CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Soil is obviously the medium necessity for the terrestrial life. Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of minerals constituents of variable thickness, which differ from the parent material in their morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics. It is composed of particles of broken rocks that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that includes weathering and erosion. Soil is used in agriculture, where it is the primary nutrient base for plants. Soil is also a restricting factor as to which plants can grow in a specific environment. As for the mountainous area, the soil found there are supposed to be rich and fertile. (Wikipedia®, 2000) However, vicinity in Caribao, Mainit a part of the Iligan City hinterlands is said to have a small scale mining site. Brgy. Mainit is said to be one of the 44 barangays here in Iligan City. Natural resources such as Gold (Au), Chromite and other associated minerals are said to be present in the area. The usual color of the soil in that particular area is red and brown which the researcher cogitate to be Iron or Chromite-rich. Color is also an indicator towards the soil fertility. Thorough observation and interviews have been conducted by the researcher. Conversely, red color is an indicator of poor soil depending on the factors itself. In all probability, it can be the cause for small plants and herbs not to grow in the locale which is the crucial problem of the people living in the said region.

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Background of the Study Purok Caribao, Mainit is a one of the farthest barangays in Iligan City, where it is located in the mountainous areas. The main livelihood of the said place is small mining scale which is perilous to the environment especially to the human health. Agricultural source is diverted in this activity because of the soil’s unproductive factors. By observations and interviews of the people living in the said place, the researcher was interested towards the factors that cause the soil’s infertility. In the entire scope of Mainit, plants are slightly visible, but in this purok named Caribao, plants are hardly seen especially shrubs and herbs which is mandatory to humans. Soil pH however, is vital to plants for it can affect its growth. Various plants can adapt to acidic or basic soil but the usual soil pH needed and adapted by plants is 6.0 – 7.0. Chromite is also said to be present in the soil, where it has some hazardous effects not only in the soil and plants but most especially to human health. The main goal of the researcher is to determine the factor whether it could be the Chromite content or acidity level or even both factors affects the soil infertility and the growth of plants specifically herbs and shrubs in Caribao, Mainit; when in fact it is a part of the Iligan hinterlands (supposed to be rich and fertile). The researcher also wants to come up with the result to identify the reasons why the soil is infertile causing the reason of unproductive agricultural of the community.

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Statement of the Problem This study was designed to quantitatively analyze the soil acidity and chromite content; thus answering the following questions: • Is there any significant mean effect of the Chromite content of the soil as a seminal factor towards the soil infertility? • Is there a significant mean effect of the acidity level towards the aspects of soil infertility? • Is there a significant mean difference between the Acidity level and Chromite content as factor towards the soil infertility? Hypotheses • • There is no significant mean effect of Soil Acidity to plants’ growth. There is no significant mean effect of Chromite Content to plants’ growth.

Significance of the Study The production of crops in the lands of Caribao, Mainit is still a major problem of the citizens living in that particular area; although mining is the main livelihood of the people, still there is a need to generate food in order to survive. With the results of this study, the researcher can inform the people the rationale of the soil infertility whether it is because of the Chromite content or acidity level of the soil. It is significant enough to conduct this research study for it enhances learning towards the advancement of science and it helps the people to comprehend more the

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Acidity – refers to the possible level of acid present in the soil of Caribao. near the actual small scale mining site (T2) and 100m away from the actual mining site(T3). whether it could be the acidity level or the Chromite (FeCr2o4) content of the soil. Also the alkalinity and testing of other minerals other than Chromite is not part of the Scope and Limitation of the study. whether the soil is greater in acidity level or alkalinity. Colorimetric Method – used in this study to determine whether or whether not the soil sample with each trial contains Chromite. Soil pH – indicator of the pH level of the soil. Operational Definition Infertility – refers to the unproductive effects of the soil due to the factors which this paper is trying to investigate. Scope and Limitations This study is limited only in the pointing out of the factors determining the soil infertility. Chromite – being test of possible content in soil and is stated to be a reason of infertility.situation and later on the researcher can give alternative solutions based also with the results of the experimentations to solve the common problem. There will be three soil samples from different locations from Caribao Mainit. the soil in the Lands of Caribao. Mainit is unable to produce edible plants. 4 . pH meter – instrument used to measure the pH level of the soil. along the pathway going to the small scale mining site (T1). Mainit.

they consider it as an easily aggregated earth material that supports most foundations. yet it is extremely important. and are referred to commonly as dirt.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Soil The term soil generally refers to the loose surface of the Earth. About half of the total mass of soil is made of up vast interconnecting cavities. dead plants and animals. The amount of air and the amount of water filling these spaces varies dramatically throughout the year. consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with organic matter. and clay. air. and from location to location. as distinguished from solid rock. Components of Soil Soil can be defined as the top layer of the earth's surface. and other earth structures are built (Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge. These holes are filled with both air. and rocks. (2) for civil engineers. There are many terms of soil depending on the one’s whom uses it: (1) for farmers or agronomist. minerals. roads. embankments. 170). The inorganic materials found in soils account for about half of the total mass of most soil. These groups are organic materials. This organic material is made up of living organisms such as plants and animals. silt. but averages about 50% each. or holes. The air 5 . a. Soil is made up of an extensive variety of substances. inorganic materials. and water. and other constructed works and from which earth dams. These inorganic materials take the form of sand. and water. runways. p. Organic matter makes up only a small fraction of the total materials in soil. and nutrients that have come from decomposed plants and animals. it is the natural medium of all land plants. These substances can be categorized into four main groups.

water also enters soil from the dirt beneath it.found is soil is very different from the air found in the atmosphere. the more nutrient rich it is. slowly replenishing the atmospheres carbon dioxide supplies. while red soils can indicate very poor soils. as well as through drainage. It also tends to be very rich in carbon dioxide. soil formation would not be possible. Water leaves soil via evaporation. and carbon dioxide is left behind. The color of soil can tell scientists a lot about it. a very poor 6 . The darker color often indicates an increase in decomposed organic matter known as humus. Generally speaking. The maximum amount of water that a soil can handle is known as the soil’s field capacity. Gray soils often indicate poor drainage. Water makes chemical reactions in the soil possible. The most common are through precipitation. Oxygen is removed by living organisms. Water enters soil via a number of different processes. This precipitation enters the soil and drains down into it. In many cases. Geologists officially recognize over 170 different soil colors. and supplies microorganisms with the water necessary for life. and white. and poor in oxygen. as water climbs upward to fill the empty spaces between particles of dirt. b. This carbon dioxide leaks out of the soil. the darker a soil is. and is much more moist. gray. Water is one of the most important ingredients in any soil. These general rules about soil colors can however be misleading. brown. Excessive water can rob soils of their nutrients. by carrying them away to other locations. Many substances dissolve into water. Most of these are shades of black. red. Without water. such as rain and snow. Under certain conditions. Soil Color The most obvious property when looking at soil is its color. and are carried from one portion of the soil to another. This process is known as leaching. or humid than atmospheric air. The air in soils is not exposed to moving air currents.

These pigments produce various color patterns due to effects by the environment during soil formation. Earth sheltering is 7 . Soil color is primarily influenced by soil mineralogy. but primarily. while a rich healthy soil can appear as red. while reducing environments result in disrupted color flow with complex. Podsols in boreal forests have highly contrasting layers due to acidity and leaching. organic matter decomposes into black and brown compounds. The development and distribution of color in a soil profile result from chemical and biological weathering. 2005) c. Massive volumes of soil can be involved in surface mining. such as the purported level of moisture in the soil) vary with respect to the species of plants that are cultivated. mottled patterns and points of color concentration. Mollisols in the Great Plains are darkened and enriched by organic matter. Soil material is a critical component in the mining and construction industries.soil can appear as dark black. Iron forms secondary minerals with a yellow or red color. The types of soil used in agriculture (among other things. 1998) The Red River (Mississippi watershed) carries sediment eroded from extensive reddish soils like Port Silt Loam in Oklahoma. As the primary minerals in soil parent material weather. road building. sulfur and nitrogen can form black mineral deposits. Soil is used in agriculture. soil is used by plants to grow. Use of Soil There are different classifications on the use of soil. Many soil colors are due to the extensive and various iron minerals. especially redox reactions. (Wikipedia®. Aerobic conditions produce uniform or gradual color changes. and manganese. Soil serves as a foundation for most construction projects. where it serves as the primary nutrient base for the plants. The Yellow River in China carries yellow sediment from eroding loessal soils. (The Kids Know It network. and dam construction. the elements combine into new and colorful compounds.

These well balanced soils are the healthiest for plant life. These natural filtration systems are important in purifying our drinking water as much as possible before it reaches treatment plants to reduce the cost of that treatment and to minimize the amount of chemicals added in order to make it drinkable. 2009) 8 . Pick up a pinch of soil between your fingers. Septic drain fields treat septic tank effluent using aerobic soil processes. much of the rain water is percolated through the many horizons of a soil profile and renamed as groundwater. Pollutants such as viruses. As the water moves through different areas such as wetlands.Soil resources are critical to the environment. and sediments are filtered out by the soil and surrounding organisms. Waste management often has a soil component. while other soils have an abundance of small particles with few large particles. oils. Some soils have more large particles. Soil cleans the water as it percolates. and riparian zones many pollutants are removed. Riparian zones act as living filters which absorb and take in excess nutrients and pollutants brought in from runoff. rainfall. You will quickly notice that the soil is made up of a many different sized particles. as well as to food and fiber production. d. Landfills use soil for daily cover. and fewer small particles. Soil provides minerals and water to plants. After coming down as precipitation. Soil is the habitat for many organisms. Soil absorbs rainwater and releases it later thus preventing floods and drought. Soil Texture Another easily experienced property of soil is texture. These particles give the soil its texture. and surrounding areas. metals. excess nutrients. Other soils have an equal balance between small and large particles. and rub it back and forth. (Progardening Systems. forests. Soils play an important role in filtrating and purifying water.the architectural practice of using soil for external thermal mass against building walls.

So. The point to remember from the chemical definition is that pH values are reported on a negative log scale. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with pH 7 as the neutral point. As the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil increases. Agronomists generally use soil pH as measured in a 2:1 water-to-soil mixture as an index of a soil's acidity or alkalinity. the soil is increasingly more alkaline or basic.0 Acid 5. From pH 7 to 0. a soil pH of 6 has 10 times more hydrogen ions than a soil with a pH of 7. and a soil with a pH of 5 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a soil with a pH of 7. a 1 unit change in the pH value signifies a 10fold change in the actual activity of H+.0 Neutral 7.0 Slightly Acid 6. In a soil test report. To put this into perspective. pH is the negative log of hydrogen (H+) activity in an aqueous solution.5 Not Acidic Slightly 7.0 Acid 6. the soil is increasingly more acidic.Soil pH The first order of business is a quick review of pH and the associated terminology. and the activity increases as the pH value decreases. thus becoming more acidic. Table 1 Soil pH level 3. Soil pH or soil reaction is an indication of the acidity or alkalinity of soil and is measured in pH units. and from pH 7 to 14.0 Moderately Alkaline Very Strongly Strongly Best Range for Most Crops Soil Acidity 9 . Using a strict chemical definition. the soil pH decreases. Activity increases as the pH value decreases.5 Mildly Alkaline 8. pH is often reported with descriptive modifier.

but over the years it has become part of the home gardener's everyday world.0 are just about the limits for plant growth. soil pH is the key to proper plant growth. The scale is simplicity itself. and running in tenths up to 14. The pH scale is just as easy to work with as the thermometer scale. the most alkaline. affecting the choice of crop/plant that can be grown without 10 . you can make practical use of soil pH elements that your plants (and the soil organisms) need. Effects of Acidity in Crops An acid solution has Sakshi Gupta pagala pH value less than 7.0. many cases. the most acid.) Gardeners do not use the entire pH scale. since reactions from 4. and a reading of soil acidity can tell you much about what is going on beneath the surface of your garden. being a series of numbers starting at 0. The neutral soil reaction on the scale is 7.0. The pH scale is a measure of balance between acidity and alkalinity of soil solutions. (Beaulieu.Soil acidity. While basic solution always has a pH larger than 7. You don't have to know thermodynamics or heat transfer to understand what happens to your plants when thermometer readings drop to or below 32° Fahrenheit. (Soil reaction refers to the degree of acidity. Similarly.0. is one of the principal influences for good or bad in soil. logarithm exponents or other technical details of the pH theory. can also be defined as the negative logarithm of hydroxide ions in the soil. This used to be the province of scientists and chemistry students. In many. the mid-point where acid and alkaline elements are in balance. Soil pH is an important consideration for farmers and gardeners for several reasons such as many plants and soil life forms have a preference for either alkaline or acidic conditions.0 to 9. 2006). without knowing a thing about hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.

and leeched away as the water drains. In order for plants to obtain the nutrients they need to survive. A pH level of around 6. They are replaced by acidic elements such as aluminium and iron. chlorosis of leaf vegetables and potato scab occur in overly alkaline conditions. If a soil has too much acid in it. soils formed under high rainfall conditions are more acidic than those formed under arid (dry) conditions. For example. and anaerobic bacteria have a broader tolerance and tend to multiply at lower pH values. moulds.intervention to adjust the pH. rather than undergoing the sweet decay processes associated with the decay of organic matter. the nutrients in the soil will be dissolved too quickly. although fungi. these nutrients must be carried into them by being dissolved into the ground water that the plants absorb through their roots. These processes also prefer near-neutral conditions. Water passing through the soil leaches basic nutrients such as calcium and magnesium from the soil. Many plant diseases are caused or exacerbated by extremes of pH. sometimes because this makes essential nutrients unavailable to crops or because the soil itself is unhealthy. Rainfall also affects soil pH. Therefore. diseases affecting plants also tend to thrive in soil with a particular pH range.3-6. For this reason. Soils developed from basic rocks generally have higher pH values than those formed from acid rocks. more acidic soils tend to be susceptible to souring and putrefaction. 1998) 11 . (The Kids Know It network.8 is also the optimum range preferred by most soil bacteria. and acidic soils can cause clubroot in brassicas. The pH value of a soil is influenced by the kinds of parent materials from which the soil was formed. which immeasurably benefit the soil. and the pH can affect the availability of nutrients in the soil.

Onion. Melons. Squash. we can generally conclude that soils are naturally acidic if the rainfall is above 30 inches per year. Chrysanthemum. Knowing the soil pH helps identify the kinds of chemical reactions that are likely to be taking place in the soil.5 – 6. Cabbage.0 favor soil alkaline conditions. In Oklahoma. Sweet Corn. Parsnip. However. Sweet Potato.Table 2: some plant reference pH pH 4. Maize. Red Clover. Why Soils are Acid Based on a study conducted. Egg Plant. Lucerne. Asparagus. Lettuce. These are the three major causes for soils to become acid: a. Sweet Clover. Bean.5 Plants preferable to the Soil pH Orchid Potato. pH 7. the most important reactions from the standard point of crop production are those dealing with solubility’s of compounds or materials in soils.0 Clover. Candytuft. the more natural occurrence there has resulted in farm operators being better able to manage soil acidity in that part of the state. Spinach.0 – 5. Therefore soils east of 12 .0 – 6.0 pH 5. Stock. for example. acid soil conditions are more widespread in eastern Oklahoma. Pumpkin.5 pH 5. Generally. Turnip. Pea. Celery. White pH 6. Carrot Broccoli. Cauliflower.0 pH 6. Sweet Pea and Tulip.1 – 8. in central and western Oklahoma the problem appears to grow with time. Dahlia.5 – 5.5 – 7. Cucumber. Beet. Rainfall and Leaching Excessive rainfall is an effective agent for removing basic cations over a long period of time (thousands of years). Tomato.

It 13 . c. alkaline. Organic matter Decay Decaying organic matter produces H+ which is responsible for acidity. Parent Material Due to differences in chemical composition of parent materials. This is the same acid that develops when CO 2 in the atmosphere reacts with rain to form acid rain naturally. soils that developed from granite material are likely to be more acidic than soils developed from calcareous shale or limestone. It is a hard white metallic transition element occurring naturally as chromate. Sandy soils are often the first to become acidic because water percolates rapidly. Rainfall is most effective in causing soils to become acidic if a lot of water moves through soil rapidly. Thus. Like rainfall. Since the effect of rainfall on acid soil development is very slow. It is a salt in which an ion contains both chromium and oxygen.l-35tend to be acidic and those wests of l-35. It belongs to Group VI B (Atomic No. intensive crop production. the contribution to acid soil development by decaying organic matter is generally very small. and sandy soils contain only a small reservoir of bases (buffer rapidly) due to low clay and organic matter contents. 1914) Chromium (mined as Chromite) Chromium is the 21st element in earth’s crust in relative abundance. soils will become acidic after different lengths of time. (Johnson. Several organic acids are also produced by decaying organic matter. b. and it would only be the accumulated effects of many years that might ever by measured in a field.24). The carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by decaying organic matter reacts with water in the soil to form a weak acid called carbonic acid. it may take hundreds of years for new parent material to become acidic under high rainfall. There are many exceptions for this rule though. but they are also weak acids. mostly as a result of item 4.

(Mastorakis. Moreover. coal mines and coal utilization sites are discharged into various tributaries of the Brahmani River. chromium poisoning has had toxic effects in workers employed in chromite mines. hard metal. brittle. Exposure to chromium can occur through the three major routes. Chromium based industries generate considerable quantity of pollutants containing toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). slag and process water. Chromium occurs in the Valence States of +2.is a biologically inert metal (20). 2005). its salts colour glass an emerald green and it is used to produce synthetic rubies. But it has severely affected the ecology and reduced the forest cover. People live in this areas have been found to suffer from toxic effects arising from exposure to chromium. by direct ingestion and by inhalation of chromium containing particles. Effluents from the chromite mines. in chrome plating and in metal ceramics. It does not tarnish in air. Chromium is a lustrous. it immediately produces a thin oxide layer that is impermeable to oxygen and protects the metal below. Its color is silver-gray and it can be highly polished. Chromium is unstable in oxygen. +3 and +6. Chromium is used in metallurgy to impart corrosion resistance and a shiny finish. Such toxic effects may range from ulcers. as a catalyst in dyeing and in the tanning of leather. allergic dermatitis and lung cancer to renal insufficiency to lever necrosis. Pollution from these mines is mainly in the form of dust. A huge amount of dust is released into the atmosphere. to make 14 . via. Absorption through the skin. Chromium main uses are in alloys such as stainless steel. The oral LD 50 of Na2Cr2O7 (sodium chromate) in humans has been reported to be 50 ppm. The +2 and +3 states are basic whereas +6 are acidic. Chromium plating was once widely used to give steel a polished silvery mirror coating. Chromite mining has vastly improved the economic status of several people in Orissa. as dyes and paints. forming are ions of the type chromate and dichromate. when heated it burns and forms the green chromic oxide.

V. Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr2O4) ore. 1998-2009) Effects of Chromite to soil The water from chromite mines are invariably contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Canada e USA. The level of chromium in 15 . Health effects of chromium People can be exposed to chromium through breathing. 25 – 100 ppm in irrigation reservoirs and 4000 ppm (mg/l) in the soil making it unfit for domestic usages. Hexavalent chromium is formed due to still unknown chemical reactions and this percolates to the subsoil and terrestrial water sources during rainy seasons.( Mastorakis. For example hexavalent chromium content in certain parts of Orissa has been found to be 550 – 1500 ppm (mg/l) in well water. Chromium ores are mined today in South Africa. Chromium (IV) oxide (CrO 2) is used to manufacture magnetic tape. Zimbabwe. A total of 14 million tonnes of chromite ore is extracted. Reserves are hestimated to be of the order of 1 billion tonnes with unexploited deposits in Greenland. India. Mine water is released into the adjoining water sources (drinking and domestic) without treatment.molds for the firing of bricks. Effluents are causing irreversible damage to the subsoil and surface water sources in adjoining areas and waste dumping sites. (lenntech water treatment and purification holding B. The slag is usually dumped underground. Sometimes the slag is manually broken and washed to retrieve the product and in this process some contaminated water and shine are generated.. It was found that chromium content in the ground water is higher than 31 mg/1. Kazakihstan and the Philippines. This contains chromium compounds in different valence state. Chromium levels in mine water was tested by using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). eating or drinking and through skin contact with chromium or chromium compounds. Hexavalent Chromium (Cr VI) does not bind to soil and is not affected unless there is some organic matter. 2005). Finland.

Upset stomachs and ulcers.air and water is generally low. Alteration of genetic material. fruits. Kidney and liver damage. Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient for humans and shortages may cause heart conditions. disruptions of metabolisms and diabetes. meats. For most people eating food that contains chromium(III) is the main route of chromium uptake. The hexavalent form is toxic. The metal form (chromium as it exists in this product) is of low toxicity. Death. irritation of the pharynx and larynx. but contaminated well water may contain the dangerous chromium(IV). Other health problems that are caused by chromium (VI) are Skin rashes. But the uptake of too much chromium (III) can cause health effects as well. People who smoke tobacco also have a higher chance of exposure to chromium. Chromium (VI) is known to cause various health effects. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium compounds can result in ulceration and perforation of the mucous membranes of the nasal septum. hexavalent chromium. When food stores in steel tanks or cans. and allergic skin reactions. 16 . asthmatic bronchitis. After breathing it in chromium (VI) can cause nose irritations and nosebleeds. Chromium (VI) is a danger to human health. such as skin rash. it can cause allergic reactions. When it is a compound in leather products. as chromium(III) occurs naturally in many vegetables. In drinking water the level of chromium is usually low as well. The health hazards associated with exposure to chromium are dependent on its oxidation state. for instance skin rashes. The chromium concentrations may rise. Various ways of food preparation and storage may alter the chromium contents of food. mainly for people who work in the steel and textile industry. Adverse effects of the hexavalent form on the skin may include ulcerations. weakened immune systems. dermatitis. yeasts and grains. Lung cancer. Respiratory problems.

lead chromate. and nasal itch.and zinc chromate. shortness of breath. According to NTP. Respiratory symptoms may include coughing and wheezing. not classifiable as a human carcinogen. 1998-2009) CHAPTER III 17 .V. calcium chromate. ACGIH has classified chromium metal and trivalent chromium compounds as A4. chromium trioxide..Chromium and most trivalent chromium compounds have been listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) as having inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Carcinogenicity.) Chromium is not regulated as a carcinogen by OSHA (29 CFR 1910 Subpart Z). strontium chromate. there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in experimental animals for the following hexavalent chromium compounds. (lenntech water treatment and purification holding B.bronchospasms and edema. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has listed chromium metal and its trivalent compounds within Group 3 (The agent is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.

METHODOLOGY I. • • • • • Materials • • • • • Erlenmeyer Flask Volumetric Flask Suction bulb Pipette Colorimeter Distilled water Soil Samples Digging tool (trowel) Sealable Cellophanes Universal indicator (pH – Fix 014) Method: • • pH testing using pH meter Colorimetric Method Apparatus • • • • • • Stirring Rod Beakers Filter Funnel with Filter Paper Calibrator pH meter Mortar and Pestle Molecular Sieve Molecular Balance Top Loading Balance Drying oven Furnace Chemicals • • • Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Diphenyl Carbaxide (DPC) Ethyl Alcohol • • • • • 18 .

Using the digging device or trowel. 19 . This is to assure that the collected sample won’t be deficient. Preparing for experimentation Each beaker and other apparatus were labeled with the corresponding test soil sample number to attain accuracy and avoid confusion. Mainit were collected. T2 and T3. C. A. Each sample was labeled as T1. Collection of Samples Three samples from different areas of Caribao. Procedure Mapping of the site Interval: 100m away from each site B.II. each soil samples were measured with an approximation of 100g.

Preparing the samples Refining All the samples were pulverized using mortar and pestle. A pH electrode senses the difference between the H+ concentration in the soil solution and in a reference solution inside the electrode. Wet or even moist soil sample were placed inside the oven for drying. Samples were assured to be dry. Then the pH meter was calibrated. Each sample was placed with a universal indicator (pH – Fix 0-14) for estimated pH level. Crucibles were also weighed along with each soil sample.2g was set to each soil. Approximately 0.D. Every sample was weighed using the top loading balance and set to 10g per sample. Each 20 . Soil pH testing Each sample was placed inside a 100mL beaker. 10mL of distilled water were added to each soil sample. F. E. Each sample was mixed by using stirring rod for 5 minutes. This procedure was repeated to each sample. Chromite Analysis Weighing Each sample was weighed using the molecular balance. Each sample undergoes screening using a molecular sieve for the purpose of thorough refinement. Using the pH meter pH meter was used to give a numerical and exact value of the pH level of soil-water mixture. Filter funnel with the filter paper was used to separate the soil and distilled water.

the soil was ignited with the temperature of 800° Celsius for 1 hour. c. Samples were observed for visible yellow product. Then the filtration process was repeated. 21 . Bunsen burner was utilized for melting the samples to yield a yellow product. b. After the fusion. a.soil samples were divided into trials namely A. each sample was boiled for 20 minutes. Before the samples can proceed to colorimetric method. Filtration Each sample was dissolved in a 5mL HCl solution and was boiled at 100° C for 30 minutes. After the ignition. Erlenmeyer flask is then used to place each solution. Volumetric Flask was used for accurate volume and was set to 100mL per sample. Ignition Using the furnace. then the sample is possibly negative to Chromite content and therefore will not proceed to Colorimetric Method. Sodium Peroxide Fusion Sodium peroxide was mixed with the ignited soil (soil from the filtration). The remains in the filter paper were again ignited for the Sodium Peroxide Fusion. filtration and disintegration of soil particles from the liquid solution was done. If the samples will not show any trace of yellow product. each soil samples were again weighed. the test samples should be visible of the yellow product to determine whether or whether not the sample contains chromite. B. and C for the purpose of identifying any errors especially in the colorimetric method. With the use of the filter funnel attached with filter paper.

d. After combining. ethyl alcohol and Diphenyl Carbazide (DPC) was mixed for 15 minutes. 22 . Colorimetric Method In a beaker. A pipette and a suction bulb were used to transport the solution at 10mL to an Erlenmeyer flask. the result will yield a purple solution if the test samples is positive with Chromite. This process was done to filtrate CrO4. Reading of the absorbance will be at 542nm. Calculations will follow after this procedure which will be stated in the results and discussion.. it was then placed in a test tube for the colorimeter reading using the Colorimeter. The solution with DPC and the test sample solutions were then combined.

Flow of Procedure Mapping of the site Collection of Samples Preparing for experimentation Preparing the samples Refining Soil pH Testing Chromite Analysis Soil – Water Mixture Weighing pH meter reading Ignition Quantitative Data/ Numerical Value Filtration Sodium Peroxide Fusion Colorimetric Method Absorbance Reading Quantitative Data/ Numerical Value 23 .

the graph shows the intensity of acidity in each soil samples.01 Table 1 shows the result of the pH meter testing of the soil – water mixture. while the y axis shows the pH level ranging from 0 – 6 and was based on the results of the testing. 24 .65 ± 0. All soil samples are acidic but T3 shows the highest level of acidity.0g 5. Determining the acidity level of soil Table 1: pH level of soil Weight in grams (g) pH level T1 10. Graph 1: pH level of soil Based on the results of the pH level test.01 T2 10.36 ± 0. The data in the x axis are the weight of each soil sample.0g T3 10.0g 3.20 ± 0.01 5. Each sample was weighed accordingly.CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A.

808 This table shows the weight of each soil samples before igniting it using the furnace. This is completed along with the crucibles to maintain consistency in the results. empty Wt g Soil + Crucible Trial # Wt g Soil Wt g Crucible.6108 23.2018 23. This was done after pulverizing and refining the soil sample and had been set to 0.3263 T1 – B 23.7690 25 . of Soil &crucible T1 – A 23.4661 23.B. empty Wt g Soil + Crucible TI-A 0.8624 T3-C 0.2012 19.6562 21.5303 23.2721 22.2g each.1636 24.2092 22.6680 TI-B 0.6645 21.6068 19. Chromium determination Table 2: Weighing Soil samples before Ignition T1 Trial # Wt g Soil Wt g Crucible.2024 24.3660 T2 T2-A 0.4819 T3-B 0.8116 23. empty Wt g Soil +crucible Trial # Wt g Soil Wt g Crucible.7321 T2-C 0.2101 23.2062 21. Table 3: Weighing Soil Samples after Ignition T1 Trial number Wt.2179 21.8824 T3 T3-A 0.2019 23.0208 T2-B 0.8209 TI-C 0.2098 22.7781 T1 – C 19.

Standard concentration (PPM) 0. each soil samples were again weighed and this table gives the corresponding weight. All the test samples prove that Chromite is present. Colorimetric Method Table 5: Concentration and Absorbance of Chromium content X .00 Y . the weights of the soil samples were decreased. of Soil &crucible 21. The results stated in this table also tell us that all soil samples had undergone Colorimetric Method for the quantitative value of Chromite concentration.7151 T3 T3 – B 21.00 26 .4502 (g) T2 T2 – B 23.9893 After the ignition.6511 T3 – C 22.8327 T2 – C 23.8631 (g) Trial number T3 – A Wt.Trial number T2 – A Wt. Compared to Table 2.Absorbance (wavelength) 0. Table 4: Result of Fusion Yellow product Result Legend: + ++ minute but visible traces slightly visible traces +++ – clearly visible negative/no traces at all T1 + T2 ++ T3 +++ Table 4 shows the test results after the Sodium Peroxide Fusion. of Soil &crucible 22.

3 II 202. Equations used: Concentration = (Abs -0.1164 500 58.458 This table shows the standard concentration in PPM (parts per million) needed to test the chromite content of each soil sample and the absorbance level required for every concentration.4 100 10 50 0.21 27 .75 1.055 0. X dilution factor mg Cr2O3 = mcg Cr2O3 /1000 %Cr2O3 = (mg Cr2O3/ mg sample)*100 The following tables discussed the analysis on how the Chromite Content was computed to determine the exact percentage concentration on each soil samples. This was done on individual Tests.00 0.25 0. ppm dilution factor mcg Cr2O3 I 202.1186 500 59. mg Total Volume aliqout. The total average percent concentration of Chromite is also stated in every test samples. mL Vfinal absorbance concentration.52 0.228 0.4 100 10 50 0.118 0.456 mcg Cr2O3= conc.054 0. Table 6: Test Result of T1 Trial No.12 III 202.344 0.1142 500 57. weight of s.001)/ 0.053 0.0.4 100 10 50 0.

20835086 1.10% II 217.21 1.103969711 0.21 Based on the quantitative data and computed results.4444 500 222.52787 1.05821 0.55 0.527.4444 500 222. mL Vfinal absorbance concentration.1142 5000 2.232 0.22218 0.18 0.4531 500 226.87 2.22655 0.527.03% 0. ppm dilution factor mcg Cr2O3 mg Cr2O3 % Cr2O3 Ave %Cr2O3 I 217.1164 5000 2.03% 0.87 2.028221344 0.21 II 209.0593 0.18 0. Graph 2: determination of Chromite 28 . mg Total Volume aliqout. each soil sample contains Chromite.232 0.9 100 10 50 0.9 100 10 50 0.mg Cr2O3 % Cr2O3 Ave %Cr2O3 0.1186 5000 2.2 100 5 50 0.204 0.2 100 5 50 0. ppm dilution factor mcg Cr2O3 mg Cr2O3 % Cr2O3 Ave %Cr2O3 I 209. weight of s.03% 0.10% III 217.232 0.101964204 0.22218 0.527.20835086 1.52787 1.03% Table 7: Test Result of T2 Trial No.10% Table 8: Test Result of T3 Trial No. mL Vfinal absorbance conc. mg Total Volume aliqout.10% 0.204 0.20835086 1.9 100 10 50 0.208 0. weight of s.52787 1.029298419 0.87 2. T3 shows the highest concentration of Chromite compared to the other samples.05712 0.2 100 5 50 0.028759881 0.21% III 209.101964204 0.

This graph shows the calibration curve used in determining the chromite content. The value of absorbance is fixed (refer to Table 5).9999 and it is the coefficient of determination. Chapter V Conclusions and Recommendation Based on the results given and the value of each data. it contributes to the soil’s infertility but cannot be considered the main reason towards the infertility. The presence of Chromite is also a factor but result shows that chromite concentration was less therefore. Since 29 . The X axis shows the standard concentration in PPM or Parts per Million and the Y axis shows the absorbance in wavelength. the researcher concludes that the high Acidity Level of soil is a factor towards soil infertility. R2 is set at 0. pH level on the other hand shows that the maximum test result is not tolerable by plants.

in this way. Recommendations Since acidic soil is proven based on the result.gov/natbltn/700-799/nb707. Bibliography Book Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowlegde. “Landscaping Guide” Thursday September 2.htm> Forest Preserve District of Cook County (Illinois) March 2.htm> 30 . it is best recommended to take an action to solve this problem.anl.the endurable acidity level of most common plants is close to neutral. p. One way of treating acidic soil is by liming (Calcium Carbonate). On the actual lab test..newton.about. So the researcher would likely recommend for the next researchers to study about this potential minerals and their contribution to the soil’s infertility. Silicate and Aluminates was said to be present based on the tests. D. they will be able to help the people in their farming.com/bio/David-Beaulieu-8278. still traces from T1 and T2 are present. Minerals like Iron.dep. it helps by neutralizing the acid in the soil. they will be aware of the situation in Mainit. 170 Electronic Sources Beaulieu. 1963 “Soil Minerals” <http://www. Or another way is by informing the Department of Agriculture. 2010 <http://landscaping. and by any other means. Although T3 has the highest level of both Acidity Level and Chromite Content. a lot of minerals were found in the soil samples that weren’t part of scope of this study and may also be a factor towards the infertility. therefore high acidic level of soil will result to unproductive soil.

lenntech.pdf> Lenntech BV. “Searchable Keys to Soil Taxonomy” Eighth Edition.htm#ixzz0yTDYSz9P> Mines and Geosciences Bureau Region 10. September 2.. The Foundation of Success!” Wednesday.soilminerals.html> Pedosphere. G. October 14.com/> The KidsKnowIt Network “A Study of The Earth And Her People”<http://kidsgeo. 2009 <http://pgsgrow. 2010<http://www.com. “Soil Structure.mgb10. Date Posted July 24.com/resources/sg_usa/> Pro Gardening Systems.com/iec/updates. Rotterdamseweg 402 M 2629 HH Delft the Netherlands “Chromium – Cr” <http://www. V. Extension Soil Specialist “Causes and Effects of Soil Acidity” <http://www.com/> 31 . 2008 “MGB-10 Pioneers in the Establishment of Social Development Council.pedosphere.Johnson.com/articles/toxicity_i/cause-effect%20acidity.com/blog/tag/soil-structure/> SMC 2008: “Discover the Secrets of Soil Mineral Balance and Create Your Own Ideal Soil!” <http://www.plantstress.com/periodic/elements/cr. 2001. 2008 <http://www.