Contents

4 6 8 10

IN THIS BOOK Introduction WHAT COASTS ARE LIKE What makes a coast? Headlands Bays

HOW COASTS ERODE 12 Pounding waves, crashing cliffs 14 Wearing cliffs away 16 Why cliffs are different shapes 18 Caves, arches and stacks 20 Estuaries, lochs and fjords
22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

BEACHES Waves on the beach Sand and shingle beaches Beaches of many uses Moving sand Deltas LIVING BY THE SEA Living on crumbling cliffs Living by a stormy beach Protecting yourself from the sea How should we use the coast? Learning to leave the coast alone Beach pollution Wildlife at the coast

REFERENCE 46 Glossary 48 Index Glossary words
There is a glossary on pags 46–47. Glossary terms are referred to in the text by using CAPITALS.
A surfer ‘in the tube’

You can see this most easily if you drop something that floats on the surf.com 28 . This is known as longshore drift. but remember it is only safe to do so when waves are small. you will see that the float has not been washed up onto the beach. Marker starts here and is pushed inshore at an angle. The water in the spent breaker then rushes directly back down the steepest slope of the beach.CurriculumVisions. When you stand in the surf. but instead move up at an angle (picture ). But look again and you will see that most waves do not go straight up the beach. This is the way sand moves along a beach. nor been washed out to sea. As a result. but are usually at an angle. but has drifted sideways along the shore (picture ). A B Wave brings surf onshore at an angle. Each time a wave breaks it pushes sand and water up the beach in the direction of its approach – usually at an angle to the beach. Weblink: www. Backwash carries sand down the steepest part of the beach. Experience it for yourself when you are next at the seaside. This is what causes sand to move along the beach – and even build new beaches. General movement of sand (called longshore drift). such as spits and BARS.BEACHES Moving sand Waves rarely break straight onto a beach. Direction that waves approach. you notice the way the water moves up and down. After a few breakers have run up the beach. sand is carried in sawtooth fashion along the beach. Beach features produced by moving sand. Path of a sand grain. Marker moves down beach slope.

California. Some kinds of transport are natural. of drifting sand caught in the waves. and they often try to trap the sand by building fences – called GROYNES – in the beach (see also page 37).BEACHES How to spot sand on the move There are many features on the beach that show you how sand nearly always moves in the same direction. So. Picture shows a new beach built across a bay by the settling out. California. As the waves carry the sand into deeper water.CurriculumVisions. When drift works Waves will carry sand all year long. A beach almost closing off an estuary. Sand and pebbles drift in the same direction as the wind blows. A lot of sand (brown colour) is being churned up by the water. or DEPOSITING. This is Santa Monica. You can see how the waves are pushing it to the left. Drifting sand can cause problems for seaside resorts. 29 Weblink: www. The sand will be piled up against the side it is being carried toward. This example is Stinson Beach. Less sand behind groyne Sand trapped by groyne. Beach fences (groynes) can be used to find out the direction in which beach sand is drifting. although the land has changed direction. and so on. These fences are ideal for spotting the direction of drift (picture ). The movement of sand along a beach is called TRANSPORT. Notice that. Big pebbles will only be carried during storms. and some are man-made. on average. Where the sand settles.com . towards the northeast. the waves and sand have not. Waves blow at an angle to the beach Sand being driven to the left From the air you can more easily see sand being carried along by waves and currents. This kind of long beach is called a SAND SPIT. it settles out. Picture shows a beach from the air. a new beach begins to form. Natural transport is called LONGSHORE DRIFT. if the wind blows from the southwest for most of the year. Beach groyne Drift of sand due to waves. the sand will drift.