2001 DESIGN GUIDE

122 State Street, Suite 507 • Madison, WI 53703 Tel: (608) 255-3114 • Fax: (608) 255-3371

WISCONSIN ASPHALT PAVEMENT ASSOCIATION DESIGN GUIDE MAY, 2001
This version of the 2001 WAPA Design Guide is provided as a web-based document which can be viewed, downloaded, and/or printed as desired. The WAPA web site allows you to complete an on-line registration which will ensure that your name appears on our list of registered users and that you will be notified of updates to this Guide as they are published. If you have not yet registered, please do so by visiting the WAPA website or by faxing or emailing the following information directly to WAPA: Name Title Employer Address City/State/Zip Phone Fax Email If you have any questions regarding the information in this Guide or if you need assistance in the design, construction, or rehabilitation of Hot-Mixed Asphalt pavements, members of the Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association are ready to help. Please contact: Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association 122 State Street, Suite 507 Madison, WI 53703 PH: (608) 255-3114 FAX: (608) 255-3371 Email: wiasppav@execpc.com Web Site: www.wispave.org

FOREWORD This Asphalt Paving Design Guide has been prepared to assist you in understanding Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement design, construction and rehabilitation. Quality HMA pavement may be constructed in a wide range of soil, weather and loading conditions. The examples contained in this Design Guide are designs, procedures, and applications that have been proved successful in the State of Wisconsin. All HMA mixtures given in this Design Guide are proven mixes which are readily available throughout the State of Wisconsin from companies experienced in producing and constructing quality HMA pavements. This Design Guide was developed based on information contained in the State of Wisconsin Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction and is intended for use by architects, engineers, developers, owners and governmental officials. References to authorities and agencies do not constitute their endorsement of this Design Guide. If further clarification of the material presented is desired, you are encouraged to contact the appropriate authority, review the references cited, or contact the Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association or a WAPA member in your area. This Design Guide has been developed to provide you with basic information on HMA pavements so that you can develop an understanding of those topics which are critical in the design and construction of quality HMA pavements. This Design Guide is not intended to preclude the design of HMA pavements based on sound pavement engineering principles and valid data on soils and traffic. The reader is cautioned that the information contained in this Design Guide may be insufficient when used alone. Other resource materials and authorities should be consulted when field conditions differ from those given in this Design Guide. This Design Guide presents background information on HMA pavements and pavement design considerations (Sections 1 -5). Included thickness design tables (Section 6) are applicable for a variety of roadway and other uses. Sections on pavement management (Section 7), pavement rehabilitation (Section 8), and special use HMA (Section 9) are also provided.

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OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE

The Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association, and its members whose names appear in the Membership Directory in Section 12, are dedicated to fulfilling these objectives: ! Cultivation of sound relationships and cooperative effort between members and governmental agencies, and other similar organizations and associations Stimulation of public interest in the durability, economies, safety features and other benefits accruing through the use of asphalt paving materials. Advocation of sound planning in highway construction and maintenance to insure maximum benefit from the expenditure of public funds. Dissemination of information gathered from all available sources, resulting from extensive research, relating to the manufacture and uses of asphalt paving materials.

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The ultimate quality of your asphalt paving project is directly related to the experience, skill and equipment of the contractor doing the job. That is why the Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association urges you to be sure that bidders for your asphalt paving project are properly qualified HMA pavers. The Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association takes pride in presenting this 2001 Design Guide, and will be happy to provide you with additional information.

CREDITS The 2001 Design Guide has been written and developed under the direction of Dr. James Crovetti, Marquette University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Special thanks are also extended to Melissa Janda for her cover art.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 2.0

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 QUALITY HMA PAVEMENTS ..................................... 3 3 3 4 4 4

QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSURANCE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMA PAVEMENT STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMA with Aggregate Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Full-Depth HMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0

MATERIALS FOR HMA PAVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ASPHALT CEMENT BINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CUTBACK ASPHALTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ASPHALT BINDER GRADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Performance Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 AGGREGATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Natural Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Recycled Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Synthetic Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 AGGREGATES FOR BASE COURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Desirable Properties of Aggregates for Base Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 AGGREGATES FOR HMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Desirable Properties of Aggregates for HMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4.0

HMA MIX DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 WHAT IS AN HMA MIX DESIGN ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPERTIES CONSIDERED IN MIX DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WISDOT HMA PAVEMENT TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AGGREGATES FOR HMA LAYERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMA LAYER THICKNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JOB MIX FORMULA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WISDOT HMA DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 15 16 17 17 17

5.0

PAVEMENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 19 20 20 21 24 24 25 25 25 26

TRAFFIC LOADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRAFFIC CLASSIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESAL FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN DAILY ESALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESAL CALCULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUBGRADE SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subgrade Soil Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAINAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsurface Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEOTEXTILE FABRICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

6.0 7.0

THICKNESS GUIDES FOR HMA PAVEMENTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 ESTABLISHING A PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 DEFINITION AND USE OF PASER MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

8.0

PAVEMENT REHABILITATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 HMA OVERLAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thin HMA Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural HMA Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open-Graded Friction Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SURFACE PREPARATION METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Localized Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMA Cold Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In-Place Recycling (Pulverizing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Pavement Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40

9.0

HMA FOR RECREATIONAL AND OTHER USES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 SIDEWALKS AND WALKWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BICYCLE AND GOLF CART PATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PLAY AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENNIS COURTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASPHALT-RUBBER RUNNING TRACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HMA FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAILROAD TRACK BEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43

10.0 11.0 12.0

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 CONVERSION TABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 MEMBER AND ASSOCIATE MEMBER FIRMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Hot Mix Asphalt pavements have many advantages over pavement surfaces constructed using other materials. A quality mix is more easily maintained because the asphalt mixture is produced in a central plant to strict specifications and the mix is not altered in transit. It's Durable. Asphalt pavements have long life. All asphalt pavements have a bridging action and because they're flexible can withstand occasional overloads without serious damage. They are not harmed by ice and snow removal chemicals. It's Economical. Asphalt pavements can be designed for the intended use. There's no need to use a predetermined pavement thickness when conditions permit otherwise. Asphalt also permits the use of local materials with corresponding savings. It's Safe. Asphalt pavements offer high skid resistance and provide high contrast and improved visibility for traffic markings. The dark color also reduces glare and melts ice and snow more rapidly than other pavement types. Asphalt pavement materials also eliminate potentially dangerous and expensive pavement blow-ups. It's Convenient. Asphalt pavements require no curing or extensive site preparation. Traffic can use the pavement immediately following final rolling. It's Adaptable. Asphalt pavements can be designed to suit any conditions of traffic, soils and materials. It's Smooth. Asphalt pavements provide a more uniform surface and a quiet ride unmatched by other pavements. It's Attractive. Asphalt pavements have no built-in, unsightly cracks. They blend with and enhances the natural surroundings. It's Recyclable. Asphalt pavements are completely recyclable. Not only can the aggregate be reused, the asphalt cement binder retains its cementing properties. Cold milling, to remove a predetermined depth of asphalt material, will also furnish a ready supply of reclaimed mix for use in hot-mix recycling - a process which can be repeated over and over again as the need arises in the years ahead.

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2.0 QUALITY HMA PAVEMENTS

Quality Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavements are constructed using a designed paving mixture. The required amount of each mixture ingredient is typically established through a recognized mix design procedure as described in Section 4. To ensure quality HMA pavements, a documented mix design report should be provided for each paving project. Quality HMA is produced in a mixing plant under controlled conditions. The mixture is transported, placed and compacted while still hot. Specially designed paving machines place the mixture to the required thicknesses and grade specifications. After the mixture has been rolled to desired compaction, it's ready for immediate traffic use.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

A Quality Management Program (QMP) represents a cooperative effort between the contractor and owner aimed at assuring the construction of quality HMA pavements. The contractor provides and maintains Quality Control (QC) during the project to ensure continual production of quality HMA which meets or exceeds project specifications. The owner provides Quality Assurance (QA) by conducting tests on HMA samples taken at the mixing plant. Samples are obtained by the contractor under the observation of, or in a manner approved by the owner. All QMP testing must be conducted by a WISDOT Certified Asphaltic Technician.

ASSURANCE TESTING

Assurance testing may be requested by the owner to compare with the contractor’s quality control test data. Assurance tests may include any or all of the following tests: aggregate gradation, asphalt binder content, bulk specific gravity of compacted mixtures, maximum specific gravity, air voids content, and voids in the mineral aggregate. Assurance tests are conducted by the owner on split samples obtained by the contractor at the point of production. Differences between the owner’s split sample test results and the contractor’s quality control test results are considered acceptable if they fall within limits established by WISDOT. In the event comparison test results variations are outside established limits, the current WISDOT procedures governing assurance testing should be followed.

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HMA PAVEMENT STRUCTURES HMA with Aggregate Bases HMA pavements with aggregate bases are appropriate for use where local aggregates and subsurface drainage conditions are suitable. These pavements are constructed by first placing and compacting an aggregate base on a prepared subgrade. The HMA materials are then placed and compacted in layers to complete the pavement structure. The thickness of each compacted layer is based on considerations of layer position and nominal maximum aggregate size. Figure 2.1 illustrates the cross section of an HMA pavement with an aggregate base. Full-Depth HMA Full-Depth HMA pavements have wide applications ranging from residential driveways and parking areas to heavy duty pavements where high volumes of heavy traffic are anticipated, such as interstate highways and airport runways. A FullDepth HMA pavement uses HMA materials for all layers above the subgrade. The thickness of each compacted layer is based on considerations of layer position and nominal maximum aggregate size. Figure 2.1 illustrates the cross section of a FullDepth HMA pavement.

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3.0 MATERIALS FOR HMA PAVEMENTS

ASPHALT CEMENT BINDER Asphalt cement binder is obtained by distillation of a crude petroleum using different refining techniques. At ambient air temperatures, asphalt binder is a black, sticky, highly viscous material. It is a strong and durable binder with excellent adhesive and waterproofing characteristics. The largest use of asphalt binder is for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). Ninety-six percent of the hard surfaced roads in the United States are paved using HMA. Asphalt binders can be readily liquefied by applying heat, which facilitates mixing with mineral aggregates to produce HMA. Asphalt binders are very sticky and readily adhere to the surface of dry aggregate particles, binding them to form HMA. After compacting and cooling to air temperature, HMA is a very strong paving material which can sustain heavy traffic loads. EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS Emulsified asphalts (also called emulsions) are low viscosity mixtures of tiny asphalt binder droplets, water and emulsifying agents, as shown in Figure 3.1. The emulsifying agent coats the surfaces of the asphalt binder droplets and keeps them suspended in the water prior to application. After application, the asphalt binder coalesces (breaks) and the water evaporates. Emulsions are brownish in color during application, but after breaking the coalesced asphalt binder returns to its original black color. Emulsified asphalts are used for surface treatments, penetration macadams, opengraded cold asphalt-aggregate mixtures, tack coats, fog seals, dense-graded cold asphalt-aggregate mixtures, and slurry seals.

Figure 3.1 - Emulsified Asphalt

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CUTBACK ASPHALTS

Cutback asphalts are low viscosity mixtures manufactured by diluting (cutting back) asphalt binders with petroleum solvents (cutter stock or diluent). After application, the petroleum solvent evaporates, leaving the asphalt binder residue.

ASPHALT BINDER GRADING Asphalt cement binders appropriate for pavement construction were previously graded based on resistance to penetration and/or by viscosity measures. Currently, asphalt binders are graded based on the temperature range over which the binder retains certain desirable characteristics. These desirable characteristics include adequate flexibility to resist cold temperature cracking and sufficient rigidity to resist warm temperature rutting. The current binder grading system is known as the Performance Grading (PG) system. Performance Grading Performance grading specifications were developed as part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Binders are specified on the basis of the climate and attendant pavement temperatures in which the binder is expected to serve. Performance graded (PG) binders appropriate for use in Wisconsin include the PG 64-22 and PG 58-28 binders. The first number (64 or 58) represents the average 7-day maximum pavement design temperature, in degrees Celsius. This maximum temperature establishes the upper temperature limit for the binder to retain adequate rigidity to resist rutting. The second number (-22 or -28) represents the minimum pavement design temperature. This minimum temperature established the lower limit for the binder to retain sufficient flexibility to resist thermal cracking. Physical properties of the binders are measured at various temperatures both before and after laboratory aging. The laboratory aging is conducted to simulate field conditions imposed during the HMA production process as well as from longterm environmental exposure. Binder physical properties are measured using four devices: ! ! ! ! Dynamic Shear Rheometer Rotational Viscometer Bending Beam Rheometer Direct Tension Tester

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Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR): The DSR is used to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the binder before and after aging. Specifications for test results control binder stiffness at high and intermediate temperatures. High temperature specifications ensure the binder retains adequate stiffness to contribute significantly to the overall shear strength of an HMA mixture. Intermediate temperature specifications help ensure the binder does not contribute to fatigue cracking of the HMA. Rotational Viscometer (RTV): The RTV is used to determine the viscosity of the original binder at 135 oC (275 oF). Specifications limit viscosity at 135 oC to ensure that the binder can be pumped or otherwise handled during HMA manufacturing. Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR): The BBR is used to characterize the low temperature properties of binders. Specifications limit the low-temperature stiffness to protect against cracking in cold weather. Direct Tension Tester (DTT): The DTT is used to measure the failure strain of binders at low temperatures. As with the BBR, the DTT specifications ensure that the binder’s resistance to low temperature cracking is maximized.

AGGREGATES

Aggregates are any hard, inert material which are used in graded sizes (fine to coarse). Aggregates are also referred to as rock, gravel, mineral, crushed stone, slag, sand, rock dust and fly ash. Aggregates may be used alone for base course layers or as a part of the HMA pavement layers. Several types of aggregate which are available are described below. Aggregates, depending on use, have certain desired physical and chemical properties which are described later in this section. Natural Aggregates Natural rocks occur either as outcrops at or near the surface or as gravel deposits, usually along an old stream bed. They are classified into three groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary based on the way the rocks were originally formed. Natural aggregates can be Pit or Bank-Run Aggregates or Processed Aggregates. Pit or Bank-Run Aggregates - These include both gravel and sand, which are taken directly from the deposit without processing. Processed Aggregates - These include pit or bank-run aggregates and blasted outcrops which have been crushed to make them more suitable for usage within HMA pavements. Crushing pit or bank-run aggregates normally improves the particle shape by making the rounded particles more angular. Crushing can also improve the size distribution and range.

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Crushed stone is also a processed aggregate. It is created when fragments of bedrock or large stone are crushed so that all particle faces are fractured. The crushed stone can be sized by screening; and the rock dust, which results from crushing, can be removed by washing. Recycled Aggregates Reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) and concrete pavements both contain valuable aggregates. The aggregate, if of good quality when placed, is most likely still of good quality and can be recycled into HMA pavement or base course layers. When recycled aggregates are used, it is important that HMA mixtures containing recycled materials meet all specifications required of an HMA mixture without recycled materials. Synthetic Aggregates Aggregates produced by altering both the physical and chemical properties of a material are called synthetic or artificial aggregates. Two examples of synthetic aggregates are lightweight aggregate, which is produced by heating clay to a very high temperature, and slag, which is normally produced in the blast furnace during steel production. Synthetic aggregates are sometimes used in HMA.

AGGREGATES FOR BASE COURSES Aggregates used for base courses are largely obtained from local supplies of processed natural rocks. The properties desired for aggregates used as base courses are given below. Desirable Properties of Aggregates used for Base Courses Desirable properties of aggregates used for a base course are similar to those given later for HMA pavements. These properties, as they apply to aggregates for base courses, are briefly discussed in this section. See the section on AGGREGATES FOR HMA for a more complete definition of some of the properties. Size: The maximum size of an aggregate is the sieve size through which essentially 100 percent of the material will pass. The maximum size is important to insure good performance. It is also important that the desired gradation be maintained.

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Gradation: Aggregate gradation describes the distribution of aggregate particle sizes. Proper gradation is important for stability, workability and permeability. It is also desirable to have a base course which will not retain moisture nor become unstable when wet. Crushed aggregate base course master gradation bands have been established by WISDOT for both crushed gravels and crushed stones, as shown in Table 3.1. Cleanliness / Deleterious Materials: Cleanliness refers to the absence of certain foreign or deleterious materials that, when present, make the aggregate undesirable for use as a base course. Base course aggregates should be substantially free from vegetable matter, shale and lumps, or balls of clay. Toughness/Hardness: Aggregates are subject to crushing and abrasive wear during manufacturing, placement, and compaction. Thus they must be hard and tough to resist crushing, degradation, and disintegration when stock piled or placed, compacted with rollers, and traveled over with trucks. Durability/Soundness: Aggregates must be resistant to breakdown or disintegration under action of wetting and drying and/or freezing and thawing. Surface Texture: A rough, sand- paper-like surface texture, such as found on the exposed faces of most crushed aggregates, tends to increase strength and stability. Particle Shape: Aggregates that are cubical and angular will provide the greatest mechanical stability.

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Table 3.1

WISDOT Master Aggregate Gradations for Crushed Aggregate Base Courses(1) Percentage Passing by Weight

Gradation No. 1 Sieve Size 1½ Inch 1 Inch 3/4 Inch 3/8 Inch No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(1)

Gradation No. 2 Crushed Gravel -100 -50-85 35-65 25-50 10-30 3-10 (2) Crushed Stone -100 -40-75 25-60 15-45 -3-12

Gradation No. 3 Crushed Gravel -100 95-100 50-90 35-70 20-55 10-35 8-15 Crushed Stone -100 95-100 50-90 35-70 15-55 -5-15

Crushed Gravel 100 75-100 -40-75 30-60 20-45 10-30 3-10 (2)

Crushed Stone 100 --30-65 22-55 15-40 -2-12

Unless otherwise specified, Gradation No. 2 should be used for the top layer of base course and Gradations No. 1 or No. 2 should be used for lower base course layers. The percent passing the No. 200 sieve is limited to a maximum of eight percent for crushed gravel base courses placed between old and new pavement.

(2)

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AGGREGATES FOR HMA Aggregates used in HMA are largely obtained from local supplies of natural rock and recycled asphalt and concrete pavements. Other types of aggregate that are sometimes used in HMA are lightweight aggregates or slag, which are termed synthetic aggregates. The properties desired for aggregates used in HMA are given below. Typically, two or more aggregate supplies are blended together to achieve all of the desirable properties listed below. The blended aggregates represent about 90%96% of the weight and about 65%-85% of the volume of a compacted HMA pavement layer. Desirable Properties of Aggregates for HMA Selection of an aggregate for use in HMA depends on the quality of the material, the type of pavement for which it is intended, availability, and cost. The following properties should be evaluated to determine the suitability of an aggregate for use in HMA: Size: The maximum size of an aggregate is the sieve size through which essentially 100 percent of the material will pass. The nominal aggregate size represents the smallest sieve size for which at least 90 percent of the material will pass. Aggregate size in a mixture is important to ensure good performance. If the nominal size is too small, the mix may be unstable; if it is too large, workability and segregation may be a problem. Gradation: Aggregate gradation describes the distribution of aggregate particle sizes. Gradation affects all the important properties of an HMA, including stiffness, stability, durability, permeability, workability, fatigue resistance, skid resistance and resistance to moisture damage. Aggregate master gradation bands have been established by WISDOT for HMA surface and lower layers, as shown in Table 3.2. Further guidance on the selection of a master gradation best suited to each project is provided in Section 4.0. Cleanliness / Deleterious Materials: Cleanliness refers to absence of certain foreign or deleterious materials that, when present, make aggregates undesirable for HMA. Washing dirty aggregate can usually reduce the amount of undesirable materials to an acceptable level. Typical objectionable materials include vegetation, shale, soft particles, clay lumps, clay coating on aggregate particles, and sometimes excess dust from the crushing operation. Toughness/Hardness: Aggregates are subject to crushing and abrasive wear during the manufacturing, placement, and compaction of HMA. They must be hard and tough to resist crushing, degradation, and disintegration when stock piled, fed through an HMA facility, placed with paver, compacted with rollers, and traveled over with trucks.

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Durability/Soundness: Aggregates must be resistant to breakdown or disintegration under the action of wetting and drying and/or freezing and thawing (weathering). Surface Texture: A rough, sandpaper-like surface texture, such as found on the exposed faces of most crushed stones, tends to promote the mechanical bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate and increases stability. Particle Shape: Aggregate particles suitable for use in a HMA should be cubical rather than flat, thin, or elongated. In compacted HMA, angular-shaped particles exhibit greater interlock and internal friction, and hence result in greater mechanical stability than do rounded particles. Absorption: The porosity of an aggregate permits the aggregate to absorb asphalt binder, forming a bond between the particle and the asphalt. Some porosity is desired, but aggregates that are highly absorbent are generally not used since they would require a high amount of asphalt binder. Affinity for Asphalt: Asphalt binder must wet the aggregate surface, stick to the aggregate, and resist stripping in the presence of water (asphalt binder separates from the aggregate surface). Dust coatings on aggregates can cause poor bonding of asphalt binder. Table 3.2 Aggregate Gradation for HMA Layers Percentage Passing by Weight (1) Sieve Size 2 inch 1½ inch 1 inch ¾ inch ½ inch d inch No. 4 No. 8 No. 200
(1) (2)

Nominal Size (2) 1½ inch 100 90 - 100 90 max --------15 - 41 0-6 1 inch 3/4 inch ½ inch 3/8 inch

100 90-100 90 max ------19 - 45 1-7

100 90 - 100 90 max ----23 - 49 2-8

100 90-100 90 max --28 - 58 2 - 10

100 90-100 90 max 20-65 2 - 10

Percent passing of total aggregate weight Unless otherwise designated, the nominal size of aggregate should be 3/4 inch for lower pavement layers and ½ inch for upper pavement layers.

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4.0 HMA MIX DESIGN WHAT IS AN HMA MIX DESIGN? An HMA mix design includes a series of laboratory tests that are performed on a particular set of HMA ingredients to determine whether, and in what proportions, these ingredients can be combined to meet project specifications. The Superpave method of mix design is the procedure currently used in Wisconsin. Superpave stands for SUperior PERforming hot mix asphalt PAVEments. The Superpave method of mix design was developed to provide a national standard for HMA pavements. This national standard allows the asphalt industry to measure HMA performance on a national level. Furthermore, the Superpave mix design method better simulates expected traffic loads during the mix design process and therefore produces pavement designs which perform better under actual traffic loadings. The gyratory compactor is the new piece of standardized equipment that is used to compact asphalt samples during the Superpave mix design method. This equipment is used to determine the proper blends of aggregates and binder to complete an HMA mix design appropriate for a certain type of traffic. Special use HMA mixes may also be designed to meet specific project requirements, such as high density, high flexibility, low permeability or high skid resistance. PROPERTIES CONSIDERED IN MIX DESIGN Quality HMA pavements are achieved when properly designed, produced, placed, and compacted. These steps ensure that desired mix properties are in place after construction. These desirable properties are: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Durability Stability Impermeability Workability Flexibility Fatigue Resistance Skid Resistance

Durability: Durability of an HMA pavement includes its ability to resist factors such as oxidation of the asphalt cement, disintegration of the aggregate, and stripping of the asphalt cement from the surface of the aggregate. These factors can result from weather conditions, traffic loadings, aggregate quality, or a combination of these factors. Typically a durable mixture can be achieved by using the optimum asphalt cement content, using well graded quality aggregates, and compacting the designed mixture to the recommended density to minimize in-place permeability.
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Stability: Stability of an HMA pavement includes its ability to resist shoving and rutting under repeated traffic loadings. Stable HMA pavements maintain their shape and smoothness while unstable pavements deform under repeated loadings and may develop ruts, ripples or other signs of pavement movement. The stability of an HMA pavement is related to the internal friction and cohesion of the mix. Internal friction is directly related to the angularity and roughness of the aggregates. In compacted mixes, angular aggregates exhibit greater interlock and internal friction, resulting in greater mechanical stability. Rough, sandpaper-like aggregate surfaces, such as found on the exposed faces of most crushed stones, also tends to increase stability. Internal cohesion is related to the thickness of the asphalt films coating the aggregates. Cohesion increases, to a point, with an increase in the asphalt cement content. Impermeability: Impermeability is the resistance of the HMA pavement to the passage of air and water into and through it. Impermeability is related to both the quantity and arrangement of the air voids in the mix. HMA pavements with numerous interconnected voids which connect to the pavement surface have low impermeability. Workability: Workability is the property of the HMA which describes the ease with which it can be placed and compacted. A mix with good workability requires less compactive effort to obtain the required density. Flexibility: Flexibility is the ability of the asphalt pavement to adjust to gradual settlements and movements in the subgrade without cracking. This is a desirable characteristic since almost all subgrades when subject to loading will settle or the subgrade may rise due to expansive type soils. Generally, flexibility of an asphalt paving mixture is improved by using a high asphalt content and relatively opengraded aggregates. Fatigue Resistance: Fatigue resistance is the ability of the asphalt pavement to withstand repeated bending caused by the passage of wheel loads without cracking. The fatigue resistance is affected by the asphalt binder content, air-void content, asphalt aging, load magnitude, pavement thickness and strength, and the support provided by underlying layers. Skid Resistance: Skid resistance is the ability of the pavement to minimize the skidding or slipping of the tires of vehicles on the surface. This is of a particular importance when the pavement surface is wet. The skid resistance can be improved by selecting an aggregate with a rough surface texture and using the proper asphalt content. Hydroplaning can be reduced by proper surface drainage and/or providing an open-graded friction course.

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WISDOT HMA PAVEMENT TYPES Quality HMA pavements must be designed and constructed to withstand a wide variety of traffic and environmental loadings. Pavements which are to be subjected to repeated, heavy truck loadings must be designed with a maximum internal stability to provide adequate resistance to rutting. In contrast, pavements which are expected to receive few, if any, heavy loadings should be designed for maximum durability to resist the disintegrating effects of climate. It is imperative that the selection of HMA mixture type be matched to the expected loadings to ensure the best pavement performance over its design life. In other words, do not select an HMA mixture type designed for high traffic loadings if your pavement is expected to receive only light traffic, and vice versa. In 2000, the Wisconsin DOT assembled a new list of mixes that are all Superpave designed. These mixes are part of the 2000 Supplemental Specifications amending the 1996 Edition of the Standard Specifications for Highway and Structure Construction. The new mixes, just like the Type HV, MV, and LV mixes they replace, are designed towards specific traffic volumes. The Wisconsin DOT Superpave specifications include charts that list traffic volumes and appropriate mix selections that are suitable for use when a detailed traffic analysis is performed. Table 4.1 provides the Superpave mix type recommended for your everyday needs. If you are specifying a pavement with extreme or unusual traffic conditions, please contact WAPA or your local WAPA contractor for further recommendations.

Table 4.1 Superpave Mix Design Recommendations Superpave Mix Type Previously Specified Mix Type Typical Examples of Usage • Residential driveways and streets • Parking lots • School areas and playfields • Seasonal recreational roads • Low volume rural roads • Collector streets and other roadways • Light industrial lots • Local business streets • Major arterial streets • Medium industrial lots and streets • Major truck terminals • Major industrial streets

E - 0.3

LV

E-1

MV

E-3 E - 10

MV HV

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AGGREGATES FOR HMA LAYERS Aggregates used for HMA should be hard durable particles of crushed gravel, crushed stone, manufactured sand, natural sand, mineral filler or a combination thereof. The desirable gradation of the aggregates is based on the nominal size of the aggregate, defined as the smallest sieve size for which more than 90 percent of the aggregate passes. Master gradation ranges for aggregates used in HMA are specified by the WISDOT, as shown in Table 4.2. Table 4.2 WISDOT Master Aggregate Gradations for HMA Layers Percentage Passing by Weight Sieve Size 2 inch 1½ inch 1 inch ¾ inch ½ inch d inch No. 4 No. 8 No. 200 Nominal Size 1½ inch 100 90 - 100 90 max --------15 - 41 0-6 1 inch 3/4 inch ½ inch 3/8 inch

100 90-100 90 max ------19 - 45 1-7

100 90 - 100 90 max ----23 - 49 2-8

100 90-100 90 max --28 - 58 2 - 10

100 90-100 90 max 20-65 2 - 10

Three nominal aggregate sizes are recognized by WISDOT for normal pavements. They are: Upper Layer Mixes - ½" (12.5 mm) or 3/8" (9.5 mm) Lower Layer Mixes - 3/4" (19 mm) The Superpave mix design criteria allows the use of aggregate blends designed towards the coarse end of the gradation specifications. As a result, a ½ inch upper layer mix may appear coarser than conventional mixes used to date. A 3/8" upper layer mix may be selected to provide a more closed surface texture. Other aggregate sizes are available for extreme or unusual traffic conditions. Please contact WAPA or your local WAPA contractor for assistance in these situations.

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HMA LAYER THICKNESS To ensure proper compaction of individual HMA layers, the minimum and maximum layer thickness for Superpave mixes are specified by WISDOT based on the nominal aggregate size, as shown in Table 4.3. Table 4.3 WISDOT Thickness Specifications for Individual HMA Layers Nominal Aggregate Size Minimum Layer Thickness (inch) 2.25 1.75 1.5 Maximum Lower Layer Thickness (inch) 4.0 3.0 3.0 Maximum Upper Layer Thickness (inch) 3.0 2.5 2.0

3/4" ½" 3/8"

JOB MIX FORMULA The Job Mix Formula (JMF) is the standard to which a produced HMA is compared during the Quality Management Program (QMP). The JMF identifies the selected aggregate gradation, the design binder content, and gyratory test results for the compacted HMA, including the air voids content and the percent voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA). Since it is not practical to meet the exact JMF values throughout production, appropriate tolerances based on the number of tests performed and the probable error in each test must be established. The current WISDOT QMP Specifications should be consulted for guidance on establishing appropriate tolerances.

WISDOT HMA DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS WISDOT design specifications for compacted HMA pavements are based on the selected HMA mixture type and aggregate gradation. Current specifications for Superpave mixture designs are provided below in Tables 4.4 and 4.5. Specifications for aggregate gradations are provided in Table 4.2

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Table 4.4 WISDOT Minimum VMA Requirements Nominal Aggregate Size 1 ½" 1“ 3/4“ ½" 3/8" Percent Minimum VMA 11.0% 12.0% 13.0% 14.0% 15.0%

Table 4.5 WISDOT Superpave Mixture Requirements Mixture Type Gyratory Compaction Gyrations for Nini Gyrations for Ndes Gyrations for Nmax Air Voids, %Va (%Gmm @ Ndes) %Gmm @ Nini %Gmm @ Nmax Dust to Binder Ratio (2) Voids filled with binder (VFB or VFA, %) Tensile Strength Ratio, TSR no antistripping additive with antistripping additive
(1) (2)

E - 0.3 6 40 60 4.0 (96.0) < 91.5 (1) < 98.0 0.6 - 1.2 70 - 80 (3,4) 0.70 0.75

E-1 7 60 75 4.0 (96.0) < 90.5 (1) < 98.0 0.6 - 1.2 65 - 78 (3) 0.70 0.75

E-3 7 75 115 4.0 (96.0) <89.0 (1) < 98.0 0.6 - 1.2 65 - 75 (3) 0.70 0.75

E - 10 8 100 160 4.0 (96.0) < 89.0 (1) < 98.0 0.6 - 1.2 65 - 75 (3,5) 0.70 0.75

The percent air voids at initial compaction is only a guideline For gradations that pass below the caution zone, limits are 0.6 - 1.6 (3) For 1 ½" nominal size mixtures, the VFB lower limit is 67% (4) For 1" nominal size mixtures, VFB lower limit is 67% (5) For 3/8" nominal size mixtures, VFB range is 73 - 76%

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5.0 PAVEMENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The structural design of a pavement system is a detailed process which must fully address the interactions of materials, traffic loads, and environmental effects. For the users of this Design Guide, much of this design work has already been done during the preparation of the thickness design charts presented in Section 6.0. To use these charts effectively, the designer must establish important design inputs, including: ! ! Traffic loadings (truck volumes and weights), and Subgrade support (including drainage considerations)

TRAFFIC LOADINGS Traffic loading information is necessary to establish both the required thickness of the pavement structure and the appropriate HMA mix type. Truck or heavy equipment loading on the pavement structure is the principal factor affecting the design and performance of an HMA pavement. For example, studies have shown that one heavily loaded interstate transport truck can cause pavement damage equivalent to that of 5000 passenger cars. Because of this large discrepancy in induced damage, automobiles and light trucks are typically not considered during the development of required pavement thickness. For the purposes of this Design Guide, design traffic is defined as the average daily number of equivalent 18,000 pound Single Axle Loads (Design Daily ESALs) the pavement is expected to carry in the design lane. Procedures for estimating Design Daily ESALs, ranging from detailed analyses of truck types, volumes, and axle weights, to simplified estimations based on pavement usage classification, are provided in this Section. The collection of detailed traffic data may not be practical for all pavement jobs but these data may be required for specific projects. The user is encouraged to use as detailed a procedure as the available data allows. TRAFFIC CLASSIFICATIONS For the user of this Design Guide, traffic has been classified and designated per WISDOT guidelines as shown below. Truck Type Heavy Single Unit Trucks: 2 Axles, 6 Tires 3 Axles Tractor-Semitrailer: 3 or 4 Axles 5 Axles and Above Tractor-Semitrailer-Trailer: 5 Axles and Above 2-S1-2 2S-1, 2S-2 3S-2 2D 3SU Designation

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ESAL FACTORS Normal traffic streams consist of a random mixture of vehicles with different axle loads and number of axles. For ease of computation, vehicle and axle weight data may be reduced to a common denominator known as the Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL). Table 5.1 below illustrates the ESAL factors appropriate for each truck designation used within this Design Guide.

DESIGN DAILY ESALs The Design Daily ESALs are calculated based on the average daily traffic mix the pavement is expected to carry over it’s design life. On multi-lane facilities, Design Daily ESALs are determined only for the design lane, which is the outermost lane of the facility that typically carries the majority of the heavy truck loadings. Table 5.1 Pavement ESAL Factors Truck Type Designation 2D Application Local delivery School Buses General Delivery Refuse ESAL Factor 0.3

3SU

0.8

2-S1, 2-S2

General Delivery Interstate Transport Mass Transit Busses

0.5

3S-2

0.9

2-S1-2

Interstate Transport

2.0

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ESAL CALCULATIONS Calculation Procedure 1 For detailed calculations, the average daily total number of each truck designation must be established for the design lane. These totals are multiplied by their respective ESAL factors to determine the daily ESALs applied by each truck designation. These daily ESALs are then summed up to arrive at the Design Daily ESALs for the design lane, as shown below. Example Calculation Procedure 1 Truck Type 3-Axle Single Unit Truck 4-Axle Semi-Trailer 5-Axle TractorSemitrailer-Trailer DESIGN DAILY ESALs
(1)

Truck Designation 3SU 2S-2 2-S1-2

Number of Trucks (1) 25 15 10 x x x

ESAL Factor 0.8 0.5 2.0 = = =

Daily ESALs 20 7.5 20

Sum = 47.5 = 48

Example average daily truck count, by designation, within design lane.

Calculation Procedure 2 When detailed truck classification data is not available, the Design Daily ESALs may be estimated by assuming each truck can be represented by a single ESAL factor. In these instances the average daily total number of trucks, excluding light pick-up trucks, in the design lane should be multiplied an ESAL factor of 0.9 to determine the Design Daily ESALs, as shown below. Example Calculation Procedure 2 Truck Type All Trucks
(1)

Number of Trucks (1) 50 x

ESAL Factor 0.9 =

Design Daily ESALs 45

Example average total daily trucks within design lane.

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Simplified Procedure The simplified procedure assigns Design Daily ESAL values based solely on the type or usage classification of the pavement. Five traffic classes are used in this Design Guide, each corresponding to a range of Design Daily ESALs. Guidance for selecting Traffic Class and Design Daily ESALs based solely on usage classification is provided in Table 5.2 and Figure 5.1. The user must exercise caution when using this simplified procedure because 1) the pavement may experience significantly higher truck loadings than those assumed and thus may experience premature failure, or 2) the pavement may experience significantly fewer truck loadings than those assumed and thus will be over designed and more costly to construct. Table 5.2 Simplified Assignment of Traffic Class and Design Daily ESALs Traffic Class I Design Daily ESAL Range <1 ! ! ! !

Typical Usage Classification Residential driveways School areas and play fields Parking lots, 50 stalls or less Seasonal recreational roads

II

1-5

! Residential streets and low volume rural roadways ! Parking lots, more than 50 stalls ! Collector streets and other roadways ! Light industrial lots ! Major arterial streets ! Local business streets ! Medium industrial streets/lots ! Heavy truck terminals/truck stops ! Heavy industrial drives/lots ! Bus Stops

III IV

6 - 50 51 - 275 (1)

V
(1)

276 - 1000 (2)

Under certain traffic conditions at the high end of the ESAL range, i.e., heavy loads at slow speeds or lots of stop and go conditions, consideration should be given to changing the Superpave mix type or binder properties. Contact WAPA or your local WAPA contractor for more information. Designs for extreme traffic conditions not covered by the table are available by contacting WAPA or your local WAPA contractor.

(2)

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Figure 5.1 Multiple Zone Traffic Classes

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SUBGRADE SUPPORT Drainage and soil-support values are major factors in pavement life; it is important to know the supporting soil. Thickness design recommendations are provided in this Design Guide only for soils classified into three broad classes: Excellent-Good, Medium, and Poor. Soil descriptions and typical California Bearing Ratios(1) (CBR) ranges for each class are provided herein. Design values for Soil Support Values (SSV) used within this Guide are also provided. Organic soils or soils with CBR values less than 2 should either be avoided, removed and replaced with suitable materials, or stabilized with an appropriate stabilizing agent to ensure a good compaction platform. A geotechnical engineer should be consulted in these instances to determine the most appropriate course of action. Subgrade Soil Classification When possible, field or laboratory tests should be used to evaluate the load supporting capabilities of subgrade soils. One common method for determining the relative strength of the subgrade is the CBR method. However, it is realized that this or other tests may not be readily available or may be too costly for small jobs. In these instances, a field evaluation should be conducted by a geotechnical engineer, who can then assign the subgrade soils to the appropriate categories given below. Excellent - Good Soils: Excellent soils retain a substantial amount of their load supporting capacity when wet and are little affected by frost. Excellent soils include clean and sharp sands, sands and gravels, particularly those that are well graded. Good soils retain a substantial amount of the load-supporting capacity when wet. Included are clean sands and sand-gravels, and soils that are free of detrimental amounts of plastic materials. A soil classified as Excellent would have a CBR > 20 while Good soils would have a CBR of from 10 to 20. For the purposes of this Design Guide, Excellent to Good Soils have been assigned an SSV = 5.0. Medium Soils: These soils retain a moderate degree of firmness under adverse moisture conditions. Included are such soils as loams, silty sands, and sand-gravel mixtures containing moderate amounts of clay and fine silt. Soils classified as Medium Soils would have a CBR of 6 to 10 and have been assigned an SSV = 4.0. Poor Soils: These soils become quite soft and plastic when wet. Included are those soils having appreciable amounts of clay and fine silt (50% or more passing No. 200 sieve). The coarser silts and sand loams also may exhibit poor bearing properties in areas where frost penetration into the subgrade or base is a factor. Soils classified as Poor Soils would typically have CBR values of 2 to 5 and have been assigned an SSV = 2.5.
(1)

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test provides a measurement of the strength and support value of an aggregate base or subgrade soil.

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DRAINAGE An important consideration in designing a high quality pavement is providing adequate drainage. Good drainage helps ensure the success of durable pavements. Any drainage deficiencies should be corrected prior to construction. To provide adequate drainage it is necessary that sufficient slope be provided in the design of the pavement surface and that the water which enters the base or subbase is not retained. There are two basic categories of drainage: surface and subsurface. Surface Drainage Surface drainage includes the removal of all water present on the pavement, shoulder, and adjacent ground surfaces. For good surface drainage, the pavement and shoulders must be properly crowned or cross-sloped to ensure the rapid flow of water off the roadway to curbs and gutters or to adjacent drainage ditches. Roads and longer driveways with two or more lanes should be crowned with a cross-slope of at least two percent. For parking and play areas, a minimum cross-slope of one percent is necessary to ensure adequate drainage of surface water and to avoid standing water that may seep into the soil. Cross-slopes greater than one percent may be advisable if surfaces to be paved cannot be checked to close tolerances. Where minimum cross-slopes are used, proper consideration must be given to plan elevation data at key intersection, cross-overs, and transitions between grade lines to ensure that this minimum slope is maintained during construction and to avoid standing water. It is important that bird baths (leeching basins) not be created. Pavements in these locations will typically fail in a short time unless internal drainage is provided to drain the low spots. Subsurface Drainage Subsurface water is water that seeps through the pavement or is contained in the soil beneath the surface. When it emerges or escapes from the soil, it is referred to as seepage water. Subsurface water usually is present as free water that flows under the force of gravity or as capillary water that moves under capillary action in the soil. Subdrains are required in areas where water may collect in the structural elements of the pavement. The technical expertise of an engineer is required to identify these areas and to design adequate drainage provisions.

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GEOTEXTILE FABRICS Geotextiles are part of a broad class of geosynthetics, which are fabric-like materials made from polymers such as polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, and others. Geosynthetic use in civil engineering construction is about 15 years old and growing at a very rapid pace. Geotextiles are available in woven, knitted, or non-woven form in thicknesses ranging from about 0.01 to 0.3 in. The engineering properties of geotextiles vary significantly from one form to another and also vary within form classes based on the polymer used, thickness, and bonding technique. The proper choice and design of a geotextile fabric requires special skills; a geotechnical engineer should be contacted. Geotextiles are used to perform one or more of the following functions: ! ! ! ! Separation Reinforcement Filtration Drainage

Separation: Geotextiles may be used to keep various soil or aggregate layers separate after construction. For example, a clayey subgrade soil can be kept separate from an aggregate base course by placing a geotextile over the subgrade prior to base course placement. Reinforcement: The tensile strength of geotextiles can be advantageously used to increase the load bearing capacity of the soil. Filtration: When placed between fine-grained and coarse-grained material layers, the fabric allows free seepage of water from one layer to the other while at the same time protecting the fine-grained materials from being washed into the coarsegrained materials. Drainage: The fabrics can rapidly channel water from soils to various outlets.

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6.0 THICKNESS GUIDES FOR HMA PAVEMENTS

The following pages provides pavement thickness recommendations for the various combinations of traffic class and subgrade type. The pavement layer thicknesses provided were developed to be adequate for the combinations of maximum design daily ESALs within each traffic class and minimum subgrade support value within each subgrade rating. An interactive thickness design process is also available on the WAPA website at: http://www.wispave.org An example output from this interactive process is provided below.

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TRAFFIC CLASS I

! ! ! ! !

Design Daily ESALs < 1 Residential Driveways School areas and play fields Parking lots, 50 stalls or less Seasonal recreational roads

HMA With Crushed Aggregate Base HMA Thickness (Inch) 3.0 3.0 Base Thickness (inch) 8.0 6.0

Equivalent Full-Depth HMA HMA Thickness (Inch) 5.5 4.5

Subgrade Type HMA Mixture Type

Rating

Description Clays and silts with high plasticity. SSV = 2.5 to 3.9. Clays and silts with low plasticity. SSV = 4.0 to 4.9. Sands and gravels. SSV > 5.0

E - 0.3 E - 0.3

Poor Medium Good to Excellent

3.0

6.0

4.0

E - 0.3

Use of Design Tables 1. Determine the Design Daily ESALs (18,000 pound Equivalent Single Axle Loads) or Traffic Class which best describes the use of the intended pavement (See Section 5). 2. Determine the Subgrade Support. (See Page 24) 3. Select the HMA pavement thickness from the table above which includes layer thickness for HMA pavements with crushed aggregate bases and well as fulldepth HMA thickness equivalencies.

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TRAFFIC CLASS II

! ! ! !

1 to 5 Design Daily ESALs Residential streets Low volume rural roadways Parking lots, more than 50 stalls

HMA With Crushed Aggregate Base HMA Thickness (Inch) 4.0 3.5 Base Thickness (inch) 9.0 6.0

Equivalent Full-Depth HMA HMA Thickness (Inch) 6.5 5.5

Subgrade Type HMA Mixture Type

Rating

Description Clays and silts with high plasticity. SSV = 2.5 to 3.9. Clays and silts with low plasticity. SSV = 4.0 to 4.9. Sands and gravels. SSV > 5.0

E - 0.3 E - 0.3

Poor Medium Good to Excellent

3.0

6.0

5.0

E - 0.3

Use of Design Tables 1. Determine the Design Daily ESALs (18,000 pound Equivalent Single Axle Loads) or Traffic Class which best describes the use of the intended pavement (See Section 5). 2. Determine the Subgrade Support. (See Page 24) 3. Select the HMA pavement thickness from the table above which includes layer thickness for HMA pavements with crushed aggregate bases and well as fulldepth HMA thickness equivalencies.

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TRAFFIC CLASS III

! 6 to 50 Design Daily ESALs ! Collector streets and other roadways ! Light industrial lots

HMA With Crushed Aggregate Base HMA Thickness (Inch) 6.0 5.0 Base Thickness (inch) 10.0 9.0

Equivalent Full-Depth HMA HMA Thickness (Inch) 9.5 8.0

Subgrade Type HMA Mixture Type

Rating

Description Clays and silts with high plasticity. SSV = 2.5 to 3.9. Clays and silts with low plasticity. SSV = 4.0 to 4.9. Sands and gravels. SSV > 5.0

E - 1(1) E - 1(1)

Poor Medium Good to Excellent

4.0
(1)

9.0

7.0

E - 1(1)

Mixture type E - 0.3 should be used if Design Daily ESALs < 41.

Use of Design Tables 1. Determine the Design Daily ESALs (18,000 pound Equivalent Single Axle Loads) or Traffic Class which best describes the use of the intended pavement (See Section 5). 2. Determine the Subgrade Support. (See Page 24) 3. Select the HMA pavement thickness from the table above which includes layer thickness for HMA pavements with crushed aggregate bases and well as fulldepth HMA thickness equivalencies.

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TRAFFIC CLASS IV

! ! ! !

51 to 275 Design Daily ESALs Local business streets Major arterial streets Medium industrial streets/lots

HMA With Crushed Aggregate Base HMA Thickness (Inch) 8.0 7.0 Base Thickness (inch) 14.0 11.0

Equivalent Full-Depth HMA HMA Thickness (Inch) 12.5 10.5

Subgrade Type HMA Mixture Type

Rating

Description Clays and silts with high plasticity. SSV = 2.5 to 3.9. Clays and silts with low plasticity. SSV = 4.0 to 4.9. Sands and gravels. SSV > 5.0

E-3 E-3

Poor Medium Good to Excellent

6.0

10.0

9.5

E-3

Use of Design Tables 1. Determine the Design Daily ESALs (18,000 pound Equivalent Single Axle Loads) or Traffic Class which best describes the use of the intended pavement (See Section 5). 2. Determine the Subgrade Support. (See Page 24) 3. Select the HMA pavement thickness from the table above which includes layer thickness for HMA pavements with crushed aggregate bases and well as fulldepth HMA thickness equivalencies.

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TRAFFIC CLASS V

! ! ! ! !

276 to 1000 Design Daily ESALs Heavy truck terminals Truck stops Heavy industrial drives/lots Bus stops

HMA With Crushed Aggregate Base HMA Thickness (Inch) 10.5 9.0 Base Thickness (inch) 14.0 11.0

Equivalent Full-Depth HMA HMA Thickness (Inch) 15.0 12.5

Subgrade Type HMA Mixture Type

Rating

Description Clays and silts with high plasticity. SSV = 2.5 to 3.9. Clays and silts with low plasticity. SSV = 4.0 to 4.9. Sands and gravels. SSV > 5.0

E - 10(1) E - 10(1)

Poor Medium Good to Excellent

8.0
(1)

10.0

11.5

E - 10(1)

Mixture type E - 3 should be used if Design Daily ESALs < 411.

Use of Design Tables 1. Determine the Design Daily ESALs (18,000 pound Equivalent Single Axle Loads) or Traffic Class which best describes the use of the intended pavement (See Section 5). 2. Determine the Subgrade Support. (See Page 24) 3. Select the HMA pavement thickness from the table above which includes layer thickness for HMA pavements with crushed aggregate bases and well as fulldepth HMA thickness equivalencies.

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7.0 PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

ESTABLISHING A PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Many agencies and owners have developed informal procedures for identifying, budgeting, and scheduling pavement maintenance needs. These ad hoc approaches may have been successful because of the knowledge, good judgement, and most importantly the experience of those in decision-making positions. Today, however, due to higher traffic volumes and increasingly tighter budgets, a more systematic approach is warranted. Implementing a structured Pavement Management Systems (PMS) can help to establish and prioritize maintenance needs and to plan budget allocations. These PMS need not be overly complex nor expensive to acquire and operate. Many PMS programs, such as the PASER software developed by the Transportation Information Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, only need a portable computer to run efficiently. Implementing a PMS is cost-effective, regardless of the size of the pavement network being managed. Networks as large as a statewide primary road system or as small as a single parking lot can be better managed with a PMS. A PMS can provide easy access to information such as: ! ! ! ! What is the condition of all pavements within the network? When is the best time to schedule repair? What is the most cost-effective repair or reconstruction procedure? What is the cost if repairs are delayed?

A structured PMS has the following basic components: ! ! ! ! ! ! Record-keeping database Condition rating system Condition rating projection Correlations of repair procedures and costs based on pavement condition rating Priority ranking Budget planning

Record Keeping Database: Record keeping methods can be simple or complex depending on the resources available to the agency. It is important that once established, pavement records be up-dated on a regular basis.

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Condition Rating Systems: Condition rating systems are necessary so that pavement distress is properly evaluated. Some types of distress have more effect on the pavement performance than others. Therefore, it is necessary that a rating system be established which will properly score the various types of pavement distress. The PASER Manual provides such a system. In the PASER system, a 10 is assigned to new construction and a 1 is assigned to a pavement surface with severe distress and with extensive loss of surface integrity. All that is needed to establish a pavement rating is to have an individual with knowledge of the types of pavement distress walk the road and assign a number based on the PASER rating scale. Once this has been done for all pavement surfaces in an agency's jurisdiction, a numerical value is available upon which to compare pavement surfaces. Condition Rating Projection: The future condition of a pavement section can be projected based on the age, pavement type, and present condition of the section using a variety of techniques. These projections are necessary to determine the optimum time to repair a pavement or to determine the effectiveness of applied maintenance treatments. Correlation of Repair Procedure and Cost with Pavement Condition Rating: The PASER Manual can serve as a guide as to the type of repair or reconstruction that is recommended for a pavement based on the type and severity of existing distress. Priority Ranking: The numerical score (PASER number) can be used as one parameter in the priority ranking of pavements. This ranking may also include other factors such as traffic volume, budget, effect of delaying maintenance on pavement deterioration, and other factors. The cost of rehabilitating a pavement will increase with use (traffic) and age (weathering). Figure 7.1 illustrates the cost implications of delaying the rehabilitation of a pavement until it has reached the end of its useful life. As shown, costs can be significantly reduced if repairs are applied while the pavement is still in good to fair condition. Budget Planning: A planned maintenance and rehabilitation program should include budget considerations. Financial resources available over a period of xyears (5, 10, etc. years) should match year by year the projected cost of maintenance and rehabilitation work proposed. The ultimate goal is to maintain the entire pavement network in good condition at the lowest cost. To do this, it is essential that work completed at the optimum time and that all repairs be of high quality. Stretching budget dollars by providing a lesser quality job that covers more pavement surface is not, in the long run, an effective strategy.

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Figure 7.1 - Pavement Deterioration/Rehabilitation Relationship

DEFINITION AND USE OF PASER MANUAL General: The PAvement Surface Evaluation and Rating (PASER) system is a structured procedure for visually rating pavement conditions that can be used independently or within a structured pavement management system. The PASER System also provides guidance for determining the required level of maintenance or rehabilitation based on the obtained pavement rating. A copy of the Asphalt PASER manual can be obtained at nominal charge by contacting: Transportation Information Center University of Wisconsin-Madison 432 N Lake Street Madison, WI 53706 Ph: (800) 442-4615 Fax: (608) 263-3160 Email: tic@epd.engr.wisc.edu How to Use the PASER System: The first step in establishing a rating for a pavement section is to identify the types of defects which exist. The PASER System provides photographs of those types of surface defects which can occur in HMA pavements. The second step is to select a rating. The rating scale established is from 10 (excellent) to 1 (failed). Photographs and Tables are provided to assist in the selection of a pavement rating.

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8.0 PAVEMENT REHABILITATION Pavement rehabilitation can be accomplished using a variety of methods. This section is intended to provide only a general overview of rehabilitation methods available for pavements and is not intended as a guide on how to do the work. These rehabilitation methods are not applicable to every pavement surface, therefore it is highly recommended that a person with experience in pavement rehabilitation should be contacted to determine the rehabilitation technique most appropriate for your pavement. This section presents information on HMA overlays and methods for surface preparation, including: HMA Overlays ! Thin HMA Overlays ! Structural HMA Overlays ! Open-Graded Friction Courses Surface Preparations ! Localized Surface Preparation ! HMA Cold Milling ! In-Place HMA Recycling ! Concrete Pavement Preparation The complete rehabilitation of a pavement will typically involve one or more of the above procedures. For example, it may be necessary to crack and seat a concrete pavement prior to placing a structural overlay.

HMA OVERLAYS HMA overlays are commonly used to restore an aged pavement to like-new condition. HMA overlays can be placed with minor traffic disruptions and when properly designed and constructed, the overlaid pavement will provide a smooth, durable surface for many years. The overlay thickness, which is related to its intended function, may be determined based on a number of analysis techniques which will not be discussed here. Further information on the design of HMA overlays is available in Section XI, Credits and References. The performance of an HMA overlay is significantly affected by movements in the underlying pavement layer. Because it is not possible to completely arrest this movement, procedures to provide an HMA overlay which is more tolerant of pavement movements have been investigated, including: ! Use of softer asphalt binders or rubber or polymer modified asphalt binders ! Use of reinforcement interlayers within the HMA overlay ! Use of synthetic fabrics within the HMA overlay as reflection crack arresters

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The use of softer asphalt binders has proven not to be suitable for use on highvolume roadways due to potential stability problems. Additives and reinforcement interlayers are still being researched and some potential advantages have been observed. Thin HMA Overlays Thin HMA overlays, commonly placed in thicknesses less than 2 inches, are used to protect a deteriorated pavement, reduce roughness, and/or restore skid resistance. When thin HMA overlays are used, it is important to ensure that 1) the maximum aggregate size is appropriate for the overlay thickness, 2) a proper tack coat is applied, 3) work is carried out in warm weather so that desired level of compaction is achieved, and 4) good HMA construction quality control is maintained. Structural HMA Overlays Structural overlays are used to increase or restore the structural integrity of a pavement. Structural overlays may be required where there is a dramatic increase in heavy truck traffic or where existing pavements are approaching the end of their designed service life. Overlays will increase pavement life, reduce maintenance cost, provide a smoother riding surface and improve skid resistance. Open-Graded Friction Courses An open-graded friction course (OGFC) is a high-void HMA wearing course which contains a high percentage of one-sized aggregates. OGFC can rehabilitate asphalt pavements which have lost their skid resistance as a result of aggregate polishing and/or flushing of asphalt binder. They are effective in reducing hydroplaning and wet pavement accidents and can also help to reduce road noise.

SURFACE PREPARATION METHODS To ensure good performance of an HMA overlay, the existing pavement surface must be properly prepared. In general, uncorrected problems existing in the pavement surface will become problems in the HMA overlay. The type and extent of surface preparation should be carefully matched to the existing pavement condition and the HMA overlay type. Localized Surface Preparation Localized surface preparation includes patching of deteriorated pavement areas and treatment of existing cracks.

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Patching Deteriorated Pavement Areas: Patching is one of the most common methods for repairing localized areas with intensive cracking as a result of excessive loadings (alligatoring) or other factors. Patching can be either partial or full depth. Partial depth patching involves the removal of only the surface layer and replacement with HMA. Full depth patching involves complete pavement removal down to the subgrade or an intermediate base layer which is intact. Regardless of the patch depth, it is important to remove all deteriorated areas of the existing pavement. Some areas of deterioration may not be visible on the surface but will become exposed during the removal process. In these cases, it is important to extend the patch boundaries to include these previously unseen areas of deterioration. Treatment of Existing Cracks: In this procedure, transverse and longitudinal cracks which are opened up between ¼ to ½ inch are cleaned and filled with a sealant material. Larger cracks should be cleaned and filled with an HMA patch material. HMA Cold Milling Cold milling is the process of removing a desired pavement thickness with a specially designed milling machine. A milling machine has a rotating drum mounted with carbide bits. These bits strike the pavement surface and remove the material (concrete or asphalt) to a predetermined depth. Any desired pavement thickness can be removed and any size material desired can be produced. The size of the material may be important if it is to be recycled since it may not be necessary to crush to obtain the desired size. Milling provides a level, roughened surface which has good skid resistance and provides an excellent bond with the overlay. Most pavement distortions, such as rutting, bumps, and shoving, can be removed. This process does not harm the underlying material. Milling makes it possible to maintain the original pavement elevations. By removing material at the surface, no adjustments are required in the elevation at manholes, curbs and gutters, storm sewer inlets and other connecting pavement surfaces. In-Place Recycling (Pulverizing) In-place recycling is the pulverization of the existing pavement followed by reshaping and compaction. A stabilizer (asphalt binder, emulsified asphalt, fly ash, lime, cement, or other chemical) may be added to the pulverized material prior to compaction. The process does not require the use of new aggregate and surface deficiencies can be eliminated. After compaction the resulting mixture is covered by a structural layer of HMA. The recycled base can provide a structural capacity greater than the original base; thereby making the pavement capable of carrying a higher level of traffic.

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Concrete Pavement Preparation Cracks will typically develop in a HMA overlay placed on a concrete pavement. Reducing or minimizing the occurrence of these cracks is generally a high priority if the service live of the pavement is to be extended. Cracks which develop in a HMA overlay directly above existing cracks and joints in the concrete pavement are termed reflection cracking. Almost any joint or crack spacing in the concrete pavement produces localized high stress in the HMA overlay. This results from temperature induced movements and vertical displacements due to load. The temperature induced movements are more likely to be the most significant of the two. Many methods have been tried in an attempt to eliminate the reflection cracks. One concept in trying to eliminate or retard reflection cracking is to spread the strain which would occur over one crack to several cracks. In this way, no one crosssection of the pavement is subjected to large strains. Described below are several methods that have been used over the past 30 years to retard or eliminate reflection cracking. Cracking and Seating: In this method, a drop hammer or similar device is used to develop tight cracks in the concrete pavement, typically at about 24-30 inches on center. Tight cracks are those in which the aggregate still interlocks and load can be transferred through the crack. After cracking, a 10 ton steel drum vibratory roller makes several passes over the cracked pavement to seat the concrete. This will eliminate voids which may have existed below the concrete pavement. It is important that the roller not be oversized for the field site since it is possible to over stress the subbase. Cracking and seating is most applicable to jointed concrete pavements which are structurally sound but have high roughness and significant amounts of patching and spalling. Breaking and Seating: In this method, a drop hammer or similar device is used to develop cracks in the concrete at least 12 inches on center. Steel reinforcement within the concrete is broken and/or the bond between the concrete and the reinforcement is destroyed. After breaking, the concrete blocks are seated by using several passes of a 10 ton steel drum vibratory roller. Breaking and seating is most applicable to jointed reinforced concrete pavements which are structurally sound but have high roughness and a significant amount of patching and spalling. Rubblizing: In this method, specially designed equipment essentially reduces the concrete pavement to crushed aggregate. The slab action is completely destroyed and the concrete-to-steel bond is destroyed. Rubblizing is applicable to plain jointed, jointed reinforced and continuously reinforced concrete pavements that have deteriorated to the point that there is little potential to retain slab integrity and structural capacity. After rubblizing, the materials are compacted with two passes of a 10-ton steel drum vibratory roller (a Z-Grid steel drum roller is used in some instances), followed by single passes of a 10 ton rubber tire roller and a 10 ton steel drum vibratory roller.

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9.0 HMA FOR RECREATIONAL AND OTHER USES

This section provides general information and suggestions on the use of HMA for recreational or other uses, including sidewalks and walkways, bicycle and golf cart paths, play areas, tennis courts, running tracks, curbs, reservoir liners, and railroad track beds. If more detailed information is desired, you are urged to contact the Wisconsin Asphalt Pavement Association or a member contractor. To achieve satisfactory results, the designed HMA mix must be matched to the pavement use. For example, and HMA mix designed for a highway is most likely not appropriate for used as a tennis court.

SIDEWALKS AND WALKWAYS Sidewalks and walkways of HMA can be blended into the contours of the existing ground to preserve aesthetics and to reduce impact on the environment. Whenever possible, it is desirable to have surface drainage flow from these pathways. The width will typically be dictated by the expected foot traffic. Where access for maintenance or repair vehicles, construction equipment or emergency vehicles may be a problem, a wider pavement surface may be required.

BICYCLE AND GOLF CART PATHS The construction of bicycle and golf cart paths is essentially the same except that they are usually built in different widths. A bicycle path should be at least 8 feet wide to allow bicycles to pass in two directions. Golf cart paths should be at least five feet wide. It may be necessary in remote areas, difficult terrain, or where damage to grounds may occur, to construct wider pavements to allow for maintenance or emergency vehicle passage. Bicycle and golf cat paths should have a minimum slope of 2 percent (¼ inch per foot) and should be constructed so that water will not collect at the pavement edge. It may be necessary to construct an underdrain system to carry water away.

PLAY AREAS Play areas may include basketball courts and paved surfaces surrounding play ground equipment. Both surface and subsurface drainage should be investigated to ensure that excessive moisture is not allowed to accumulate under the pavement and shorten the life of the play area surface.

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CURBS Hot mix asphalt curbs can be an integral part of the pavement or they can be laid separately on an existing pavement by use of a slip form paver. These curbs serve to control drainage, delineate the pavement edge, help prevent vehicular encroachment on adjacent areas, maintain edge of pavement, and enhance the overall appearance of streets and highways.

TENNIS COURTS It is most important that both surface and subsurface drainage be thoroughly investigated to ensure a smooth, non-cracked playing surface is maintained. If subsurface drainage is not satisfactory, it is recommended that perimeter drains be installed or that an HMA base on a suitable subgrade soil be used. It is also important that tennis court surfaces properly drain. To accomplish this, the court surface should have a minimum slope of 1 inch per 10 feet on a true plane from side to side, end to end, or corner to corner. The surface should not slope away in two directions from the net.

ASPHALT-RUBBER RUNNING TRACKS High school and colleges are increasingly using asphalt-rubber surfaces for outdoor and indoor running tracks and for long jump, high jump and pole vault runways. It is recommended that these be constructed over an HMA or coarse aggregate base. Rubber for use in asphalt-rubber mixes is available from several manufacturers. Information on these manufacturers can be obtained from WAPA member firms.

HMA FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES HMA may be used to line reservoirs, dams, retention ponds, and for potable water storage since HMA does not contaminate the water. Special care is required in the preparation of the soil surface prior to paving and it is necessary that a proper drainage system be installed to prevent excessive hydrostatic pressures. HMA mixtures for hydraulic linings can differ significantly from HMA for pavements or roadways. It is necessary that a dense mix be used if the lining is to be impervious, typically requiring a higher asphalt binder content and increased minus 200 sieve material. The higher asphalt binder content increases the durability of the mix and the additional minus 200 sieve material increases the impermeability to water.

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Conventional pavers and rollers are used to construct HMA linings on mild slope. On steep slopes cables may be necessary to winch equipment up and down the slope and special pavers and rollers may be required. It may also be necessary to use a performance graded (PG) binder to ensure that adequate HMA stability is obtained.

RAILROAD TRACKBEDS HMA has been used successfully as an underlayment system for railroad track beds. The asphalt layer is topped by a ballast which supports the ties and the rails. The asphalt underlayment helps to spread the load, confine the ballast, waterproof the subgrade, and prevent pumping. It can be cost-effective, especially where a poor base course exists.

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10.0 REFERENCES

Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WISDOT): Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, 1996 Edition. Supplemental Specifications to the Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, 2000 Edition. Facilities Development Manual. Construction and Materials Manual. Transportation Information Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating (PASER MANUAL), 1987, Madison, WI. National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Information Series (IS): IS-20, Guide to Thickness Equivalencies IS-21, Placing & Compacting Thick Lifts IS-77, Are Hot Mix Tarps Effective? IS-97, Blistering in Asphalt Pavements IS-98, Cracking & Seating of PCC Pavements IS-99, Simplified Design Guide for HMA Railroad Trackbeds IS-103, Large Stone Mixes: A Historical Insight IS-105, Design & performance Study of a Large Stone HMA Under Concentrated Punching Shear Conditions IS-107, Estimating User Costs of Asphalt Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation IS-109, Design of HMA Pavements for Commercial, Industrial and Residential Applications IS-110, Thin Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacings IS-117, Guidelines for Use of HMA Overlay to Rehabilitate PCC Pavements IS-119, Hot Mix Asphalt for High Stress Applications IS-120, Balancing Production Rates in HMA Operations IS-121, Roller Operations for Quality IS-123, Recycling HMA Pavements IS-124, Field Management of HMA Pavements IS-125, Paver Operations for Quality National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Quality Improvement Series (QIP): QIP-97, Quality Control for Hot Mix Asphalt Operations QIP-110, SEGREGATION: Causes and Cures for HMA QIP-112, HMA Construction Reference QIP-117, Asphalt Treated Permeable Materials - It’s Evolution QIP-118, Cold Weather Compaction QIP-119, Moisture Susceptibility of HMA Mixes: Identification of Problem and Recommended Solutions QIP-121, Longitudinal Joints: problems and Solutions QIP-122, Designing & Construction SMA Mixtures

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National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Training Aid Series (TAS): TAS-15, Rolling & Compaction of Asphalt Pavements TAS-19, Hauling Hot Mix Asphalt (Video) TAS-20, Handling Hot Mix Asphalt (Video) TAS-21, What’s Hot Mix Asphalt (Video) TAS-23, Understanding the Vibratory Roller (Video) TAS-26, Building the Notched Wedge Joint (Video) TAS-28E, NAPA Paving Practices for Quality (English) TAS-28S, NAPA Paving Practices for Quality (Spanish) National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Promotional Series (PS): PS-6, HMA Best for Your Driveway (Consumer’s Guide) PS-17, Asphalt for Environmental Liners PS-22, HMA in Railroad Trackbeds PS-23, Recycling Brochure National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Miscellaneous Publications: HB-001, The History of Hot Mix Asphalt: A century of Progress PH-001, HMA Paving Handbook - New 2000 Revision EC-101, Best Management Practices to Minimize Emissions During HMA Construction TB-001, Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture Design and Construction The Asphalt Institute (AI): MS-1, Thickness Design - Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets MS-2, Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete - And Other Hot-mix Types MS-4, The Asphalt Handbook MS-8, Asphalt Paving Manual MS-12, Asphalt in Hydraulics MS-15, Drainage of Asphalt Pavement Structures MS-17, Asphalt Overlays for Highway and Street Rehabilitation MS-19, A Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual IS-147, Athletics and Recreation on Asphalt IS-180, Safe Storage and Handling of Hot Asphalt IS-186, Asphalt Use in Water Environments SP-2, Superpave Mix Design

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11.0 CONVERSION TABLE

Table 11.1 Approximate Material Weights (U.S. Tons per Square Yard of Coverage)
Placement Thickness (in.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Material Unit Weight, lbs/sq.yd.-in 100 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 105 0.053 0.105 0.158 0.210 0.263 0.315 0.368 0.420 0.473 0.525 0.578 0.630 110 0.055 0.110 0.165 0.220 0.275 0.330 0.385 0.440 0.495 0.550 0.605 0.660 115 0.058 0.115 0.173 0.230 0.288 0.345 0.403 0.460 0.518 0.575 0.633 0.690 120 0.060 0.120 0.180 0.240 0.300 0.360 0.420 0.480 0.540 0.600 0.660 0.720 125 0.063 0.125 0.188 0.250 0.313 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.563 0.625 0.688 0.750 130 0.065 0.130 0.195 0.260 0.325 0.390 0.455 0.520 0.585 0.650 0.715 0.780

To determine material needs for a paving project, select the column which corresponds to the unit weight of materials to be used and the row which indicates the placement thickness. Multiply the tabulated value by the total square yardage to be paved to determine the required weight of materials, in U.S. tons. Example: Determine HMA tonnage requirement for a 5-inch layer thickness covering 5,000 sq.yd., assuming a material unit weight of 115 lbs/sq.yd.-in From the above table, a 5-inch thickness of HMA with a unit weight of 115 lbs/sq.yd.-in would weigh approximately 0.288 tons/sq.yd. The total tonnage required is calculated as: 0.288 tons/sq.yd. x 5,000 sq.yd. = 1,440 tons required

Solution:

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12.0 MEMBER AND ASSOCIATE MEMBER FIRMS

HOT MIX ASPHALT PRODUCERS
AMERICAN ASPHALT PAVING, INC. N56 W12818 Silver Spring Road Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 (262) 781-6555 AMERICAN ASPHALT OF WI P.O. Box 98 Mosinee, WI 54455-0098 (715) 693-5200 AMON, B.R. & SONS, INC. W2950 Highway 11 Elkhorn, WI 53121 (262) 723-2547 BEAUDOIN, WM. & SONS, INC. 4435 North 127th Street Brookfield, WI 53005 (262) 783-7518 BIEHL CONSTRUCTION CO., INC. P.O. Box 502 Marinette, WI 54143 (715) 732-0678 FRANK BROTHERS, INC. 2919 N. Lexington Drive Janesville, WI 53545 (608) 754-5330 GASSER, D.L. CONSTRUCTION CO. P.O. Box 441 Baraboo, WI 53913 (608) 356-3311 IVERSON CONSTRUCTION CO. P.O. Box 631 Platteville, WI 53818-0631 (608) 568-3433 MATHY CONSTRUCTION CO. P.O. Box 189 Onalaska, WI 54650 (608) 783-6411 MILLER, R.W. & SONS, INC. P.O. Box 998 Lake Geneva, WI 53147-0998 (262) 248-3800 MONARCH PAVING COMPANY 768 U.S. Highway 8 Amery, WI 54001 (715) 268-2687 MURPHY CONSTRUCTION CO. 1911 W. Wisconsin Avenue Appleton, WI 54914 (920) 749-3361 NORTHEAST ASPHALT, INC. W6380 Design Drive Greenville, WI 54942 (920) 757-7505 Fond du Lac, WI (920) 921-5577 Greenville, WI (920) 757-7508 NORTHWOODS PAVING P.O. Box 786 Ashland, WI 54806 (715) 682-4340 PAVING MIX & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, INC. 124 E. Rawson Avenue Oak Creek, WI 53154 (414) 762-8050 PAYNE AND DOLAN, INC. P.O. Box 781 Waukesha, WI 53187 (262) 524-1700 Madison, WI (608) 845-8900 PITLIK & WICK, INC. Route 2 Eagle River, WI 54521 (715) 479-7488 ROCK ROAD COMPANIES, INC. P.O. Box 1779 Janesville, WI 53547-1779 (608) 752-8944 SCOTT CONSTRUCTION CO. P.O. Box 340 Lake Delton, WI (608) 254-2555 Slinger, WI (262) 644-5565 Loganville, WI (608) 727-4405 SENN BLACKTOP INC. 12154 40TH Avenue Chippewa Falls, WI 54729 (715) 723-8527 SHERWIN INDUSTRIES, INC. 2129 West Morgan Avenue Milwaukee, WI 53221 (414) 281-6400 TOWER ASPHALT, INC. P.O. Box 15001 Lakeland, MN 55043 (651) 436-8444

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LIQUID ASPHALT SUPPLIERS
BP AMOCO OIL CO. BP Amoco Asphalt Sales W8365 Rocky Road Portage, WI 53901 (608) 745-5800 KOCH SOLUTIONS, INC. P.O. Box 203 Stevens Point, WI 54481 (715) 344-7200 MARATHON - ASHLAND CO., LLC P.O. Box 262 Eau Claire, WI 54703 (715) 835-4030 HENRY G. MEIGS, INC. 1220 Superior Street Portage, WI 53901 (608) 742-5354 MURPHY OIL USA, INC. P.O. Box 2066 Superior, WI 54880 (715) 398-7161 SENECA PETROLEUM CO. 13301 S. Cicero Avenue Crestwood, IL 60445 (708) 396-1100

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
ALLIED BLACKTOP CORPORATION P.O. Box 356 931 Short Street Eau Claire, WI 54702 (715) 835-4858 ANTIGO CONSTRUCTION, INC. P.O. Box 12 Antigo, WI 54409 (715) 627-2222 AON RISK SERVICES 701 Cherry Street P.O. Box 23004 Green Bay, WI 54305-3004 (920) 431-6233 ARING EQUIPMENT CO. P.O. Box 912 Butler, WI 53007 (262) 781-3770 BARK RIVER CULVERT & EQUIPMENT COMPANY P.O. Box 10947 Green Bay, WI 54307-0947 (920) 435-6676 BAUMHARDT, J & J TRUCKING, INC. Box l07 - C - Route 1 Eden, WI 53019 (920) 477-2611 BECHER-HOPPE ASSOCIATES, INC. P.O. Box 8000 Wausau, WI 54402-8000 (715) 845-8000 BERGMAN COMPANIES, INC. P.O. Box 659 6615 US Highway 12 West Eau Claire, WI 54702 BONESTROO, ROSENE, ANDERLIK & ASSOCIATES 1516 W. Mequon Road Mequon, WI 53092 (262) 241-4466 B.R.W., INC. 10200 West Innovation Drive, Suite 500 Milwaukee, WI 53226 (414) 831-4100 CGG, INC. 3011 Perry Street Madison, WI 53713 (608) 288-4100 CMI CORPORATION P.O. I-40 & Morgan Road Box 1985 Oklahoma City, OK (405) 787-6020 CENEX TRANSPORTATION P.O. Box 64089 Stat. D St. Paul, MN 55164-0089 (612) 437-3272 CENTURY FENCE COMPANY P.O. Box 466 Waukesha, WI 53187-0466 (262) 547-3331 CHICAGO TESTING LABORATORIES, INC. 3360 Commercial Avenue Northbrook, IL 60062 (847) 498-6400 CICCHINI ASPHALT PAVING, INC. 5729 46th Street Kenosha, WI 53144 (262) 654-1929 (715) 874-6070

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ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
CIVIL PROFESSIONAL CONSULTANTS, INC. 2925 Post Road Stevens Point, WI 54481 (715) 342-1999 COBB, STRECKER, DUNPHY & ZIMMERMAN, INC. 4726 East Towne Blvd. Madison, WI 53704 (608) 242-2550 CRETEX SAND & GRAVEL P.O. Box 100 Burlington, WI 53105 (262) 763-2515 CRISPELL-SNYDER, INC. P.O. Box 550 Lake Geneva, WI 53147 (262) 348-5600 CUMMINS GREAT LAKES, INC. 9401 S. 13th Street P.O. Box D Oak Creek, WI 53154 (414) 768-7400 CYGNAC PUBLISHING - PAVEMENT MAGAZINE 1233 Janesville Avenue Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0803 (920) 563-6388 DAFFINSON ASPHALT MAINTENANCE 1311 Contract Drive Green Bay, WI 54304 (800) 236-7404 DILLMAN EQUIPMENT, INC. Frenchtown Road, Route 1 Box 410 Prarie du Chien, WI 53821 (608) 326-4820 EARTH TECH, INC. 1210 Fourier Drive, Suite 100 Madison, WI 53717 (608) 836-9800 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING 13020 W. Bluemound Road Elm Grove, WI 53122 (262) 784-2434 FABCO EQUIPMENT COMPANY 11200 W. Silver Spring Road Milwaukee, WI 53225-3198 (414) 461-9100 FAHRNER ASPHALT SEALERS, INC. P.O. Box 95 Plover, WI 54467-0095 (715) 341-2868 (800) 332-3360 FIDELITY & DEPOSIT COMPANIES 10150 W. National Ave., Suite 300 West Allis, WI 53227 (414) 541-4620 GENCOR INDUSTRIES 5201 N. Orange Blossom Trail Orlando, Florida 32810 (407) 290-6000 GEO-SYNTHETICS. INC. W239 N428 Pewaukee Road Waukesha, WI 53188 (262) 524-7979 GILES ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES N8 W22350 Johnson Road Waukesha, WI 53186 (262) 544-0118 GRAEF, ANHALT & SCHLOEMER ASSOCIATES, INC One Honey Creek Corporate Center 125 South 84th Street, Suite 401 Milwaukee, WI 53214-1470 (414) 259-1500 GRANT THORTON, LLP 2 E. Gillman Street P.O. Box 8100 Madison, WI 53708 (608) 257-6761 INGERSOLL-RAND EQUIPMENT CO. 12311 W. Silver Spring Drive Milwuakee, WI 53225 (414) 461-7810 INSPEC, INC. 555 West Layton Avenue, Suite 420 Milwaukee, WI 53207 (414) 744-6962 JACOBSEN ENGINEERING, INC. 4358 Bramblewood Avenue Vadnais Heights, MN 55127-3502 (651) 429-3476 JACOBUS ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, INC. 3715 Lexington Avenue Madison, WI 53714 (608) 241-3883

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ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
KENOSHA TESTING & ENGINEERING, INC. 9016 58th Place, Suite 900 Kenosha, WI 53144 (262) 656-9777 THE KRAEMER COMPANY P.O. Box 235 Plain, WI 53577 (608) 546-2255 LANG ENGINEERING CO., INC. 4608 Alpine Drive Lakeland, FL 33801 (941) 667-0230 MERIT ASPHALT, INC. S84 W18645 Enterprise Drive Muskego, WI 53150 (262) 679-3388 MSA PROFESSIONAL SERVICES, INC. 1230 South Blvd. Baraboo, WI 53913 (608) 356-2771 MIDWEST ENGINEERING SERVICES 205 Wilmont Drive Waukesha, WI 53186 (262) 521-2125 MILLER, BRADFORD & RISBERG W250 N6851 STH 164 Sussex, WI 53089 (262) 246-5700 MOTION ENGINEERING, INC. 6276 Gilbert Circle West Bend, WI 53095 (414) 389-1778 MUNSON-ARMSTRONG PAVING DIVISION 6747 N. Sidney Place Glendale, WI 53209 (414) 351-0800 OMNI ASSOCIATES, INC. One Systems Drive Appleton, WI 54914-1654 (920) 735-6900 OSI ENVIRONMENTAL, INC. 300 Fayal Road P.O. Box 678 Eveleth, MN 55734 (218) 744-3064 Milwaukee, WI (414) 351-8020 PAVEMENT CONSULTING, INC. 12970 W. Bluemound Road - Suite 103 Elm Grove, WI 53122 (262) 796-0750 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE, INC. N57 W13394 Reichert Avenue Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 (262) 781-5957 PERRY-CARRINGTON ENGINEERING CORP 214 W. Second Street Marshfield, WI 54449-2719 (715) 384-2133 PETERSON, JAMES SONS, INC. P.O. Box 120 Medford, WI 54451 (715) 748-3035 PROFESSIONAL SERVICE INDUSTRIES, INC. (PSI) W228 N727 Westmound Drive, Suite A Waukesha, WI 53186 (262) 970-9022 RIVER VALLEY TESTING CORP. 728 S. Westland Drive Appleton, WI 54914 (920) 733-8827 ROADTEC 2212 Cornell Avenue Montgomery, IL 60538 (630) 844-2710 ROHNER ASPHALT & GRADING 9615 Charles Street P.O. Box 396 Sturtevant, WI 53177 (262) 886-4388 SEAMAN NUCLEAR CORPORATION 7315 S. First Street Oak Creek, WI 53154 (414) 762-5100 SHERWIN INDUSTRIES, INC. 2129 West Morgan Avenue Milwaukee, WI 53221 (414) 281-6400 SHORT-ELLIOTT-HENDRICKSON, INC. 421 Frenette Drive Chippewa Falls, WI 54729 (715) 720-6200 R.A. SMITH & ASSOCIATES 16745 West Bluemound Road Brookfield, WI 53005-1837 (262) 786-1777

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ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
STS CONSULTANTS, LTD 11425 W, Lake Park Drive Milwaukee, WI 53224 (414) 359-3030 STANG WISCONSIN CORPORATION P.O. Box 217 Menominee, MI 49858-0217 (906) 863-2606 CLIFF STILGENBAUER OSHA 25818 Tallwood Drive North Olmsted, OH 44070 (440) 777-2259 SUNBIRD CONSULTANTS 180 Gravel Drive West Bend, WI 53095 (262) 675-2640 TRACTOR LOADER SALES, INC. P.O. Box 1484 Waukesha, WI 53187 (262) 542-9400 TRAFFIC SIGNING & MARKING (TSM) P.O. Box 8026 Madison, WI 53708-8026 (608) 222-2247 TROXLER ELECTRONIC LABS 1430 Brook Drive Downers Grove, IL 60515 (630) 261-9304 VIRCHOW, KRAUSE & CO, LLP 500 Midland Court P.O. Box 8040 Janesville, WI 53547 (608) 752-5835 VULCAN MATERIALS CO. 5713 W. Rawson Avenue Franklin, WI 53132 (414) 421-5153 N52 W23096 Lisbon Road Sussex, WI 53090 (262) 246-3591 W.K. CONSTRUCTION, INC. 4292 Twin Valley Road Middleton, WI 53562 WEM AUTOMATION 2501 South Moorland Road New Berlin, WI 53151-0767 (262) 782-2340 WI CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION N3486 Indian Echoes Lane Montello, WI 53949 (608) 297-7070 YAHARA MATERIALS, INC. P.O. Box 277 Waunakee, WI 53597-0277 (608) 849-4162

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