GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

PREPARED BY: SEMIN SANURI DEPARTMENT OF MARINE ENGINEERING

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

OUTLINE:
1. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE 2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES 3. COMPRESSOR 4. BURNER SECTION 5. TURBINE

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

1. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE:
Gas turbine cycle is best depicted by the Brayton Cycle. The characteristics of the operating cycle are shown on the pressure-temperature map, the pressure-specific volume map, and the temperature-entropy map

is best described by the first law of thermodynamics. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE: The gas turbine. as a continuous flow machine. .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 1.

the numerical magnitude of the difference in potential energy is so small. relative to the other values in the equation. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE: In most gas turbine applications. This first law equation is rewritten as follows: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 1. that it is customary to disregard it.

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 1. . C is the velocity of the air entering the compressor or air and combustion products leaving the turbine. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE: For adiabatic processes (no heat transfer): where HP is horsepower. and gc is the gravitational constant 32.17 ft lbm/lbfsec2.

707 (more exactly 0. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE: Gas Turbine Horsepower Output: where 0.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 1.7068) converts Btu/sec to horsepower .

GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE: Gas Turbine Efficiency: Thermal efficiency (ηt) of a gas turbine. is defined as the work output divided by the fuel energy input. The work output is the total turbine work minus the work on the compressor (note compressor work is negative). Therefore. . considering the compression and expansion processes as being irreversible.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 1.

The following equation more exactly defines compressor efficiency: . COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Compressor Efficiency: Compressor efficiency (ηc) is directly proportional to the compressor pressure ratio and inversely proportional to the compressor discharge temperature.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2.

. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Compressor Horse Power: Compressor horsepower is the power that the compressor consumes in compressing the air and moving it into the combustor. where Wa is the air flow entering the compressor in lb/sec.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2.

Where this is the case the turbine inlet temperatures are calculated.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Turbine Efficiency: Tracking turbine efficiency would be an excellent method to monitor the health of a unit. In fact. they have become virtually impossible to measure on a long term basis. . as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) have climbed higher and higher. many manufacturers measure an intermediate turbine temperature for gas turbine control. However.

for single shaft machines. . the power used by the driven load.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2. It includes the horsepower to drive the compressor and. this horsepower should equal the power absorbed by the compressor plus losses. For units with separate power turbines. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Turbine Horse Power (Produced): Total horsepower produced by the turbine.

. or foreign object damage. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Power Turbine Efficiency: Decreases in power turbine efficiency are primarily the result of loss of material due to erosion. corrosion.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2.

. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: Power Turbine Horse Power: On free power turbines units. this is the horsepower generated to drive the driven load.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2.

COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES: The internal pressure. and velocity variations within the gas turbine are shown in figure below: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 2. temperature.

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3. when heated and expanded through the turbine section. Two types of compressors are in use today—they are the axial compressor and the centrifugal compressor. generator drive. high volume air which. Compressor performance is generally shown as pressure ratio plotted against airflow. while the centrifugal compressor is utilized in low horsepower applications. . etc. The axial compressor is used primarily in medium and high horsepower applications. provides the power output required by the process (mechanical drive. COMPRESSOR: The compressor provides the high pressure.).

mid-span. and tip just as the tangential velocities differ. The projection of the velocities in the axial direction are identified as Cx. Velocity triangles will differ at the blade hub. Air leaving the second stator stage has the same velocity triangle as the air leaving the first stator stage. Air leaves the rotating stage with an absolute velocity C2 and direction θ2.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3. and the tangential components are Cu. The velocity of this air relative to the rotating blade is W1 at the direction β1. and a relative velocity W2 and direction β2. COMPRESSOR: The best way to illustrate airflow through a axial compressor stage is by constructing velocity triangles as figure below: Air leaves the stator vanes at an absolute velocity of C1 and direction θ1. . The flow velocity is represented by the length of the vector.

and referring to feet of head: where AP/ρ is pressure rise across stage and Head is pressure rise of the stage measured in feet head of the flowing fluid. ρ. COMPRESSOR: Pressure rise across each stage is a function of the air density. and the change in velocity. . From the velocity triangles the pressure rise per stage is determined: This expression can be further simplified by combining the differential pressure and density.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3.

and MW is the mole weight. where Zave is the average compressibility factor of air. . COMPRESSOR: The standard equation for compressor head is given below.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3.

COMPRESSOR: Before proceeding further. we will define the elements of an airfoil: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3.

each stage consisting of an impeller and a diffuser. Impellers may be either open.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3. like the axial compressor. The centrifugal compressor is made up of one or more stages. COMPRESSOR: Considering the Centrifugal Compressor: The centrifugal compressor. turning) by means of rotating impellers. . is a dynamic machine that achieves compression by applying inertial forces to the air (acceleration. deceleration. semienclosed. or enclosed design. The impeller is the rotating element and the diffuser is the stationary element.

COMPRESSOR: Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor: Centrifugal force.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3. . applied in this way. is significant in development of pressure. Upon exiting impeller. Same deceleration of flow or “diffuser action” that causes pressure build-up in axial flow compressor also occurs in centrifugal compressor. air moves into diffuser (flow decelerator).

COMPRESSOR: Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor: Impeller is the only means of adding energy to the air and all the work on the air is done by these elements. can only convert velocity energy into pressure energy (and incur losses). such as guide vanes and diffusers. The stationary components. Pressure from impeller eye to impeller outlet is represented by the following: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3.

measures pressure rise associated with the radial / centrifugal field. COMPRESSOR: Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor: represents the increase in kinetic energy contributed to the air by the impeller. Absolute velocity C1 (entering the impeller) increases in magnitude to C2 (leaving impeller).GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3. . is associated with the relative velocity of the air entering and exiting the impeller.

COMPRESSOR: Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor: The ideal head is defined by the following relationship: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 3.

BURNER SECTION: The burner section is made up of the diffuser duct. Diffuser efficiency is defined as: . fuel nozzle and the transition duct. the combustor. Diffuser efficiency: The fraction of the velocity head that is converted to static pressure (diffuser efficiency) is a function of the area ratio and diffuser angle.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 4.

5. 2. BURNER SECTION: PROPERTIES OF A GOOD BURNER: 1. UNIFORM OR CONTROLLED DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE. LOW PRESSURE LOSS. HIGH COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 4. 6. 3. 9. STABLE COMBUSTION. 7. 4. LONG LIFE. 8. FREEDOM FROM BLOWOUT. . EASY STARTING. LOW NOX FORMATION. FOR LIQUID FUEL OPERATION MINIMUM CARBON ACCUMULATION.

RAPID ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION. FUEL FLOW. 4. Combustor efficiency is defined as: .GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 4. 5. 2. VARIATION IN FUEL PROPERTIES. BURNER SECTION: COMBUSTORS MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND VARIOUS CONDITIONS: 1. DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE. 3. A WIDE RANGE OF AIR FLOW.

3. Combustor efficiency is defined as: . 4. RAPID ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION. BURNER SECTION: COMBUSTORS MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND VARIOUS CONDITIONS: 1. A WIDE RANGE OF AIR FLOW. VARIATION IN FUEL PROPERTIES.GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY 4. DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE. 2. 5. FUEL FLOW.

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