endangering peace/stability in Europe.: the ultimatum to Serbia was not delivered until almost a month after Sarajevo. Britain: (not a crucial role) Underestimated gravity of crisis in late July. All Gov. After her isolation at the Algeciras conference.) Decleration of war on Serbia came only 5 days after ultimatum Refused to halt military operations (as Kaiser suggested) even though talks with Russia were scheduled for July 30. Fear of ‘encirclement´ after the Triple Entente and Russian army reforms meant that ‘a moment so favorable froma military point of view might never occur again´.Fischer’s View: (German Historian) Germany responsible for war b/c of its aggressive pursuit of its weltpolitik. More Correct View: Distinguish btw Germany´s contribution to the growth in international tensions from 1900-13 w/ her role during the July crisis itselft. The Responsibility of Other Powers: Austro-Hungary: Contributed to conflict in Balkans by lengthy delays in responding to Sarajevo. Naval talks with Russia convinced the German Chancellor that the ‘ring of encirclement´ was complete. (blank-cheque of 1914 transformed a defensive alliance into an offensive one) Similarly France gave a ‘blank cheque´ (1912) to Russia turning a defensive alliance into an offensive one. Maybe a clearer statement of British intent to support France would have restrained Berlin. International Anarchy. Germany willed the war in order to realize expansionist ambitions and to resole an acute domestic crisis. Promise of support to Serbia (influenced decision to reject the ultimatum) France: (not a crucial role) Promised French support to Russia (but this was more the work of French ambassador in Russia rather then official policy from Paris) Hopes of recovering Alsace-Lorraine was worth fighting for but not sufficient for wanting war.e. No evidence that German leader help expansionist aims before the ‘September Programme´ (which Fischer uses to explain the German desire for war) Places too much importance on the domestic crisis in the decision to launch a war in 1914 Bulow and Hollweg dismissed war as a solution to the socialist problem. Germany realised that A-H was virtually her only ally and the alliance w/ A-H took on a new importance. Germany put pressure on A-H to retaliate against Serbia (even if it meant General war) ß ‘blank cheque´ Criticism of Fischer: German policy before 1914 seems contradictory and lacking in clear aims. 10 . Russia: Clear that Russia was the expansionist force in the Blakans. Balkan Wars might have been a ‘war by proxy´ for Russia. The Balkans Tension between Russia and A-H. responsible for tension until 1914 but not equally responsible for the fatal turn of events — for which Germany was culpable. (i. and Armaments: The system of alliances helps explain why so many powers became involved in the war of 1914. 2. (A-H´s prestige depended on its influence in the Balkans) Pan-slavism / nationalism Do NOT in themselves explain how an Austro-Serb dispute excalated into a general European war.

: German response to FrancoRussian alliance was the Schlieffen Plan. Russian army reforms (due to be completed by 1917) led to a point of view of the German high command that a preventive war against Russia in 1914 made sense. Germany had a prime interest in acquiring the colonies of other states.e. Germany could not tolerate a diplomatic defeat for her ally. Four subsidiary factors: 11 . in the leading states had warlike attitudes (i. Imperialism and Nationalism Capitalism: Arguments For: Simple belief that industrialists had an interest in provoking war Capitalist economic pressures were the driving force behind imperialist rivalries. Growth of Russian power: economic expansion.e. and strategic railways (close to German borders) alarmed Germany.The importance of the alliance systems was not its existence but rather that their defensive nature had been altered. Disruptive effect of nationalism: threatened A-H in terms of her ability to act as a great power & disintegration.: in Germany the General Staff had enormous influence. Psychological consequences of a generation of imperialism: Exacerbating mutual suspicion and hostility (contributed to the mood of 1914) Contributed to ‘nationalist revival´ Conclusion: Four central factors: Legacy of Weltpolitik: failed by 1914 / harmed Germany´s relations with other powers / meagre achievements contrasted with its high expectations / increased German feeling of insecurity. German Weltpolitik was a challenge to British/French Empires.e. Why did war break out in 1914? One answer is that Germany was intent on war in 1914 (and thus rejected most proposals for mediation in 1914). pop. army reforms.) However there was a current of anti-militarism in both France and Germany (i. The Arms Race can be both a cause and an effect of international tension. Yet. growth. Financiers needed stability. Maybe the arms race contributed to the feeling that war could not be postponed indefinitely. Imperialism: Lenin said that the war was an ‘imperialist war´ b/c it sought a re-division of colonial territories.: in the socialist movements) Capitalism. Inadequacy of Germany policy during the July crisis: failure to devise diplomatic alternatives in case the Triple Entente held and France and Britain supported Russia. Anglo German Trade Rivalry Arguments Against: Armaments manufacturers had markets overseas which might be lost in wartime. therefore the answer to a Russian threat was to invade France!) However in some respects the alliance system was in some disarray in early 1914 (i. Gov. Determination of Germany to become a naval power threatened Britain. agreements were being made on colonial issues prior to the war. Alliance system reduced flexibility of responses in the event of a crisis (i.: Britain disanchanted w/ agreement w/ Russia over Persia // Britain still did not support France by July 1914) Yet the system of alliances had been successful before at preventing conflicts and maintaining an aspect of a balance of power. Anglo-German commercial links were growing closed from 1904-1914.e.

Causes in the USA: o o o o o Overproduction Uncontrolled use of credit-buying (concealed over-production) Speculation Weak banking structure Uneven distribution of wealth The Effects of the Depression in the USA on Europe Recall & refusal to renew short term loans The collapse of the German economy The system of international debts and reparation payments collapsed o There had been an outflow of gold towards the USA / the Great depression magnified this unhealthy tendency o Shrinkage in world trade o Prices fell due to lack of demand / rapid rise in unemployment o Social problems led to a rise in political extremism o Led to the development of Economic Nationalism (promote recovery in ones own country at the expense of others) o o o Reasons for Economic Nationalism: Isolationist policies of the USA who imposed heavy import duties which led to retaliation from European states o Keynes promoted Gov. but the outbreak of WW2 totally changed the economic scene o Caused a further contraction of the volume of world trade (imposed imposition of tariff barriers) o Contributed to deterioration in international relations o Promoted Gov. intervention and this tended to result in economic nationalism o USSR was the only one not to experience the effects of the depression and this led to a belief in tight state control as the way of the future. The legacy of imperial rivalries: increased animosities among the great powers (affecting public opinion.) The influence of domestic tensions: encouraged ruling circles to consider war as a relief from such tensions. and Gov. o Failure to keep international agreements o The rise of fascism which was highly nationalistic o Effects of Economic Nationalism: Short term benefits to some countries.B and German. The Arms Race: increased expectations of war / led Germany to believe she had a better chance of winning in 1914 rather then later. i.e G. intervention/management of the economy o In the long term.The decline of the ‘Concert of Europe´: statesmen unwilling to behave with restraint for the sake of ‘Europe´ as a whole. press. world leaders came to recognize the importance of economic cooperation and institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank were established. o Characteristics: (during inter-war period) 12 . but it is doubtful that there could have been long term benefits.

the program of the party had strong socialist elements: progressive tax on capital / 85% tax on war profits / universal suffrage (including women) / formation of a national militia / a minimum wage / nationalization of the munitions industry / worker participation in management / confiscation of church prop. o Weak governments were easy preys for the fascists o The fear of communism led to support for the fascists who were violently anti-Communist o Fascism gave its members a sense of identity o Fascism made great use of the potentials of the newly developed mass media o Traditional parties lacked inspiration and the fascists: o Represented a dynamic alternative o Were not opposed by the Gov. high U…) o 13 . territory) o The Fascists represented a means to stop the socialists and the communists (in the eyes of conservative politicians. Elitist and Authoritarian (‘Obedience not discussion’ — Mussolini) Close identity btw the party and the state Strongly anti-Semitic Glorified war (promoted Social Darwinism) Profoundly racist Had a paramilitary wing (ie: Blackshirts / S.) Promoted the myth of the race (use victories of the past) Placed emphasis on the myth of the predestined leader Made great use of symbolism (ie: swastika) Did not have a clear doctrinal base Fascism was not clearly developed in theory and could appeal to all groups irrespective of status o The emphasis upon law and order was appealing (it was seen as an alternative to social unrest) o People were turning to other forms of Gov.o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Reasons for the Appeal of Fascism Strongly nationalistic Strongly/Violently anti-Communist Anti-Liberal-democratic Opposed to international org. post-war violence.A. who sought to moderate and control Fascism to their purposes) o Mussolini was backed by wealthy industrialists and landowners (b/c of their fear of socialist reforms) o Support from Pope Pius XI and the Vatican (who saw the Fascists as an opportunity to normalize State-Church relationships) o Lack of faith in Italy’s institutions (failures of WWI. due to immense economic problems.H. (all those in Italics were to disappear later) o Until 1920 the Fascists had little success o Reasons for the rise of the Fascists (1920-22) Disgust in Italy at the terms of the peace treaties (didn’t obtain A. which they sought to bring down o Fascism in Italy The Founding of the "Fasci di Combattimento" by Benito Mussolini In its early days.

o Increased power of arrest and detention w/out trial o Scope of death penalty widened (to include action against the authorities) o Setting up a special court to deal w/ ‘political crimes’ o Creation of a secret police force (OVRA) o These strengthened Mussolini and the State rather then the Fascists. possible) o Winning the April 1924 election w/ 374 out of 535 seats in parliament o Use of electoral fraud in the south of Italy (to ensure Fascist victory) o o June 1924: the Matteotti murder. has a high level of control on most aspects of citizen’s lives.e. o A Totalitarian State? Totalitarianism: when the Gov. A move towards dictatorship: December 25: a law passed complete power in Mussolini’s hands and introduced several repressive measures: o Political parties were banned o Trade unions were banned o Free press was ended (through takeover by Fascists or censorship) o Elected local officials were replaced by officials appointed by the central Gov.: blackshirts) intimidated opponents o The complicity of the police and the army (who didn’t suppress Fascist violence) o The Establishment of a Dictatorship The king remained the Head of State. Arguments against totalitarianism: 14 . the murder of a critic of the Fascists (the socialist Giacomo Matteotti) created an anti-Fascist backlash à extreme elements of the Fascist party demanded that Mussolini move towards dictatorship. but w/ Mussolini Italy moved gradually towards dictatorship (not to the extent of Hitler’s dictatorship however) 1922-1924: The Fascists strengthened their position by: Excluding Socialists from the coalition Continuing to attract members (weakening opponents at the same time) o Continuing violence a/g political opponents o The fact that the Vatican became increasingly pro-Fascist o The lack of unity amongst opponents o The Acerbo Law (July 1923) which stated that the party of coalition which won an election was to be automatically awarded 2/3 of the seats in parliament (this made strong Gov.After the March on Rome (October 22) the King offered the post of Prime Minister to Mussolini o The violence of the Fascists (i.

This would supposedly: o o o o Fascist Economic Policies End conflicts btw owners and labor and therefore: Ending class conflict Increasing production (no more strikes) Increase living standards No attempt to destroy capitalism (Mussolini compromised with the capitalist and left them in charge of their industries in return for their support) o ‘Productivism’ was the word used by the Fascist to describe their aims — however this was vague and limited to a desire to boost production… o There were close bonds btw State and heavy industry (funds were directed towards this area of the economy) o There was little attention paid to development of the consumer industries. o In 1938 racial laws were enacted (mainly directed against the Jews) — there was little persecution until wartime at the urging of Hitler o The Corporate State This was a feature of the Fascist state in Italy…Under corporativism.e.: the Church. o Fascism had little influence in the South. control o Direct control of major industries increased (see notes for figures) o As a result Italy had a larger public sector then any European country aside from the USSR 15 . o Taxation levels were high (to fund investment in heavy industry) o The lira was fixed at an artificially high level (b/c of national pride) o Protectionism increased — to protect heavy industry and agriculture — since Mussolini sought to achieve autarky.The Fascists compromised w/ non-Fascist interest groups (i. the Monarchy) o Mussolini could be dismissed by the King o The Church still had considerable influence (unlike in Germany under Hitler) in sectors such as education. and despite Fascist propaganda the South remained under Church and powerful landowner’s influences. o Government intervention increase (partly b/c of the Great Depression) and o Private banks were taken over to finance for investment o Allocation of raw materials was brought under Gov. a group composed of representatives of the employers. the workers. o Arguments for totalitarianism: Italians had to conform to Fascist expectations (this was enforced by the secret police and the militia) o Public employees had to swear an oath of loyalty to the regime o Youth movements had considerable influence o A ‘Mussolini Cult’ developed. and the state would govern a corporation.

Mussolini obtained Fiume from Yugoslavia Mussolini invaded Corfu (Greek island) in respons to the murder of an Italian general but was pressured (mainly by G. and an Austrian right wing force. o Mussolini declared in 1926 a protectorate over Albania o Mussolini sought to destabilize Yugoslavia.Fascist Foreign Policy There is disagreement as to whether foreign policy was driven by fascist ideals o There is consensus that it was dominated by Mussolini o Evidence suggests it came to be dominated by fascist notions after the mid-1930s o Foreign Policy 1922-1936 Italy’s interests concentrated in three areas: the Mediterranean. but the weakness of the Italian armed forces made him support the disarmament efforts of the League of Nations and made him cooperate w/ Italy’s WWI allies. yet there was a desire to ‘revise’ the settlement of 1919-1920. — March 1938) Mussolini proposed the Munich conference when war btw Germany and the Western Allies seemed likely o o o o o o 16 . Mussolini was becoming increasingly revisionist & frustrated at the failures of traditional diplomacy. 1937 of Germany by Mussolini Mussolini let Hitler annex Austria (Feb.) into withdrawing. Relations w/ Germany were not good in the early years of Hitler’s regime. o Now. he signed a treaty w/ Hungary (also a right wing regime) o He crushed a revolt in Libya w/ use of massive force & executions o He signed a treat of friendship w/ Ethiopia in 1928 o o By the late 1920s. and the Balkans. The reasons for this change were: anger at the actions of Britain and France (in response to his Ethiopian invasion) / the success of the Ethiopian invasion and the lack of success of traditional diplomacy / the nature of Fascism which demanded expansionist policies. Later he moved troops to the Austrian frontier to forestall what he suspected were German interventions in Austria o October 25: Mussolini ordered the invasion of Ethiopia (realizing that the Allies would to little to stop him b/c they were worried over Hitler’s Germany) The League of Nations imposed sanctions for this actions but they did not succeed b/c: o Oil was not included in the banned items o Britain did not close the Suez Canal to Italian warships o Neither Germany nor the USA were members of the League and sanctions could therefore only be ineffective. Mussolini turned towards a more Fascist-driven foreign policy. Africa.B. Foreign Policy: 1936-1943 Intervention in the Spanish Civil War A move towards Hitler: The establishment of the axis in 1936 The visit of Sept. Mussolini opposed Hitler’s designs on Austria by backing the Austria Gov.

e. Mussolini was rescued by the Germans and set up at the head of a German backed Rep. This system was effectively only a disguise for exploitation of labor. of Salo. and post-1943 that Germany invaded Northern Italy.e. o The reality of the Corporate State was that Fascists sided w/ employers and this system did little to represent the interests of the workers. the Fascist Grand Council denounced Mussolini’s actions. wages fell. 1941. and the King dismissed Mussolini à Mussolini was then arrested. and Allied occupation. o The Reasons for the Fall of Mussolini Since 1936 his popularity had been in decline (i. An Evaluation of Italian Fascism Failure in that it meant Italian involvement in WWII on Germany’s side. 1939 and Hitler accepted Italian neutrality o In 1940. He was then executed on April 28th 1945 at the hands of pro-Allied Italians. but remained propaganda. A high lira damaged exports. o In July 1943. (partly b/c of the Great Depression) o Fascism brought little social reforms and sided w/ the employers against the employees.Mussolini annexed Albania (an Italian protectorate since 1926) when Hitler seized the whole of Czechoslovakia. o Propaganda was used to claim successes. o The desire for empire was more of a burden than an advantage. the followed Hitler in his declaration of war on the USA.: w/ involvement in the Spanish Civil War) o His relationship w/ Germany was seen as sacrificing Italy’s interests to those of Germany. Mussolini (convinced of Hitler’s success) joined the war but  His invasion of Southern France did not fit Hitler’s plans  His invasion of Greece obliged Hitler to intervene  Initial success in N. o Corruption w/in the Fascist party o Mussolini’s illness o The invasion of Sicily by the allies (clear sign of Italy’s defeat) o Italy surrendered on Sept. Mussolini participated in the invasion of the USSR and in Dec. o 17 . o In May 1939 a military alliance w/ Germany was signed (the Pact of Steel) o Italy was unable to support Hitler in Sept. used Italian workers as forced labor… o Fascism caused economic stagnation in Italy. and fought against Italy. o Fascist rule was corrupt.: Ethiopia did not bring Italy any economic benefits) o The relationship w/ Germany meant that Italian interest were of secondary importance. (i. Allied troops landed in Sicily. o Loss of the King’s support o Defeats in WWII undermined his prestige o Conditions w/in Italy deteriorated w/ the war. Africa was then met by British counter-attacks o In June 1941. and there was massive U. 8th 1943. loss of colonies. and much needed reforms were not carried out.

: Pan-German League) in favor of authoritarianism.Successes included improvements in public transport. of a communist takeover…he decided to lead a putsch. o From its founding to the putsch of 1923: Founded during the chaotic period immediately after WWI. 9th 1923 the Nazis marched on Gov. On Nov. but now he was a nationally known figure. (the establishment of the Vatican as an independent state) o The ideological roots of Nazism Its roots lay in two movements of the last 25 years of the 19th century: Anti-Semitism which grew during that period of depression and from the racial theories of the time o Radical right-wing politics (i.e. o Hitler went for 5 years in prison. they gave their consent but once released w/drew their aid. o June 1922: the now renamed National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) is banned in all states except Bavaria. to help him on his ‘March on Berlin’ he seized them. 9th 1919 under the name German Workers Party (DAP). Hitler joined as propaganda chief in Sept. 1921: Hitler became leader and introduced: the notion of the leader / a more centralized system w/ all branches subject to the authority of the original branch in Munich. o Hitler decided to convince leading members of the Bavarian Gov. buildings and were dispersed by gunfire and had their leaders arrested. o o o The Creation of a Nationwide Party Organization (1923-1928) Background to this period: period of recovery / the Weimar Republic seemed to have survived attempts against it and have gained support o 1924: the Ruhr was reintegrated into the German economy / the Dawes Plan (rescheduled payments and made loans) o 1925: Locarno Treaties — Germany accepted the frontiers of 1919 o 1926: Germany joined the League of Nations o 1928: Kellog-Briand Pact o 18 . which sheltered extremists (including the Nazis) o Formed Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr Aug. 1923: Streseman became chancellor (& called for passive resistance and began negotiating w/ the French) ß Hitler saw this chancellorship as the beg. success in the campaign against the Mafia… o The one major success was the ending of the conflict btw State and Church. Bavaria was then under the control of a right wing Gov. o The Munich or ‘Beer Hall’ Putsch: End 1922: Germany defaulted on reparation payments Jan. o Aug.

and by 1926 his control of the party had been greatly strengthened. o Consolidation of the ‘Fuhrerprinzip’: Dispute (over participation in elections / the Party Programme) was ended when Hitler imposed his views. whirlwind campaigns by air. 1925: Hitler refounded the party (which had been banned) to participate in the political processes of the Weimar Republic. o Nationalism as a uniting force. decline of the right. had weakened them. o o Propaganda: Modern techniques (press campaigns. etc… o World wide agricultural depression by late 1927 o o The effects of the may 1928 election: Gain for left wing parties.) o Forming special propaganda sections for individual interest groups. o The Struggle for Power 1930-33 19 . would not be possible. etc.A. o Creation of a Party cadre: the country was divided into Party regions w/ a leader for each region. The right and center parties concluded that coalition Gov. o March 1930: collapse of Gov. o Emphasis on appeal to youth. Nazi Party Measures: Refounding of the Party. Nazism Becomes a Mass Movement 1928-33 The insecure foundations of economic prosperity: US short term loans were invested on long term projects Middle classes being ‘squeezed’ by gains made by: the leading industrialists who were forming into large thrusts / the workers. coalition / appointment of Bruning (Catholic Center Pary) He tries to force unpopular budget measures.These favored improved international relationships and recovery. 1930: Election in which Nazis become the second largest party in the Reichstag.: Hitler restricted its activities to propaganda and bodyguard duties since he did not wish to antagonize middle class & wealthy supporters. Hitler planned to use the democratic process to gain power. Feb. The Economic Depression 1929 onwards: Had to face w/drawal of US short term loans The Young Commission and the Great Depression served as foci for right wing attacks against the Versailles settlement. film shows.: declined during this period). The appeal of extremists (i. whose unions had pressured for higher wages. There was danger that the parliamentary system would break down b/c coalition Gov. o The Role of the S. o Sep.e. and then destroy it.

) o The Major developments of this period: See notes Jan. o o The Enabling Law 20 . the Nazis arrested communists and other political opponents. Hitler did not want to alienate the army & the wealthy industrialists.Obstacles: Reluctance of conservative right wing parties to ally w/ the Nazis. Hindenburg o Divisions w/in the party. 1933: Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor b/c: Only way to have mass support for a right wing Gov. opposition w/in the party felt this would betray the revolutionary nature of the party (such feelings were strongest in the S.A.(becoming more ‘civilized’) o Attitude of Pres. Instability during 1930-33 might turn to the advantage of the left He was persuaded the Nazis would become more moderate He was persuaded Hitler could be controlled (clear majority of non-Nazis in cabinet) o Hitler accepted b/c: o Loss of seat in Nov. They wanted: Nazi officials only in minor cabinet posts / Nazis to drop many of their demands and restraining their followers. 27th 1933 The man considered responsible was a communist à The Nazis claimed it was a beg.  Results: Communists were banned. etc. o Opponents of the Nazis had a passive attitude. o o o o o o The Seizure of Power 1933-34 Situation in 1933: Only three cabinet posts held by Nazis / no Nazi Reichstag majority / Hitler could be dismissed by Hindenburg o Hitler represented only hope of the Right for mass support / the Right could not simply govern through pressure groups (army. of a communist takeover / Hindenburg passed the ‘Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State’ à Hitler could: ignore restrictions on police power / take over the power of the German states à using this.) / Hindenburg becoming increasingly senile. and Nazis in coalition w/ the Nationalists obtained a majority. However. o The Election of March 1933: Nazis received generous donations from industrialists (who feared a left wing revival) o Goring (then Prussian Minister of the Interior) allowed Nazi violence in the campaign to go on uncontrolled. business. The Reichstag Fire: Feb. 1932 election foreshadowed a decline of the Nazis o He believed that once in power he could strengthen his position o He hoped he could organize the next new elections so the Nazis would obtain an overall majority o He had demanded the Enabling Act to give him special powers to deal w/ the crisis and thought this act would pass.

S. o Membership of one Nazi youth group was obligatory for all Germans until age 18. / leaders are shot / Hitler congratulated by Reichstag. seized control of state Gov. establishment of ‘Strength Through Joy’ movement which provided subsidised holidays. etc. o Toward workers: labor unions abolished. o Rapid expansion of the S.To obtain 2/3 majority needed to change the constitution the Nazis carried a campaign of intimidation: they depicted opposition as unpatriotic / Nazis in the S. Creation of a one-party state: o o June 1933: SPD banned July 1933: Law makes all political formations (except Nazis) illegal Conflict between Hitler and the S. became an independent org. sporting activities.A. The army was then the only group w/ the power to remove him.A.e. Hindenburg. o Nazis tried to restrict the influence of the Church and the application of the 1933 concordat (allowing the Catholic Church to have its own school & property but to keep out of politics) Nazis took more direct control over the Protestant churches…soon swastikas were displayed alongside the Christian Cross. Death of Hindenburg: Aug.S. answerable to Hitler and Himmler only. (i. and the army.: teachers / judges) Purges of Gov. (w/ Himmler) In 1934 the S.A. Main Measures of the Nazis: 1934-36 o o Professions are ‘synchronized’ w/ Nazi beliefs. & the army. demanded that Hitler follow socialist measures as laid down in the 1920 Nazi Programme o The S.: The S.A. and SS troops.S.A. The Night of the Long Knives: Night of June 30th/July 1st: arrest of the main S. Jews and replacement by party members. workers of communist sympathizers. 21 . wanted a greater say in party affairs o They wished to replace the army w/ a national militia o Hitler feared that they would lose him the support of the non-Nazi right. o Creation of Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda — bringing under control the mass media and using them towards Nazi propaganda. / opponents in the SPD and trade unions were arrested / the building where the Reichstag was surrounded by S. 2nd 1934: Hindenburg dies / Hitler replaces him w/out election à now referred to as the Fuhrer / new oath of loyalty for soldiers and civil servants (to Hitler) A Drive to a Totalitarian State.A. leaders by the S. This law granted Hitler the right to: o o make laws w/out Reichstag approval make treaties w/ foreign states w/out Reichstag approval Hitler now no longer needed the support of political parties.

Spanish Civil War Bookmark this page The two sides were: The Nationalists (a loose coalition of right wing groups. including Army high command. The Main Developments Army concern at the possibility of a communist takeover. as well as foreign volunteers and the International Brigades. The Causes of the War Profound cause: long period of decline since the great days of the Spanish Empire. o Church vs. and to act against those that were plotting against the Republic. in 1936. Criminal police merged w/ the S. o Massive divisions btw countryside and towns. Conservatives saw this as a threat to Spain. lost her empire. Liberals. o Conservatives vs. There was a lack of a political middle. (1930-36). while Republicans obtained aid from USSR and occasionally from France. and fallen behind in the industrialization process o Deep divisions in Spanish society: o Landowners vs. Reg. while Republicans wished to preserve the Second Republic. including socialists. of the Second Rep. Spain had made little progress. (there was electoral fraud and continuing landlord control under Spanish ‘democracy’ ) o There was a desire for autonomy in several regions of Spain. the landowners. Nationalists received support from Germany and Italy. o Long standing tradition of violence in Spanish politics. o o The weaknesses of the Gov. and moderate liberals) The Nationalists sought to preserve Spain’s integrity.Gestapo was placed under its control. It also failed to maintain law and order. its failure to carry out reforms. and extremists elements were increasingly popular. communists. and democracy had never really been established (therefore parties tried to reverse election results through violence) o ‘Democracy’ in Spain had brought about corrupts Gov. Peasants. o The Spanish army had a tradition of interfering in politics. and undermined the concept of democracy. the Church. a the Falange [fascist party]) and the Republicans ( looser coalition of left wing groups. o Anarchism was a powerful force in Spain. o o 1936. Anti-Clerical movements: the Church had enormous power in Spain and was opposed to social reform. The assassination of the right wing leader Calvo Sotelo in July The Main Characteristics of the War The conflict was extremely brutal There was widespread foreign intervention (b/c the conflict was seen as a struggle btw right and left).S. monarchists. trade unionists. this led to groups that sought to reduce the Church’s influence. o o 22 . anarchists.

o It is claimed that it was a war btw professional soldiers and armed workers (although gradually order and discipline was instituted amongst the Republicans. The at first loose coalitions developed to be strongly idealistic as excesses polarized opinion.: the Republicans sent all the gold reserves to the USSR for safekeeping. o Franco’s regime marked the end of democracy for the next 40 years. (especially in Republican held areas) o The Effects of the War Tremendous loss of life (executions continued after the victory of the nationalists) o Material losses were great (this was important since Spain had been backward before the war already) — i.e. o Cultural life suffered (b/c of authoritarianism of Franco) o High degree of state control led to corruption.) o This war saw the use of propaganda to overcome resistance and terrify populations o It brought profound social changes in it wake. o Britain adopted a non-interventionist policy. However the war was never clear-cut. o Censorship was introduced o No attempts at reconciliation. (USSR vs. The parts of the army that sided w/ the Republicans was regarded w/ suspicion and not used well. o The reasons for the Nationalist Victory Most of the army was on the nationalist side. He had to provide Germany w/ resources.It has been characterized as an ideological war. and the state highly centralized. 23 . and supplies from the USSR dried up when Stalin sought to reach an understanding w/ Hitler. reconstruction. And only the ideological divide btw foreign supporters was clear. economic and all levels short of actual armed conflict between the principals on either side. o The Republicans were not unified (politically & militarily) o Foreign aid was more substantial & direct to the Nationalists. o Franco’s foreign supporters wanted compensation. o o East — West Relations after 1945 Definition: ‘cold war´ describes the conflict between the USSR and the ‘Western Powers´ in the period following WWII / Period of tension characterized by conflict at diplomatic. o Franco assumed control of the Nationalist side and unified it. o Agriculture remained backward and the landowners in control o The Church became more powerful (in return for support for Franco’s regime) o Regionalism was suppressed. o Bombing of civilian targets o Formations of armored vehicles (to predict Hitler’s Blitzkrieg) o The bulk of the troops (despite foreign technology) were not well equipped. o Spain became diplomatically isolated. Germany and Italy) o It was seen as a ‘curtain raiser’ for WWII o First major use of air power.

The Issues: Germany: Germany to be divided into zones of occupation as previously agreed. February 1945: Most of the discussions involved the arrangements for Europe following ending of the war since defeat of Nazi Germany was only a matter of time. The Allies had been united by a negative goal and had not agreed on a positive goal which could continue to unite them once Hitler was not a threat anymore. Nature of Stalin´s regime: dictatorship of USSR was only justified if external forces threatened the security of USSR. this was evidence for Stalin of lack of faith. The Cold War develops — events 1944-1949 The Yalta Conference. of speech. Trials of the leading war criminals were agreed. f. Poland: GB and USA had recognized Polish Gov. Conflict btw fundamental aims of Stalin and Roosevelt: Roosevelt had idealistic aims (‘four freedoms´: f. …) Tendency to interpret the actions of the other in the light of their own priorities. Moved away from the ‘Morgenthau Plan´ (reducing Germany to an agricultural country but not alternative was found. The bipolar nature of international relations: USSR and USA were the only real powers in the immediate post-WWII period and as representatives of rival social systems they were forced into confrontation. Factors which contributed to the outbreak of the Cold War Mutual suspicion Nature of the official ideology of the USSR: stated the inevitability of conflict with western capitalist states à contributed to suspicions from the west / not certain that Stalin was motivated by this MarxistLeninist ideology Liberal-democratic system of the West was not well understood by Stalin: the allies were unable to commit themselves ‘on the spot´ but had to refer to their parliament or congress. therefore to prevent the danger of being overthrown from within. from want. control over E. Declaration on Liberated Europe (what was to be done with Liberated countries) Agreed that action regarding these areas should be joint action. Eliminate or control "all German industry that could be used for military purposes".Origins: breakdown of wartime co-operation between the Allies (Obvious at Yalta and Potsdam conferences) possible to trace as far back as 1917 when the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia led to the creation of the world´s first communist state (in conflict with the west) Didn´t emerge until after WWII b/c the USSR and USA were both isolated after WWI and USSR could not put into practive the ideal of exporting revolution.E. Death of Roosevelt: Stalin had a great deal of respect for him / Truman was far less of an internationalist + far less willing to extent goodwill to the USSR / Churchill replaced by Attlee. Commission to be established to determine reparations. Stalin had to have external enemies. from fear) Stalin had more concrete aims (regaining of Russian territory lost in WWI. Suggested that the 2 groups co-operate and that ‘free and unfettered elections…on the basis of 24 . The defeated and liberated states: Complain by USA and GB that Stalin had not given the co-operation of Soviet authorities in areas occupied by the Red Army. of religious belief and f. f. in exile while Stalin recognized the Lublin Committee (Polish communists).

(USA must step in or there would be a further advance for the communist cause) à Truman decides to help stating his interpretation of events in what became known as the Truman Doctrine. September 1944: British negotiate an oil concession w/ Iranian Gov. Arrangements for trial of Nazi leaders went ahead in the American zone. Stalin demanded trusteeship of one of the former Italian colonies in Africa. for Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and Standard Oil of USA à Soviet seek a similar concession / Iranians (encouraged by West) refuse. Council of Foereign Ministers formed to draft peace treaties w/ defeated enemy states. July/August 1945: Truman represented the USA / Churchill was replaced by Attlee / Truman informed Stalin of the US atomic bomb. No decisive conclusion on frontiers but agreed that Soviet frontier would advance westwards and Poland would be compensated from German territory. Areas of Disagreement: Stalin wanted the districts of Kars and Ardahan in Turkey. control over ‘Azarbaijani´ and Soviet troops move to the border / both GB and USA threaten to support Iran à USSR backs down. Greece: October 1944: Agreement btw Churchill and Stalin on spheres of influence in Balkans. Turkey: Teheran Conferency (1943): Churchill stated that USSR was entitled to better access to the world´s principal sea routes. 1947: GB informs USA of their inability to support the Greek Gov. USSR began to give support to groups opposed to monarchy in Iran / refused to withdraw troops in 1945 / established ‘independent´ republic of Azarbaijani. Japan: USSR agreed to enter war against Japan within ‘2 or 3 monts of the ending of hostilities in Europe´ USSR to regain all territory lost to Japan in 1904/05 war and to have the major interest in the railways in Northern China The Potsdam Conference. January 1946: Iran complains to UN security council March 1946: USSR agrees to withdraw troops Iranian forces move to restore Gov. USA and Allies not able to access areas of Europe occupied by the Red Army.universal suffrage and secret ballot´ would be held. Stalin proposed joint action on Franco (rejected by western powers) Stalin proposed discussion of situation in Syria and Lebanon but GB and FR considered this to be of their concern. December 1944: British begin supporting the Greek monarchy against communist forces backed by Yugoslavia and Albania (suspicion that Stalin was behind the communist moves) Feb. March 1945: USSR demands that the treaty concerning the use of the Straits be revised / demand for naval base on the Dardanelles / demand for return of the old Czarist provinces of Kars and Ardahan à Turks refused and are supported by GB August 1946: USA stated that any attack upon Turkey would justify action by Security Council of UN and moved an aircraft carrier force to Istanbul. Germany: 25 . Reparations: USSR to begin collecting reparations from its zone / eventually to receive a percentage of reparations from western zones. Stalin moved the frontier of the USSR westwards and handed over to Poland a large area of the Soviet zone of Germany (including land to which the Allies had not agreed) The breakdown of the alliance followed rapidly as conflicts arose in a number of areas: Iran: Northern part of the country to be a Russian sphere of interest / Southern part a British sphere. During WWII country jointly occupied b/c on a supply route to the USSR.

Churchill stated: "An iron curtain is drawn down upon their front. It was hoped that the root cause of discontent (need for E. Policy of Containment: by 1947 the USA began to reshape its policy to meet what it saw as the growing influence of the Soviet Union. states to do likewise. We do not know what is going on behind. 6th 1946: Byrnes (US Secretary of State) acknowledges that Potsdam agreement is not working and proposed that GB and USA merge their zones to form one economic unit.E. June 1947: USA made known the means by which the above policy would be implemented: Marshall Aid.e. The Council of Foreign Ministers: March 1947. setting up of ‘free democratic and anti-fascist´ parties had been provided for. Attempting to convince the USA that its planned withdrawal of troops from Europe should not take place so long as the Red Army had several million men under arms.Allies agree that Germany should not be allowed to become a threat to them again / little agreement as to how this ought to be done. poor state of the German economy. Eastern Europe: By May 1945 Red Army occupied a vast area of E.E.: French still talking of annexing the Saar) December 1945: talks of merger btw Communist and Social Democrats à referendum in March 1946 but rejected. March 1947: Truman Doctrine. German political leaders in the west decided to form groups within the other zones: Soviet attempt to control German political parties had failed. whilst denying western officials access to the area. Sept. Soviets went ahead with the merger in their own zone. Early problems caused by the French (b/c de Gaulle had not been invited to any of the ‘Big Three´ conferences and did not feel bound by any of the agreements reached there) More serious differences soon arise btw USSR and western allies: Reparations: Carrying out the Potsdam agreement proved difficult b/c of the v.Europe / ‘Declaration on Liberated Europe´ was the only guarantee that the Soviet area would not be used to strengthen USSR Churchill had sought to improve the western position by: Urging USA to order US armies to advance as far to the east as possible before ending of the war à refused by Roosevelt who was suspicious of Churchill´s motives. Political developments: Under Potsdam agreement. USSR attended initial meetings but soon withdrew and obliged E. June 1945: Soviets allowed formation of political parties / in contrast with developments in the west (i. fourth session of the council began in Moscow: made no progess b/c of the announcation of the Truman Doctrine à conference broke up. à done in January 1947 w/ the French zone joining in 1949. USA + GB were having to send reparations from their zones to the Soviets (unable to sell industrial produce to pay for imported food) Soviets not sending the agreed food supplies from their largely agricultural sector Spring 1946: USA + GB stop reparation deliveries to the Soviet zone. 26 . recovery) and spread of communism would be halted. June 1947: anti-Soviet Reuteur elected as Mayor of Berlin / Not recognized by Soviet General Kotikov à parties were henceforth to develop separately in the Soviet zone and the western zones." Between 1945-47 the USSR strengthened the position of Communist parties in E.

The Cold War spreads to the East By 1949. .T.C. states à setting up of one party states. No peace treaty was signed with Germany: sense of insecurity amongst countries of E. states. Poland and Rumania) June 1947: article by a US State Department Soviet specialist stated that the USA must develop "…a policy of firm containment. the USSR established Cominform to link together the various communist parties. one imperialist.e. linked to USSR economically by bilateral trade agreements and Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance — Jan 1949) Militarily: Brussels Treaty (March 1948) allied GB. UN was never able to fulfil the role which Roosevelt had envisaged (peaceful settlement of international disputes) b/c of the veto power of both the USA and USSR.O.E.E. Establishment of a peacetime alliance (NATO) with a strong US commitment. Soviet countries united through the Warsaw Pact (1955) Politically: In western Europe various organizations were established to attempt to achieve greater unity. In E. USA adopted the policy of containment à led to US involvement all over the world assuming that any communist group was acting upon the orders of Moscow (i. (this was solved in 1975 at the Helsinki Conference) Unity in western Europe was encouraged by the Soviet threat and USA who hoped that western European states would play a greater part in their own defences. The Soviet Response: Tightened its grip upon the states of E.E.CZ.E. (April 1949) wider alliance. Hungary. Cominform established to strengthen links btw various communist parties.A. designe to confront the Russians with unalterable counter force at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world…" / This involved: Decision to maintain large US forces in Europe in peacetime.E. USSR tightened its control over the E.CZ. Yugoslavia. the other socialist and democratic…" The Berlin Blockade: attempt to eliminate the only remaining area of western influence behind the ‘iron curtain´ à failed. USA abandonned its policy of avoiding peacetime commitments: it was instrumental in setting up of NATO and other regional forces. the position in Europe was static: the last attempt to change the balance (Berlin Blockade) had failed With the advent of nuclear weapons neither side was prepared to risk open conflict in order to change 27 . Europe was divided with a clear line of demarcation btw the capitalist west and the communist east. Germany was not united: instead western and eastern zones gained independence separately and were not prepared to recognize each other.E.: Korea. FR. under firm communist control) Bilateral trade agreements. and Benelux countries in the event of an attack / N.End August 1947: USSR replied to what it saw as a clear anti-Soviet measure by signing trade agreements with several states thus tying them into the soviet economic system (Bulgaria.E. The effects of the development of the Cold War International relations were dominated by the Cold War and all conflicts tended to be seen in terms of the struggle btw the USA and the USSR à international relations were bipolar.E. Vietnam) à USA became the ‘world policeman´. Stated that WWII had been fought by USA and GB to eliminate German and Japanese industrial competition and warned that the world was now divided into "…two fronts. economic and military alliances: Economically: Western countries united through O. Europe Divided Europe by 1949 was divided into two rival camps each with their own political. . (1948 coup brought the last of the E. (initially formed to facilitate distribution of Marshall aid) Countries of E.

The US attitude: USA had great interest in the future of China: supported China against its division by the Great Powers at the end of the 19th century. 1950: Secretary of State (Dean Acheson) oulined a perimeted beyond which the USA would not tolerate the advance of communism (however. However. the USA became increasingly concern at the prospect of a victory for the forces of Mao Tse-Tung. events in the East brought that area into the Cold War conflict: The Communist takeover of China: 1927-1937: civil war between the Kuomintang (nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek) and the Chinese Communist Party (Mao Tse-Tung) 1937-1945: uneasy truce to allow both to fight the common Japanese enemy. USA did not feel that there was any threat to South Korea. and backwardness) As the Cold War developed in Europe. Considerable opposition in the USA to the recognition of the new regime in China.C.the position. population. (in fact Stalin had urged Mao to come to terms w/ nationalists b/c he didn´t feel that a communist revolution had a chance of succeeding) USA became increasingly eager to accept the policy of containment. The ‘defense perimeter´: Jan. and USSR to believe that USA would not resist measures to unite two Koreas under communist rule. à McCartyism (purges of Gov.P. USA was aware of the corruption of Chiang Kai-Shek´s regime and of its lack of support.K. 28 . USA thus provided some limited support for Chiang Kai-Shek but in 1949 the remnants of the Kuomintang forces abandoned the mainland of China and fled to Taiwan (where they were protected by the US navy) Victory of the C.K. Cairo Conference (1943) suggested independence of Korea to follow defeat of Japan. The consequences were: USA assumed that the takeover of the communists in China was inspired by Moscow.K. in the Chinese civil war coincided w/ the most intense phase of the Cold War in Europe. / ‘Red Scare´) The Korean War 1950-1953 Korea under control of Japanese since late 19th century. After Aug. 1945 (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).? Budgetary reasons: USA did not wish to involve itself to any great extent in the defense of Korea. Many people felt that China had been ‘lost´ b/c the USA had not taken the necessary steps to support the Gov. and against Japan. seems to have encouraged N. December 1948: Soviet and US forces withdraw from their zone of occupation. By end 1948 there were two Koreas: the Republic of Korea (South) and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North). Exclusion of S. By 1945 the scene was set again for a renewal of the civil war. he failed to include South Korea within) Why did he not include S. of Chiang. Oversight on the part of the US secretary. Development of the Cold War precluded co-operation btw the occupying forces. but Chiang Kai-Shek didn´t wish to share power and the Communist party had grown in strength and was not settling for less than real power sharing. USA was aware that becoming involved in China would be an enormous undertaking (size of country. the Soviet forces occupied the area to the north of the 38th parallel and the US forces the area to the south. Truman sent General Marshal to presuade both sides to form a coalition Gov.

" "I recalled some earlier instances: Manchuria. Given the development of the Cold War it is unlikely that the Koreas would have taken such a step w/out consulting the USSR. Truman´s View: " The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. Motivation for Chinese entry in the war was found by RAND to be ‘rationally motivated´ b/c statements issued by MacArthur´s headquarters led to belief that he intended to invade China. March 1953: Stalin dies à not the time to confront the US. UN Security Council acted (b/c Soviet Union had been absent since Jan. As an answer to MA´s accusation that the Truman administration had ‘no policy´: George Marshall (Defense Secretary) stated that "it is…our policy to contain communist aggression in different fashions in different areas without resorting to total war. and therefore Japan had been saved. we intended to move decisively w/out inhibition in our use of weapons and would no longer be responsible for confining actitivities to the Korean Peninsula.000 men from Chinese army had entered Korea. forces cross 38th parallel and invade south / Probable that USSR encouraged this b/c: Soviet supplies for N.K. and ground assistance sent to N." Events: US air. During summer 1950 US forces pushed back towards Pusan. 10 July: Acheson states that US forces were in Korea to ‘restore the Republic of Korea to its status prior to the invasion´. risked global war or alternatively ‘delighted the Kremlin´ by pinning down even more US ground. I remember how each time the democracies failed to act it had encouraged the agressors to go ahead………If this was allowed to go unchallenged it would mean a third world war. independent and democratic government in the sovereign state of Korea´. 7 October 1950: US and UN changed their aims in Korea and decided on ‘the establishment of a unified. Chinese inclined to exercise greater caution regarding confrontation w/ US. MacArthur incident: MA called for military operations against China à dismissed on 11 April 1951. 1950) Seoul fell on 28 June 1950. far surpassed peacetime needs of N. clear that US firepower had won. October 3: Chinese deliver an ultimatum to the USA: "If the Americans cross the 38th parallel China would be forced to intervene in Korea´. UN forces were back below the 38th Parallel. July 1953: Eisenhower stated that "in the absence of a satisfactory progress at the truce talks. Outcome of Korean War: From US point of view: S.K. Over-exagerated the Soviet threat 29 . Truman and Attlee decide to abandon their aim of uniting Korea. July 3: Seoul lost / Chinese rely on numbers and are met w/ the ‘meat grinder´ strategy. Koreans.K." June 1951: Chinese propose an armistice. air and naval forces in the Far East while the Soviets looked on. Ethiopia.The invasion of the South: June 25th 1950: N. No longer a war of ‘containment´ but an attempt to ‘roll back´ communism.K. October 19: Pyongyang taken à 16 October 350. UN saved from a death blow. Any extension of the war against China herself would have lost the US some of her allies. By December 5." Armistice signed on 27 July 1953. Austria. naval. 15 September: Amphibious assault organized by MacArthur turned situation around à by 21 September. Soviets forced into an arms race she could ill afford. April: UN forces back over 38th parallel into the North.

March 1955: Domino Theory and Massive Retaliation came together: Chinese communists began to bombard the offshore islands of Matsu and Quemoy help by nationalists. S. For the Soviets/Chinese: War had exacerbated Sino-American hostility. Confidence in the nuclear superiority of the USA based upon the November 1952 explosion of the HBomb. Cold War to Co-Existence 1956: relations btw USSR and USA improved with the introduction of the notion of ‘peaceful co-existence ´ / but even before Khrushchev´s famous speech of Feb.K. Eisenhower began to realise that some form of negociation w/ the USSR was necessary if a nuclear disaster was to be avoided. conflict was to continue in the Far East w/ Britain ‘holding that line´ in Malaysia and USA intervening in South-East Asia. The policy of ‘massive retaliation´ was ineffective b/c: August 1953: USSR successfully tested the H-bomb. Not the last time that China would be faced w/ an implicit nuclear war threat from America. The background of this doctrine: Belief in the monolithic nature of communism. Korean war had meant that US and Europe reamed and contemplated whether Soviets would risk invasion of West Germany to reunify that country as well. Communism was not monolithic. The Domino Theory: Made public by Eisenhower in April 1954 à massive US support for the French in Vietnam / failed to prevent victory of the forces of Ho Chi-Minh. Presence of the 7th Fleet in the Taiwan Straits meant that conquest of Taiwan (which would earlier have been relatively easy) became impossible. Of State Dulles he began the policy of ‘rolling back´ communism (but in 1953 USA didn´t intervene when the workers of East Germany rose in rebellion and were crushed by Soviet tanks) Massive Retaliation: Any attempt by the USSR to expand its influence in any part of the world would result in a US nuclear strike against the Soviet homeland. from MacArthur. Chinese gained in prestige (saving N.K had not been ‘liberated´. Money needed for reconstruction had been diverted to the war. 1956 the move towards peaceful co-existence had begun in both the USSR and the USA. …) China had united under foreign threat. Dulles stated that nuclear weapons would be used against China.N. China was kept commercially isolated from the West and out of the UN for 22 years. It also drew a new line of the Cold War in Asia. China had been denounced as aggressor. Changes in the USA: 1952: victory of Republican Eisenhower With his future Sec. Changes in the USSR: 30 . The period of the ‘red scare´ in USA.K. inflicted major losses on UN forces. remained non-communist. This policy of ‘brinkmanship´ forced the Chinese to back down but caused alarm amongst US allies.

The conference was most significant in that it marked the tacit acceptance of both sides of the status quo in E. Demonstrate to smaller.E.E. who in most cases were still in power in E. that they could not look forwards to tying themselves to the West…they would have to make the best deal they could w/ the Soviets. competing social system. à What Khrushchev had really down was to bring doctrine into line w/ what had been the reality of Soviet policy for some time. The 1955 Summit Meeting: (July 1955) First meeting between the leaders of the USA and the USSR since Potsdam. Notes on Khrushchev´s Speech: Khrushchev´s speech "attempted to impress the West (by the theory of peaceful co-existence).P. non-aligned states of the world that it was not necessary to belong to the Western block to be safe." The new collective Soviet leadership felt that this was not accurate as issues could be settled peacefully "on the basis of mutual agreement".March 1953: Stalin´s death à he predicted that after his death "the imperialistic powers will wring your [Soviet leaders] necks like chickens. February 1955: USSR signed a peace treaty w/ Austria granting it independence / Khrushchev visited Yugoslavia and made peace w/ Tito. and initiated the first steps of an agonizing reappraisal of the assumption and the direction of American policies". Khrushchev made two sweeping statements: Denied that war was the inevitable concomitant of capitalism. (by the concept of different roads to socialism). They had risen to the top on the crest of Stalin´s infallibility . Little was concretely achieved at the conference. E. E." Meant that "the main struggle would be economic" b/c thermonuclear weapons ruled out a war btw USSR and USA (risk of mutual destruction was too great) Khrushchev understood the status quo to mean the continued existence of anti-colonial nationalist movements throughout the world which eventually would turn the odds against the West (with its colonial past / and the US enmity towards revolution) "paradoxically. states learned that there would be no liberation. Soviet leaders were gaining in confidence as they gained more experience of international relations. 27 August 1957: Soviet Union announced a successful test of an inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) 4 October 1957: Sputnik I was launched à recognition that "the Soviet Union was a viable. 31 . states.E. Accepted the possibility of peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism. The Twentieth Congress of the C. destruction of the myth involved their destruction also" Poland: Riots in June 1956 / people united in hostility to the Stalinist police state which had subordinated Polish interests to the requirements of USSR à Gomulka returns to power and purges the leading Stalinists of the Communist party / Soviet leaders acquiesced the changes…provided that the new policies did not threaten the safety of the Soviet Union.: Feb.: ‘peaceful co-existence´ announced officially by Khrushchev along w/ other changes. and the uncommitted countries (by the theoretical rejection of violent revolution) the Stalinism had been abandoned. Hungarians and other E. The reasons for this were problably: Open the way for improved relations w/ the USA and the West. Hungary: First Secretary agrees to return of Nagy as Premier in October 1956 but asks Russian troops to keep the situation under control à they inflame situation and fighting brakes out à Nagy indicated that Hungary would withdraw from the Warsaw Treaty (made at the Same time as the Suez War broke out therefore Western concerns were elsewhere) à Red Army ‘restores order´ in Hungary / Hungary seemed to negate all the previous moves towards a détente. the status quo was revolutionary" ‘the uncovering of Stalin´s mistakes sounded the death knell for his puppets.U.S. with an advanced technological base" caused "a weakening of American confidence. Improve relations w/ E.

1 1958: Khrushchev proposed a foreign ministers meeting to prepare way for a summit. Germany. and W. 6 1958: Khrushchev offered to fly to the USA. The Cold War changed in nature: no longer were relations bipolar. Dulles has become a liability to peace. Mar. Germany Proposal rejected by USA.E. But Russian policy is also the military withdrawal from Finland. Mar. it is the Soviet signature of the Austrian Peace Treaty and subsequent military withdrawal from that country. Khrushchev realized the impossibility of winning a nuclear conflict. 9 1958: Khrushchev proposed summit level talks on: Limiting bomb tests Creating a nuclear free zone in central Europe. In the USA his proposals caused debate and lack of US response was criticized / On editor commented: "As I see it we have the choice of negiotiating w/ Russia or going to war………Mr.CZ. it is also Russian acquiescence in the recent modification in Polish Communism. 31 1958: USSR halts unilaterally the testing of nuclear devices. If it were only a question of military oppresiion. Immediate Effect of Soviet Action in Hungary: Partial return in the USA to policies favored by Dulles (Sec. E. Jan. Marked the beginning of the end for the old style Stalinists in E. Led to an increasing acceptance of national communism. Soviets lost the undisputed leadership of the communist movement. Of State) Short lived b/c of the Soviet technical advances which made ‘massive retaliation´ less realistic than ever. Mar. The position of the CPSU was weakened b/c in saying Stalin had been wrong. Scientific advances by the USSR meant that Khrushchev could afford to make peace overtures w/out being criticized. 1957: Khrushchev proposed banning of all nuclear missiles in Poland. most of all. It is. E." 32 . the party which had supported him was discredited. Such moves were popular in the USSR w/ the ‘Geneva spirit´. it is political support of the non-Communist nationalist movements in Asia and Africa and economic aid to the countries of these regions." Senator Fulbright stated: "…Russian policy is not only what happened in Hungary. coupled with proposals for a great variety of approaches to this fundamental international problem. 26 1958: Khrushchev again suggested top level talks. an almost continuous propaganda refrain calling for action to reduce the danger of nuclear warfare. .The Effects of Khrushchev’s speech at the 20th Congress of the CPSU: Contributed to improvements in the USA-USSR relations: seemed to indicate that communists did not seek the eventual overthrow of the capitalist system (although this was not what Khrushchev meant by ‘peaceful co-existence) Marked the beginning of serious differences btw the CPSU and CCP / the result was that: The non-monolithic nature of communism became clear. we would have…a much more easily defeated adversary. Jan. Dec. and W. Factors influencing Khrushchev´s decisions: Internal reforms required forms more readily available in an atmosphere of international détente.

1959: Two Foreign Ministers Meetings were held / Khrushchev visited the USA and w/ Eisenhower stated: "…that all outstanding international question should be settled not by the application of force but by peaceful means through negotiation. More immediate reasons: West Germany to join E. Refusal of the West to recognize E.C. 6 1958: bombardment ended. Germans had fled through Berlin since 1949. West Berlin was an espionage center behind the ‘iron curtain´. Aug 23 1958: Chinese bombard island of Quemoy Sept. To turn aside increasing criticism inside the USSR and from China that he was ‘going soft´. and India. Germany." Khrushchev agreed to attend a summit meeting in Paris in 1960. 19 1958: Khrushchev called for a meeting of leaders of USA. 4 1958: Dulles warns of US intervention / Khrushchev refused to back the Chinese. West Berlin was a western propaganda center. Jul. Berlin heightened problems of E. à Removes a ‘cold war warrior´ from control of US foreign policy. Of State) to assert that the US had the right to spy on the Soviet Union. USSR.1958: US troops to Lebanon / British troops to Jordan b/c of fear of the spread of the successful left-wing revolution in Iraq à Khrushchev very moderate in response. Eisenhower suggested this take place w/in framework of the UN Security council / July 22nd Khrushchev agreed. Oct. CIA agent Powers held by Soviets Khrushchev´s reponse stresses that it was very likely that Eisenhower had known nothing of the plane´s flight / thus it was w/ studied moderation that he responded to the incident. Eisenhower authorizes Herter (Sec. Germans and that western allies would have to negotiate directly w/ them over access rights. Germany. Germany. 3 million E. To force the west to the bargaining table. (integration w/ West) Rapid rearmament of W. May 11: Eisenhower assumes personal responsibility for the flights and did not indicate he was going to stop them (did stop them but did not make the decision public) Khrushchev nevertheless went to Paris / told de Gaulle he could not participate until the U-2 affair was 33 . July 31-Aug 3 1958: Khrushchev returns from Peking and refuses to accept Eisenhower´s proposal. The U-2 Incident: May 5: Khrushchev announced that 4 days previously an American plane had been shot down while flying over the Soviet Union. à Khrushchev gradually backed down April 1958: Dulles resigned and dies the following month.E. The Berlin Crisis: Khrushchev announces that he intended handing over control of the city to the E. Why did Khrushchev take this action? Prosperity of W. GB.

The Berlin Wall: President Kennedy himself visited the city to show solidarity of USA w/ the citizens of W. Germany. Germany.settled. Jan. By the early 1960s the Cold War situation was ripe for change b/c: Sino-Soviet Split: International relations not bipolar. CCP attacked Khrushchev´s policies w/ regard to the West / brought in the open w/ a series of articles published in CCP newspaper ‘Red Flag´ entitled ‘Long Live Leninism´. 1960: Castro signs a trade agreement w/ the USSR USA — Cuba relations deteriorate / Eisenhower authorizes training of Cuban refugees for an eventual attempt to overthrow Castro. 1961: Bay of Pigs (landing of Cuban exiles) à fiasco. 34 . The Cuban Missile Crisis: 1959: Batist overthrown by a rebellion led by Fidel Castro. Reasons for the Split: Inevitable challenge to Soviet supremacy amongst world communist movement by China / Khrushchev announced the sweeping 1956 changes w/out consulting Chinese angered them. à shifts blame for collapse of the summit from the American President to the ranting Russian leader. Reasons for: End the flow of East German citizens to w. USA was entering its period of greatest prosperity and the consumer society was losing much of the ideological fervor. June 1962: Cuba begins receiving shipments of arms from the Soviet Union. Berlin and that USA and allies would not allow Berlin to be taken over by E. Feb. The two countries were at very different stages of post-revolution development (Chinese were closer to their revolution and held far more revolutionary fervor than the Soviets) Mao rejected Khrushchev´s argument that war was not inevitable and was opposed to ‘peaceful coexistence´ (seen as betrayal of peoples who were still struggling to be free) Bipolarity was challenged as former European power became independent states (many showed great interest in the non-aligned movement) Revolutionary fervor in the USSR was becoming a thing of the past: more and more Soviet leaders had not experienced the 1917 Revolution. à These factors were to result in the late 1960s in the policy known as détente. Dec. Eisenhower announced that further U-2 flights had been cancelled. West Europe was recovered from the devastation of the war and was entering a period of prosperity / feeling that having the future of European continent decided by the USA and USSR was not entirely satisfactory. 1961: Castro declared himself to be a Marxist à USA organizes expulsion of Cuba from the Organization of American States. Khrushchev does not content himself w/ the mere announcement of the suspension (partly b/c "his position in Moscow and within the Soviet bloc might [then] have been gravely weakened") Khrushchev invited back to meeting in Paris but President Press Secretary issued a statement asserting that Soviet participation at the 3 o´clock meeting would be taken as withdrawal of Khrushchev´s conditions Khrushchev is given a copy of the statement and the conference expires as on the following day he makes a violent attack on Eisenhower. Germany. October 1962: US spy planes flying over Cuba discover a number of missile launching sites capable of firing rockets w/ nuclear warheads. 1961. End the ease of contact btw East and West (which resulted in comparison of East/West Germany) Put pressure on the west to negotiate over the future of Berlin and to try to obtain acceptance of the regime in power in E.

Blocked British entry into the E. Due to differences within the alliance arising from the foreign policy of de Gaulle. Contributed to the fall of Khrushchev. The West went no further than condemning the intervention. Signed a treaty of friendship w/ W. USSR realized it had been powerless to resist the US navy à determination to increase the strength of the Soviet navy and obtain bases to allow operation all over the world.E.C. De Gaulle worked towards a concept of a Europe united from the Atlantic to the Urals à making the point that the area outlined had common interest sand ought therefore to develop a policy which was not dictated by great power rivalry.C. Actions: Refused to accept the Test Ban Treaty (1963) Withdrew France from unified NATO command(1966) Temporarily withdrew France from E. 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia: Aug. Aug.October 22nd 1962: President Kennedy announces blockade of Cuba to prevent missile delivery (several Soviet ships were heading for Cuba) Fear of nuclear conflict escalates October 28th 1962: Khrushchev backs down and orders return of Soviet ships / agreement worked out btw USA and USSR. Opportunity for the USSR to extend its influence in the region à extended conflict btw superpowers to taking place all over the world. à Breshnev Doctrine: Breshnev explained the intervention by stating that if counter-revolutionary forces 35 . The Agreement: All Soviet missiles to be withdrawn from Cuba. Desire to free Europe from the constraints of superpower politics. 1963: USSR and USA signed the first test ban treaty. 1968: reforming policies of new Czech leader. Cuba became increasingly dependent upon the USSR / USA cut off all diplomatic and trade relations w/ her.E. Made efforts to improve relations w/ the USSR and the Eastern Bloc. Vietnam 1964-1975: War ended in complete victory for communist forces First major military defeat suffered by the USA Major powers (USA/USSR and China) made sure that there was not direct great power conflict. Results: Hot-line established btw Kremlin and Washington to avoid the risk of nuclear war through a breakdown in communications. The Six Day War 1967: Conflict btw Israelis and several Arab states. negotiations. Dubcek. Germany. USA promised not to invade Cuba. Reasons: Long standing suspicions of the USA and GB (saw them as not being truly European power and having different interests from FR and Germany) Past treatment in the hands of the USA and GB (dating back to WWII): not been invited to conference of the ‘Big Three´ / USA had agreed to supply GB with missiles but not France. prompted armed intervention by Warsaw Pact forces. To secure for France a more important say in world affairs. De Gaulle and ‘Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals´: 1963-68: signals coming from Western allies were not clear to USSR.

A. Desire to reduce the extent to which their actions were limited by the relations btw the superpowers. Reasons for ‘détente´: A.S. U. after Prague 1968) that the political situation in Europe could not be changed by force w/out a major nuclear conflict. Détente Definition: ‘relaxation of tension´ / used to describe the policies of the USA and the USSR (and their allies) aimed at normalizing relations in the period beginning 1968. Europe No hope of changing the status quo by any means other than negotiation. 1966 — President Johnson stated that Europe could only look forward to a secure future if differences btw east and west were negotiated.CZ contributed to the climate of détente by making clear the positions of the USA and USSR and the limits to what they would accept in areas in which their influence was paramount.R. B. German move to normalize relations w/ the states of E.S. It was recognized (esp. 1967 — Harmel Report (concerning future of NATO) looks forward to détente: "Military security and a policy of détente are not contradictory but complementary. U. Improve the standard of living of the citizens of the USSR: two reasons: Allow more funds to be devoted to the production of consumer goods. Facilitate the importation of advanced western technology.S. Argued that event in 1968 in . 1969 — Warsaw Pact calls for a conference on European Security.threatened the progress that had been made in any socialist state then it was a concern for all socialist states and not simply an internal matter. Europe. Election of Republican Nixon in 1968: easier to move towards détente b/c he had a strong antiCommunist record and could not be accused of ‘selling out´ the USA. à Both sides were also motivated by a desire to slow down the arms race since real superiority was no longer a viable foreign policy objective in the nuclear weapons arena. meant the USSR wanted to settle its frontiers in the west so it could face the Chinese threat. The main Events: 1963 — First W. Well aware that their countries would form the theatre of any ‘limited´ nuclear conflict btw the superpowers. Given situation in Vietnam the USA wanted to improve relations w/ the USSR partly to avoid being overtaxed but also to bring the conflict in Vietnam to an end w/out humiliation. Deterioration of relations btw USSR and China. C. Desire to obtain a final settlement of the political situation in Eastern and Central Europe: since there had been no peace treaty w/ Germany at end WWII and western allies never recognized the territorial changes. 36 .

Co-operation in humanitarian and other fields / granting of greater freedom of movement for people.: invasion and occupation of Cambodia) Sept. Co-Operation in the field of economics. Soviet actions in Africa: using Cuban troops the USSR was by 1979 involved in many African states including Angola.000 Soviet combat troops in Cuba. 1975 — Space (Soyuz and Apollo space crafts docked) Political: Exchanges of visits by the leaders of the USA and USSR. I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) Economic: trading btw USA and USSR increased rapidly / Export of high technology from the USA to the USSR Opening of US trade complex in Moscow and vice-versa Mutual access to ports. à Also increased trade btw USSR-Europe and W. Action of Vietnam (i. Mozambique.T. Détente was soon in serious trouble b/c of a number of events which exposed difficulties: Groups in the USSR and E. Europe had been set up to monitor human rights progress à by 1980 these groups had been suppressed. Moralistic tone of early Carter presidency and the increasing emphasis placed upon ‘linkage´: détente in areas of interest for the USSR should be linked to ‘good behavior´ from the USSR elsewhere in the world. ideas and the press. and of the environment. 37 . 28th 1969 — Brandt became the Chancellor of West Germany and began to implement his ‘Ostpolitik´. and Ethiopia / Soviet action in the ‘Horn of Africa´ was sensitive b/c it lay so close to the oil supply routs from the Middle East. Scientific: Co-operation in several areas: Pollution control. The Main Areas of Progress in Détente to 1975 Military: 1967 — Outer Space Treaty. 1979 — USSR invaded Afghanistan: condemnation of USSR in UN General assembly and worldwide protests Grain embargo on the USSR + boycott of 1980 olympics. 1977 — NATO countries agree to increase defense contribution by 3% (response to Soviet military buildup) Revolution in Iran (1978/79) à destabilized a vital region.e.A.L. Creation of a ‘review mechanism´ in the form of future conferences to map out new areas for cooperation. Cancer and heart disease research. The ‘High Point´ of Détente European Conference on Security and Co-operation (Helsinki Agreement — 1975) Recognition of the territorial status quo. Europe. 1968 — Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1971 — Seabed Pact 1972 — Biological Warfare Treaty 1972 — S.-E. science and technology. Dec.Sept. 1979 — Carter protests at presence of 3.

The View of the USA: Soviets were exploiting détente: getting access to western markes and yet they refused to accord human rights and carried out a massive military buildup. The View of the USSR: Détente broke down as a consequence of growing economic depression in the west.L.: over human rights issues) Failure of USA to ratify S. stateless. There was interference in the internal affairs of the USSR(i.T. Changes within the USA (setback in Iran / hostage crisis) à mood moved away from a desire to compromise (manifest in victory of Ronald Reagan in 1980) USSR had not given up its desire to progress towards an eventual ‘universal.e. II (after Carter had signed in 1979) 38 . USA had fallen dangerously bhind the USSR in both nuclear and conventional forces.e. Further détente must involve ‘linkage´. Political and socio-economic characteristics of both USA and USSR remained unchanged: the potential for conflict had only been obscured by détente but not really reduced.Election of Ronald Reagan (determined to respond to ‘a growing Soviet threat´) What reasons lay behind the collapse of détente? The main partners each hoped to gain something different. Afghanistan was seen as proof of the Soviet world domination plan.A.: détente seemed to be restricted to Europe. classless society ´: i.