3.1 The atomic model of matter and states of matter 3.1.

1 There are 4 states of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma Solid : Rigid shape and constant volume. The forces between molecules far outweigh the thermal energy held by the molecules, and so the molecules form a rigid lattice (in which they vibrate). Liquid : Constant volume, (over a short term; eventually evaporation occurs) but takes on the shape of it's container. The thermal energy possessed by the molecules is more significant, but, still not enough to allow them to completely overcome the forces between them. As a result, the molecules are free to move within the liquid - but only exceptionally fast molecules can actually escape. Gas : Fills any container that it is placed in - it has no constant volume or shape. The thermal energy between the molecules far outweighs the intermolecular forces, and so they move randomly, with minimal interactions between molecules. Plasma : If a gas is heated enough, then the molecules lose their electrons, and the ions and atoms form something similar to a gas, with random particle movement. Most of the matter in the universe is plasma (that's what you make stars from) but most of the matter on earth is solid/liquid/gas. 3.1.2 As temperature increases, thermal energy increases. Thus, as a solid gets hotter, the vibrations of the molecules become larger and larger, to the point where they break out of their rigid lattice and are free to move around randomly. As liquids are heated, more and more molecules have sufficient energy to completely overcome the intermolecular forces between them, and break away. Eventually all the molecules are moving randomly with no significant forces between them. As a gas is heated, the electrons of the molecule/atoms are excited by the increased energy, to the point where, eventually, the electrons are excited enough to completely escape the molecule/atom and move independently, thus creating a plasma. In each case the reverse is true, as thermal energy decreases, the forces between particles pull them back from plasma to gas to liquid to solid. 3.2 Thermal concepts 3.2.1

3.3.1 Specific heat capacity is a property of a substance in general, while heat capacity is the property of a particular body, otherwise they are identical. Their purpose is to relate internal energy change to temperature change, as different amounts of energy will be required to cause a given change in temperature in the same mass of different substances ΔQ = m x C x ΔT ( i.e. change in internal energy = mass x heat capacity x change in temp ). 3.3.2 A given mass of different substances may contain different numbers of molecules, of different masses and types. If the same amount of energy is added to two different substances, it will be distributed among the molecules, but the average energy Ek of these molecules will be different. Thus, the change in temperature will be different, and so different heat capacities are necessary. 3.3.3 Determining heat capacities There are basically two ways to do this, either by adding a certain amount of energy to a substance and measuring the temperature change (Direct), or by mixing two substances at different temperatures, one of which has a known heat capacity, allowing the other to be calculated (Mixtures). Direct : Energy is applied to the substance using an electrical current. For a liquid, this is in the form of a heating element being placed in the liquid, and for a solid, holes are cut in the block for an electric heater and thermometer. The total amount of energy supplied by such an electric heater is VIt, where V = the potential difference across the heater, I = the current running through it and t = the time the heater is on for (in seconds). Therefore, VIt = m x C x ΔT, and the only unknown is C. Mixtures : Water has a heat capacity of 4800 (J/kg deg-c). If 250 g of water (250 ml) at 25c has placed into it a metal block of unknown heat capacity at 30c, then the temperature of the resulting mixture can be measured once it reaches equilibrium. The amount of heat gained by the water can then be calculated, by ΔQ = 0.250 x 4800 c ΔT. Since heat gained = heat lost, the ΔQ can then be substituted into the equation for the block ( Nb, it, and ΔT must both be negated, though these cancel out and can be ignored ). From there, the C value for the block can be found. 3.3.4 Describe transformations between states in macroscopic and microscopic terms. (Sounds just like 3.1.2 to me) Melting/Freezing

Temperature is considered to be the hotness or coldness of an object as measured by a thermometer. If two objects are of the same temperature, then there will be no net energy transfer between the two. On a microscopic level, temperature is the average kinetic energy per molecule of the molecules in the substance. Heat is the energy transferred between objects when they change temperature, and moves from areas of high temperature to areas of low temperature. i.e. the lower temperature object is heated. Internal energy is the total energy related to the thermal motion of the molecules in a substance. This includes both vibrational and translational motion, and is comprised of both the kinetic and potential energies of the molecules. 3.3 Specific heat capacity, specific latent heat and 'heat transmission'

(Transfer between solid and liquid) Solids have a rigid shape and constant volume whereas liquids have a constant volume and a shape determined by container. Solid -> liquid : Molecules vibrate faster and faster eventually reaching the point where they break away from their lattice structure and are able to move freely through the substance, thus becoming a liquid. Liquid -> solid : Molecules are slowed by the removal of energy, eventually the intermolecular forces are dominant enough to pull them into a lattice, creating a solid. Vaporisation/Condensation

1

9 The different thermal conductivities of different substances result from. the energy for the latent heat of vaporisation is required and finally then water vapour is heated. and then ice. 2 . but no change in temperature occurs (called latent heat of fusion/vaporisation). they vibrate more. a bonfire primarily radiates infrared rays. Gas -> Liquid : As energy is removed.6 Radiation : Radiation is the transfer of heat when there is no medium (molecules) for it to travel through. Convection : This is where heat is transferred through a liquid (or a gas. but remembering it is easier than working it out. When the water is hot enough. volume and temp This is normally done by breaking the calculation up into a series of steps. On a molecular level. 3. and thus carry heat more quickly than vibrations alone. Volume and temperature : A capillary tube. Pressure and volume : Temperature must be kept constant. then energy is required for the latent heat of fusion.3. forming a gas. readings of both temperature. In metals. when the atoms at one end are heated.1 Solving problems with specific heat capacity and specific latent heat. For example. -k is a constant (negative to represent flow from hot to cold) related to the type of material. and placed into a beaker. because the particles are closer and thus able to transfer kinetic energy between them. The displacement adjusts the volume.3. On a molecular level. Sublimation (Direct transfer between from a Solid to a gas) Solids have a rigid shape and constant volume whereas gases have no fixed volume and will fill any container. 3. and no molecule interactions are necessary. the solid changes directly to a gas. the availability of particles which are free to move. more molecules have sufficient kinetic energy and can escape. Eventually all the molecules escape. In each case. so this must be accounted for. which are able to flow. molecules slow down. and x is the thickness.4 Thermal properties of gases 3. In this way the heat (and thus an increase in temperature) is propagated through the medium. If you need to calculate heat flowing through multiple media (ie through insulation then brick) then the equation becomes ΔQ /Δt = A x ΔT/(-x1/k1-x2/k2) The total value for k/xis the average for each material. less dense water is thus pushed to the top. with a movable block of some kind (mercury) in the center. Solid -> Gas : At low pressures.gif 3. T is the temperature across the substance. and so the temperature remains constant. weighted for relative thickness. This creates more space between them. This water is then heated while the water at the top cools. and bent upwards at the other. Pressure and temperature : An enclosed glass 'bulb' of air should be connected to a manometer. Thus allows values for both pressure and temperature to be found with no significant change in temperature. A is the cross sectional area. as temp increases. and inversely to thickness. This gives data for a graph of temperature vs pressure. or gasses. In this equation ΔQ/Δt is the rate of heat flow. Experiments to find the relationship between pressure. the solid (ice for example) is heated up to 0c. then cool the water with cold water. 3. (This is why dry ice doesn't turn into a liquid) 3.3. 3. sealed at one end. With the open end pointing up out of the water. as the water in the beaker is heated. there is a period where energy is added. which should be a straight line through the origin. Also. and moves the mercury allowing the pressure to be measured (in cm of Hg) and then added to the air pressure (measured with a barometer). then the resulting water is heated. and pressure will be inversely proportional to volume.3. This relationship can then be graphed. For example. this heat will slowly travel through it to reach the other end. but it's fairly obvious that is would be proportional to area and temp diff. A graph of pressure vs 1/volume should be a straight line through the origin. As a result. when the molecules in a solid gain enough energy to escape the lattice. as the water at the bottom heats.3.4. This is because. there are free moving electrons. Measure the position of the block. they already have sufficient energy to completely escape the other molecules (because the low pressure dictates very few molecule .5 When substances change state. the molecules move faster. dip the rest of the tube in a bath of hot water. It travels in the form of electromagnetic radiation. different states of water (or anything else) will have different specific heat capacities. These vibrations cause the molecules next to them to vibrate more. Liquid -> Gas : Molecules require a certain Ek to completely escape from the surface of the liquid. and the colder. firstly. This sets up a continual circulation motion while the water heats. when heat is applied to one end of a metal bar. This can be done by measuring the displacement in a movable tube manometer. liquids.7 Conduction : Heat is transferred through solids.(Transfer between liquid and gas) Liquids have a constant volume and a shape determined by container whereas gases have no fixed volume and will fill any container. measuring the temperature and volume at various points. If heat is being added. and thus lower density water.molecule interaction). eventually the intermolecular forces become dominant enough to hold the molecules together in a liquid. but this example uses a liquid) which is being heated at the bottom. and pressure (as read from the manometer and a manometer). Image:Latent. and so on through the material. the energy goes towards increasing the potential energies of the molecules as they move away from each other rather than kinetic energy. during this period.8 Heat transmission through a solid occurs by the following equation (which is in the data book) ΔQ /Δt = -kAΔT/Δx. That's not really in the course. This hot. more dense substances tend to conduct heat more quickly. more dense water is heated at the bottom. The heated water at the bottom rises to the top and pushes cold water down. This equation is in the data book.

molecules are being given additional kinetic energy as they 'bounce off'. the molecules move faster.e. from one crest to the next). Frequency : The number of complete cycles passing a given point in 1 second (measured in Hertz.1. the rate of collisions increases. Crest : Relevant only for transverse waves.4. When temperature is increased. and in which the molecules had no volume.e. 3. or volume is zero. Hz). The symbol for wavelength is λ. i. Sound waves are an example of longitudinal (compression) waves. so this equation is in the data book as v = f x λ. and so the energy is transferred. and since the pressure is caused by the collisions.4 PV = nRT Pressure (Pa) x Volume (m3) = number of molecules (mols) x R (a constant equalling 8.4. not by moving the particles along with the wave. 4.e. and 'bouncing' thus producing a force outward on the sides of the container. All these relationships fit PV = nRT if the appropriate variable is assumed to be constant. upwards) from the mean position.4. Pressure and Volume. This means that many molecules gain a little bit of speed.2 P V 1 1 T1 Transverse waves are those in which the direction of particle motion is perpendicular to the propagation of the wave (ie the particles move up and down while the wave moves left to right). If the volume is decreased (by pushing one side of the container in) the number of molecules per unit area increases.6 The microscopic model of ideal gases can explain the macroscopic relationship between Temperature. i. temperature. where the bars (or particles) are most spread out. 3.3 Medium : The substance through which the wave moves. temperature graphs. which is -273c.1 Traveling wave characteristics 4. Pressure is a result of the molecules colliding with the sides of the container. Displacement : In the context of waves. Wavelength : The distance covered in by complete wave cycle (i.31. Waves traveling in water are examples of transverse waves. Compression : If a compression (longitudinal) wave is drawn like this || | | | | || | | | | || | | | | || . particles will 'bump' into each other. Light waves are an example of transverse wave.This can then be graphed. so one particle will set the other in motion. 3 . Wavelength = wave speed/frequency.4. As a result. An ideal gas would be one which had no forces between the molecules. Amplitude : The difference between the maximum displacement and the mean position. how 'big' the waves are. except that the particles up and down motion causes the next particle to begin moving. Wave speed : The speed at which a given point on the wave is traveling through the medium (i. Transverse waves work similarly. or 0 kelvin. and volume vs. intercept at -273c or 0 kelvin). because the speed they leave at is the speed they came in at + speed the side was moving. the compressions are where the bars are close together. Obviously you can substitute in values and solve for unknowns. or one compression to the next. this refers to the movement of particles above and below (or whatever) the mean position. Specifically. giving a directly proportional relationship between volume and temperature (straight line through the origin. this is the point of highest positive displacement (i.1. as are waves travelling in strings. the rate of collision of the molecules with the sides of the container. 3. Frequency = 1/period (or f = 1/Tas stated in data book). which in turn moves the next.4 Different graphs of waves. The symbol for period is T.1 Longitudinal waves are those where the motion of the particles in the same direction as the propagation of the wave (ie compression waves).1. as are the waves created by stretching a slinky spring. Temperature is defined as the the average kinetic energy of the molecules. 4.5 The definition of an ideal gas in microscopic terms : A large number of point masses moving in random translational motion with no forces between them (all collisions are completely elastic. which is in data book) x Temperature (in Kelvin). Trough : The point of largest negative displacement (i. The particles making up the medium are those which are moved (or rather displaced) as the wave moves through it. and take no time). In longitudinal waves. the intercept on the temp axis is -273c. 3.e.4. this is not the same thing as to the next point where a particle is in the same position. This is obviously related to PV = nRT.1.2 Waves transfer energy by moving it from one particle to the next. This would mean that that the gas would be compressible down to a point where pressure. the temperature increases because.3 As can be seen in the pressure vs.e. Rarefaction : The opposite of a compression. it is where the particles are most compressed in the wave. 4. Period : The amount of time for one complete cycle (ie from one peak to the next. the average position of a particle in the medium will be the same as if there were no wave traveling through it. as the side is being pushed in. This point is the absolute zero for temperaturem. Over a period of time.e. Note. 3. and so the pressure. / = P2V2/T2 This relationship says that PV/T is constant for a given number of molecules of an ideal gas. how far a particular crest travels in a second). resulting in and increased temp. 4. downwards) from the mean position (in a transverse wave). As a result. Also. then releasing some coils (causing compression and rarefactions). the pressure increases. and so on.

separated by nodes. but described below. Displacement vs position : This is basically a 'snapshot' of the displacement of all the particles going through the medium at a given time. 4 . and then fill in the rest. if the wave strikes the boundary at 90. If both ends are connected to a boundary. see where they would reflect to. color). and we're left with meters/second. very important to refer to vacuum values all the time just for setting a common ground for experiments. vacuum is chosen as the common ground here because electromagnetic waves naturally originate in vacuum. Hence. and antinode will occur. The amount of 'energy' in the waves decreases down the list. since frequency never changes. curved boundary's must be handled. light simply enters at one angle to the normal. and the vacuum is the same for everybody! 4. etc.2. and radio waves aren't.2 The behavior of waves 4. As they enter at an angle. the frequency for a given wave is constant (defined by the source) thus.Displacement vs time : This graph tracks the movement of a particle as a wave moves through it. then it will be reflected straight back. If I'm not mistaken. in order to prevent any confusions. cycles meters However weird it may sound. That small difference may correspond to millions of light years in determining the distance of stars. Thus. the wavefront on one side slows down first. EDIT: Actually. frequency decreases and wavelength increases (because c is constant). though the will experience a phase change (i. the angle of reflection will equal the angle of incidence. The frequency (the time between lines) must remain constant.e.3 Waves can be refracted when they move from one medium to another. When waves in water strike a boundary. travelling at a wave speed of c (the speed of light = 3 x 108 m/s) when in a vacuum (they can travel without a medium unlike all other waves). a Microwave oven at Earth does not emit the same wavevelenght of wave as one in space. and position (or ie distance from an arbitrary origin in the material) is on the x. The particle will move up and down in a sine curve type pattern. in fact. when a compression hits the boundary. Note that it is common for waves to travel in a full. which effectively pulls the entire wave around towards that corner. but tells us nothing about the wave speed or wavelength. Electromagnetic waves are usually defined by their wavelength in a vacuum. EDIT: the virtue of defining things in a vacuum is that with no matter/fields present light travels at maximum velocity ("the speed of light"). There are a number of sections of the spectrum which are commonly given the following names (in order of decreasing frequency). and leaves the boundary at another (we get to how to find these angles next). 4. It is easiest to consider this as a series of wavefront lines entering a boundary at an angle. and vice versa. and so the equation follows from the definitions of frequency and wavelength. 4. Deriving this is really rather obvious. Visible light ranges from 400nm (1 nano meter is 1 x 10-9 meters) for violet to 700nm for red. the crests will be reflected as troughs. If you were to define wavelengths in some other condition.6 Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. a rarefaction is emitted back from it. and is what defines the characteristics (i. you would have to specify the exact temperature. I may be mistaken about the reason so it would be good for someone to double check this. which is why X-rays are dangerous.1. which is the unit of wave speed. Note. pressure. 4. but the speed slows (so they must become closer together). but frequency remains constant.1 Longitudinal waves travel in one dimension. Also.2 Whenever a wave is reflected from a boundary.1. the same goes for sound. Albeit a small one. there's still a difference there. Visible light is split into colours from violet to red. In ray diagrams.not easy at all. which is rather silly. Visible light is an electromagnetic wave and it is broken down to different colors by our atmosphere. 4.2. say in air. and time on the horizontal. mix of gasses.2. Phase changes in light are a little more complex. and very hard to exactly duplicate! Everybody can make vacuums. and when they have different wave speeds in these two media. With displacement on the vertical axis. though of course not perfect ones. In an air column. they will be reflected back in the same direction. • • • • • • • gamma-rays X-rays ultraviolet rays visible light infrared rays microwaves radio waves Going down that list. but we'll come to those later. for things to get exactly the same velocity -. If the unit of frequency is /second and wavelength is /cycle. so it is. The distance between peaks represents the wavelength. or semicircle out from the source rather than in one line. The basic technique here is to draw in a few important lines representing different waves. and a number of antinodes will occur through the string. At an open boundary. and so when they strike a boundary. This shows that the density of the medium the wave's in can affect its frequency and/or wavelenght. etc. cycles cancel out. violet having the highest frequency and red having the lowest. but can be found by combining the information from this and the displacement vs time graph (as described in the next section). then when the two are multiplied.5 v = f x λ (wave speed = frequency x wavelength) This equation can be used to find the speed of a wave given it's wavelength and frequency.e. then nodes (points where the string doesn't move up and down) will occur at both ends. because each wave is entering at a different angle. This also applies to standing waves travelling in a stretched string. if the wave speed changes (due to changing mediums) then the wavelength also changes. frequency and wavelength are not constant. it is possible to have both open and closed boundaries. but other angles will reflect the waves away from the source. while at a closed one and node will occur. but who am I to argue. which complicates reflection. This graph allows us to find both frequency (which will be the number of crests in 1 sec) and period (which will be the time between crests). The wave speed can not be calculated directly from this graph. the values in vacuum are used to differentiate. Displacement is on the vertical axis.

m=0 gives the central bright band. m x λ = a sin Θ. the the up and down motion. Light : As was seen in the double slit experiment. the displacements of the particles add together. and when one crest and one trough coincide. When looking into a swimming pool. 4. we tend not to notice light waves bending around corners. If. and n2 is the index of the medium it's entering. both of which are measured from the normal. say. they would form a semi circle point source.10 Polarisation : Light naturally travels as a transverse wave in all planes. thus demonstrating the wave nature of light.6 Constructive interference is what occurs when two waves add together. or the order of the band x wavelength = the distance between the centres of the slits x sin of the angle of the bright band. then there comes a point where the angle of refraction will be 90. n1 x sin i = n2 x sin R n1 is the refractive index of the initial medium (vacuum = 1. but it can. The angle of incidence where this occurs is called the critical angle. and R the angle of Refraction. air = 1 (or close enough to 1 that it doesn't mater)). light from objects at the bottom is diverged (refracted away from the normal). or pass through a thin slit and form a sort of point source. and join back up on the other side.1 Standing waves occur when a source sets up a continual wave. When two gaps coincide.2. just like light in the double slit thing. for example. In both cases. though.This phenomena can have some weird effects. 4. 4. showing the beats (any graphing calculator will show you). Since there are a series of bright bands. If the angle of incidence is above the critical angle. the waves and energies are still there. however. Unusual examples of this include water ripples travelling slower in shallow water. the motion of the particles affect those. Both high and low points will be found. then m=1. This can be seen by drawing two sine curves. beats will be heard. this means that when the virtual rays are traced back. When the difference between these distance is exactly N x wavelength + 1/2 wavelength of the light. Meaning the beat frequency will be the difference between the two frequencies. It is therefore possible for two waves to produce one wave of larger amplitude. allowing the wave to spread to the side as well as forward. which interacts with waves being reflected back at the source from a boundary to form a stable pattern of nodes and antinodes (nodes being points where the two waves add to zero and anti-nodes being where the waves always add to maximum amplitude. the two waves will destructively interfere and produce a dark spot on the screen.) 5 . meaning as the waves go through. the problems relate to light entering / leaving water or a glass prism. 4. that the light from each slit has to travel a different distance to reach the screen. (More info is in the Optics section if you think you need it.2. or to produce two waves where the total amplitude is zero. When light goes from a more to a less dense medium.2. we get a bigger trough. while destructive interference is what happens when two waves add to zero. It is possible to cut out all but. different colors will construct and destruct at different points. light can be diffracted through a thin slit.3. say sin x and sin 2x. and sound travelling at different speeds through hot and cold air. and the light is reflected from the boundary. then the light is totally internally reflected.2.9 Diffraction of waves. Sound : Just like water. Light from each of these travels to a screen. then adding them. and produce a bright spot.8 When two waves which have different frequencies interfere. The same thing can be applied to waves in strings as above. and at every angle between. This is due to diffraction.4 The angles described above can be found with Snell's law. they act as point sources which are initially exactly in phase.3 Standing waves 4. different values of m can be substituted. The easiest way to see this is to draw circles out from the source representing the crests. up and down. The frequency of the beats can be calculated by fbeats = | f1-f2|. Water : When there is something blocking waves in the water.2. producing a series of spectra which will eventually overlap as we move away from the centre. The resulting pattern is a series of bright and dark bands when monochromatic light is used. Angle of incidence = angle of reflection applies. of the original light colour.7 Young's double slit experiment is basically where two slits act as point sources. Because it moves so fast. the 'particles' move left and right. a log floating in it. When two of these crests coincide. Most of the time.3. If waves were passed through a thin slit. they will interfere differently at different points.2. striking it and producing light on it.) 4. This also shows that both longitudinal and transverse waves act in the same way with respect to diffraction. immediately behind the log will be calm water. When white light is used. the two waves arrive in phase.. When light is shone onto the backs of the slits. a virtual image is formed much closer to the surface than the actual object (apparent vs real depth). 4. sound can trace around obstacles. Note.2..e. it's just that the two waves are adding to zero. When the difference is a multiple of of the wavelength. the center point will have a bright spot. Questions about this generally involve two waves traveling in opposite directions down a string (they're usually rather easy).4. we have two point sources producing waves in a circle. say. not just in the direction of propagation. i. The beats are points where the amplitude (volume in the usual case of sound) reaches a peak.2. 4. but eventually the waves wrap around it. i is the angle of incidence. but also to the side. The issue is. and form a diffraction pattern. constructive interference produces a bigger crest. 4. there is destructive interference. Light to which this has been done is called polarised.give the subsequent band angles.5 When two waves are moving in the same medium. and they add to zero. The equation for this experiment is given in the optics section of the data book.

so with one open. negative charges will neutralize the top of the electroscope.3 Electric field lines go from positive to negative (it's like the old days of conventional current. the leaf jumps up. One important point is that field lines always strike a surface at 90 degrees. Two like point charges: The two charges repel each other's field. [edit] 5. there is an area of no charge. Positive charges are attracted to negative charges and vice versa. The same thing goes for oil tankers. and since the like charges repel. 2 x length. illustrating that the inside of a hollow charged surface will not have any net charge (and thus field). etc. so the wavelength is 4/3 x length. positive and negative. one closed.1 Coulomb's law: The force is proportional to both the charges.2 All bodies have a certain frequency at which they will most naturally resonate. which is a derived unit describing a flow of 1 Ampere per second(and a hell of a lot of charge. Isolated point charge : Lines go towards.2.2 There are two types of charge. By holding a negative charge above it. so it goes down the rod rather than the building. and with 2 open boundaries. increases). Pair of charged plates : I think we only have to deal with oppositely charged plates. harmonic frequencies can be found by adding half a cycle into the string/air column. it is like a single point charge.4 If an electric charge experiences an electric force then it is in an electric field. [edit] 5. the fundamental wavelength will be 2 x the length. and so near each poing charge.1 Electric charge [edit] 5. [edit] 5. Insulators are capable of storing charge on their surface. This creates a positive charge at the bottom in both the gold leaf and the center shaft. so the plane is earthed first. [edit] 5.5 Lightning rods: They conduct lightning more easily than a building. The lines run straight down or up as appropriate. always. [edit] 5. The following features are common on these sorts of diagrams. before they knew about electrons). a since electron's charge is 1. These are relatively simple. Perspex or ebonite rods can become charged by rubbing them against fur. and pulls the paper up. Charge is measured in coulombs. then something else must have become negative as a result. some curve is introduced to account for the 90 degree thing as mentioned above. This means that when drawing an arrow diagram of the charges. and mark areas of equal potential.1. After this. This can occur in a stretched string. and thus the leaf stays up even once the rod is taken away. the amplitude of these vibrations will be at a maximum. The first. If one thing gains a positive charge. The equation E = F/q allows the strength of an electric field. the arrows will go to the center of a conductor. 5.1 Inductively charge a metal ring attached to an insulated handle.6 x 10-19C).2. but like charges repel.1. or radius. and a antinode will occur at an open boundary. We should find that it doesn't. the fundamental frequency is the wave with the longest wavelength which satisfies this (i. [edit] 5. 4 x wavelength. They describe the effect on a hypothetical positive test charge placed anywhere around the object. so make sure to get that right. but really need diagrams to explain (any volunteers want to draw them?). 4 x length. while insulators will not allow charge to flow through them. Then use a charge detector (sort of like a compass only in 3D) to see if there's any charge changing its direction. 4.3 Electrostatic induction is what causes uncharged pieces of paper to 'jump' up to a charged rod.3. which creates a force of attraction. 2 x length. This applies to all other types (2 open and 2 closed). while the positive charges are pulled up. the negative charges in the paper are repelled (pushed down). Conductors are capable of moving charge in the form of electricity. We can then calculate the frequency given speed or vice versa. but in the center.2 Electric charge will be conserved. The same principle can be applied to an electroscope. [edit] 5. a node will always be formed. representing a weaker field.4 6 .1. Equipotential lines : These lines run perpendicular to these field lines. the lowest frequency). and with 2 open. Two opposite point charges : There is a line straight from one charge to another.1. giving it a total negative charge. When as source produces such waves into this body (or medium) then is will vibrate 'in sympathy' with it. When a positively charged rod is brought close to the top. with one open. With two closed boundaries. positive charges in the electroscope are repelled away from the rod. Fires in air-planes: If static charges build up during flight. one closed. In each case. with two closed boundaries.At a closed boundary. and allows the wavelength to be found. and they are the opposite of each other. in NC-1 (Newtons per Coulomb). the lines are further apart. the fundamental wavelength will be 2 x the length.3.2. When this occurs. second and so on harmonics can be found by adding 1/2 of a cycle in to the diagram. but are bent towards the other point charge.2 Electric force. though they acquire opposite charges. If the electroscope is then earthed.1. or away from the point. This creates an effective opposite charge on the paper (the reverse happens with positive charged rods). 4. then the others come out as normal.2. and there is an inverse square relationship between force and the distance between them (so the force gets weaker as the distance. to be found based on the force experienced by a given charge. with one open boundary and one closed. we have 3/4 of a cycle in the pipe. or in an air column. but at the end. then it could cause sparks as the plane is being fueled. Moving further away.e. [edit] 5.3 As stated above. field and potential [edit] 5. but only to the surface of an insulator.

Potential difference (V) is defined as the work done by moving a positive charge from one point to another in an electric field. which also applies through a vacuum (cathode rays) or in relation to positive ions flowing through something. Drawing them is basically a matter of practice.3. Cross sectional area : Resistance decreases as cross sectional area increases. Still.. [edit] 5. substitute in I=V/R and we get P = V2 / R These can all be applied as required. In a series circuit. and so a battery with an emf of 3V may only have a potential difference between it's terminals of 2. The electromotive force is usually referred to as just emf in order to not cause confusion since the emf is not an actual force. where electrons are flowing. Once each parallel section has been calculated. induced by a magnet etc. time in sec. where as conventional current flows from the positive to the negative. In parallel. although the atoms are held in a reasonably strong. often through a wire. then the total resistance is given by Rt = R1 + R2 + .1 The circuit symbols are in the front of the data book. giving P = I2R. Resistance is measured in ohms. [edit] 5.5 If resistors are in series. as to not change the circuit. Temperature : As the temperature increases.4.5V. they 'bump' into the metal atoms.3. [edit] 5. we get P = VI Substitute in V = IR. allows the potential difference to be calculated. so you can sub in any two values and get the third.2 7 . Divide by t. and then the whole circuit has been done in series. [edit] 5. Alternately. • • • • Length : Resistance increases with the length of the conductor.4 Potential difference : The energy dissipated per unit current (measured in volts). subbing the second into the first. then the total resistance is given by This then creates a simple series circuit which can be solved with V = IR. we get W = ItV.4 Electric circuits [edit] 5. though I don't see where transistors or logic gates come into things. the current is split between each branch (relative to it's resistance) and the voltage in each branch is equal to the voltage across the whole parallel branch. [edit] 5. and the fact that metals may heat up when electricity flows through them.3.7 Ammeters should be used in series with the part of circuit for which you want to find the current.5 Resistance is defined based on potential difference and current as R = V/I. i.3. Which one you use doesn't really have any major effect on simple circuits. current in amps and charge in coulombs. [edit] 5. Power is measured in watts (or joules per second). Internal resistance refers to the resistance inside the source (like the difference between emf and potential diff).4.3 Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive.4. An ideal ammeter would have an infinitely small resistance. As the filament in the bulb is heated up the resistance increase. not something we can really explain here. though mobile lattice. They go in opposite directions because conventional current was invented before anyone knew about electrons. the information can be put back to calculate the current or voltage in each section of the parallel branch. the resistance also increases. explaining resistance. giving a non-linear relationship between voltage (V) and current (I).4. but the voltage is shared between the resistors. the current is constant throughout the circuit. If the potential difference across a battery is 12v. Type of conducting material : Well. [edit] 5. It is usually used in relation to electric charge.4.e.6 Factors affecting resistance: Non ohmic conductors are those which don't follow ohm's law ( V = IR ) when the temperature is not kept at a constant (and relatively low) degree. Thus. work in joules. As electrons flow through a metal. and since power equals work/time. [edit] 5.2 In a metal electrons are free to move.3 Electric current [edit] 5. and its unit is the ampere. The equation ΔV = ΔW/q. Some of the energy produced is wasted inside. PD in volts. [edit] 5. An example of a non-ohmic conductor is an ordinary light bulb..3 Electromotive force (emf) : The voltage produced by a reaction in a battery is called its emf (it also applies to any electrical current source.1 Electric current is defined as the amount of charge passed divided by time. [edit] 5.3.6 work = charge x potential difference and charge = current x time.4. [edit] 5.3. Volunteers to draw up some examples? [edit] 5. this means that each coulomb of charge will 'spend' 12 joules of energy going around the circuit. it's just going to vary. Metals tend to be good conductors. [edit] 5. it's all fairly obvious. + Rn If resistors are in parallel.4 A resistor is something which turns electric energy into heat when electricity runs through it (due to electrons 'bumping' into metal ions).4.).

then it uses X kilowatt-hours. the heat produced in the fuse (due to it's resistance) melts the fuse. if we know that the force will be in the opposite direction to the motion.6 Electromagnetic induction [edit] 5. The direction of this emf can be found using the left hand thing. as to not change the circuit. which have a particular price.5. Note that. we need to remember that we are working with conventional current here. or magnetic flux = magnetic field strength x area (in m2).9 A d. If you want to just remember it.6.4.2 8 . where one half is the negative terminal. but a negative one will be backwards. your fingers curl in the direction of the field rotation.7 An ampere is defined as the current which produces a force of 2 x 10-7 N of force per meter of wire between two infinitely long wires 1 meter apart. and so for a positive charge. while circuit breakers (aka overload cut-out systems) are designed to prevent electrocution. Thus EMF = -ΔØ/Δt. When current flows through an appliance.1 Magnetic fields flow in circles through & around a current carrying wire. [edit] 5. because the current is running in the opposite sense. and so also help prevent electrocution. Circuit breakers work on a similar principle. repulsion occurs. reversing the current every half turn. A coil of wire (sort of a square) is placed in a magnetic field. then a north pole will be at that end.9 Fuses are short pieces of low melting point wire.6.c. They are placed in a fuse box. except they act much faster. [edit] 5.6 Electricity is generally sold in kilowatt-hours. otherwise it's a south pole.5 Magnetic fields [edit] 5. It should also be noted that this assumes that the conductor is perpendicular to the field. the field is stronger. the coil will make one quarter turn. only they have a curly E (Like this perhaps? ξ I can't remember anymore) for emf. and the emf is in the same direction as current.5. If a current is passed through. The direction the coil turns can be found in the same way as for a normal wire.5. This allows us to work out which way the field from each wire is acting on the other. the ends of the coil are connected to brushes which run around the edge of a commutator.5. remembering that conventional current runs from positive to negative.4. The induced emf in the conductor = -ΔØ/Δt. if the current is going around anticlockwise looking down from one end. An ideal voltmeter would have an infinitely large resistance. Other than that. a definition of magnetic flux. but the syllabus points it out). branched over the part you want to find the potential difference between. Only HL students have to deal with situations where it's not. The polarity of each end can be recalled by drawing the letter N (for north) and putting arrows on the ends. Ø is measured in webbers. This is used to calculate the strength of the force on a wire of length l (meters) carrying current I (amps) in a field of force B (teslas). Earth-leakage detectors are designed to detect current escaping from the circuitry. attraction occurs and when it's opposite. The palm is force. but then the force will push it back.8 F = lIB or force = length x current x magnetic field strength. If the device runs for 1 hour. Different devices draw different amounts of power. but if the current rises over a certain point. Field lines go from the north pole to the south. Ø = BA. some appliances (kettles. and the other is positive. though it depends on the core's nature. and breaks the circuit. so at it turns. [edit] 5. and complete the circuit. F = qvB or Force = charge (Coulombs) x velocity (m/s) x field strength. If you point your RIGHT HAND thumb in the direction the current is going.5. thumb is current and fingers (at right angles to thumb) are field direction. it cuts through a given amount of magnetic flux in a given time. when the current is running in the same direction. the right hand thing from above still applies. When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field. negative to positive. and so the force. because the field is getting weaker. and allowed to rotate on it's axis so the coil can rotate in the field. Fuses are used to prevent overheating in other areas of the circuit. Thus. [edit] 5. When they are close together.5. but who'll be laughing when you get a 7? [edit] 5. heat is produced. [edit] 5. heaters) use this fact (I don't know why this is here. [edit] 5.8 The force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field can be found by again using your RIGHT HAND. You'll look like an idiot while working it out. the equipotential lines get further apart. [edit] 5. The substance at the core of the field can also have an effect. [edit] 5.1 First.5. the symbol X is commonly used for a current going into the page. [edit] 5. The same convention is used for fields going into or out of the page. To work out the direction. which could otherwise cause fires. (A commutator is sort of a ring.5. and a dot for current coming out of the page. To overcome this. This equation is in the data book. the fields are just like single wires. If it runs for 2 hours then it uses 2X and so on. [edit] 5. the current is reversed). [edit] 5.2 The magnetic field around a solenoid (coil of wire) runs through the center and loops around and back to the other end (Diagram anyone ?). (direct current) motor works on the principle that a force will be exerted on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field. This "RIGHT HAND RULE" is based on "Electron Flow". the current will be in the direction it's moving. This applies to a single point charge moving through a magnetic field.5.4 The magnetic field produced by a solenoid depends on the current running through it (increases with increased current). in diagrams. generally given as X kilowatts. [edit] 5.5 When we have two long wires.Voltmeters should be used in parallel.3 Moving further away from a current-carrying wire. The number of turns of wire (an increased number of turns gives an increased magnetic field strength).

and the known field direction. but still allow some electrons to flow. 1 C = the charge on 6. and so everything works out nicely. then a force to the right will be produced.Forces and Fields [edit] 7. A step-up transformer is one which increases the voltage (and so decreases current) while a step-down transformer is one which decreases the voltage. Take the earth. Conductors. It needs to be noted that this only works because the alternating current causes a continual flux change. Semiconductors are materials which demonstrate properties typical of both conductors and insulators.6.Weakest to strongest. Since current = power/voltage. efficiency = VsIs/VpIp.6 Power is generally transmitted through power lines at high voltage and low current. and the attraction of the object in the field. C.Gravitational. not voltage in the equation PL = I2R. [edit] 5. Coulomb deduced that each point charge in a system would be the target of an equal amount of force. would be exactly the same as the force of gravity downwards. (or Ps/Pp). From this. If a substance has an excess of electrons then it has a negative charge. by placing two wire coils close together. The gravitation force exerted by the earth on an object is The idea of Millikan's oil drop experiment was to have very small oil drops which had some charge balanced between two electric plates. [edit] 5.no charge is lost in an electrical system. 6. which.4 Transformers operate based on the principle of induced current. we can find the direction of the current. 7. Weak Nuclear Force and Strong Nuclear Force . A common semiconductor is Silicon. The emf will be at a maximum when the coil is horizontal. The amount of power (P = VI) remains constant. as is graphite. and thus induces an alternating current. This will be an alternating current. and increases the current. it was possible to calculate the amount of force being applied per charge on the drop. r is the distance between the point charges and K is the Coulomb Constant. for example. The mass of the drop was then measured by cutting the field and measuring it's terminal velocity and using stokes equation. and so this produces an alternating magnetic field. q1 and q2 are the charges of the point charges. This in known as Lenz's law.1 Fields Fields are defined as Forces that Act at a distance. This is because the power loss is related to current.When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field. then substitute the resulting current. and it reverses every time the coil turns through vertical. The magnetic field causes a current to be induced in the other coil.3 When a coil is rotated in a magnetic field (like the motor described above) an emf will be produced. Most metals are conductors.25 x 1018 electrons The charge on one electron = -1. such as glass. a the strength of a field is proportional to both the attraction of the object emitting the field.5 The current and voltage can be calculated using the equation V p Vs proportional to the mass of the earth and the mass of the object. If you have to work it out. On the contrary.602 x 10-19 C Law of Conservation of Electric Charge The Law of Conservation of Electrical Charge says that the total amount of electrical charge in a closed system is constant . Coulomb’s Law On the basis of his experiments.6. it is possible to find the mass to charge ratio of the drops. One has an alternating current running through it. Since we can't easily reduce the resistance in the wires. a current is induced in it so as to produce a force to oppose the motion. Based on this. This relates the number of loops (n) in the coils to the voltage and current in both the primary and secondary. although copper and aluminium are the most effective conductors. K = 8. Insulators are materials which do not allow electrons to flow through them easily.602 x 10-19 C The charge on one proton = +1. The initial direction can be found as above. will reduce the current.1. This allowed the charges on 9 . and this can be calculated with the following equation. The primary coil is the one with the current running through it. The force is also inversly proportional to the distance between the objects squared. with a set power. if a substance has a deficiency of electrons then it’s positively charge.2 Electric Force and Field Electric Charges There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative. again an alternating current. using a big voltage. By knowing the strength of the field between the plates. For example. Most transformers are around 99% efficient. most plastics and other organic compounds. Semiconductors And Insulators Conductors are materials which allow electrons to pass through them easily. substitute the power and voltage into the above equation. Charge Charge is measured in units called Coulombs. and inversely proportional to the distance between the charges squared.6. F = ( K )( q1 * q2 ) / ( r^2 ) Where F is the induced force. [edit] 5.1 Atoms and their constituents / = np/ns = Is/Ip. reducing the current can reduce the power loss. and is given the symbol q. and so the graph will follow a sort of sine curve. if a wire is moving to the left. The force is proportional to the charges of each point charge. as no commutator will be used. and zero when it's vertical (assuming the field goes horizontally). There are four known fields . but the voltage and current change related to the number of turns in each coil.6. Aqueous ionic compounds are also conductors. [edit] 5. if it was floating. They are not as effective as conductors. In general. Electro-Magnetic.987 x 10^9[1]. Topic 6 . the secondary coil is the one with the induced current.

and the elements which produced them. ie.2 The three types of radiation were first divided by their ionising power.9 Rutherford's model was that around the small. These facts can be put together to predict the results of nuclear equations. The number of electrons is most commonly equal to the number of protons. the number of protons. The electric field is then removed and the radius of curvature is measured.) [edit] 7.2.1.1. the number of nucleons or whatever else you'd like to call it. and so some of the electrons fly through and create a sort of beam of electrons (originally called a cathode ray). This created many more questions.1.6 The alpha particle scattering experiment (by Rutherford/Geiger+Marsden) involved firing alpha particles at a sheet of very thin gold foil. [edit] 7. [edit] 7.6 Cathode rays can be deflected by both electric and magnetic fields.2 Nuclei and their constituents [edit] 7. Electric field strength can be can be expressed as V/d. This lead to a systematic analysis of such particles.1.1.1. with a small nucleus of high positive charge.4 Radiation tends to ionise (strip the electrons from) gases when it passes through. highly charged nucleus.6 x 10-19 C. [edit] 7. They accelerate towards the anode (the positive plate). Beta particles were found to be free electrons. which turns a neutron into a proton in the nucleus.the drops to be found. Rutherford caused the ejection of hydrogen nuclei and the production of a new oxygen nucleus. then mg = qE (mass x gravity = charge x electric field strength). Both these properties can be explained by the fact that they are actually electrons. This fact is used for the detection of radiation with Geiger counters. [edit] 7. [edit] 7. Gamma rays were found to be a type of very high frequency electromagnetic radiation.e. [edit] 7. This result suggested that atoms consisted mostly of empty space.2 If a mass is being suspended by an electric field. [edit] 7. The cathode (the negative one from which the electrons come) emits a bunch of electrons. I find it easiest to think of it as the number of protons + the number of neutrons. The specific isotope represented by Y can then be determined.6 x 10-19 C and so this must be the smallest unit of charge possible. (No real detailed knowledge is required here. [edit] 7. Rutherford later showed an alpha particle to be the nucleus of a helium atom by measuring their emission spectra. and this is called artificial transmutation. many were deflected through very small angles.1. A A-4 4 ZX -> Z-2Y + 2He. [edit] 7. There is a large PD created between two metal plates in a vacuum. and it was found that the smallest difference between these charges was 1. and the effect on the atoms undergoing this process (changing elements from one type to another) was examined. [edit] 7. [edit] 7. Of those which were deflected. obviously. A beta particle is 1 negative charge. the atomic number i. electrons orbited like planets around the sun.1.2.1 Radioactive decay is basically atoms (or more specifically nuclei) spontaneously breaking off small parts (alpha. and so the ratio of charge to mass could be accurately found. Why didn't the electrons emit radiation and lose energy? How would they be kept in a constant orbit? [edit] 7. [edit] 7. and even straight back at the source.5 A ZX : A is the mass number. [edit] 7. the charge of a single electron.2.3 The results showed that the minimum difference between charges was 1.8 By knowing the charge of an electron (Millikan) and the charge to mass ratio (Thompson) it is possible to find the mass of an electron. The equations then simplify down to give an expression for e/m in which all the other terms are known.7 Thompson's experiment involved using electric and magnetic fields to exactly cancel each other's effects and allow an electron to pass undeflected.2.7 Describe how the reaction between N and He led to the discovery of the proton : By bombarding nitrogen nuclei with alpha particles. and detecting where they went (with a screen). An alpha particle is 2 protons and 2 neutrons. so not relevant here). [edit] 7.2. z is equal to number of protons which is equal to number of electrons: Z = P = N. That makes Thompson the discoverer of the electron (hooray for him). As a result.3 The products of alpha and beta decay are quite easy to find. Z is the proton number.1.4 This means that charge must be quantized (only comes in discrete chunks rather than being continuous). (potential difference divided by distance) for calculation purposes. they change into different atoms. which has a hole in it. 10 .5 An electron gun relies on the principle of thermonic emission. and the quantum of charge was 1. To find the number of neutrons. The three different types mentioned above were found and separated. Atoms usually only lose alpha and beta particles (gamma is just a loss of energy. beta and gamma particles) of themselves.2. [edit] 7. subtract Z from A: A .2. but emitted from the nucleus as a result of the changes which occurred in it.11 Artificial transmutation : When atoms decay. and act as negatively charged particles would in such fields.6 x 10-19 C. the proton was discovered. Simply write out and balance the nuclear equations.10 The results of the above experiment were that the majority of alpha particles passed straight through.Z = Number of Neutrons. This was accidentally discovered due to the effects of these particles on photographic film which was being kept in a drawer with them.1.

[edit] 8. The trick is to find some fundamental points such as x and y intercepts and fundamental loci such as vertical and horizontal asymptotes.12 The reactivity after n half lives will be Initial x (1/2)n. Anyway. multiply the two curves together or whatever). we know to shift the graph of a common parabola y = x^2 to the "right" of the Cartesian plane by 3 units and "up" 3 units so that the origin is at (3. is the solution of x-1 = 0. 8. but here's a brief recap.). Usually. for the graph of f(x) = y = (2x+3)/(x-1).1.1 Using log scales is. This relative uncertainty is expressed as 6.2. This needs to be done with some of the decay equations to see their exponential nature. The decay rate can not be affected by physical or chemical conditions. falling to zero eventually.9 x 10-5. but is hopefully fairly obvious. a block of radioactive atoms' rate of decay is exponential. This is a constant for a given isotope.2. Relative uncertainties express the uncertainty as a specific percentage of the quantity in question. but that's just me. and then think about the resulting graph. though accurate for a large number of atoms) required for the rate of decay of a radioactive sample to decrease to half its initial value. Calculate the rate of decay which is half of the original value. then find the point on the graph which corresponds to this half rate. However. Then.2. the relative uncertainty is 0.2 Being able to use logarithms is something to learn in math really. Obviously.2. Moreover. but sometimes there are two variables. finding it's rate or decay.) and simply knowing the general nature of such a graph.[edit] 7.4538 ± 0.2 Graphical techniques [edit] 8. [edit] 7. This should allow you to find unknown sizes and angles given enough information about the triangle.3 2 2 2 The tricky thing here is identifying what the functions look like (often it's possible to graph it on a graphic calculator.x + y .10 Half life is the period of time (average. For graphs where a linear transformation involves adding constants to a function.8 The proton is the thing in the nucleus of a hydrogen atom. [edit] 7.2.3. except now we can use powers and reciprocals on log graphs as well as with 'normal' graphs. the number of radioactive atoms will halve over a regular period of time. when we have graphs in which there more advanced functions. then the unit must be put to the power of the base to compensate when used in any expression derived from the graph.2. rather tricky to describe without proper diagrams (though I seriously doubt there would be any questions on it). For instance.2.1 Uncertainties can be expressed in two different ways.6. Then again. Then you can test points and perhaps approximate the graph. Does anyone have a neat explanation ? Personally. [edit] 8. then apply the transformations mentally (i. It has the same magnitude of charge as an electron. c and A are as above.9 Radioactive decay is a random process for individual atoms.. the easiest way to work anything else out it to graph each separate segment. Taking the log of both sides of an equation is the equivalent of reversing the effect of putting both sides to the power of the base (i. it's in the data book.. and the upper case are the angles opposite these sides. if you don't know how to handle this any decent math book should explain it. [edit] 8. and this results in the exponential nature.0001 g for three trial measurements. making things rather tricky). or lim y(x approaches positive infinity) = lim (2x / x)(x approaches positive infinity) = 2. but overall.2bc cos A. it often helps to take the x and y intercepts (by setting y to 0 and x to 0 resp. For instance.1.4538 ± 0. and there are an increasing number in other atom's nuclei. This equation is not in data book. it becomes somewhat trickier.e.9 x 10^-5 multiplied by 100 to get the 11 .1 The Sine and Cosine rules are both in the data book. This is tricky (and I've never seen a question on it either). maximums. For a large number of atoms. called the half life. Absolute uncertainty refers to the actual uncertainty in a quantity measured. which are also useful for any "normal" graph. ln or loge = log in base e (e is about 2. Also. The easiest way to remember this is as an extended version of Pythagoras' theorem. which is 1. The sine rule is A/sin a = B/sin b = C/sin c.4538 g which equals ± 6.0001 g/1. with an average of 1.1 Standards of measurement [edit] 8. I find it easier to do the transformations into a log scale (which is what the IB suggests you shouldn't do). For example. [edit] 7.0001 g.3 This is similar to the SL section. The Cosine rule is a = b + c . of course. with a correction for when the angle is not 90 degrees. the technique is rather simple. more approximation can be made with calculus by using second derivatives and such to find out points of inflection. which can be found by knowing where the sin and cos curves peak (and this can always be graphed). the triangle can be relabeled as required (or the letters can be switched around). the absolute uncertainty is ± 0. once again. for another example 0 = (y^2) . so I guess we don't have to remember it. we test points above and below the axes to determine where our curves are relative to their asymptotes. [edit] 8.11 The half life life can be determined from a graph by first taking a point on the graph.3). [edit] 8. The half life is the time (from the x-axis) between the two points. The values represented by a. For example. The vertical asymptote.2. in a graph of f(x) = [(x 3)^2] + 3.0001 g. log means log in base 10. The lower case letters are lengths of the sides of a triangle.3 Uncertainties and errors [edit] 8.e.1. we must find horizontal asymptote. log (109) = 9). b. If you don't understand the mathematics behind it by now. [edit] 8. you're probably in trouble.2 If a scale has been logged. [edit] 7. though it is positive rather than negative.71. The amplitude of the resulting function will be the difference between the maximum and minimum values. and minimums. an object weighing 1.

then carry this value and uncertainty on to the next. 12 . Relative uncertainty is often used to grasp a qualitative idea of the precision and accuracy of your measuring device.01).3. let I/A=1.Add absolute uncertainties Multiplication and Division . then the sampled results will be almost random compared to the actual signal.1)/2 that is equal to 0.3-log1.2 Carrying uncertainties through a series of calculations is fairly simple.3 The following problems can be caused by digital equipment : Quantization : This is caused by converting continuous analogue data into individual digital numbers. Sampling frequency : The digital systems can only 'grab' a piece of data every x sec (let's say 0.0069 %. If the data is changing significantly within this amount of time.Add relative uncertainties This is a example of finding error for log. [edit] 8.3. Follow these rules based on the type of calculations you are carrying out: Addition and Subtraction . Just remember to calculate the uncertainty at the end of each calculation.2(+/-)0. [edit] 8.04 in its significant figure.precentage of ± 0.1 then its uncertainty is (log1.