# Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering  College

Laboratory Manual

Network Theory

For Second Year Students

Manual made by Ms. V.A. Kulkarni

FOREWORD

It is my great pleasure to present this laboratory manual for second year engineering students for the subject of Network Theory, keeping in view the vast coverage required to visualize the basic concepts of various networks using basic components. NT covers designing a network for specific input/output requirements. This being a core subject, it becomes very essential to have clear theoretical and practical designing aspects. This lab manual provides a platform to the students for understanding the basic concepts of network theory. This practical background will help students to gain confidence in qualitative and quantitative approach to electronic networks. Good Luck for your Enjoyable Laboratory Sessions.

LABORATORY MANUAL CONTENTS  This manual is intended for the second year students of engineering branches in the subject of network theory. detailed procedure and graphs wherever required. Good Luck for your Enjoyable Laboratory Sessions Ms. V.Kulkarni Author 3  . This manual typically contains practical/Lab Sessions related to Network Theory covering various aspects related the subject to enhance understanding. A. In this manual we have made the efforts to cover various experiments on network theory with detailed circuit diagrams. Students are advised to thoroughly go through this manual rather than only topics mentioned in the syllabus as practical aspects are the key to understanding and conceptual visualization of theoretical aspects covered in the books.

SUBJECT INDEX  1. To plot frequency response of a series resonant circuit. Design of a Low Pass Filter. 3. To observe and analyze the waveform across a capacitor of a series RC circuit exited by a unit step function. 5. 4  . Verification of Superposition Theorem. 4. 3. 9. Verification of Maximum power transfer theorem. Lab exercise: 1. 5. Evaluation and Marking Systems. Design of a High Pass Filter. 10.Do’s and Don’ts 2. Verification of Thevenin’s Theorem. 6. Conduction of Viva­Voce Examination. 8. To measure input impedance and output impedance of a given two port network. Verification of Norton’s theorem. To plot frequency response of a parallel resonant circuit. 7. 4. Quiz on the subject. 2.

Instruction for Laboratory Teachers: 1.Dos and Don‛ts in Laboratory: 1. Do not handle any equipment before reading the instructions/Instruction manuals. The promptness of submission should be encouraged by way of marking and evaluation patterns that will benefit the sincere students. 2. Strictly observe the instructions given by the teacher/Lab Instructor. 2. 3. 4. 5  . Apply proper voltage to the circuit as given in procedure. Submission related to whatever lab work has been completed should be done during the next lab session. Check CRO probe before connecting it.

3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-  1  R  1  I1  R  2  I2  R3  I3  2  V2  15 VOLTS  l  2  V1  10 VOLTS l  1  THEORY: . Similarly connect only V2 =15 volts across terminals 2-2l and short circuit terminals 1-1l that is V1=0 volts. Calculate theoretical values of currents. I2= I2‛+ I2‛.If network contains two or more than two sources. connecting wires. etc. I3‛. Now connect only V1=10 volts across terminals1-1l and short circuit terminals 2-2l that is V2=0 volts. C.To verify Superposition theorem. PROCEDURE:1.EXPERIMENT. Resistors. For verifying superposition theorem I1= I1‛+ I1”. I2. It may be stated as follows. I2‛. 1  AIM: . and I3. 8. power supply across terminals 1-1l and apply voltage of say V1=10 volts and similarly across terminals 2-2l apply voltage of say V2=15 volts 2. 5. then principle of superposition theorem is used to simplify network calculations. then the current which flows at any point is the vector sum of all currents which would flow at that point if each source was considered separately and all other sources replaced at the time by impedance equal to their internal impedances. 6.Breadboard. Measure current flowing through all branches for V1=0 volts and V2=15 volts using a milliameter. I3=I3‛+I3”. Connect D. Milliammeter.NO. I3”. say these currents are I1”. these values should be approximately equal to measured values of currents. say these currents are I1‛. 4. say these currents are I1. Measure current flowing through all branches. Measure currents flowing through all branches for V1=10 volts V2=0 volts using a milliameter. APPARATUS: .  6  . 7. In a bilateral network if two or more than two energy sources are present. I2”.

The branch current is the algebraic sum of currents due to individual voltage source when all other voltage sources are short circuited; hence superposition theorem has been verified.OBSERVATION TABLE:- V1=10VOLTS V2=15VOLTS I1= I2= I3= V1=10VOLTS V2=0 VOLTS I1‛= I2‛= I3‛= V1=0VOLTS V2=15VOLTS I1”= I2”= I3”= R1  1  I1  V1  R3  10V 1  I3  R2  I2  2  V2  15V  2  R1  1  I1  V1  R3  10V  1  I3  R2  I2  2  V2  15V  2  CONCLUSION: .  7  .

Vary the dc voltage across terminals 1-1l and repeat step 2. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- R1  1  R2  2  R3  RL 1  2  THEORY:The current flowing through the load impedance R L connected across the terminals 2 & 2 l of a network containing impedance & energy sources is the same as it would flow if this load impedance were connected across a simple constant voltage source whose generated emf is an open circuited voltage. Calculate Vth and Rth by theoretical calculations.  8  . 4.To verify Thevenin‛s theorem. take two/three readings. Apply dc voltage across terminals 1-1l. measured across the network terminals 2 & 2 l. across which load impedance RL is connected. 3. 2  AIM: . Disconnect the applied voltage at terminals 1-1l and voltmeter at terminals 2-2l .EXPERIMENT. the theoretical values and measured values of Vth and Rth should be approximately equal. This voltage is known as open circuit voltage or Thevenin‛s voltage (Vth). D. NO. Connect load resistor RL across terminals 2-2l and measure IL for applied dc voltage.Bread board. 7. when all sources have been replaced by impedances and sources with output terminals 2 & 2 l. PROCEDURE:1. With the help of multimeter measure resistance between terminals 2-2l . etc. Its internal impedance is the same as the impedance of the network looking back into the terminals 2 & 2l . 6. call this voltage as Vdc. This is known as Thevenin‛s resistance (Rth). 5. resistors. 2. power supply. Now short terminals 1-1l and connect multimeter across terminals 2-2l . connecting wires. Connect voltmeter across terminals 2-2l and measure voltage on voltmeter. APPARATUS: . multimeter.C.

hence Thevenin‛s theorem has been verified. 9  . Vdc Measured values Rth Vth IL Theoretical values Rth Vth IL CONCLUSION: .The theoretical values and measured values of Vth and Rth and IL are approximately equal.No.OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr.

milliammeter (0-50mA).Breadboard. this resistance is known as Req.To verify Norton‛s theorem. c. 4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- R1  1  R2  2  R3  RL 1  2  THEORY:Any two terminal linear network. voltage across terminals 1-1l and repeat step 2. the calculated values and measured values of Isc and Rth should be approximately equal. 3  AIM: . voltage across terminals 1-1l called this voltage Vdc.C. 2. with all energy sources eliminated except their internal impedances. The Isc is short circuit current between the network and Y AB is the admittance measured between the terminals. connecting wires. Connect RL across terminals 2-2l and measure IL by milliammeter for applied D.EXPERIMENT NO. voltage. power supply (0-30V). etc. this is the short circuit (Isc) current. Calculate Isc and Req by using formulae. and note down the reading . multimeter. resistors. APPARATUS: . can be replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of a current source Isc in parallel with an admittance Y AB . Short terminals 1-1l and connect Multimeter (keep it on resistance range) across terminals 2-2l . Connect milliammeter across terminals 2-2l and measure current. 5. 7. c. Disconnect the applied voltage at terminals 1-1l and milliammeter at terminals 2-2l . Apply d. consisting of generators and impedances.  10  . PROCEDURE:1. 6. take three readings. 3.C. Vary the d. D.

The Calculated values and measured values of Isc.OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr. IL. Vdc Isc Measured values Req IL Isc Calculated values Req IL CONCLUSION: . 11  . Req are approximately equal; hence Norton‛s theorem has been verified.No.

2. 1. NO. 4. milliammeter. Vary RL gradually from minimum value and measure corresponding load current IL .EXPERIMENT. etc. Remove the d. 6. 5. 12  .Breadboard. resistance. From the graph note peak power point and correspondingly load resistance.c. Draw the graph of power v/s load resistances. measured looking back into the terminals of the network. Remove load resistance connected across terminals 2-2l and measure the resistance with the help of Multimeter.To verify maximum power transfer theorem. Zl  E ZL PROCEDURE:1. power supply of say Vdc=20 volts across terminal 1-1l . APPARATUS: . 7. 3.c. Verify the same using calculations. multimeter. This resistance is approximately equal to the load resistance found in step 6. 4  AIM: .power supply and short circuit the terminals 1-1l. potentiometer. Connect variable load RL across terminals 2-2l . Connect d. Make the connections according to circuit diagram. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:1  R1  R2  2  +  mA _  _  +  Vdc  R3  _  V  RL  l  1  2  l  THEORY:Maximum power will be delivered by a network to an impedance Z R if the impedance of ZR is the conjugate of the impedance Zl of the network. Find load power for each value of RL and IL.

IL CONCLUSION: .No. Load resistance = R L=VL/IL Load current IL Power = VL .  IL  RL  MAX POWER  RL 13  .OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr.The maximum power transfer takes place from the network to the load when equivalent resistance of the network between terminals 2-2l is equal to the load resistance.

XL=Xc or 2pfL = 1/2pfc Therefore fr = 1/2pΓLC 14  . X=0 (i. the inductive reactance (XL= 2pfl) increases linearly and the capacitive reactance (Xc= 1/2pfc) decreases exponentially. purely resistive and is equal to R . Resistance. At this particular resonant frequency a circuit is in series resonance. Inductance. Resonance occurs at that frequency when.. At resonant frequency fr .Impedance of the circuit is minimum .e.e. . Phase angle q = tan-1 (XL-Xc)/R If the frequency of the signal fed to such a series circuit is increased from minimum .EXPERIMENT NO 5.  AIM: To plot frequency response of series resonance circuit.Circuit current .Net reactance . millimeter (A. function generator. XL=Xc) . I is in phase with the applied voltage V (i. APPARATUS: Breadboard. capacitor. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: R  L  C  Vs Fun  Gen  MA  THEORY:In series RLC circuit Impedance Z = R2 + (XL –Xc) 2 Current I = V/Z And. connecting wires etc. phase angle q = 0).C).Current I through the circuit is maximum and equal to V/R .

Imax or the 3dB points.. current  Io  Io/.10k. Calculate theoretical frequency using fr =1/2π√LC 6.  15  . 5. find the frequency on the graph at which current is maximum.BW of series RLC circuit : For frequency above and below resonant frequency fr.20k……. Set the function generator output voltage to say Vs=10 Volts.200. Plot the graph of frequency v/s current. W= f2 – f1 f1  fo  f2  Freq  Therefore from above figs Bandwidth = Df = f2-f1 Hz . f1 and f2 are frequencies at which the circuit current is 0. this frequency is known as Resonant frequency and this should be approximately to the theoretical frequency calculated in step 5.707 B. And quality factor Q = fr/Df = fr/f2-f1 PROCEDURE: 1.1000.20..707 times the maximum current . 4.30…. Connect function generator and milliammeter as shown in circuit diagram. For applied signal frequency measure current with the help of milliammeter. 2.100.100kHz)..…. 3. Increase the function generator output signal frequency from minimum say 10 Hz to a maximum signal frequency of 100KHz in decade steps(10.2000….

OBSERVATION TABLE: SR. 16  .NO 10Hz 20Hz 1KHz 100kHz Frequency Current (mA) CONCLUSION: At resonance the current is maximum because the circuit impedance is minimum and is equal to the value of resistance.

If XL < Xc . this property of the resonant circuit is expressed in terms of it‛s bandwidth (BW) 17  . LED. then Ic >IL & the circuit acts capacitively . milliammeter. resistor. APPARATUS:-Bread board. As in series resonance . Minimum line current . capacitor. then IL >Ic & the circuit acts inductively. then IL =Ic & hence the circuit acts as a pure resistor . CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- Ic  I  IL  0. In parallel resonant circuit at resonance condition 1. all resonance circuit have the property of discriminating between the frequency at resonance frequency (fr) and these not at resonance . connecting wires etc. Phase difference between the circuit current and the applied voltage is zero 2. inductor. function generator.1m Ic  L1  1uH  90  Vs 90  S mA  0­30mA  IL  THEORY:The circuit having an inductor & capacitor connected in parallel is called parallel resonant circuit If Xc < XL.6  AIM:-To plot frequency response of parallel resonant circuit. Maximum impedance 3.EXPERIMENT NO. If XL = Xc.

From the recorded readings of current in step 6 plot a graph of frequency versus current & mark the resonance frequency. Knowing the values of L and C calculate and record the resonance frequency of parallel resonance circuit.PROCEDURE :1. 7.Record the current I through the circuit 4.  I Fr  f  18  . 3. 8. 2. Compare & record the difference in the resonance frequency calculated at step 2 & that measured in step4 6.) (This is the resonance frequency of the parallel resonance circuit because at parallel resonance . Vary the input frequency in steps of 500 Hz around the resonance frequency & in each step record the value of circuit current. Increase the frequency gradually and record the resonance frequency Fr at which the circuit current becomes minimum (that is LED does not glows or glows very dimly. Set the output of function generator to 4 Vrms and frequency to 1khz . current I through parallel LC circuit will be minimum) 5. Find bandwidth (B W) & quality factor Q CONCLUSION:-LED will glow at all frequencies other than at resonant frequency that is circuit impedance is maximum & circuit current is minimum at resonant condition. Make the connections on breadboard according to circuit diagram. Mark the -3 dB points on the plotted graph.

From this two are independent and two are dependent variables. two linear equations are required. Z21 = V2/I1 I2=0  19  . I2. 3. i. Connect dc power supply Va =5V at port 1-1‛ and keep output port open circuited i. I1 and I2 (I2=0) find input driving point impedance where V1=Va.EXPERIMENT NO. etc.e. Measure the current I1 by connecting milliammeter in series with R1.To measure input impedance and output impedance of a given two port network APPARATUS :. In the two port network . connecting wires. 4.I2 V2=Z21. I1 and V2 . I2=0.e.I1+ Z22. From these values of V1. resistance . 2. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:R1  1  I1  R2  2  +  V1  _  R3  R4  V2  l  1  2  l THEORY:In two port network port variables are port currents and port voltages. PROCEDURE :1.e. These are the voltages and currents at the input and output ports . To describe relationship between ports voltages and currents . V2.I2+Z22.I2 From these equations we can find out all Z parameters.7  AIM :. By expressing V1 and V2 in terms of I1 and I2 V1=Z11. multimeter .Breadboard . Measure voltage V2 across R4 by Multimeter. Z11 = V1/I1 I2=0 & Find forward transfer impedance i. there are four variables . namely V1 .

6. 20  . Measure the voltage V1 across R3 by multimeter . 7. V1 .e. Measure the current I2 by connecting milliammeter in series with supply . Connect dc power supply Vb= 5v at port 2-2‛ and keep input port open circuited i. CONCLUSION:-Since Z12=Z21 the circuit is reciprocal and since Z11 = Z22 the circuit is not symmetrical. 8. Calculate z-parameters theoretically. I2 and I1( I1=0) find output driving point impedance that is Z22 = V2/I2 I1=0 & Z12 = V1/I2 I1=0 9. These values should be approximately equal to the practical values of z-parameters. From this value of V2 .5. I1=0.

20.To study high pass filter.30…. 4. 2. 8  AIM :. What is pass band.An electric wave filter or simply filter is one electric network which passes or allowed unattenuated transmission of electric signal within certain frequency range & stops transmission of electric signal outside this range..1000. What is stop band. Set the function generator output voltage to say Vs=10 Volts. Calculate gain for the frequency . CRO(dual trace). Plot the graph of frequency v/s gain.200.EXPERIMENT NO.2000…. For applied signal frequency measure voltage.….100..20k……. PARAMETERS OF HIGH PASS FILTER:1. What is cut-off frequency. :-Signal Generator. Find cutoff freq and Ro. Connecting Wires APPARTUS THEORY :. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :- C  1uF C  1uF  L  1uH  PROCEDURE: Ø Ø Ø Connect function generator as shown in circuit diagram. Increase the function generator output signal frequency from minimum say 10 Hz to a maximum signal frequency of 1MHz in decade steps(10. Ø Ø Ø Ø 21  . 3.10k.. What is Characteristic impedance.).

Frequency f Vi Vo Gain = 20 log Vo/ Vi FORMULAS Cut. 22  .No. we have studied high pass flter.OBSERVATION:S.off frequency Fc = 1 / 4Π (LC)1/2 RO = (L / C )1/ 2 CONCLUSION:In this way .

10k. PARAMETERS OF LOW PASS FILTER:1.To study Low pass filter. What is Characteristic impedance. Ø For applied signal frequency measure voltage. 9  AIM :. What is pass band. 4.20k……. 3.30…..2000….200. Ø Calculate gain for the frequency . Ø Set the function generator output voltage to say Vs=10 Volts. 2... What is cut-off frequency.).….1000. APPARTUS :-Signal Generator.EXPERIMENT NO.20.100. CRO(dual trace). CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :- L1  1uH L2  1uH  C1  1uF  PROCEDURE :Ø Connect function generator as shown in circuit diagram. What is stop band. Connecting Wires THEORY :. Ø Plot the graph of frequency v/s gain. Ø Find cutoff freq and Ro. 23  .An electric wave filter or simply filter is one electric network which passes or allowed attenuated transmission of electric signal within certain frequency range & stops transmission of electric signal outside this range. Ø Increase the function generator output signal frequency from minimum say 10 Hz to a maximum signal frequency of 1MHz in decade steps(10.

24  .In this way we study Low Pass Filter.off frequency Fc = 1 / 2Π (LC)1/2 RO = (L / C )1/ 2 CONCLUSION :.No.OBSERVATIONS :S. Frequency f Vi Vo Gain = 20 log Vo/ Vi FORMULAS Cut.

Therefore V = Vcc (1 – e­t/RC)  Vc t 25  . = 0) vf = target capacitor voltage (i.e. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:- V( )  t  +  1  _  0  t  s  v  s  +  ­ 1m ­  CRO  Input Excitation  Circuit diagram  THEORY:The basic switching equation that applies any RC circuit is: V = vi + (vf – vi )(1 – e­t/RC) Where V = instantaneous capacitor voltage vi = initial capacitor voltage (i.EXPERIMENT NO. capacitor and connecting wires.Function generator. 10  AIM: . resistor.To observe and analyze the waveform across capacitor of a series RC circuit excited by a unit step function. APPARATUS: .e. CRO.= vcc) t = charging time RC = time constant. breadboard.

For the circuit setup calculate and record the voltage across capacitor on CRO CONCLUSION :If we excite the capacitor by unit step function capacitor will charge for period G=RC time constant of the ckt. Connect the setup as shown in diagram . Set the function generator at pulse of Vp-p and pulse tme tp= 1ms 4. 2.PROCEDURE:1. Calculate the RC time constant α (Z=RC) of the circuit and record it . 3. 26  .

9. 27. 4. 22. 10. 25. 6. 12. 20. 13. 19. 5. 28. 11. 16.Questions for Quiz on NT. cutset matrix and tieset matrix? What are the Laplace transform and sin (wt) and cos (wt) ? What is gate function. 30. 17. 8. 26. State the function of resistor. 18. 23. 14. 3. draw it? State the basic principle of superposition theorem? What are the steps to convert any network into its thevenin‛s equivalent? Convert the following network into Norton‛s equivalent circuit? What is maximum power transfer theorem? When a linear network is said to be reciprocal or bilateral? 27  . 29. 24. 7. 15. 2. 21. capacitor and inductor in a circuit? What are the Kirchhoff‛s laws? What is mesh analysis or loop analysis? What is node or junction analysis? What is mean by network and what are different types of networks? Explain the term magnetic coupling? State the meaning of resonance in LC circuit? What is the impedance of series LC circuit? State the condition for resonance in a series LC circuit? What are the characteristics of series LC circuit at resonance? Explain the relationship between the Q factor and bandwidth? What are the different characteristics of LC parallel circuit at resonance? List a few applications of series and parallel LC circuit? What is mean by attenuator? What are the basic requirements of attenuator? What are the different types of symmetrical and asymmetrical attenuator? What is minimum loss attenuator? What is balanced and unbalanced attenuator? Where balanced attenuator is required? What is mean by equalizers? What are the types of equalizers? What is inverse impedance? What are the different parameters of linear time invariant two port network? What is linear graph? What are the properties of trees? What is incidence matrix.  1.

Conduction of Viva­Voce Examinations:  Teacher should conduct oral exams of the students with full preparation. It is a wrong approach or concept to award the students by way of easy marking to get cheap popularity among the students. To make it meaningful. which should be critically suppressed in front of the students. Teachers taking such examinations should not have ill thoughts about each other and courtesies should be offered to each other in case of difference of opinion.  5. the questions should be such that depth of the students in the subject is tested. which they do not deserve. Evaluation and marking system:  Basic honesty in the evaluation and marking system is absolutely essential and in the process impartial nature of the evaluator is required in the examination system to become. the objective questions with guess are to be avoided. Oral examinations are to be conducted in cordial environment amongst the teachers taking the examination. 28  . The marking patterns should be justifiable to the students without any ambiguity and teacher should see that students are faced with just circumstances.4. Normally. It is a primary responsibility of the teacher to see that right students who are really putting up lot of hard work with right kind of intelligence are correctly awarded.