Path-goal theories House and Dessler For the past two decades, path-goal theories have

received much conceptual and research attention. The theory, as formulated by House (1971), uses expectancy theories of motivation as a foundation. Path-goal theories hold that a major function of a leader is to enhance subordinate expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences. Because these psychological states affect subordinate satisfactionand motivation, leader behavior that enhances them also has a positive effect onsubordinate outcomes. The leader provides the "coaching, guidance, support and rewards necessary for effective and satisfying performance that would otherwise be lacking in the environment" (House & Dessler, 1974, p. 4). Specifically, the motivational functions of the leader include: (1) increasing personal payoffs tosubordinates for work-goal attainment, (2) clarifying the paths to these payoffs, (3) reducing roadblocks and pitfalls that impede goal attainment, and (4) increasing the opportunities for subordinate satisfaction. Path-goal theories also contend that the effects of the leader on subordinate outcomes are moderated by situational variables. House and Mitchell (1974) identify two classes of situational variables: (1) characteristics of the environment, and (2) characteristics of the subordinates. Whereas the theories are not restricted to a given set of variables within these classes, House (1971) and House and Mitchell (1974) initially emphasized the moderating role oftask characteristics, i.e., task structure, role ambiguity, job autonomy,
job scope, and task interdependence. Subordinate characteristics emphasized were dependence, authoritarianism, ability, and locus of control. Additional situational variables have been considered within each of these classes; however, most of the research analyses have been concerned with task characteristics, predominantly with task

structure. The subordinate outcome variables of the House (1971) conceptualization were valences associated with goal-related behavior and with goal attainment, and subordinate path instrumentalities for goal attainment and for these valences. House's (1971) research and most of the subsequent research used performance effectiveness, role clarity, general satisfaction, work satisfaction, and satisfaction with supervision as surrogates for these outcome variables. Initiating structure and consideration, as measured by the Ohio State Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), represented the leadership constructs(House, 1971). Although the House and Mitchell (1974) formulation of the theory introduced two additional constructs (i.e., participative and achievement-oriented leader behaviors), most of the research has focused on the original two constructs or on similar ones (e.g., directive, instrumental, clarification, and supportive behaviors). At present, there is insufficient research to examine the theories in terms of the participative and achievement-oriented constructs.

The Path Goal Theory
by Ken Valenzuela, BeALeader.Net's Chief Editor The basic idea behind the theory is that leaders have to motivate subordinates in order to make them achieve the goals they have. The theory dates back to the 1970s where Evans, House, Dessler, Mitchell, and others pushed the notion that employee performance could be enhanced through motivation. As a contingency theory the Path Goal Theory tries to explain what leadership style is best suited to the situational factors it deals with.

Situational Factors
This theory considers two situational factors that the leader has to confront: the subordinate and environment. The description of each of them is as follows:

Situational characteristics of the subordinate includes:
• •

Authoritarianism: is defined as the degree to which the employees want to be told what to do and how to do the job. Locus of control: is defined as the way the employee sees his/her responsability towards his activities. You can have an internal or external locus of control. Internal locus of control means that you feel that you control goal achievement. On the other hand, external locus of control means you feel goal achievement is controlled by others. Ability: is the extent of the employees’ ability to perform tasks to achieve goals.

This situational variable includes the following:
• • •

Task structure: how repetitive the job is. Formal authority: is the power position of the leader. Work group: is how the coworkers contribute to job satisfaction, or the relationship among them.

Leadership Styles
There are four leadership styles that can be used by the leader to help the subordinates achieve the goals.

• . Participative: A leader who exerts a participative style is one who invites subordinates to share the decision making. Supportive leaders treat subordinates as equals. A leader like this shows great confidence in their subordinates to set and achieve challenging goals. establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates and seeks for continous improvement. Path Goal Leadership Theory Applied The next chart displays what leadership style suits best the different situational factors Ups and Downs of the Path Goal Leadership Theory The Up Side What leadership style to use is the goal of the theory. Achievement-Oriented: A leader who exhibits this style. it was the first to incorporate these factors from the expectancy theory. It informs leaders about how to choose an appropiate leadership style based on the situational variables. This kind of leader ask subordinates for ideas. and the standard by which the job is measured. • Considerates motivational factors in the theory. A directive Supportive: A supportive leader deals more with the well being and the human needs of the subordinates. in fact.• • • • Directive:A directive leader instructs the subordinates and gives them clear and specifics instructions to perform their tasks. opinions and takes their suggestions into account. the timeline for job.

and it was the first leadership theory to include subordinate motivation. the theory does not explain how a leader can employ the leadership styles to assist employees to feel competent or assured of success. the basic principles of it are derived from the expentacy theory. • The Down Side Broad Scope. In other words. • Summary to the Path Goal Leadership Theory The Path Goal leadership theory dates back from the 1970s. there are so many combinations of the situational variables that it’s a daunting task to clearly define the situation. The theory provides a framework to understand how the four leadership styles affect employee performance (satisfaction and productivity). • A one-way direction. Followers risk to become dependent on the leader. trying to incorporate so many variables in the prediction of the proper style to a specific work setting and task can be very hard to do. .The scope of the theory it’s too broad. In fact. The scope of the theory it’s too broad. and as such it tries to identify which leadership style best suits the different combinations of situational variables. It tells you what leadership style to use in different situations. The theory doesn’t clearly explain the relationship among these factors.It’s practical. Each of the situational factors has a set of variables that define them. The theory places great responsibility on leaders and much less on followers. because theory promotes dependency. • Not clear on leader behavior – worker motivation. This is a contingency theory. The theory identifies four different leadership styles. and two situational factors: the employee (subordinate) and the environment.

All students like to believe that they are democratic leaders because that is the style that fits in with dealing with their peer group. What students must realize is that there are different styles of leadership that are required for different situations.Basic LEADERSHIP STYLES Each person has a leadership style that they feel comfortable with. What they must understand is that they may have to switch to a different style of leadership to get the job accomplished. STYLE: AUTOCRATIC CHARACTERISTICS • • • Tells others what to do Limits discussion on ideas and new ways of doing things Group does not experience feeling of teamwork WHEN EFFECTIVE • • • Time is limited Individuals/Group lack skill and knowledge Group does not know each other WHEN INEFFECTIVE • • • Developing a strong sense of team is the goal Some degree of skill/knowledge is in members Group wants an element of spontaneity in their work STYLE: DEMOCRATIC CHARACTERISTICS • • • Involves group members in planning and carrying out activities Asks before tells Promotes the sense of teamwork WHEN EFFECTIVE • Time is available .

There are people of all types of abilities in the group and most seem pretty keen on doing the project. Identify the type of leadership style that would work best in each situation and briefly outline what you would do while using that style of leadership.• • Group is motivated and/or a sense of team exists Some degree of skill or knowledge among members of group WHEN INEFFECTIVE • • • Group is unmotivated No skill/knowledge is in members High degree of conflict present STYLE: LAISSEZ-FAIRE CHARACTERISTICS • • • Gives little or no direction to group/individuals Opinion is offered only when requested A person does not seem to be in charge WHEN EFFECTIVE • • • High degree of skill and motivation Sense of team exists Routine is familiar to participants WHEN INEFFECTIVE • • • Low sense of team/interdependence Low degree of skill/knowledge is in members Group expects to be told what to do WHO IS THE BOSS? You have just been appointed as the "person in charge'' of the following situations. • . You find yourself in a group in a class that has to write and put together a dramatic presentation that will be filmed on video.

including yourself. Task orientated behaviour includes establishing policies. • The boss is away in the hospital but everyone has done the job before and they like working at their jobs and tend to socialize after work as a group. [Diagram goes here . • A committee is planning the annual Christmas party for employees and their families. seeing that deadlines are met. this assignment will decide whether you and only a few others pass the course. but you can't call the boss. You will be competing against other cabins in a scavenger hunt held in half an hour. Considerate behaviour included praising. the original pdf to see it. . • You have thirty minutes left to decorate your house for your best friend's surprise birthday party.You are a camp counsellor assigned with a group of rookie campers. and emphasising performance. Last year was one of the better parties and all of the people who are working this year had a job on last year's committee. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed this matrix into a grid. Researchers at Ohio State University in the 1940s developed a two-dimensional matrix to analyse leadership effectiveness. Other friends have started decorating. Unfortunately. The other cabins have older and more experienced kids. Leaders could then be placed into a box on the matrix according to their skills. but your group would like to show them up. A major crisis occurs that involves everyone. Diagram goes here . • TWO DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP. the implication is that the best form of leadership is the provided by the "Team Manager" who expresses both high concern for people and high concern for the task. • You find yourself in a group doing an assignment that nobody wants to do.] Research suggests that a leader who is high on both dimensions is seen as the most effective by subordinates. and identified five positions in the grid corresponding to different types of leadership. exerting the original pdf to see it. explaining and seeking opinions. One dimension was task-orientated behaviour and the other was consideration for employees. but they keep asking you what to do.] Again.

or management (as a contrast to leadership). There are things we think of as leadership traits. and there are also many things that effective leaders do. These are closely linked to the ideas of people-oriented and task-oriented behaviors. There are several ideas about leadership styles that have been presented over the years. which we consider as leadership behaviors. looks out for their welfare.WHAT DO WE MEAN BY LEADERSHIP “STYLE”? Leadership development can follow many courses. These models are often referred to as leadership style. Some behaviors of leaders who are strong in consideration style include: . • Consideration is defined as the degree to which a leader shows concern and respect for followers. including the acquisition of knowledge. This is a people-oriented leadership style. skills and abilities that makes a person the most effective leader. and is also more closely related to transformational leadership theories. The other set of behaviors is referred to as people-oriented style. This is sometimes referred to as participative leadership. where the leader provides a more supportive role in providing a positive work environment in which the workers can maximize their productivity. this is referred to as transactional leadership. and expresses appreciation and support1. TWO STYLES: CONSIDERATION AND INITIATING STRUCTURE Early research at the Ohio State University identified two styles of leadership that include consideration and initiation structure3. Some researchers have made an effort to look at the behaviors of leaders and create models to aid in our understanding of these leadership behaviors. In some style theories. but most theories center around a key idea that leaders have two types of style. in which the leader helps subordinates figure out what is expected of them and manages the daily activities of a group toward accomplishing a task. One type involves a group of task-oriented behaviors.

1. Instructing Persuading Empowering . Developing. 9. Being friendly and approachable Doing little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the group Putting suggestions made by the group into operation Treating all group members as his/her equal Giving advanced notice of changes Making him/herself accessible to group members Looking out for the personal welfare of group members Willingness to make changes Explaining actions Consulting the group when making changes Those competencies which relate to the leadership style of consideration can mostly be found in the “Leading Others” dimension of the Leadership Competency Model. 10. 4. 8. 7. 6. including: Communicating with Coworkers Facilitating Discussion Social Perceptiveness Reinforcing Success Assessing Others Cooperating Resolving Conflicts/Negotiating Inspiring Active Listening Social Orientation Nurturing Relationships Developing and Building Teams Coaching. 5. 2. 3.

• Initiating structure. 9. 6. is the degree to which a leader defines and organizes his role and the roles of followers. 10. 4. 8. a task-oriented leadership style. This includes: From Task Management Dimension: Coordinating Work Activities Decision Making Managing Materials and Facilities Performing Administrative Activities Personnel Decision Making Eliminating Barriers to Performance Attention to Detail Designing Work Systems Managing Information Resources Maintaining Quality Maintaining Safety Strategic Task Management From Leading Others Dimension: Taking Charge . and establishes well-defined patterns and channels of communication2. 2. is oriented toward goal attainment. Some behaviors of leaders who are strong in Initiating Structure Style include: 1. 7. Letting group members know what is expected of them Encouraging the use of uniform procedures Trying out ideas in the group Making his/her attitudes clear to the group Deciding what shall be done and how it shall be done Assigning group members to particular tasks Making sure that his/her part in the group is understood by group members Scheduling the work to be done Maintaining definite standards of performance Asking that group members follow standard rules and regulations Initiating structure relates to many of the competencies in the “Task Management” dimension of the Leadership Competency Model along with some from the “Leading Others” dimension. 5. 3.

there is growing evidence that BOTH initiating structure and consideration are important for successfully leading teams.Orienting Others Setting Goals for Others Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others WHICH STYLE IS BETTER? Although not all leadership style theories suggest that it is important to have a command of all styles. or confused as they try to navigate conflicts and issues in their roles without any sense of feedback about how they are doing. unrecognized. or how their work relates to any group or organizational goals. The same is true for developing the behaviors in the consideration style. lack of consideration behaviors from the leader may leave employees feeling unsupported. Likewise. As you look into the specific ideas of each competency. Make sure to seek feedback from subordinates and others about how you are doing in improving your task-oriented behaviors. these are among the easiest competencies to develop. . First look at the list of the competencies that are most closely aligned with the people-oriented behaviors of the consideration style. This leads to frustration among workers and ultimately influences their productivity. In order to improve on the style of initiating structure. HOW DO YOU DEVELOP THESE STYLES? Since leadership style theory measures the behaviors of leaders. subordinates would not know what is expected. choose the specific competency behaviors that are most closely related to the style of initiating structure from the list above. identify specific behaviors that you can try that will increase your competence in this area. Without initiating structure behaviors. Utilizing the resource guide to specifically understand what it takes to develop in these areas should provide you with good information about how to improve your people-oriented behavior. how to coordinate their work with others. and you should encourage and welcome their feedback as you develop these processes. People around you should be able to notice the changes in your behavior.

(1). he was terms a "country-club" manager.php/2338/T205_2_010i. (1975).(1) Bass. Piccolo. 2009).uk/file. B. A person who tried to balance concern for production and concern for people was termed a "middle-of-the-road" manager. An individual who emphasized neither production was practicing "impoverished management" according to the grid. Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership. team management was the best leadership approach. R. 89. They went a little further by creating a grid based on Leaders' concern for people (relationships) and production (tasks). a person who emphasized a concern for production but paid little attention to the concerns of subordinates was a "task" manager. an individual who was able to simultaneously exhibit a high concern for production and a high concern for people was practicing "team management. R. R.. & Stogdill. focusing on production/relationship orientations uncovered in the Ohio State and Michigan University studies. Conversely. T. You can find the Leadership Grid at the http://openlearn.jpg ." According to the prescriptions of the grid. (2) New York: Free Press. ~Contributed by Cathy Bush LEADERSHIP GRID Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed another theory called the Leadership Grid. Personnel Psychology. The Managerial Grid became a major consulting tool and was the basis for a considerable amount of leadership training in the corporate world (Encyclopedia of Management.M. If a person emphasized concern for people and placed little emphasis on production. 28 (2). (3) Schreisheim. Differences in the factor structure across three versions of the Ohio State Leadership scales. 189-206. The grid combines "concern for production" with "concern for people" and presents five alternative behavioral styles of leadership. The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. (2004).ac. Journal of Applied Psychology. & Ilies. (1990). C. Finally. 36-51.A.F.

75). morale and performance of his followers through a variety of mechanisms.76). and backup style. The backup style is what the leader reverts to when under pressure. TRANSFOMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. The leader of this style treats people as of they were dissociated from the task (Northouse. so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimise their performance. 2007. when the usual way of accomplishing things does not work (Northouse.In addition to these previously described five alternative behavioral styles of leadership. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Background 2 Development of concept 3 Research in the area 4 Implications for managers 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links [edit] Background . being a role model for followers that inspires them. It is believed that a person usually has a dominant grid style. Enacted in its authentic form. p. and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers. These include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization. which she/he uses in most situations. p. In its ideal form. transformational leadership enhances the motivation. it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. 2007. Blake and his colleagues identified two other styles that incorporate multiple aspects of the grid: • • Paternalism/Maternalism Opportunism Paternalism/Maternalism refers to a leader who acts graciously but does so for the purpose of goal accomplishment. challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work. Opportunism refers to a leader who acts using any combination of the basic five styles for the purpose of personal advancement.

This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team. These outcomes occur because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self gain. as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance. Bernard M." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured. organization and/or community. The . It redesigns perceptions and values. Bass suggested that leadership can simultaneously display both transformational and transactional leadership. [edit] Development of concept Another researcher. they provide followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. in terms of his influence on the followers. According to Burns. in contrast to Burns. the transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers. acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful. Bass also used the term "transformational" instead of "transforming. and Managerial Applications" 4th edition Free Press). group and organizational level variables (see Bass & Bass 2008. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence (earlier referred to as charisma). Now 30 years of research and a number of meta-analyses have shown that transformational and transactional leadership positively predicts a wide variety of performance outcomes including individual. articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory. The full range of leadership introduces four elements of transformational leadership: 1. traits and ability to make a change through example. The followers of such a leader feel trust. but on the leader's personality. but this term is now used in organizational psychology as well. admiration. Individualized Consideration – the degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs. intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles.[2] The extent to which a leader is transformational. In addition. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team. transforming leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation".James MacGregor Burns (1978)[1] first introduced the concept of transforming leadership in his descriptive research on political leaders. He established two concepts: "transforming leadership" and "transactional leadership". it is not based on a "give and take" relationship. According to Burns. The leader gives empathy and support. and changes expectations and aspirations of employees. Bass (1985). Research. Finally. loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harder than originally expected. is measured first. extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Unlike in the transactional approach. Burns related to the difficulty in differentiation between management and leadership and claimed that the differences are in characteristics and behaviors.

Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. Most items in the scale of charismatic leadership described the result of leadership. Although other researchers have still been critical of the MLQ model. since 2003 none has been able to provide dis-confirming evidence of the theorized nine-factor model with such large sample sizes at those published by Antonakis et al. initially starting with Bass' (1985) factors and analysis. 4. The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks. lead to the results. communicate optimism about future goals. precise. Idealized Influence – Provides a role model for high ethical behavior. 2. Study 2: N=6525). Antonakis et al. The current version of the MLQ Form 5X includes 36 items that are broken down into 9 scales with 4 items measuring each scale. Another weakness in the first version of the MLQ related to the wording of items. [edit] Research in the area When researching transformational and transactional leadership the most frequently used survey is called "the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire" (MLQ Form 5X). using two very large samples (Study 1: N=3368. takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. powerful and engaging. Bass and Avolio (1990) included in the revised and now subsequent versions many more items that describe leadership actions that are observed directly. in turn. The original scales in the questionnaire are based on a initial factor analysis and earlier versions. The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable. This is a questionnaire that measures each of the components of the full range of leadership. think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks. Inspirational Motivation – the degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. instead of specific actions of the leader that can be observed and that. The followers ask questions. Earlier research on transformational leadership was limited. They nurture and develop people who think independently. They also split out attributions of leadership associated with Idealized Influence and behaviors and actions into two separate scales. . because the knowledge in this area was too primitive for finding good examples for the items in the questionnaire. (2003). gains respect and trust. Subsequent validation work by John Antonakis and his colleagues provided strong evidence supporting the validity and reliability of the MLQ5X. Intellectual Stimulation – the degree to which the leader challenges assumptions. they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers.[3] Indeed. 3. (2003) confirmed the viability of the proposed nine-factor model MLQ model. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. and provide meaning for the task at hand.followers have a will and aspirations for self development and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks. For such a leader. instills pride. In response to the critics.

They will blame the person first in most situations. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation. policy.. if the organizational goals are to be met. which has been proven counter-effective in most modern practice. theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee's compliance. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work. Papa (Ph. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. B. [edit] Theory Y . St.A. Temple University.. organizational communication and organizational development. or lack of training that deserves the blame. management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale in large businesses. McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. As a result of this.D. without questioning whether it may be the system.Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human resource management. highly restrictive supervision. and a punitive atmosphere. management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Theory X 2 Theory Y 3 Theory X and Theory Y combined 4 McGregor and Maslow's hierarchy 5 Criticisms 6 See also 7 References [edit] Theory X In this theory. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust. According to Michael J. According to this theory. employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. He also thought that the key to connecting self-actualization with work is determined by the managerial trust of subordinates.A. M. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. John’s University). organizational behavior. Central Michigan University.. that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee.

Rather they are two different continua in themselves. Thus. He grouped Maslow's hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. that does not preclude them from being a part of Theory X & Y. and shapes the idea of pay for performance. This climate would include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have say in decisions that influence them. [edit] McGregor and Maslow's hierarchy McGregor's work was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. affects the way companies conduct performance reviews.In this theory. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. given the right conditions. They possess the ability for creative problem solving. his Theory Y principle influences the design of personnel policies. most people will want to do well at work. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. self-actualization through work. This theory is a positive view to the employees. It's here through human resource development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style. A Theory Y manager believes that. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates. "He is the reason we use the term 'human resources' instead of personnel department" says Brzezinski. they soon realized the possibility of connecting higher level needs to worker motivation. Given the proper conditions. If organizational goals and individual needs could be integrated so that people would acquire self-esteem and. but their talents are underused in most organizations. to them work is as natural as play[1]. According to the Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y article. Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum. then motivation would be self-sustaining. theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. As management theorists became familiar with Maslow's work. "The idea that people are assets was unheard of before McGregor. Today. management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. [edit] Theory X and Theory Y combined For McGregor."[2] [edit] Criticisms . A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that this creates. if managers need to apply Theory Y principles. minimizing the difference between superiorsubordinate relationships. ultimately. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. According to Papa.

with dependence or connection between leaders and followers. In other words. Previously. CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORY When students of business management first hear of Contingency Theory. the leader's relationship with them. they usually think of the common use of the word "contingency". Theory X and Theory Y are still important terms in the field of management and motivation. In the late 1950s and early 1960s. and use of technology. Then contingent on factors such as stress level in the organization. The basis of Fiedler's theory involved assessing a potential leader with a scale of work style ranging from task-oriented at one end. Situational contingency theorists such as . the word contingent means a group of people in contact with each other. the ability to leaders is dependent upon the perception of subordinates of and by the leader. This and other similarities led to its main tenets merging into mainstream Contingency Theories. McGregor was well aware of the heuristic as opposed to literal way in which such distinctions are useful. Recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model. and to improving organizational culture. The key to leadership effectiveness is viewed by most variants of Contingency Theory as choosing the correct style of leader. relationships. rarely come to mind. type of work. They felt there was a best way to run a company or group which produced the best decisions and most effective business practices. a customized coordination of resources. workplaces are described as "hard" versus "soft. More commonly. It is still central in modern management theories which reject rigid assumptions about ideal management. Situational contingency theory agreed with Contingency theories on the basic idea of there being no single correct solution to organization. to relationship-oriented at the other. Leadership as a wide spectrum of possible effective styles was a ground-breaking idea. And yet. and the degree of consensus on the scope of a given task. tasks and the correct style of management could be implemented. industrial psychologists focused on the personal traits of successful leaders and believed in an ideal science of organization. to organizational development. largely because the insights they provided have influenced and been incorporated by further generations of management theorists and practitioners. they expect that a contingency is an unexpected event or something which is dependent or caused by another event. or groups of people. flexibility of the group to change. Naturally. Leadership. The importance of contingency theories is that they have influenced almost all modern theories of management by denying the existence of any one ideal approach to organization. For example.Today the theories are seldom used explicitly. people. at its very root. Most employees (and managers) fall somewhere in between these poles. but McGregor's X-Y Theory remains a guiding principle of positive approaches to management. industrial and business psychologists such as Woodward and Fiedler began to study the behavior and leadership styles of managers." Taken too literally any such dichotomy including Theory X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. This style is dependent on the interaction of internal and external factors with the organization.

The first aspect is atmosphere . based on. Lastly the inherent authority or power of the leader plays an important role in group performance. His work measured the effectiveness of organization structure and how it was able to adapt and fit changing business environments. where perfect rationality does not match actual behavior. Vroom and Jajo held that group effectiveness requires a match between a leader's style and situational demands. The second variable is the ambiguity or clarity of the structure of the group's task. and loyalty a group feels towards the leader. Other researchers in the 1970s such as Lawrence and Lorsch focused less on Fiedler's assessment of leadership. the pioneering work of Contingency Theory for their theoretical core of flexibility and adaptation. Fiedler's theory further posits that most situations will have three hierarchical aspects that will structure the leader's role. sometimes called Game Theory. attempts to model the process leading to an optimal business decision. and among each other.Aldorry. and more on the effect of internal and external factors on organizational structure. the various types of modern business and industrial management are indebted. The more descriptive approach of how people actually make decisions is known as Decision Analysis. Management Business Management Articles The Halo Effect The Pareto Principle Pareto Charts Micromanagement Zeigarnik Effect The Red Queen Hypothesis Law of Proximity Project Management Project Management Articles Project Management Software PERT Chart Gantt Chart . Similarly. the concept which Fiedler names "situational control" is the means by which a leader can effectively influence the group's actions and behavior. Tooth. Normative Decision Theory. Theorists study the cooperation of workers with leaders. This group of structural organizational contingency theories was studied extensively by Pennings. and how closely the final decision correlates with a normative or optimal decision. In summary.the confidence. and in fact. Normative decision making rarely happens in the real world.

PERT Estimation Root Cause Analysis Fishbone Diagram Pareto Efficiency Pareto Optimum Parkinson's Law Project Management Newsletter Leadership Leadership Articles Leadership Theory Fiedler's Contingency Theory Contingency Leadership Theory Path Goal Leadership The Peter Principle Pygmalion Effect Rosenthal Effect Self Fulfilling Prophecy Normative Decision Making Theory Work Motivation Work Motivation Articles Alderfer's ERG Theory The Hawthorne Effect Maslow's Needs Heirarchy Theory X and Theory Y Prisoner's Dilemma Herzberg Motivational Theory Learned Helplessness Biography Vilfredo Pareto Leadership continuum The leadership continuum was originally written in 1958 by Tannenbaum and Schmidt and was later updated in the year 1973. Their work suggests a continuum of possible leadership behavior available to a manager and along which many leadership styles may be placed. The continuum presents a range of action related to the degree of authority used by the manager and to the area of freedom available to non-managers in arriving at decisions. A broad range of leadership styles have been depicted on the continuum between two extremes of autocratic and free rein (See figure .

However. The problem is presented to the subordinates and the solutions are suggested by the subordinates. chooses a decision. he does not take a final decision. According to this approach. Sells: The decision is chosen by the manager only but he understands that there will be some amount of resistance from those faced with the decision and therefore makes efforts to persuade them to accept it. The Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum can be related to McGregor’s supposition of Theory X and Theory Y. four main styles of leadership have been identified: • • • • Tells: The manager identifies a problem. Figure 1: Continuum Leadership Behaviuor. Consults: Though the problem is identified by the manager. A manager is characterized according to degree of control that is maintained by him. neither extreme is absolute and authority and freedom are never without their limitations. Boss-centered leadership is towards theory X and subordinate-centered leadership is towards theory Y. and announces this to subordinates.1). . The subordinates are not a party to the decision making process and the manager expects them to implement his decisions as soon as possible. The left side shows a style where control is maintained by a manager and the right side shows the release of control. Joins: The manager defines the limits within which the decision can be taken by the subordinates and then makes the final decision along with the subordinates.

the coach should consider the relative importance of the quality of the decision. Degree of tolerance for ambiguity iii. if one has to make a choice of the leadership style which is practicable and desirable. Interest in the problem and feelings as to its importance iv. is to make decisions. Readiness to assume responsibility in decision-making ii. Depending on the particular circumstances. such as a coach. According to the theory. The factors include: i. Value systems ii. and the acceptance of the decision by his or her athletes.According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt. Understanding and identification with the goals of the organization If these factors are on a positive side. When making the decision. the total area of freedom shared between managers and nonmanagers is redefined constantly by interactions between them and the environmental forces. Feelings of security in an uncertain situation Forces in the subordinate: The personality of the subordinates and their expectations from the leader influences their behavior. knowledge. Nature of the problem iv. then more freedom can be allowed to the subordinate by the leader. In this. delegative. Time pressure When the authors updated their work in1973. . in which the coach makes decisions jointly with the athletes. Strength of the needs for independence v. Group effectiveness iii. the coach should use one of three decision-making coaching styles: autocratic. These forces include: i. NORMATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY A theory that suggests that one of the primary functions of a leader. and experience. in some circumstances the quality of the decision is of prime importance. • Forces in the situation: The environmental and general situations also affect the leader’s behavior. more complex in comparison to the previous one. This pattern was. or participative. These include factors like: i. in which the coach makes decisions with little consultation. in which the coach delegates decision-making to others. Confidence in subordinates iii. while in other circumstances acceptance is of greater importance. then his answer will depend upon the following three factors: • • Forces in the Manager: The behavior of the leader is influenced by his personality. Type of organization ii. background. however. Knowledge and experience to deal with the problem vi. they suggested a new continuum of patterns of leadership behavior. Leadership inclinations iv.

leadership guru and author of The One Minute Manager. delegative. the coach should use one of three decision-making coaching styles: autocratic. Situational Leadership II Model. Effective leadership is task-relevant and that the most successful leaders are those that adapt their leadership style to the Maturity ("the capacity to set high but attainable goals.Situational Leadership Model and Blanchard et al. "Life Cycle Theory of Leadership" was renamed "Situational Leadership theory". When making the decision. is to make decisions. or participative. but it will also depend on the task. in which the coach makes decisions with little consultation.[3] In the late 1970s/early 1980s. in which the coach delegates decision-making to others. such as a coach. in which the coach makes decisions jointly with the athletes. not only with the person or group that is being influenced. willingness and ability to take responsibility for the task.[1] The Theory was first introduced as "Life Cycle Theory of Leadership". and Ken Blanchard. and relevant education and/or experience of an individual or a group for the task) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead/influence. job or function that needs to be accomplished. in some circumstances the quality of the decision is of prime importance. and the acceptance of the decision by his or her athletes. the coach should consider the relative importance of the quality of the decision. while in other circumstances acceptance is of greater importance. while working on the first edition of Management of Organizational Behavior (now in its 9th edition).[4] The fundamental underpinning of the Situational Leadership Theory is there is no single "best" style of leadership. Leadership Style and the individual or group's Maturity level.[2] During the mid 1970s.[5] The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory rests on two fundamental concepts. professor and author of the book Situational Leader. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Leadership styles 2 Maturity Levels 3 Developing people and self-motivation 4 See also 5 Resources .A theory that suggests that one of the primary functions of a leader. the authors both developed their own Models using the Situational Leadership theory. is a leadership theory developed by Paul Hersey. Depending on the particular circumstances. According to the theory. That effective leadership varies. Hersey . SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP The Situational Leadership Theory.

and where to do the task S2: Selling . S4: Delegating .is characterized by one-way communication in which the leader defines the roles of the individual or group and provides the what. The leader stays involved to monitor progress. • • .while the leader is still providing the direction. however. • • • Of these.They generally lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and are unable and unwilling to do or to take responsibility for this job or task.the leader is still involved in decisions. he is now using two-way communication and providing the socioemotional support that will allow the individual or group being influenced to buy into the process. they are willing to work at the task. Effective leaders need to be flexible.when. however. [edit] Maturity Levels The right leadership style will depend on the person or group being led .They are still unable to take on responsibility for the task being done.• • 6 References 7 External links [edit] Leadership styles Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of Task Behavior and Relationship Behavior that the leader provides to their followers.this is now shared decision making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing less task behaviors while maintaining high relationship behavior. why. how. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory identified four levels of Maturity M1 through M4: • M1 . no one style is considered optimal for all leaders to use all the time. S3: Participating .the follower.They are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence to take on responsibility. They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior types. the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. M3 . and must adapt themselves according to the situation. which they named S1 to S4: • S1: Telling . M2 .

but to take responsibility for the task."[7] the leader’s high. The model allows you to analyze the needs of the situation you’re in. Depending on employees’ competences in their task areas and commitment to their tasks. and supervise them closely. "Four combinations of competence and commitment make up what we call 'development level. and comfortable with their own ability to do it well.They are experienced at the task. A person might be generally skilled. They are able and willing to not only do the task. and then use the most appropriate leadership style.'" D4:High competence and high commitment D3:Moderate to high competence and variable commitment D2:Some to low competence and low commitment D1:Low competence and high commitment[8] In order to make an effective cycle. realistic expectation causes high performance of followers. your leadership style should vary from one person to another. and so created a simple matrix (figure). Maturity Levels are also task specific.• M4 . and another way at other times. [edit] Developing people and self-motivation A good leader develops “the competence and commitment of their people so they’re selfmotivated rather than dependent on others for direction and guidance. Leadership Behavior of the Leader • S1 – Telling / Directing – High task focus. confident and motivated in their job. low relationship focus – leaders define the roles and tasks of the ‘follower’. Decisions are made by the . According to Ken Blanchard.” (Hersey 91)[6] According to Hersey's "the situational book. Situasional supervise The Situational Leadership method from Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey holds that managers must use different leadership styles depending on the situation. Blanchard and Hersey characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of direction and of support that the leader gives to his or her followers. the leader’s low expectations lead low performance of followers. but would still have a Maturity level M2 when asked to perform a task requiring skills they don't possess. You may even lead the same person one way sometimes. a leader needs to motivate followers properly.

For people who lack competence but are enthusiastic and committed. The leader facilitates and takes part in decisions. and in applying Situational Leadership you need to know which one that is for you. Effective leaders are versatile in being able to move around the matrix according to the situation. They need direction and supervision to get them started. They need direction and supervision because they are still relatively inexperienced. high relationship focus – leaders still define roles and tasks. S2 – Selling / Coaching – High task focus. to the follower. They are able and willing to work on a project by themselves with little supervision or support. but control is with the follower. For people who have competence. Decisions remain the leader’s prerogative.• • • leader and announced. They also need support and praise to build their self-esteem. The follower decides when and how the leader will be involved. S3 – Participating / Supporting – Low task focus. but lack confidence or motivation. we tend to have a preferred style. For people who have both competence and commitment. and involvement in decision-making to restore their commitment. so there is no style that is always right. They do not need much direction because of their skills. but control is with the follower. but communication is much more two-way. but seeks ideas and suggestions from the follower. . such as task allocation and processes. so communication is largely one-way. high relationship focus – leaders pass day-to-day decisions. S4 – Delegating – Low task focus. For people who have some competence but lack commitment. but support is necessary to bolster their confidence and motivation. However. low relationship focus – leaders are still involved in decisions and problem-solving.

High Commitment – Generally lacking the specific skills required for the job in hand. and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. or the motivation to do it well / quickly. confident and motivated for one part of his his job. Variable Commitment – Experienced and capable. High Commitment – Experienced at the job. May even be more skilled than the leader. but may lack the confidence to go it alone. but won’t be able to do the job without help. the development levels are also situational. Similar to the leadership styles. D1 – Low Competence. D3 – High Competence. but could be less competent for another part of the job. . Low Commitment – May have some relevant skills. D2 – Some Competence. A person could be skilled. Development Level of the Follower • • • • D4 – High Competence. but has the confidence and / or motivation to tackle it. the competence and commitment of the follower can also be distinguished in 4 quadrants. The task or the situation may be new to them.Likewise.

4. Presumes that leadership is about how the boss makes decisions. . Leaders may indeed vary the way they inspire people to change. Steps in Situational Leadership. 3. to everyone’s benefit. Benefits • • Easy to understand Easy to use Limitations of the Situational Leadership model. relationships are built up. There are four leadership styles that match the four combinations of high/low readiness and willingness. 2. Make an overview per employee of his/her tasks Assess the employee on each task (D1…D4) Decide on the leadership (management) style per task (S1…S4) Discuss the situation with the employee Make a joint plan Follow-up. Focuses too exclusively on what the person in charge does. Conditions • • • • Leaders should adapt their style to follower ‘maturity’. work gets done. based on how ready and willing the follower is to perform required tasks (that is. Leadership is not primarily about making decisions anyway – it is about inspiring people to change direction. the follower’s development level will rise to D4. 5. Assumptions of Situational Leadership. What is called leadership style is really management style. By adopting the right style to suit the follower’s development level. and most importantly. check and correct Strengths of the Situational Leadership model. Of course both leaders and managers have to behave differently in different situations. But this is when they have already decided on the need to change. The four styles suggest that leaders should put greater or less focus on the task in question and/or the relationship between the leader and the follower. rather than anything profound in terms of our basic understanding of what it means to lead or manage. Disadvantages • • • • • Model fails to distinguish between leadership and management. Hence leadership style does not reduce to decision making style. 6.Blanchard and Hersey said that the Leadership Style (S1 – S4) of the leader must correspond to the Development level (D1 – D4) of the follower – and it’s the leader who adapts. their competence and motivation). But that is just a trivial fact of life. Process 1.