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October—December, 2002
Vol. XLV, No. 3
I. S. S. N.—0002—1555
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Directorate of Marketing & Inspection
Ministry of Agriculture
(Deptt. of Agriculture & Co-operation)
Government of India
MARKETING
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on Agricultural Marketing on Agricultural Marketing on Agricultural Marketing on Agricultural Marketing on Agricultural Marketing
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AGRICULTURAL
Vol. XLV-No. 3 ISSN. 0002–1555
¬ifz¤º—ºiªi, ¡ºz+ (zi=) PAMA–116, VOL–XLV, No.–3
OCTOBER—DECEMBER. 2002 500
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AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
EDITORIAL BOARD CONTENTS Page No.
1. SHRI P. K. AGARWAL,
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
ADVISER TO THE GOVT.
OF INDIA.
2. DR. G. R. BHATIA,
ADDL. AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING ADVISER.
3. SHRI H. P. SINGH,
JOINT AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING ADVISER.
4. SHRI D. N. TIWARI,
JOINT AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING ADVISER.
5. SHRI A. P. BHATNAGAR,
DIRECTOR (COLD STORAGE
AND REFRIGERATION).
6. DR. P. K. JAISWAL,
DIRECTOR OF
LABORATORIES.
7. SHRI G. H. DHANKAR,
DEPUTY AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING ADVISER.
EDITOR
SHRI N. K. MISRA,
MARKETING OFFICER
1. Marketing of Kinnow in Rajasthan. 2
—Shiv Prakash Sharan and V. K. Singh
2. Production and Marketing of Broilers in Jabalpur District
of M.P. 5
—Ashutosh Shrivastava, S. K. Gupta & A. M. Mishra
3. A study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab. 9
—P. S. Rangi, M. S. Sidhu and Harjeet Singh
4. Marketing and Export of Fresh Vegetables. 18
—Ajay Verma, Sudhir Kumar and P. M. Singh
5. Price Spread in Marketing of White Onion in Raigad Dis-
trict of Maharashtra State. 22
—A. V. Gadre, J. M. Talathi and S. S. Wadkar
6. Quality Issues in Supply chain : A Case of Kesar Mango
at Saurashtra Region. 27
—Deodhar, S. Y. & Pandit P. S.
7. Marketing Strategies of Rice in Chhattisgarh —A Case
Study. 35
—A. K. Gauraha, K. N. S. Banafar, P. K. Verma,
V. K. Choudhary and B. C. Jain
HOME NEWS 38
(i). =zt ¬f·ifº¤= =t f¤=ªfr¤i ºª f¤¬iª = fnv =f=fr ¤ºªt+
(ii). Import of 300 Sensitive Items—Data for April—
October, 2002
(iii). High Quality Draft Sequence of Rice Genome
declared completed.
(iv). Export Promotion Council for EOUs Finally Set up.
IMPORTANT
The Journal may be had by sending subscription to the Controller of
Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi-110054 by Demand Draft of any Bank taken
in his favour.
Annual Subscription :
Inland–Rs. 40.00 Inclusive of
Foreign–£ 4.67 or $ 14.40 postage
Single Copy :
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}
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ANY ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THIS JOURNAL CAN BE REPRODUCED PROVIDED DUE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE TO THE SOURCE.
THE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THE ARTICLE ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHORS AND NOT NECESSARILY OF THE DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING
& INSPECTION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.
READERS MAY SEND POPULAR ARTICLES OF TOPICAL INTEREST IN HINDI AND ENGLISH TO THE EDITOR, AGRICULTURAL MARKETING,
DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING & INSPECTION, NEW C. G. O. BUILDING, N. H. IV, FARIDABAD-121001.
2 Agricultural Marketing
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Marketing of Kinnow in Rajasthan
—SHIV PRAKASH SHARAN AND V. K. SINGH*
Introduction
C
itrus is one of the major commercial fruit crops
grown in India. Among the fruits, citrus group is one
of the most important fruit crops in India with a ranking
of seventh largest producer of citrus fruits in the world.
Again, among the citrus groups, mandarin/kinnow is the
most important fruit crop in India as the demand for its
consumption is very high due to the nutritional value and
its availability at cheap prices. In Rajasthan state, the total
area and production under kinnow cultivation during the
year 1996-97 was 2.07 thousand hectares and 39 thousand
tonnes, respectively.
With the rapid increase in the area under the crop in the
state, several problems of production and marketing have
emerged which needed careful investigation.
Efficient marketing plays an important role in the
development of any enterprise. Hence, it was found
necessary to investigate the prevalent marketing systems
and channels, the marketing costs, margins and price spread
in different channels as well as in different markets and
other general problems faced by the kinnow growers in
selling their produce. In this study, an attempt has been
made to investigate marketing aspects of the kinnow
cultivation with the following specific objectives :
To examine the pattern of sales of kinnow and marketing
costs and margins; and
To analyse the production and marketing problems faced
by kinnow growers.
Methodology
Out of 32 districts of the Rajasthan State, Sri Ganganagar
district was selected purposively, as it had the highest area
under kinnow cultivation. To select the representative
markets, the market arrival of kinnow in all regulated markets
of Sri Ganganagar district were obtained for the year 1997-
98 to 1999-2000. On the basis of average arrivals these
markets were arranged in ascending order. These markets
then were grouped into two categories viz. large and small
based upon cumulative total method. Then one market each
from large and small group was selected randomly.
Thus, Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets were
selected in the study area to represent large and small markets
respectively. Five villages were randomly selected from Sri
Ganganagar Tehsil. From the five selected villages, a list of
kinnow growers was prepared. A sample size of about 30
per cent from each village was selected by applying the
techniques of probability proportion to size where the
number of farms in each village acted as a size from the
selected five villages. Relevant information was collected
from the selected respondents by conducting personal
interviews on a specifically designed schedule.
The required data on marketing cost, purchase price,
sale prices, etc., were collected from the selected
intermediaries involved in the selected marketing channels.
The data on arrivals and prices in two markets, viz., Sri
Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur in which all the growers
of the area under study sold their produce, were collected
from the respective market committee offices.
To find out the marketing margins and costs for different
channels and for different markets, in all 20 contractors, 10
commission agents and 24 retailers were selected from both
the markets for the collection of relevant data on pretested
schedule.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Marketing costs and Margins
It is apparent from the Table 1 that packing material was
the major item in marketing costs (37.78% of the total
marketing cost) followed by picking, grading and packing
cost (26.04%) followed by transportation (17.08%) watch
and ward (13.93%) and loading and unloading charges
(5.17%). On an average, marketing cost per quintal worked
out to be Rs. 100.31. Tomer et al, (1995) worked out the
economics of grape cultivation in Haryana and observed
that major items of this were packing and transportation
and each constituted about 57 and 24 per cent share of the
marketing, respectively.
Table 1
Marketing cost of kinnow in Sri Ganganagar district (1999-2000)
(Rs./q)
Sl. Items Amount percentage of total
No. marketing cost
1. Watch and ward 13.97 13.93
2. Picking, grading and packing cost 26.20 26.04
3. Packing material 37.90 37.78
4. Loading and unloading charges 5.17 5.17
5. Transportation charges 17.07 17.08
Total marketing cost 100.31 100.00
*Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar—125 004.
October—December, 2002 3
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The study of marketing margin and price spread is
important for the knowledge of the nature, extent and
genuineness of various marketing charges. The study of
marketing margin and price spread can be utilized to
develop appropriate price policy that aims to provide
incentive prices to producers and assures him of a
legitimate share in consumer's rupee. It is helpful in the
development and evaluation of the market policies like
the regulation of the market charges for different market
functionaries and functions. The marketing margin and
costs may vary from channel to channel and market to
market. The marketing margins and cost for different
channels and for different markets have been presented
in Table 2 and 3, respectively.
1. Producer--pre-harvest contractor-commission agent-
wholesaler--retailer--consumer (contract sale).
2. Producer--Direct consumer (Direct sale)
The analysis has been done for the channel : producer-
pre-harvest contractor-commission agent-wholesale-retailer-
consumer in Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets
to see the efficiency of different markets.
It is apparent from the table 2 that the consumer's
purchase price was Rs. 850.00 per quintal and Rs. 880.00
per quintal for Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur
markets, respectively. The marketing costs incurred by
the producer were Rs. 100.31 and Rs. 100.38 per quintal
accounting 11.80 per cent and 11.40 per cent of
consumer's rupee at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur
markets, respectively, out of which cost of packing
material was highest followed by picking, grading and
packing cost.
The retailer's net margin was observed Rs. 132.84 per
quintal and Rs. 135.23 per quintal accounting 15.63 per
cent and 15.37 per cent of consumer's rupee at Sri
Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur, respectively. The pre-
harvest contractor, sale price at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari
Singhpur markets were found to be Rs. 470.00 per quintal
and Rs. 485.00 per quintal accounting 55.30 per cent
and 55.11 per cent of consumer's rupee of Sri Ganganagar
and Kesari Singhpur, respectively. Net margin earned by
pre-harvest contractor under this channel were 18.77 and
22.67 per cent of consumer's rupee in both the markets,
respectively. However, the lower net margins of pre-harvest
contractor in Sri Ganganagar market may be due to lower
sale price of pre-harvest contractor owing to larger arrivals
in this markets. In relative terms the margins of wholesaler
and retailer were found the same in both the markets
under this channel. The net price received by the producer
was worked out Rs. 210.12 per quintal and Rs. 185.12
per quintal accounting 24.72 per cent and 21.04 per cent
of consumer's rupee at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari
Singhpur markets, respectively.
Table 2
Marketing Costs and Margins of Kinnow under channel-1 in Sri
Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets (1999-2000).
Sl. Items Markets Kesari
No. Sri Singhpur
Ganganagar
1 2 3 4
1. Net price received by producer/purchase 210.12 185.12
price of pre-harvest contractor (24.72) (21.04)
2. Costs incurred by the pre-harvest contractor
I. Watch and ward 13.97 13.65
(1.65) (1.55)
II. Picking, grading and packing cost 26.20 26.95
(3.08) (3.06)
III. Packing materials 37.90 40.53
(4.46) (4.60)
IV. Loading and unloading charges 5.17 4.93
(0.61) (0.56)
V. Transportation charges 17.07 14.32
(2.01) (1.63)
Sub-total (2—I to V) 100.31 100.38
(11.80) (11.40)
3. Net margins of pre-harvest contractor 159.57 199.50
(18.77) (22.67)
4. Sale price of pre-harvest contractor/ 470.00 485.00
purchase price of wholesaler (55.30) (55.11)
5. Costs incurred by the wholesaler
I. Loading and unloading charges 4.65 4.52
(0.55) (0.52)
II. Grading and repacking charges 22.82 23.07
(2.68) (2.62)
III. Commission @ 6 per cent 28.20 29.10
(3.32) (3.31)
IV. Market fee @ 1.60 per cent 7.52 7.76
(0.88) (0.88)
V. Spoilage and storage charges 31.45 33.11
(3.70) (3.76)
Sub-total (5-I to V) 94.64 97.56
(11.13) (11.09)
6. Net margin of wholesaler 85.36 92.44
(10.04) (10.50)
7. Sale price of wholesaler/purchase price 650.00 675.00
of retailer (76.47) (76.70)
8. Sale incurred by the retailer
I. Transportation charges 12.13 12.40
(1.43) (1.41)
II. Loading and unloading charges 9.21 9.12
(1.08) (1.04)
III. Spoilage 22.77 26.14
(2.68) (2.97)
IV. Packing material (Polythene bag) 10.00 11.15
(1.17) (1.27)
V. Other charges (rent of cart of shop etc.) 13.05 10.96
(1.54) (1.24)
Sub-total (8—I to V) 67.16 69.77
(7.90) (7.93)
4 Agricultural Marketing
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1 2 3 4
9. Net margins of retailer 132.84 135.23
(15.63) (15.37)
10. Sale price of retailer/purchase price of 850.00 880.00
consumer (100.00) (100.00)
Note :Figures in parenthesis are the percentage to the consumer's price.
Channel—1 (Producer-Pre-harvest contractor—Commission agent—
wholesaler—retailer—consumer).
Channel—II : Producer—Direct Consumer.
Table 3
Marketing costs and margins of kinnow under channel-II in Sri
Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur Markets (1999-2000)
Sl. Items Markets Kesari
No. Sri Singhpur
Ganganagar
1. Net price received by producer 366.03 356.24
(91.50) (91.35)
2. Cost incurred by the producer
(a) Watch and Ward 13.97 13.65
(3.50) (3.50)
(b) Picking cost 20.00 20.10
(5.00) (5.15)
Sub-total (2.I to II) 33.97 33.75
(8.50) (8.65)
3. Sale price of producer/purchase price 400.00 390.00
and consumer (100.00) (10.00)
Note : Figures in paranthesis are the percentage to the consumer's price
channel-II (producer-direct consumer).
In this channel, no intermediaries between producer and
consumer was involved. The producer sold his produce at
farm level or in the market direct to consumers. As shown
in Table 3, the marketing cost incurred by the grower are
Rs. 33.97 per quintal and Rs. 33.75, respectively accounting
8.50 per cent and 8.65 per cent of the consumer's rupee in
the market. Picking and watch and ward were the major
items of costs in both the markets. The cost of picking and
watch and ward was almost the same for both the markets
accounting about 5 per cent. The consumer's purchase price
was Rs. 400.00 and Rs. 390.00 per quintal for both the
markets. The net price received by the farmer worked out
to be Rs. 366.03 and Rs. 356.25 per quintal accounting
91.50 per cent and 91.35 per cent of the consumer's rupee
in case of both the markets, respectively.
The producer's share in consumer's rupee was observed
more in Channel-II (Direct sale) as compared to Channel-
I (contract sale) due to elimination of pre-harvest contractors.
So the above analysis of marketing costs and margin
indicates that the producer's share in consumer's rupee may
be increased by decreasing the number of intermediaries in
the existing marketing system. The results are consistent
with the studies conducted by Singh and Khatkar (1994),
Tomer et al. (1995) Tomar et al., (1997).
Difficulties faced by the kinnow growers in marketing
the grapes
Although, the selling of produce through self marketing
by the grower was found profitable in comparison to
contact sale to the pre-harvest contractors, the study has
revealed several problems faced by the kinnow growers
in selling their produce by self marketing. These problems
need to be tackled to enable the grower to get higher
returns. A few of the major problems are given in
Table 4.
It is clear from the data in Table 4 that the lack of
support price and lack of organisation were the major
problems faced by the growers in marketing their produce
because all the selected farmers faced these problems.
The next major problems faced were delay in payment,
lack of competition among buyers, lack of marketing
information, lack of cold storage facilities and lack of
better and cheaper packing material accounting about 95,
88, 83 and 82 per cent, respectively. The growers also
reported other problems like lower prices due to seasonal
gluts, lack of stay arrangement in the market, malpractice
in weighing methods etc.
Conclusion
On the basis of above findings, it may be concluded
that the producer's share is consumer's rupee was observed
more in direct sale as compared to contract sale, due to
elimination of pre-harvest contractor. Marketing cost and
margin indicate that producer's share in consumer's rupee
may be increased by decreasing the number of
intermediaries in the existing marketing system. Sri
Ganganagar being a large market was found more efficient
and more paying to producer as compared to smaller
market of Kesari Singhpur. Further, it is suggested to
remove all problems faced by the producer's to make
this vital enterprise a more paying venture. This may be
made through creating efficient marketing and processing
infrastructure.
REFERENCES
Singh Virender and Khatkar, R. K. 1994. Marketing
of grapes in Haryana. Agricultural Marketing,
July-Sept. 11-15.
Tomer, B.S. et al. 1992. Economic analysis of grape
cultivation in Haryana. Department of
Agricultural Economics, CCS HAU, Hisar.
Tomer, B.S. et al. 1995. An economic analysis of
citrus (malta and kinnow) cultivation in
Haryana. Department of Agricultural
Economics, CCS HAU, Hisar.
Tomer, B.S. et al. 1997. An economic analysis of ber
cultivation in Haryana. Department of
Agricultural Economics, CCS HAU, Hisar.
October—December, 2002 5
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Production and Marketing of Broilers in Jabalpur District of
Madhya Pradesh
—ASHUTOSH SHRIVASTAVA, S. K. GUPTA & A. M. MISHRA*
Introduction
E
ggs and broilers (flesh) are the two most important
products of poultry industry. Broiler is on way to
become the first choice among available sources of animal
protein (other than milk & eggs). The meat of broiler
provides important nutrients like proteins, fat, calcium, iron,
vitamins, etc. One hundred grams of bird's flesh gives 165
calories. However, inspite of all these, the per capita per
year availability of broiler meat is very low in our country
i.e. 850 gm as compared to the world average of 8 kg.
During the last 35 years poultry industry has transformed
itself from a backyard business activity into an organised
and sophisticated medium scale industry. The introduction
of new and efficient modern management techniques, income
tax exemption for poultry sector, higher purchasing power
of the consumers were the contributing factors for the rapid
strides of poultry industry in the country. Intensive
production and marketing system developed in different parts
of country encouraged progress.
India is 22nd largest broiler producer in the world. It has
one of the most favourable agro-climatic conditions. The
per capita availability of poultry meat in India (850 gms) is
far below the required level (21 kg.) and world average of
8 kg. Clearly there is a long way to go. If a growth rate of
15 per cent in broiler production can be sustained for the
next 10 years the per capita consumption of broiler meat
will increase to 2.3 kg. Madhya Pradesh is one of the major
egg producing states in India. The number of poultry birds
for meat (broilers) also increased significantly during the
last decade. During 1995-96 the total number of broilers in
the state was 5.5 million. The main broiler production and
marketing centres in the state are Japalpur, Indore and
Bhopal.
Objectives
(1) To find out the cost of production of broilers on the
organised and unorganised farms.
(2) To study the various marketing channels operating
in the market for broilers.
Methodology
There are 3 egg producing areas in the state. These are,
Indore mandi, Jabalpur mandi and Bhopal mandi. Jabalpur
is one of the biggest egg producing centres of the state with
more than 14 lakh population and state headquarters of the
NECC (National Eggs Coordination Committee). It also has
the biggest hatcheries of the state. Therefore, the study was
taken up in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh. All the
poultry units were categorised in three different groups :
small, medium and large. For broiler production study, 50
per cent of the broiler farmers were selected from each size
group i.e. 3 from small size group, 3 from medium size
group and 6 from large poultry farms keeping broilers
respectively. Thus, a total of 12 broiler farms were selected
for this purpose randomly. The data related to prices of
broilers at different marketing channels were collected from
wholesalers and retailers. There were only 3 wholesalers in
broiler market. Hence all wholesalers were selected. There
were quite large number of retailers. Five retailers for broilers
were contacted. The cost items are divided into (a) fixed
cost (b) variable cost. The fixed cost consists of value of
birds, depreciation on poultry shed, cages and equipments
and interest on capital investment. Variable cost includes
cost of feed for layers, electricity charges, medicines and
labour charges. Depreciation on fixed capital items is
calculated on the basis of the life span of items. Bird cycle
refers the period from a day old chick to the period when
it is marketed for meat purpose. For a broiler, it is 40 to 45
days. The reference period for the study was from April, 97
to March, 98 for broiler production and marketing.
Results and Discussion
Under this, only commercial production of broilers is
studied. A farmer usually reared 7 to 12 batches depending
on the market demand and finance available with the farmer.
The per bird cost of production was about equal (Rs. 40) on
all the farms irrespective of size of farms. The absence of
own farms in the small and medium farms revealed the fact
that due to paucity of finance small and medium farmers
were not interested in establishing permanent infrastructure
and leased in the old farms. Out of the total cost, the feed
cost alone accounted for more than 50 per cent (51.41 per
cent on small 53.55 per cent on medium, 52.68 per cent on
large own farms and 52.50 per cent on large leased-in-
farms respectively). The bird cost accounted for more than
33 per cent. Together these two items accounted for more
than 85 per cent of the total cost leaving the balance of 15
per cent as other operational costs (Table 1).
*Research Officers, Agro-Economic Research Centre, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.)- 482004.
6 Agricultural Marketing
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Table 1
Cost of Production per bird per cycle, Jabalpur district, M.P.
(Figures—Rs.)
Sl.No . Particulars Small Medium Large
Leased-in % Leased-in % Own % Leased-in %
1. Depreciation of sheds 1.60* 4.11 1.20* 2.99 0.50 1.25 0.95* 2.37
2. Depreciation of equipment 0.50 1.25
3. Day old chicks 13.65 35.10 13.60 33.87 13.65 34.08 13.65 34.13
4. Medicine/Vaccines 1.35 3.47 1.55 3.86 1.50 3.74 1.50 3.75
5. Labour 0.40 1.03 1.00 2.49 1.10 2.75 1.00 2.50
6. Litter charges 0.30 0.77 0.30 0.75 0.30 0.75 0.30 0.75
7. Feed cost 20.00 51.41 21.50 53.55 21.10 52.68 21.00 52.50
8. Miscellaneous 1.60 4.11 1.00 2.49 1.40 3.50 1.30 3.25
Total 38.90 100.0 40.15 100.0 40.05 100.0 40.00 100.0
* Rent per bird.
The lower expenses on labour on the small farms indi-
cated that these farmers did not hire full time labourers or
casual labourers and hired them only for some special pur-
poses like cleaning of the sheds and mulching of litter etc.
The average gross receipts per bird per farm from all the
sources worked out to Rs. 50.05, Rs. 50.15, Rs. 48.85 and
Rs. 49.35 for small and medium leased-in farms and large
own and large leased-in farms respectively. The income from
broiler sale contributed more than 97 per cent share. Receipts
from other items like sale of bags and manure were very small.
(Table 2).
Table 2
Gross receipts of poultry units—per bird cycle, Jabalpur district, M.P.
(Figures—Rs.)
Sl.No . Item Size of farms
Small Medium Large
Leased-in Leased-in Own Leased-in
Rs. % Rs. % Rs. % Rs. %
1. Sale of broiler 49.75 99.40 49.15 98.00 47.75 97.77 48.30 97.87
2. Manure — — 0.65 1.30 0.70 1.42 0.65 1.31
3. Sale of gunny bags etc. 0.30 0.60 0.35 0.70 0.40 0.81 0.40 0.82
Total 50.05 100.00 50.15 100.00 48.85 100.00 49.35 100.00
Net Return Per Bird Per Cycle
The estimated net return on small and medium leased in farms and large-own farms and large leased-in farms came to Rs.
11.15, Rs. 10.00, Rs. 8.80 and 9.35 respectively (Table 3).
Table 3
Net Return per bird per cycle, Jabalpur district, M.P.
Sl. Particulars Size of broilers farms
No. Small Medium Large own Large
Leased-in Leased-in Leased-in
1. Gross receipts/per bird (Rs.) 50.05 50.15 48.85 49.35
2. Total cost per bird (Rs.) 38.90 40.15 40.00 40.00
Net return per bird (Rs.) 11.15 10.00 8.80 9.35
October—December, 2002 7
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Cost of Production per Kg. Body Weight of Broilers
The cost of production of per kg. body weight in the total
production cost of a bird minus the receipts from sale of manure
and gunny bags etc. divided by the total production in kilograms.
Cost of production on per Cost of a bird (—) Income
kg. body weight of broiler = from manure & gunny bags
Total production in Kilograms
Table 4
Cost of production per kg. body weight, Jabalpur district, M.P.
Sl. Particulars Size of farms
No. Small Medium Large own Large
Leased-in Leased-in Leased-in
(a) Total cost/farm per batch (Rs.) 10,308.50 22,885.50 1,90,237.50 2,00,000.00
(b) Income from gunny bags & manures (Rs.) 79.50 570.00 5,225.00 5,250.00
(c) (a—b ) 10,229.00 22,315.50 1,85,012.50 1,94,750.00
(d) Total production per batch (kg.) 385.00 885.00 7,500.00 7,515.00
Cost/Kg. 26.55 25.20 24.65 25.90
Receipt/Kg. 34.50 32.35 30.90 32.90
Net return per Kg. 7.95 7.15 6.25 7.00
Cost Benefit ratio 1:1.30 1:1.28 1:1.25 1:1.27
The cost of production of per kg. of body weight is lowest
(Rs. 24.65) on large-own farms followed by medium leased-
in farms (Rs. 25.20), large leased-in farms (Rs. 25.90) and
small leased-in farms (Rs. 26.55). However, the cost benefit
ratio is lowest on large-own farms as compared to other farms
and the estimated earning over per rupee investment on per
kg. body weight came to Re. 0.25, Re. 0.27, Re. 0.28, and
Re. 0.30 on owned large farm, leased-in large farms, medium
leased-in farms and small leased-in farms, respectively. This
is due to higher price received per bird by small leased-in
farms.
Marketing of broilers
In Jabalpur district broiler market is not as organised as
the egg market and mainly 3 channels are operating. These
are—
1. Producer —Consumer
2. Producer —Retailer —Consumer
3. Producer —Wholesaler —Retailer —Consumer
1. Producer—Consumer
This channel exists only where consumer has direct ac-
cess to the broiler farms. Small broiler farms sold 20 per cent
of their produce through this channel. Medium farms sold 12
per cent of the produce likewise. Large farms did not contrib-
ute any thing in this channel.
2. Producer—Retailer—Consumer
This channel was popular among small (sold 80 per cent)
and medium (sold 48 per cent) size farmers who had trans-
port facility and had interest in marketing. Large farms mar-
keted only 4 per cent of the produce through this channel.
3. Producer—Wholesaler—Retailer—Consumer
All the big size broiler farmers preferred this channel. This
channel controlled more than 90 per cent of the total broiler
produce of large farms (Table 5).
Table 5
Different marketing channels for broilers, selected farms, Jabalpur
district, M.P.
Size of farms Percentage of total broilers marketed Total
P—C (%) P—R—C P—W—R—C (%)
(%) (%)
Small 20.00 80.00 — 100.00
Medium 12.00 48.00 30.00 100.00
Large — 4.00 96.00 100.00
Source : Mahakoshal, Broiler Farmers Association
Price Spread
The producers share in consumer's rupee was highest in
channel I (99.70%). In this channel the broiler farmers espe-
cially smaller farmers sold their produce (broiler) directly to
consumers, because they operated within the thickly popu-
lated areas like consumers or hotels etc. As the intermediar-
ies like retailers and wholesalers increase, the share of broiler
farmers decreased in channel II (80.00 per cent) and it fur-
ther declined to 79.09 per cent in Channel III, which is the
most active channel and commanded 90 per cent share of the
total broiler market.
Thus, it could be concluded that the producer receive
roughly the same price and it does not vary due to marketing
channels in the marketing of broilers. On the other hand, the
consumers could purchase at less price if approach the farm-
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ers directly. Study also revealed that the dressed chicken cost
the consumer more due to wastage (beak, legs, intestines,
feathers, etc.) which accounted for nearly 300 to 350 gms. of
a bird of 1.5 kg. body/weight (Table 6).
Table 6
Break-up of price spread of a broiler
Functionaries/Item cost Channel I Channel II Channel III
Rs. (%) Rs. (%) Rs. (%)
A Net price to the producer (including margin of Profit) 49.00 99.50 48.00 80.00 48.00 79.09
Expenses incurred by producers
1. Labour 0.20 0.40 — — — —
2. Other expenses 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.10 0.16
B Producer's sale/wholesalers purchase price
Expenses incurred by wholesaler
1. Labour — — — — 48.10 79.25
2. Transportation — — — — 0.25 0.41
3. Other expenses (Electricity) Telephone/Postages etc. — — — — 0.05 0.08
4. Profit margin — — — — 4.50 7.41
C Wholesaler's sale/retailer's purchase price — — 48.15 80.25 53.00 87.31
Expenses incurred by retailers
1. Labour — — 0.30 0.50 0.35 0.58
2. Transportation — — 0.70 1.17 0.50 0.82
3. Other expenses (Rent of shop, Telephone/Electricity — — 1.40 2.33 1.35 2.22
charges/Postages, etc.)
4. Margin of profit — — 9.45 15.75 5.50 9.07
D Retailers sale/consumer's purchase price 49.25 100.00 50.00 100.00 60.70 100.00
(Dressed chicken) — — 74.00 — 74.00 —
Month-wise Variation in the Prices of Broilers
The average month-wise broiler fluctuated between Rs.
32.3 in the month of May to Rs. 39.5 in the months of Janu-
ary, February and March. However, the fluctuation was not
as volatile as in the case of eggs.
Table 7
Month-wise variation in broiler prices Jabalpur district, M.P.
Sl. No. Month Price (Rs.)
1. April 1997 38.00
2. May 1997 32.3
3. June 1997 38.4
4. July 1997 39.0
5. August 1997 34.0
6. September 1997 33.4
7. October 1997 37.0
8. November 1997 37.0
9. December 1997 37.0
10. January 1998 39.5
11. February 1998 39.5
12. March 1998 39.5
Broiler market is not as organised as the egg market and
it needs to be addressed properly. Broiler market is function-
ing without any effective price intervention mechanism.
Suggestions
The analytical results and the discussion on emerging policy
issues lead to following recommendations—
(1) In broiler farming the system of "all out" should not
be the criterion for finance to broiler units by
NABARD/Banks but the relay system of raising
broiler should also be equally considered.
(2) Exotic breed which are fast growing and productive
should be encouraged and popularised with adequate
training facilities and technical know how from Agri-
cultural University particularly for the tribal and ru-
ral areas.
(3) Poultry marketing especially broiler marketing is not
well organised and the absence of "N.E.C.C." like
organisation worsened the situation further. Moreo-
ver, due to absence of any practical solution (tech-
nologies) the withholding of broilers during slump is
not practically possible and forced many small farm-
ers out of the business. Therefore, some organisational
set up like N.E.C.C. for broilers marketing should also
be formed.
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A Study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab
—P. S. RANGI* M. S. SIDHU AND HARJEET SINGH*
Introduction
T
he development of farm sector depends not only on
advancement in farm technology but improvement in
market infrastructure is also essential to ensure better returns
to the farmers. The efficient marketing can correct snags
which have discouraging effects on production and helps in
improving the economic lot of the farmers.
The Royal Commission on Agriculture (1928) pointed
out that there were no common yardstick to measure the
quality of produce, the weights and measures were
unstandardized and the private market operators exploited
the farmers. It recommended the enactment of market
legislation to curb rampant malpractices and realize better
returns. In that context, the Punjab State enacted the Punjab
Agriculture Produce Markets Act, 1939. This Act was further
amended in 1961 and is operative at present in the State.
Under this Act, all the markets have been regulated. A large
number of market committees were set up to supervise the
functioning of the agricultural produce markets. The Punjab
State Agricultural Marketing Board now known as Punjab
Mandi Board has been established under this Markets Act
to guide, supervise and control the market committees of
the State for better and efficient marketing of farm produce.
The market committees numbering 144, levy and collect
the market fee on the sale and purchase of the agricultural
commodities at a rate determined by the Board in
consultation with the State Government. At present, the
market fee is charged at the rate of two per cent ad-valorem.
All the market committees contribute a fixed proportion of
their income from market fee to the Market Development
Fund (MDF) of the Board depending upon the volume of
fee collected by each market committee. The Punjab Mandi
Board not only creates market infrastructure, but also
provides financial assistance to the economically weak
market committees of the State from the MDF.
The regulation of markets has solved quite a few problems
of agricultural marketing. The marketing of farm produce
has become orderly and efficient, particularly at the assembly
point. The manifold increase in the agricultural production
might not have been achieved without the successful
development of an efficient marketing system. The Punjab
Mandi Board has provided necessary help to the farmers in
the form of (i) providing necessary market infrastructure;
(ii) linking all the villages to the market with pucca roads;
(iii) grading of farm produce; (iv) market research; (v)
market information and (vi) even some welfare activities.
The Punjab model of agricultural marketing, i.e., levy of
market fee on the market arrival of farm porduce and
investment of a part of this fee back for creating necessary
market infrastructure and facilities like link roads in rural
areas for still higher production and efficient marketing
system is unique in the developing countries of the world
(Rangi and Sidhu, 1998).
The major expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board is on
the link roads which in percentage terms worked out at
about 40-45 per cent. The expenditure on development of
mandis is less which resulting in poor market infrastructure
like roads within the yards, pucca platforms, sheds, drainage
system, electricity, etc. (Chawla, 1997). The poor market
infrastructure results in high marketing lossses. According
to the study conducted by PAU in eighties, the marketing
losses were 0.59, 0.65, 0.35, 0.21 and 0.68 per cent for
wheat, paddy, maize, gram and barley respectively in Punjab
(Gill, et al. 1984).
The present study has been undertaken to examine the
market infrastructure in the State.
Data base
This paper is based on the comprehensive study entitled,
"A Study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab" conducted by
the first two authors of the present article. The study is
mainly based on the secondary data obtained from the Punjab
Mandi Board. The information has also been collected
regarding market arrivals from the various issues of
Statistical Abstracts of Punjab.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Market arrivals of farm produce
The market arrival of food grains and non-food grains
has increased manifold in Punjab during the last about three
decades. The per market committee arrivals of wheat, paddy
and totals foodgrains and non-foodgrains for the period
1974-75 to 1998-99 is given in Table 1. Wheat is the
principal crop of the State. About 42 per cent of the total
cropped area is under wheat crop. Its production has also
increased from about 25 lakh tonnes in 1967-68 to about
145 lakh tonnes in 1998-99. The per market committee
arrival of wheat has increased from 20.68 thousand tonnes
in 1974-75 to 43.85 thousand tonnes in 1998-99. This
analysis shows that arrival of wheat has more than doubled
during the period under reference.
*Senior Economist (Marketing), Economist (Marketing) and Research Fellow, respectively, Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural
University, Ludhiana 141004.
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Table 1
Market arrival of wheat, paddy and total foodgrains and non-
foodgrains in Punjab, 1974-75 to 1998-99
(per market committee in 000 tonnes)
Year/crop Wheat Paddy Total foodgrain and
non-foodgrain
1974-75 20.68 14.05 50-34
1979-80 39.61 39.39 87.81
1984-85 38.89 53.46 101.85
1989-90 44.83 58,30 124.20
1993-94 47.42 62.94 153.53
1994-95 52.33 65.50 160.18
1995-96 51.33 47.66 148.93
1996-97 41.42 55.03 153.02
1997-98 44.81 48.22 159.84
1998-99 43.85 65.12 162.50
Next to wheat, paddy is the most important cereal crop
of Punjab. It occupies about 30 per cent of the total cropped
area of the State. Except some pockets of Kandi area and
cotton belt, paddy crop is sown all over Punjab. The large
scale cultivation of paddy crop was started in mid-seventies
only. Earlier, its cultivation was confined to the traditional
paddy growing districts viz., Amritsar, Gurdaspur and
Kapurthala. The average arrival of paddy in each market
committee was 14.05 thousand tonnes in 1974-75 which
has further increased to 65.12 thousand tonnes in 1998-99.
It means that arrival has increased by about four times. For
all foodgrains and non-foodgrains taken together, the per
maket committee arrival has increased from 50.34 thousand
tonnes in 1974-75 to 162.50 thousand tonnes in 1998-99.
Among the non-foodgrain crops, cotton (American), cotton
(Desi), oilseeds and fruit and vegetables are prominent in
Punjab.
Market Infrastructure
As already stated, there are 144 market committees in
Punjab. The principal yards with these market committees
are 156 because fruits and vegetable markets have separate
yards for principal markets of the State. During the year
1998-99, there were 252 focal points, 118 sub-yards and
932 purchase centres. Out of these, about 97 per cent of the
principal yards were pucca whereas this figure was about
66 per cent for the purchase centers. About 93 per cent and
98 per cent of the sub-yards and focal points respectively
were having pucca platforms. The area of the principal yards
during the year 1998-99 is shown in Table 2. The data
about area was not available for 26 yards. In rest of the
principal yards, about 24 per cent of the yards were having
50 acres and above area, about 12 per cent between 40 and
50 acres, about 16 per cent between 30 and 40 acres, about
22 per cent between 20 and 30 acres, about 12 per cent
between 10 and 20 acres and about 14 per cent had area up
to 10 acres. The size of the area depended on the volume
of market arrival of different commodities. Except during
the peak arrival of rabi and kharif crops in Punjab, these
yards remained unutilized mostly during the lean period.
Stray cattle roam there frequently. It has also been observed
that local transporters park their vehicles during the lean
months there. The concerned market committee may
discourage such practices during the lean months.
Table 2
Area of principal yards in Punjab, 1998-99
Area (in acres) No. of principal yards % age
Up to 5 7 5.38
5-10 11 8.46
10-15 8 6.15
15-20 8 6.15
20-25 13 10.00
25-30 16 12.31
30-35 16 12.31
35-40 5 3.85
40-45 10 7.60
45-50 5 3.85
50 and above 31 23.85
Total 130 100.00
Area of sub-yards
There were 118 sub-yards in the State during the year
1998-99. The information regarding area was not available
in case 48 per cent of the sub-yards. The rest about 57 per
cent of the sub-yards were having area upto 10 acres, about
18 per cent between 10 and 20 acres, about 13 per cent
between 20 and 30 acres, about six per cent between 30
and 40 acres, about two per cent between 40 and 50 acres
and about three per cent 50 acres and above (Table 3). As
in case of principal yards, the area of sub-yards is also
linked with the volume of market arrivals.
Table 3
Area of sub-yards in Punjab, 1998-99
Area (in acres) No. of sub-yards % age
1 2 3
Up to 5 24 39.34
5-10 11 18.02
10-15 6 9.84
15-20 5 8.20
20-25 4 6.56
25-30 4 6.56
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1 2 3
30-35 2 3.28
35-40 5 3.28
40-45 — —
45-50 1 1.64
50 and above 2 3.28
Total 61 100.00
Area of focal points
The information regarding area of focal points is given
in Table 4. This data were not available in case of 98 focal
points out of the 252. In the rest of these focal points, the
area was up to 10 acres in case of about 59 per cent focal
points, about 29 per cent of the focal points were having
area between 10 and 20 acres and about 12 per cent had
more than 20 acres of area.
Table 4
Area of focal points in Punjab, 1998-99
Area (in acres) No. of focal Points % age
1 2 3
Up to 5 51 33.12
5-10 40 25.97
10-15 24 15.58
15-20 20 12.98
20-25 11 7.14
25-30 5 3.25
30-35 2 1.31
35-40 — —
40-45 — —
45-50 — —
50 and above 1 0.65
Total 154 100.00
Area of purchase centres
The information regarding area of purchase centres in
the State is given in Table 5. About 78 per cent of the
purchase centres were having up to 5 acres of area, about
16 per cent were having 5 to 15 acres, about six per cent
from 15 to 25 acres and the rest about one per cent were
of more than 25 acres. Since almost all the purchase centres
operate only for wheat and paddy procurement seasons (45
days), therefore, large area may not serve much useful
purpose. The Punjab Mandi Board may evolve a policy to
keep a maximum of ten acres of area for the purpose centres.
It will be sufficient
Table 5
Area of purchase centres in Punjab, 1998-99
Area (in acres) No. of Purchase Centres % age
1 2 3
Up to 5 249 77.57
5-10 32 9.97
10-15 18 5.61
15-20 20 2.18
20-25 11 3.43
25-30 2 0.62
30-35 1 0.31
35 and above 1 0.31
Total 321 100.00
for efficient market operations even in the peak market arrival
of wheat and paddy.
Street light arrangements
It has been found that majority of the principal yards
had permanent street light arrangements. On the other hand,
majority of sub-yards, focal points and purchase centers did
not have the facility of permanent light arrangements. Only
temporary light arrangements were provided in the peak
marketing season of rabi and kharif crops.
Drinking water
It has been observed that majority of the principal yards
had permanent drinking water arrangements. On the other
hand, such facility is mostly provided on temporary basis in
the sub-yards, purchase centers and focal points by keeping
pitchers there. It may be mentioned here that drinking water
was not a major problem in the markets because almost
every market had a hand pump or there was water supply
by the municipal committees/corporations/public health
department. Some voluntary social organizations also serve
drinking water to the public particularly during the summer
months on the road sides of various markets. Even bullocks,
camels, ponies, horses, etc. did not face any problem of
drinking water throughout the year in all the markets of the
State. Besides, almost all the commission agents in the
mandis serve drinking water to the sellers, buyers, labourers,
officials of public procurement agencies, officials of market
committees, transporters, etc. without any hesitation. Rather,
it is considered as a social service in Punjab. Above all, tea
stall, dhaba and sweet shop owners in the markets also
serve some drinking water to the public.
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Covered sheds
The information regarding covered sheds in the markets
is given in Table 6.A perusal of the table showed that 55
per cent of the principal yards had the facility of covered
sheds. On the other hand, this was available only in about
4 per cent of the purchase centers. About 64 and 69 per
cent of the sub-yards and focal points had this facility in
Punjab. To save the agricultural commodities from the
vagaries of nature, the Punjab Mandi Board may evolove a
policy to build up covered sheds in all the principal yards
in the near future. As a long run policy measure, all other
Table 6
Facility of covered sheds in the markets of Punjab, 1998-99
Sl. No. Type of market Marckets having % age to the
covered sheds total
I Principal yards 86 55.13
II Sub-yards 75 63.55
III Focal points 174 69.05
IV Purchase centres 408 43.78
sub-yards, purchase centres and focal points may also have
this facility in the State by the year 2010. Given the present
number of purchase centres is sufficient, therefore, new
purchase centres may not be set up keeping in view political
considerations of the ruling party in the State. The
infrastructural facilities may be strengthened in the existing
markets. New purchase centres may not be economically
viable.
Area of covered sheds
It was found that about 78 per cent of the principal yards
had sheds up to two acres of area, about 16 per cent between
two and four acres and the rest about six per cent had four
acres and above area. There are two types of sheds in the
State. At present, the Board constructs RCC as well as tin
sheds. In almost all the sub-yards, the area of covered sheds
was found to be up to one acre whereas this figure was half
an acre for almost all the focal points as well as purchase
centres.
Mechanical handling units in grain markets
The grain markets in Punjab were classified into small,
medium and large markets based upon the seasonal
quantum of foodgrains handled in each market. It was
suggested that in small markets only one operation, i.e.,
cleaning operation be mechanized. This was termed as
nominal mechanization. In medium sized markets,
cleaning, filling of bags, weighing of bags and stitching
of bags were proposed to be mechanized through small
mechanical handling units, the capacity of which would
match the manual unloading rates. A number of such
units were proposed to be established in each market
depending upon the need. Such markets were termed as
partially mechanized markets. Due to financial and other
constraints, the experiment of fully mechanized grain
markets have not been taken up by the Punjab Mandi
Board and State Government so far.
In the year 1980, the Punjab Government decided to
undertake implementation of partially modernized market
on an experimental basis. As a result of this, six mechanical
handling units in three markets namely Khamano, Sahnewal
and Doraha were installed by the agricultural engineers of
the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana with the
financial support of Punjab mandi Board. these units were
finally put to use in 1982 after all the formalities were
taken care of. In the decade 1982 to 1992, the number of
such units has increased from 6 to 88 i.e., more than 14
times and the number of modernized markets increased from
3 to 34. The year-wise detail is given in Table 7.
The capacity of small units was 100 bags of wheat, 50
bags of paddy and that of big units was 200 bags of wheat
and 100 bags of paddy per hour (Grewal, 2001). These
units were capable of automatic weighment, filling and
stitching of bags. Most of these units were lying under an
Table 7
Number of mechanical handling units in Punjab, 1982 to 1993
Year No. of mechanical handling units No. of markets
1982 6 3
1985 10 4
1986 22 8
1991 32 12
1992 68 29
1993 88 34
open sky and were being damaged by rains (Grewal, 2001).
Only some machines were under proper sheds. Most of
these units have been lying idle for the last many years.
They have also not been repaired for a long time. There are
only a score of mechanics to look after these units but at
most of these units only chowkidars were looking after
these machines.
Up to the late eighties, these units were operated to their
full capacity and the results were up to the expectations.
For example, the actual capacity utilization of these units in
case of paddy season was 107, 117 and 115 per cent during
the years 1988, 1989 and 1990 respectively. Even during
these years, the performance in case of wheat season was
dismal. The actual capacity utilization for wheat was 11, 17
and 9.3 per cent during these three years respectively. It has
been observed that when these units were introduced,
rumours were spread out by some quarters that with the
coming of these units, the commission agents will become
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idle and they will be thrown out of their business, with the
result that most of the commission agents in such markets
started opposing this scheme. The officials of procurement
agencies were also not interested in this scheme because
they were also hand in glove with the commission agents
(Grewal, 2001).
The operation of these units was beneficial to the farmers
of the State because they got Rs. 4 per qtl more than the
fixed price and the payments were made on the spot. These
units were filled with power cleaners that cleaned wheat
and paddy in a better way. These units also saved a lot of
time. But later on power cleaners were made compulsory
for the commission agents after which these units became
almost idle. The commercial electricity connection of these
units are still going on and the payment of these bills is
being made by the concerned market committees. The
electricity connections of these units should be terminated
if these units are not to be made operational. Keeping in
view the overall unsatisfactory performance of these units
during the last about two decades in the State, these units
may be auctioned by the Punjab Mandi Board and resources
generated in this regard may be invested for the development
of other infrastructure in the mandis.
Expansion of market committees
The expansion of regulated markets has brought a
number of improvements in the system of agricultural
marketing. The model of agricultural marketing development
of Punjab is often cited as an example for other States of
India. The data given in Table 8 show the growth in the
number of market committees in Punjab from 1966-67 to
1998-99. Their number which was 88 in 1966-67 rose to
144 in 1993-94. During the last one decade or so, new
market committees have been established in a few cases
because of high establishemewnt cost of each committee.
The high establishment cost left little funds for development
Table 8
Number of market committees in Punjab, 1966-67 to 1998-99
year No of regulated Average No. of Av. Area served
markets villages served per regulated
per regulated market
market (sq. kms)
1966-67 88 139 572
1976-77 108 113 466
1986-87 141 88 357
1993-94 144 86 352
1998-99 144 86 352
Source : Statistical Abstract of Punjab, Various Issues.
purpose. Therefore, the State Government and the Punjab
Mandi Board decided in mid-eighties not to have rapid
expansion in this regard.
It was found that each market committee served 139
villages in 1966-67 which fell to 86 in 1998-99. Against
this, each principal market served 257 villages in India
(Rangi and Sidhu, 2001). The average area served per market
committee in Punjab was 572 sq. kms in 1966-67. With the
establishment of new market committees, over a period of
time, this figure declined to 352 sq. kms in 1998-99. Against
this, the area served per principal market in India was 1424
sq. kms (Rangi and Sidhu, 2001). It may be mentioned here
that a farmer of Punjab has not to travel more than 8 to 10
kms for sale of principal crops, i.e., wheat and paddy. This
not only saves time of farmers but also bring efficiency in
various marketing operations like unloading, cleaning, filling,
stitching and loading of the produce. It also reduced
congestion in the main yards of the market committees.
Income and expenditure of the Board
The income and expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board
for 1996-97 through 1998-99 is shown in Table 9. The
market committees collect the market fee @ 2 per cent of
the value of the produce from the buyers of farm produce.
All the market committees have to contribute a fixed
proportion of their income from this source to the Punjab
Mandi Board. The financially weak committees contribute
less whereas the committees with high income contribute
more. This difference has been kept to provide rational
allocation of funds for development to all the market
committees of the State. It may be mentioned that
committees with an annual income up to Rs. 20 lakhs
contribute 20 per cent of their income to the Board whereas
this figure is 40 per cent for the committees with income
from Rs. 20 to Rs. 40 lakhs. The financially sound
commitees with income above Rs. 40 lakh contribute 50
per cent of their income to the Board.
The data given in Table 9 showed that the Board got
Rs. 69.12, Rs. 92.12 and Rs. 79.70 crores mainly this way
in 1996-97, 1997-1998 and 1998-99 respectively. The
opening balance during these respective years was Rs. 45.59,
Rs. 31.81 and Rs. 31.49 crores respectively. Thus, the total
funds available with the Board during these three years
were Rs. 114.70, Rs. 123.93 and Rs. 111.19 crores
respectively. The expenditure of the Board was Rs.. 82.89,
Rs. 92.44 and Rs. 94.68 crores during these respective years.
Each year, sufficient funds were left unutilized and were
carried to the next financial year. This shows the sound
financial health of the Board. It may be mentioned that
most of the other Boards and Corporations of the State
Government are in the red whereas the Punjab Mandi Board
had positive closing balance of Rs. 31.81, Rs. 31.49 and
Rs. 16.61 crores during the years 1996-97, 1997-98 and
1998-99 respectively.
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Table 9
Income and expenditure of Punjab Mandi Board, 1996-97 through 1998-99
(Rs. in lakhs)
Sl. No. Particulars 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99(P)
I. Opening balance on Ist April 4558.53 3181.32 3148.87
II. Income during the year 6911.70 9211.51 7970.00
III. Total (I + II) 11470.23 12392.83 11118.87
IV Expenditure during the year 8288.91 9243.96 9457.50
V Closing balance on 31st March (III-IV) 3181.32 3148.87 1661.37
Components of expenditure
I. Establishment expenses 1434.99 1596.38 2448.00
(17.31) (17.27) (25.88)
II. Contingencies—Recurring 251.85 273.69 300.00
(3.04) (2.96) (3.17)
III. Contingencies—Non-recurring 61.45 182.93 166.00
(0.74) (1.98) (1.76)
IV. Loans and advances to employees 119.54 282.68 500.00
(1.44) (3.06) (5.29)
V. Construction work 5729.38 5787.07 5404.00
(69.12) (62.60) (57.15)
(a) Development of mandis 1027.40 980.62 1800.00
(12.39) (10.60) (19.03)
(b) Board's works 102.30 97.67 400.00
(1.24) (1.06) (4.23)
(c) Central assistance — — 5.00
(0.05)
(d) Link roads 4599.68 4708.78 3200.00
(55.49) (50.94) (33.84)
VI. Financial aid/loan 32.43 1.89 50.00
(0.39) (0.02) (0.53)
VII. Repair and maintenance of Kisan Bhawan 56.76 48.89 65.00
(0.68) (0.53) (0.69)
VIII. Investment and purchase of property — 1.25 5.00
(0.01) (0.05)
IX. Securities refund 6.81 26.84 25.00
(0.08) (0.29) (0.26)
X. Development schemes 95.70 42.34 243.50
(1.16) (0.46) (2.58)
XI. Deposits in suspense 500.00 500.00 200.00
(6.04) (5.41) (2.11)
XII. Miscellaneous adjustable/recoverable payments for advance to — 500.00 50.00
District Mandi Officers, Insurance Claims, market committees' (5.41) (0.53)
works, Rural Development Fund, Provident Fund, etc.
XIII. Grand total 8288.91 9243.06 9457.50
(100.00) (100.00) (100.00)
(P) means provisional.
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to total expenditure.
Source : Punjab Mandi Board, Chandigarh.
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A perusal of Table 9 further revealed that major
expenditure of the Board was on the development of market
infrastructure in the form of construction of link roads,
development of mandis and other works of the Board. The
expenditure on link roads alone was Rs. 46.00, Rs 47.09
and Rs. 32.00 crores in 1996-97, 1997-98 and 1998-99
respectively which in percentage terms worked out at about
55,51 and 34 of the total expenditure of the Board. As
already discussed, Punjab is the second State after Haryana
in the country to link almost all the villages by metalled
roads.
Another important component of expenditure of the Board
has been on the development of mandis. The Board spent
about 12, 11 and 19 per cent of its total expenditure on this
head in 1996-97, 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. It also
included expenditure on the upliftment of infrastructural
facilities such as providing pucca platforms, covered sheds
and electricity. Keeping in view lack of the market
infrastructure in the State, the expenditure on this head may
be doubled from the next financial year. Expenditure on the
same proportion may be reduced from the sub-head of link
roads. As already stated, more than 99 per cent of the villages
of the State have metalled link roads, therefore, new link
roads may not be the priority area of the Board. It is
suggested that existing link roads may be repaired and may
be widened keeping in view the traffic intensity in a
particular area. The funds saved from the construction of
new link roads may be utilized for the development of
mandis and strengthening of infrastructure there.
The expenditure on recurring and non-recurring
contingencies were about four, four and five per cent of the
total expenses in 1996-97, 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively.
The notable recurring expenses were telephone and
electricity bill, printing and stationery, running and
maintenance of cars and other vehicles, travelling expenses,
medical aid, postage and publicity. The non-recurring
expenses included purchase of new vehicles, furniture and
fixture and audit fee. About one, three and five per cent of
the expenditure of the Board during 1996-97, 1997-98 and
1998-99 respectively was on loans and advances to its
employees.
The Board also utilized about one, half and three per
cent of its expenditure on the development schemes during
1996-97, 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. It was mainly
on the installation of mechanical handing units in the grain
markets, provision of power cleaners in the mandis, grading
of foodgrains and oilseeds, research grant to the Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana, grading of fruit and
vegetables, fire fighting and related equipment, data
processing and computers, Apni Mandi (Farmers' Market),
metallic bins and weigh bridges. These measures of the
Board in the form of development schemes have brought
efficiency in the marketing system and proved a boon to the
farmers of the State.
Income and expenditure of market committees
The income and expenditure of all the 144 market
committees in Punjab for the year 2000-01 is given in Table
10. As already stated, the main source of income of the
market committees is from the market free levied@ two per
cent of the value of the produce. It is charged from the
buyers of the farm produce. From this source, the income
is Rs. 256.00 corres. The opening balance on 1st April,
2000 was Rs. 35.58 crores. The Income from licence fee
and other sources was Rs. 1.87 and Rs 14.82 crores
respectively. Thus, the total income was Rs. 308.28 crores.
The income of each market committee was worked out at
Rs 2.14 crores.
Table 10
Income and expenditure of market committees in Punjab,
2000-2001*
Rs. in lakhs
Sl. No Particulars Amount %age
A. Income
I Opening balance 3557.81 11.54
II Market fee 25600.30 83.04
III Licence fee 187.37 0.61
IV Other income 1481.98 4.81
V Total income (I to IV) 30827.50 100.00
B. Expenditure
I Mandi development 5860.66 18.97
II Mechanical units 67.65 0.22
III Link roads 2362.34 7.65
IV Cotton grading 0.78 0.003
V Landscaping 11.37 0.04
VI Establishment expenses 6004.42 19.44
VII Travelling expenses 30.12 0.10
VIII Contingencies-recurring 824.38 2.67
IX Contingenceis-Non-recurring 400.55 1.30
X Loans 1106.95 3.58
XI Contribution to Board 10884.39 35.23
XII LIC fee 139.76 0.45
XIII Audit fee 289.25 0.94
XIV Amenities 1616.97 5.22
XV Misc. expenses 1294.34 4.19
XVI Total expenditure 30893.93 100.00
*Budget estimates.
Source: Punjab Mandi Board, Chandigarh.
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The pattern of expenditure of market committees
revealed that about 35 per cent of this was contribution
to the Punjab Mandi Board. As already stated, a fixed
proportion of income from the market fee goes to the
Mandi Board. The establishment expenses were 19 per
cent. Each market committee in the State utilized about
Rs 41 lakhs on mandi development. The share of link
roads was about eight per cent in the total expenses.
About five per cent of the expenses were on amentities
and four per cent were miscellaneous expenses. The
expenditure on loans to employees was about four per
cent, recurring and non-recurring contingencies taken
together about four per cent and audit fee about one per
cent. It may be mentioned here that total expenditure per
market committee was Rs. 2.15 crores during the year
2000-01. The expenditure per market committee was
marginally high to the extent of about Rs. 1000 as
compared to the average income. As already stated, the
expenditure on the link roads may be reduced by the
market committees and allocation for the mandi
development may be enchanced. The schemes may be
formulated keeping in view the economic interests of the
farmers, buyers, public procurement agencies, etc. In the
peak marketing seasons of rabi and kharif crops, repair
works in the mandis may not be initiated. Such job may
be completed in the lean months. The number of projects/
schemes to be initiated in a particular year may be
formulated keeping in view the financial constraints/
implications. The number of purchase centre is sufficient
in the State. New such centers may not be established
for a minimum of next five years. The infrastructure may
be built up in the existing purchase centers.
Conclusion and suggestions
The regulation of markets has solved quite a few
problems of agricultural marketing. The marketing of farm
produce has become orderly and efficient particularly at
the assembly point. The manifold increase in the
agricultural production might not have been achieved
without the successful development of an efficient
marketing system. The Punjab model of agricultural
marketing, i.e., levy of market fee on the market arrival
of farm produce and investment of a part of this fee
back for creating necessary market infrastructure and
facilities like link roads in rural areas for still higher
production and efficient marketing system is unique in
the developing countries of the world. The major
expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board is on the link
roads which in percentage terms worked out at 40-45.
The expenditure on the development of mandis is less
which resulted in poor infrastructure like roads within
the yards, pucca platform, sheds, drainage system,
electricity, etc. The poor market infrastructure results in
higher marketing losses. At present, the overall market
infrastructure is not adequate. The following suggestions
will go a long way to bring improvements in this
regard.
I. The number of principal yards, focal points, sub-yards
and purchase centers is sufficient to meet the requirements
of farmers in all the 12428 villages. Therefore, new mandis
should not be set up anywhere in the State at least during
the next five years.
II. The length of the existing metalled link roads in the
rural areas is adequate in the State. Therefore, new link
roads may not be laid anywhere in Punjab. Rather, the
existing link roads may be repaired and widened wherever
required.
III. The saving of funds from the rural link roads may be
utilized for the development of infrstructure in the mandis.
Additional funds may also be provided in this regard by the
concerned quarters.
IV. The construction work or repair work in the mandis
may be done only during the lean months when the arrival
of farm produce is low. In the peak period, such construction
or rapair work creates problems in the mandis.
V. Those mechanical handling units which are not
operative may be auctioned by the Punjab Mandi Board
and resources generated in this regard may be invested
for the development of other market infrastructure in the
mandis.
VI. The financial resources of the State are limited.
Therefore, existing levies/cesses may be allowed to
continue on all the agricultural commodities. Any
reduction in such levies/cesses will adversely affect the
income of the market committees, Punjab Mandi Board
and State Government. Ultimately, it will also have
negative affect on the development of infrastucture in the
mandis.
VII. In the era of liberalization, privatization and
globalization, the market infrastructure may be of
international standards. Quality of farm produce will
have to play a crucial role in the years to come.
Market infrastructure can play an important role in this
regard.
VIII. The establishment expenses of the Punjab Mandi
Board and market committees may be reduced. It will
generate funds for the development of infrastructure in the
mandis.
REFERENCES
Chawla, K.S. 1997, Mandis lack facilities, The Tribune,
Chandigarh, Vol.117(106), April 18, p 3.
Gill, K.S. et al^^,x ekdZ. 1984, Foodgrain losses at farm
level in Punjab, Research Bulletin, Deptt. Of
Economics and Sociology, PAU, Ludhiana, pp 1-72.
October—December, 2002 17
:/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. 2 to 86 Page No. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh
Grewal, G.S. 2001. Eighty-eight mechanical handling units
lie unutilized, The Tribune,Chandigarh, Vol 121(12),
January 12, p 1.
Rangi, P.S. and M.S. Sidhu, 1998, Role of Punjab Mandi
Board in marketing development, Indian Journal
of Agricultural Marketing, Vol 12(1&2),
pp 100-109.
P.S. Rangi and M.S. Sidhu 2001, A Study on Market
Infrastructure in Punjab, Mimeograph, Deptt. of
Economics and Sociology, PAU, Ludhiana, pp 1-89.
_______
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18 Agricultural Marketing
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Marketing and Export of Fresh Vegetables
—AJAY VERMA, SUDHIR KUMAR AND P.M. SINGH*
Introduction
A
wareness about the importance of vegetables for
well-balanced nutrition and as a potential generator of
farmer's income, employment and foreign exchange earnings
have been generated. World vegetable trade has increased
manifold in last two decades. At present there is a series of
forces increasing the pressure for expansion of production
and trade of vegetables in the world. The vegetable producing
business is too varied in nature to permit a single description
or even a good classification. Countless farmers and others
could improve both their diet and economic position by
growing more vegetables and by preserving & using them
throughout the year. Modern civilization leaves millions of
people in situations where, under normal conditions,
vegetables can not be grown or it has been found preferable
to buy their demands. To meet these needs the commercial
vegetable business has grown up. The business of growing
vegetable has been shown to be an important part of
agriculture and to have an important place in supplying
needed food to human beings. This being so, many people
will continue to grow vegetables to sell and many will be
engaged in the auxiliary business that serve vegetable
growers. The market must be studied in detail to determine
current supply and demand forces by studying previous
market data and picking up possible trends of what the
market might be in the future. This will also include
determining any legislation governing standards and which
varieties of crop receive the best prices and at what time of
year. Market situations are constantly changing and it is
important to know what competitors or potential competitors
are doing or planning to do.
Marketing Concept
The "market" concept has many connotations. For
geographers it usually refers to a physical area and denotes
the place where commercial exchange takes place. For
economists the concept often transcends the idea of a mere
physical location and is used in a broader sense to indicate
the meeting of supply and demand. Marketing is one of the
most important, yet misunderstood, business activities and
frequently means different things to different people. To the
retailer in the agricultural sector, for example, it is selling
of inputs to the farmer. To the farmer it is simply selling
what he produces on his farm. However, whatever the
circumstances, a well-defined sequence of events has to
take place to promote the product and to put it in the right
place, at the right time and at the right price for a sale to
be made. Many people think of marketing solely in terms
of the advertising and selling of goods, whereas in reality
marketing starts long before the goods exist and continues
long after they are sold. Market performance is related to
the functioning of arbitrage. Arbitrage is the process of
exhange of commodities with the objective of taking
advantage of price differences that exceed marketing costs.
Spatial arbitrage should equalize supply and demand at
different market places until price differences are reduced
to the level of transport costs. The higher the level of
marketing costs between markets, the smaller the probability
that exchange will take place between them. Links between
markets thus become more likely as marketing costs
dectrease. Marketing margins are relatively high in
developing countries. There can be many reasons for this.
For example, marketing by a large number of small traders
will, in theory, be economically less efficient than trading
carried out by a limited number of large traders, although
it may offer other more social benefits. However, lack of
information is generally seen as being one of the main
reasons, apart from transport costs, for high marketing costs.
The potentials and constraints for vegetable consumption
and marketing need special attention to provide new outlets
for vegetable products coming from farm enterprises. An
initial step should be the determination of quality standards.
value, prestige pricing, quality packaging and labeling
perceive quality as an intangible characteristic for many
consumers.
Market Importance
Markets provide the necessary facilities and services to
producers and consumers to enable price formation to take
place and exchange to be facilitated. In theory markets
supply food corresponding to consumer preferences.
Simultaneously, prices that consumers are willing to pay
for different commodities and grades should be transferred
to producers in order to encourage production of that produce
which is in demand. Price differences over time and between
market locations should correspond to the marketing
(transaction) costs incurred, notably those for storage and
transport. Prices are the result of the functioning of the
market and are determined by supply and demand which,
in turn, are influenced by costs of production, the costs of
*Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi.
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marketing and by consumer preferences, among other things.
Marketing has much importance in vegetable trade, which
are cultivated by farmers for market only. The marketing
operations have crucial role, due to seasonality of produce,
in deciding the profit of the farmer on one hand and level
of availability to consumers on other side.
The marketing of vegetables, unlike in case of cereals, is
more complex because of the special characteristics like
highly perishable nature, seasonality, bulkiness etc. and needs
special care and immediate disposable. In case of perishable
commodities for a producer, the real problem starts when
he attempts to dispose of the same i.e. marketing the produce.
Besides, the huge expenditure the marketing cost also affects
the income of the cultivators. Studies conducted on
marketing of vegetables have shown the exploitation by
middleman resulting in very low share of consumers rupee.
Market Activities
Wholesaling facilitates the economic function of buying
and selling (usually termed as "price formation") by allowing
the forces of supply and demand to converge to establish a
single price for a commodity. The assembler or wholesaler
may also perform a storage and warehousing function, as
well as allowing economies of scale to be obtained in the
transportation of produce from farm to market. The people
involved in wholesaling can act simply as merchants, buying
and selling produce, be brokers dealing in orders rather
than goods, be commission agents (or factors) acting for
the producers (and without title to the produce) or be export/
import agents, only dealing in foreign trade.
The purpose of retail markets for any commodity is to
provide an environment for looking at and buying
merchandise that is displayed for sale. With a conventional
shop, including a large-scale market, there is usually a sales
area where goods are displayed, a shop front used for
advertising the goods and a service area where goods can
be received re-packed and stored. With a market stall these
functions occur at one place. A retail market, like any other
type of market, is a location at which there is a public
gathering of buyers and sellers at a known time. All retail
markets involve a large number of transactions of relatively
small quantities of goods on a face-to-face basis between a
seller and buyer. An essential feature of a market is the
opportunity it can provide to immediately and easily compare
prices between different sellers of the same product. Retail
markets provide low-cost retailing facilities based on small-
scale operations and are typically found in the low and
middle-income, higher density areas of cities and small towns
and in the centers of villages in rural areas.
It is important that the farmer should be able to sell the
produce at a convenient stage of the marketing channel. For
example, some farmers have the option of selling at farm
gate, of delivering to a local assembly market, of supplying
a wholesale market direct or of selling directly to retailers
or even to consumers. However, a maximum value added
for the farmer is not always an optimal solution. This
depends on the costs (e.g. transport, risk bearing and time)
involved when the farmer decides to sell in a market segment
closer to the final consumer. Availability of information on
market conditions at different locations or different points
in the marketing chain is necessary for choosing where to
market. Farmers often have limited outlets for their produce
and are often bound by traditional trading relationships,
which may include and element of credit provision by the
trader. Opportunities for most farmers to take advantage of
spatial arbitrage possibilities are therefore restricted. Such
opportunities are further hindered by the small quantities
produced by most.
Marketing Methods
Deciding where to market depends in large part on the
volume of produce to be marketed. In general, the larger
the volume of produce handled, the greater the number of
marketing alternatives. Small-scale producers may be limited
to local or regional markets while larger producers are able
to market on national and international levels as well. Some
small growers are able to access national markets by selling
their produce through a growers' cooperative. The best
market for a grower is not just the market that offers the
highest price, but is the one that matches cultivators particular
circumstances at any given time. Growers first consider
marketing alternatives available in local markets. Local
markets are easier to access because an individual grower
can serve them with a small or large volume of produce.
Pricing Strategy
When selling directly to consumers at the farmer's market
or to other local outlets, the price received depends mainly
on the produce prices in local markets and any premium the
consumer is willing to pay for higher quality or freshness
of produce. When selling to a produce dealer at a farmer's
market, the price received depends on the price the broker
or grower's agent receives. One of the more difficult
marketing decisions is knowing when to accept a price and
when to wait for something better. Growers would like to
sell their products at the highest possible price, but no one
knows when this price will be offered. A market strategy
that attempts to achieve an acceptable price has a better
chance of success than one that aims for the highest price.
Therefore, growers must know that price level is consistent
with an acceptable profit for the total farming operation.
Careful attention to market trends will help you decide
whether to accept a price or wait for something better.
Export Performance
India has been a large exporter of agricultural products
for centuries. With the growth in economy, especially with
the growth of more import intensive sectors, the need for
foreign exchange earnings from agricultural exports becomes
increasingly more important from the national point of view.
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In 2000-01 agri products valued at more than U.S. $ 6
million were exported from the country. Although fruit and
vegetables are not among the dominant foreign exchange
earners while able to achieve strong growth over the years.
India has been exporting agricultural products as raw
products, semi-processed and processed items. The country
exports in this sector include commodities and processed
food items.
Table 1
Export of Fresh Vegetables in World Market
MT Rs. (Lakhs)
Country 98-99 99-00 00-01 -% share 98-99 99-00 00-01 % share
Bangladesh 3646.5 17579.0 7290.2 5.44 263.12 1114.94 1074.63 5.63
Bahrain 1999.3 2123.7 3178.13 2.37 426.77 382.31 499.14 2.62
Canada 1186.5 1372.7 2434.2 1.82 195.94 312.61 413.81 2.17
Spain 1870.6 1890.0 2930.8 2.19 310.94 229.08 487.84 2.56
U.K. 2986.0 3300.7 6045.0 4.51 603.47 828.32 1249.15 6.55
Kuwait 2324.8 2243.7 2954.1 2.20 444.37 417.29 523.48 2.74
Sri Lanka 113409.4 43549.2 44101.7 32.91 1020.94 2511.1 2946.01 15.44
Maldives 3650.8 2528.8 3805.6 2.84 708.95 543.73 558.95 2.93
Nepal 861.1 432.2 6276.9 4.68 43.15 15.64 203.56 1.07
Qatar 1838.7 1852.7 2453.3 1.82 318.14 331.69 394.19 2.07
Saudi Arabia 3971.0 4678.5 8218.5 6.13 676.42 717.9 1251.1 6.56
U.A.E. 11641.2 12063.4 16511.1 12.32 1872.96 1718.83 2192.46 11.49
USA 3488.2 6037.4 10408.7 7.77 1085.05 2221.87 4467.6 23.41
Netherlands 744.0 1676.7 1980.3 1.48 152.89 400.25 329.47 1.73
France 1610.0 1545.2 2142.6 1.60 335.85 324.6 420.93 2.21
Belgium 1276.2 1535.91 1462.3 1.09 290.24 323.22 325.89 1.71
Total 64654.6 115626.4 133992.0 100.0 10233.34 14414.62 19084.96 100.0
Fresh vegetables are considered as one of the most poten-
tial commodities for export in world market as reflected above.
India is able to fulfil vegetable demands of foreign markets
on ad-hoc basis. Vegetables are proved to have more export
potential than other crops. In 2000-01, the country exported
other fresh vegetables to the tune of Rs. 190.84 crores over
Rs. 144.14 crore in the preceding year, representing a growth
of 32.89%. India over the years has been regularly exporting
a variety of fresh vegetables. Sri Lanka, UAE, and USA to-
gether accounted for more than 50% of the total exports of
fresh vegetables in 2000-01. The general expansion in the
demand and trade of vegetables has been accompanied by a
greater internationalization of trade due to a greater number
of importing countries as well as supplier countries in world
trade. In many cases trade was local or bilaterally oriented is
now more international, which has intensified the trading
contracts among countries.
Packing and Organic Farming
Vegetable marketing has followed an expected pattern of
growth and international participation has increased over the
years. The new liberal policies have assessed to global
inventories. The growth and survival of domestic
entrepreneurs will depend on their strength, innovative product
closeness to the customers and capacity to take decisions at
lower level. World wide there has been considerable research
over the type of packaging material for agricultural
commodities, both raw and processed. The FAO/UNDP/Govt.
of India Project Marketing Planning And Design Centre
(MPDC) conducted certain trial with regard to packaging of
fruit and vegetables. The results of these trials increased
substitution of traditional wooden/bamboo packages with
telescopic carton. Tissue paper or polyethylene sheets are
used for wrapping to reduce evaporation and thereby
prolonging shelf life of the fresh vegetables like asparagus,
capsicum, chillies, brinjal and okra. Packing size depends
upon requirement of importing country whereas packing
material depends upon the acceptance by the airlines.
Right from production to the shellf, there are strict checks
and watch on the production techniques, use of inputs and
processing so that the extra money paid by consumer bring
added satisfaction. The consumer demand for organically
produced food is driven by food safety concerns. The move-
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ment towards increasing food safety and consumption of or-
ganic food produced without the use of chemical inputs such
as pesticides, herbicides are strong in the developed coun-
tries. In this direction accelerated agricultural research is de-
sired which aimed at issues such as host plant resistance to
pests, nitrogen fixation from the air, and plants that are more
efficient in extracting and utilizing nutrients.
Conclusion
Growing produce can be profitable, but not everyone who
attempts to grow produce will be successful. The problems
and opportunities associated with vegetable production need
to be carefully considered. But of equal importance are the
problems and opportunities associated with marketing. A
sound marketing strategy should be developed before a crop
is planted. Then, good management is needed to ensure high
yields of high quality products that are packed and labeled
according to market specifications. Raising the level of pro-
ductivity and quality standards to Internationally competi-
tive levels is one of the major challenges following the dis-
mantling of quantitative restrictions on imports, as per the
W.T.O. Agreement on Agriculture. For several commodities,
our national productivity is less than world average. Within
the country there are wide variations in productivity level.
The stagnating vegetable export from country in recent year
can be traced partially to distorted domestic prices for cer-
tain products. Weakness in export infrastructure specific to
vegetable products, such as storage, port handing facilities,
lack of large scale processing technology and export quota
restrictions makes Indian supply sources unreliable and hinder
the exploitation of full export potential.
The competitiveness in global market has acquired a multi-
dimensional concept. Now it involves not only price com-
petitiveness, but also ability to deliver the desired quantity at
demanded destination in time. In developed countries, or-
ganically produced vegetables are available in the market at
a premium price. The International trade in vegetable is in-
creasingly being dominated by concern of quality to safe the
human health. The developed countries are setting higher
standards of quality, imposing quality barrier, called non-tar-
iff barriers, at progressively higher levels to prevent entry of
country exports into their markets.
AGMARK STANDS FOR PURITY AND QUALITY BUY
AGMARK PRODUCTS
22 Agricultural Marketing
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Price Spread in Marketing of White Onion in Raigad District of
Maharashtra State
—A. V. GADRE
1
J. M. TALATHI
2
AND S. S. WADKAR
3
O
nion (Allium Cepa) is an important and indispensable
item in every kitchen as condiment and vegetable in In-
dia. It is an important crop in all continents and is commer-
cially cultivated in various countries. However, about three
fourth of global production is accounted for by 24 countries in
the world, the important countries are China, India, USA,
Russia, Spain, Iran, Turkey, Brazil and Japan.
The demand for onion is world-wide and is not limited to
any particular climate and nationality. Highly industrialized
nations such as United Kingdom and Germany are leading
importers of onion. China ranks first in area and second in
onion production in the world. The area under onion in India
was 301.390 ha. and its production was 32 lakh MT in 1997-
98. It is grown in three seasons of the year (i) Kharif (ii) Late
Kharif and (iii) Rabi.
Onion crop has a very important place in the economy of
Maharashtra. It has destination of largest contributor account-
ing for nearly 30 per cent to the national production with only
24 percent of the area under onion in India. The principal on-
ion growing districts in the Maharashtra State are Nasik, Dhule,
Jalgaon, Pune, Solapur, Satara, Ahmednagar, Osmanabad,
Buldhana and Aurangabad occupying about 89 per cent of area
under onion in the state Particularly, in Konkan region of the
state white onion is grown by cultivators in certain pockets
only. In Raigad district of the Konkan region about 100 ha area
is under white onion crop in Rabi season. In view of this, an
attempt in this study is made to study profitability and resource
productivity in white onion production in Raigad district. (M.S.)
Methodology
A sample of 100 white onion growers was selected randomly
from 10 villages in Alibag Tahsil of Raigad district (M.S.) where
white onion cultivation is concentrated in the Konkan region.
The disposal pattern and price spread in different channels of
marketing for white onion were studied for the year 1998-99
by collecting data from selected white onion growers and
important market functionaries in the study area. The selected
cultivators were classified into three categories viz. (i) Small
Group upto 0.17 ha (ii) Medium Group upto 0.18 to 0.27 ha.
and (iii) Large Group 0.28 ha and above on the basis of area
under white onion cultivation. This stratification was done with
the help of mean and standard deviation. The standard cost
concepts were used to study the objective.
Marketing Efficiency (ME)
The ratio of the total value of goods marketed to the total
marketing cost is used as a measure of efficiency. Higher the
ratio the higher the efficiency and vice versa.
Shepherd's Equation is,
V
ME= — - 1
I
Where
ME = Index of Marketing Efficiency
V = Value of goods sold (Consumer's Price)
I = Total Marketing Cost.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
General Information
Table 1 indicates that the size of operational holding for
sample farms of white onion was increased from 0.72 ha. in
small group to 1.14 ha in large group with an overall average
of 0.89 ha. The average cropping intensity was 127.91 per
cent for sample farms. The per farm area under white onion
was 0.09 ha in small group, 0.23 ha in medium group and 0.33
ha in large group with 0.17 ha area under white onion at the
overall level. The productivity per hectare of white onion ranged
between 140.89 q to 150.36 q with the overall average of
144.91 q. Nearly one fourth (23.32%) of the capital
investment on the farms was on irrigation structure.
Table 1
General Indicators of Sample Farms of White Onion.
Sl. Particulars Small Medium Large Overall
No.
1 Total operational 0.72 1.03 1.14 0.89
holding (ha)
2 Gross Cropped 0.62 1.03 1.28 0.86
area (ha) (111.42)* (131.92)* (139.35)* (127.91)*
3 Area under White 0.09 0.23 0.33 0.17
Onion in Rabi Season (14.49)** (22.35)** (25.74)** (19.84)**
4 Productivity per ha. 140.89 143.21 150.36 144.91
(Q)
5 Per farm investment on 64182 54487 68130 57856
irrigation structure (Rs.) (26.80)+ (21.31)+ (23.46)+ (23.32)+
1. Ex-Post Graduate student, 2 and 3 Associate Professor, Department of Agril. Economics, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist.
Ratnagiri, (M.S.)
October—December, 2002 23
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*Figures in parenthesis indicate cropping intensity.
**Figures in parenthesis indicate proportion to gross cropped area.
+Figures in parenthesis indicate proporiton to per farm investment in as-
sets.
Disposal of produce
The per hectare disposal of produce is given in Table 2
It was observed from the table 2 that out of total produc-
tion 14.32 per cent produce was consumed at home in small
group, 4.87 per cent in medium group, 3.41 per cent in large
group, where it was 6.26 per cent at the overall level. It was
observed that with the increase in farm size quantity of pro-
duce sold also increased from 110.16q (78.19%) in small
group to 140.84q (93.67%) in large group. This has resulted
into generating large marketed surplus of white onion with
increase in farm size.
Out of total production very small quantity was used as
gift to relatives/friends which was 3.81 per cent, 1.23 per cent
and 1.37 per cent in small, medium and large group respec-
tively.
Table 2
Per hectare disposal of white onion.
Sl. Particulars Small group Medium group Large group Overall
No. Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
A. Bulbs
I. Production 140.89 128773.46 143.21 101106.26 150.36 136075.80 144.91 1186681.29
(100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00)
II. Disposal
i. Home 20.17 18435.38 6.98 4927.88 5.13 4642.65 9.08 7436.52
consumption (14.32) (4.88) (3.41) (6.26)
ii. Gifts to relatives 5.38 4917 1.76 1242.56 2.01 1819.05 2.86 2342.34
(3.81) (1.23) (1.34) (1.97)
iii. Marketed 110.16 100686.24 131.84 93079.04 140.84 127460.2 129.31 105904.89
surplus (78.15) (92.06) (93.67) (89.23)
Total 135.71 124038.94 140.58 99249.48 147.98 133921.9 141.25 115683.75
(96.32) (98.16) (98.42) (97.47)
iv. loss in storage 5.18 4734.52 2.63 1856.78 2.38 2153.9 3.66 2997.54
and transport
Losses (%) (3.68%) (1.83%) (1.58%) (2.53%)
B. Seed production 13.31 8306.45 11.48 6941.48 11.69 7117.11 12.01 7337.73
(kg)
(Figures in parentheses indicate percentages)
It was observed that losses in storage and transport in
small size farms were 3.68 per cent, in medium size farms
1.83 per cent and 1.58 per cent in large size farm of the
total production. At the overall level, the losses were ob-
served to the extent of 2.53 per cent. This has showed that
post-harvest losses in white onion were reduced with in-
crease in farm size.
Total marketed surplus was 110.16 q per hectare (78.19%)
in small group, 131.84 q per hectare (92.06%) in medium
group and 140.84 per hectare (93.67%) in large group. The
marketed surplus at the overall level was 129.31 q per hec-
tare (89.23%).
It was observed that seed production in small group was
13.31 kg per hectare, in medium group 11.48 kg per hectare
and in large group 11.69 kg per hectare with the 12.01 kg per
hectare at overall level. Farmers took production of seed con-
sidering their own requirement. Hence the quantity was very
low.
Marketing of White Onion
The marketing system for white onion in Raigad district is
without interference of the Government at any stage of mar-
keting. Cultivator choose the channel as per their conven-
ience their produce in the study area.
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Table 3
White Onion sold to agencies
Sl. Agency Small Medium Large Overall
No. Qty No Qty No Qty No Qty No
(qt.) (qt.) (qt) (qt.)
1. Consumer 0.92 7 — — — — 0.92 7
(14.00) (7.00)
2. Retailer 4.75 26 10.03 10 — — 14.78 36
(52.00) (30.90) (36.00)
3. Wholesaler 3.68 17 20.01 23 45.98 17 69.57 57
(34.00) (69.70) (100.00) (57.00)
Total 9.35 50 30.04 33 45.98 17 85.37 100
(100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00)
It is observed from Table 3 that out of 50 cultivators in
small group maximum i.e. 26 (52%) growers preferred to sell
their produce through retailers, while 17 (34%) growers pre-
ferred to sell their produce through wholesalers and remain-
ing 7 (14%) growers preferred to sell their produce directly
to consumers. In medium group, out of 33 sample cultiva-
tors, maximum i.e. 23 (69.70%) growers preferred to sell their
produce through wholesalers while 10 (30.90%) growers sell
their produce through retailers. While in large group all i.e.
17 (100%) growers sell their produce through wholesalers
only. At the overall level, out of 100 cultivators maximum
i.e. 57 (57%) growers sell their produce through wholesalers,
36 (36%) through retailers and 7 (7%) growers directly to
consumers.
Based on quantity marketed through different functionar-
ies, it was revealed that the maximum quantity was marketed
through wholesalers (Channel IV). The next important func-
tionary was sale through retailers (Channel III) and lowest
quantity was sold directly to consumer. Thus, marketing of
white onion was in the hands of marketing functionaries to
the extent of 93.00 per cent.
The channel-wise distribution of white onion growers and
quantity marketed is given in the Table 4.
Table 4
Channel-wise Distribution of White Onion Marketed
Sl. Channel No. of Growers Qty Marketed
No. (Qtls)
1. Producer-Consumer 7 0.92
(1.07)
2. Producer-Wholesaler-Consumer 10 12.48
(14.62)
3. Producer-Retailer-Consumer 36 14.78
(17.32)
4. Producer-Wholesaler-Retailer- 47 57.19
Consumer (66.99)
100 85.37
(100.00)
It is observed from the table that the maximum quantity of
white onion was passed through Channel IV (66.99%) fol-
lowed by Channel III (17.32%), Channel II (14.62%) and
Channel I (1.07%). The white onion growers were observed
to use different channels viz., producer-consumer, producer-
wholesaler-consumer, producer-retailer-consumer and pro-
ducer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer respectively.
Marketing Channels for White Onion
In the marketing system for assembling and distribution
of white onion, agencies involved were accounted as white
onion cultivators, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. The
commodity passed through four different channels of trade
namely,
I. Producer → Consumer
II. Producer → Wholesaler → Consumer
III. Producer → Retailer → Consumer
IV. Producer → Wholesaler → Retailer → Consumer
Operational Efficiency in Marketing of White Onion
Operational efficiency can be measured by cost benefit
ratio. The various marketing functions performed by differ-
ent agencies, and comparison of costs incurred can give a
appropriate measure of efficiency which is presented subse-
quently.
(1) Marketing Cost
The per quintal cost on marketing of white onion incurred
by different agencies is given in Table 5. The detail break up
of other costs incurred by retailers and wholesalers are given
in Appendix IV.
Table 5
Cost of marketing incurred per quintal of white onion by different
agencies
Sl. No. Cost item of Producer Retailer Wholesaler
1. Assembling (AC) — 1.11 2.23
2. Grading (GC) 0.50 2.18 1.54
3. Transport (TC) 7.00 10.52 11.94
4. Losses (SL) 1.00 9.21 25.93
5. Others (OCWS) 1.50 35.54 10.85
Total 10.00 58.56 52.49
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It is observed from Table 5 that the per quintal cost of
assembling was Rs. 1.11 for retailers, Rs. 2.23 for wholesal-
ers. The cost of grading was Rs. 0.50 for producer, Rs. 2.18
for retailers and Rs. 1.54 for wholesalers. In case of transport
it was Rs. 7.00 for producers Rs. 10.52 for retailers and Rs.
11.94 for wholesalers. Retailers and wholesalers used vari-
ous modes of transport such as bullock cart, tempo, truck etc.
for transport of white onion.
The losses were Rs. 1.00 for producers Rs. 9.21 for retail-
ers and Rs. 25.93 to wholesalers. The share of other costs
was Rs. 1.50 for producers Rs. 35.54 and Rs. 10.85 for retail-
ers and wholesalers, respectively. The average marketing cost
incurred by producer was Rs. 10.00 retailer was Rs. 58.56
and by wholesalers Rs. 52.49.
Market Margins and Price Spread
The price spread refers to the difference between the price
paid by the consumer and the price received by the producer
for an equivalent quantity of farm produce. This spread con-
sists of marketing costs and margins of the intermediaries,
which ultimately determine the overall effectiveness of a
marketing system. The price spread will be helpful in study-
ing the efficiency of the marketing system.
The cost and margin for each agency in various channels
was estimated and their share in different channels is given in
Table 6.
(i) Share of Producer
The producers share in consumers rupee was the highest
(98.95%) in channel I and it was lowest (65.60%) in channel
II. The producers share in consumers rupee in other channels
varies as 70.73 per cent in Channel III and 68.60 per cent in
channel IV.
Table 6
Per Quintal Price Spread and Returns of White Onion obtained
through different Channels
Sl. Particulars I II III IV
No.
(1) Net price realized by 840 823.27 845.18 823.27
producer (98.85) (65.60) (70.43) (88.60)
(2) Wholesalers net margin — 324.24 — 125.24
(27.02) (10.44)
(3) Retailers net margin — 296.26 110.44
(24.69) (9.20)
(4) Cost of marketing 10 52.49 58.56 110.95
(1.15) (4.37) (4.88) (9.24)
(5) Consumers Price 850 1200 1200 1200
(100.00) (100.00) (100.00) (100.00)
(6) Gross market Margin 10 376.73 354.82 346.88
(1.15) (31.39) (29.57) (28.88)
The producer's share was highest (98.85%) in channel I,
in which they had disposed of their marketed surplus di-
rectly to the consumer. This higher share was made possible
due to the total elimination of middlemen intervening between
producers and consumers. The producers share in consumer
rupee in channel II, III, IV was lower than channel I because
the producers marketed their produce through the wholesaler
and retailer who reaped away large amount from the con-
sumers rupee.
Next to channel I (i.e., direct sale), channel III (i.e. sale
through retailer) was comparatively profitable channel for sale
of white onion in the study area.
(ii) Share of Wholesalers
The net margin share of wholesaler's accounted for
27.02 per cent of consumers rupee in channel II, and it
was 10.44 per cent in channel IV. It was also noticed
that the volume of commodity handled by this agency
was very large.
(iii) Share of Retailers
This agency was final link between the wholesalers and
consumers and played an important role in delivering the
goods and services at the desired time and place.
The net margin of retailers in consumer rupee was worked
out to 24.69 per cent and 9.20 per cent in channel III and IV,
respectively.
(iv) Gross market Margin
The percentage share of marketing margins in consumers
price paid was 1.15, 31.39, 29.57 and 28.88 per cent in Chan-
nel I, II, III and IV, respectively. The marketing margin was
highest in Channel II, while it was lowest in Channel I due to
absence of market functionaries.
Marketing efficiency (ME) estimated in marketing of white
onion crop is presented in Table 7.
Table 7
Marketing Efficiency (ME) in Marketing of White Onion
Sl. Particulars Marketing Channels
No. I II III IV
1. Value of the produce sold 850 1200 1200 1200
(Consumers Price Rs./q) (V)
2. Marketing Cost (I) (Rs./q) 10 376.73 354.82 346.63
3. Marketing efficiency 84 2.19 2.38 2.46
V
(ME = -1)
I
It was noticed from Table 7 that the marketing efficiency
(ME) was much higher in Channel I (84) than that of
Channel II (2.19), Channel II (2.38) and Channel IV (2.46).
This revealed that the higher marketing margins were taken
26 Agricultural Marketing
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away by the market intermediaries in the Channel II, III
and IV resulted in the poor efficiency in the marketing of
white onion.
Storage of White Onion
The growers were asked about reasons for storing white
onion and to mention advantages of storage and causes of
storage losses. The information is presented in Table 8.
Table 8
Storage of White Onion
Sl. Particulars Proportions of
No. respondents
(N=100)
(A) Reasons for storing white onion
1. Top reap benefits of higher prices 93
2. For home consumption 99
3. Non availability of time to dispose 27
of produce after harvest
(B) Advantages of storing white onion
1. Higher price realized 60
2. Protection against decline in prices 07
(C) Methods of storage
1. Heap Method 40
2. Hanging the wreaths on bamboo 60
structure for storage of long duration
(D) Causes of storage losses
1. Losing of the onion from wreaths 60
2. Decaying in storage (Heap method) 40
3. Inadequate space for storing of white 50
onion
4. Lack of knowledge about proper 100
method for storage of onion
It is observed from the Table 8 that the reasons for storing
white onion by respondents were to reap benefits of higher
prices (93.00%) for home consumption (99.00%) and non
availability of time to dispose of produce after harvest
(27.00%). However, they had mainly higher price realization
(60.00%) and protections against decline in prices (7.00%).
Forty per cent were following heap method for storing white
onion and sixty per cent were having the wreaths on bamboo
structures for long duration storage. However growers gave
different reasons for losses in storage viz., losing of the white
onion from wreaths (60.00%), decay in storage particularly
in heap method (40%), in adequate space for storing of onion
(50.00%), lack of knowledge about proper method of storage
(100.00%). On the whole, growers of white onion need
scientific knowledge about proper method of storage
(100.00%).
Conclusion
It was observed that the production of white onion on
sample farms was 144.91 quintals per hectare, of which 89.23
per cent was marketed surplus. The marketing system for
white onion was in the hands of marketing functionaries to
the extent of 93 percent. The maximum quantity of white
onion was passed through Channel IV i.e. Producer-
Wholesaler-Retailer-Consumer (66.96%) followed by
Channel III i.e. Producer-Retailer-Consumer (17.32%)
Channel II i.e. Producer-Wholesaler-Consumer (14.62%) and
Channel I i.e. Producer-Consumer (1.07%).
The producer share in consumer's rupee was the highest
in Channel I (98.85%) and it was lowest (65.60%) in
Channel II. The percentage share of marketing margins
in consumer price paid was 11.56, 31.99, 29.57 and 28.88
per cent in Chanel I, II, III and IV respectively. The
marketing efficiency (ME) was much higher in Channel
I (84%) than that of Channel II (2.19) and Channel III
(2.38) and Channel IV (2.46). The white onion cultivators
should streamline marketing stragegy to minimize the role
of marketing functionaries to harness better from white
union cultivation.
REFERENCES
Kairesur, V. R. (1987). An economic analysis of marketing of
vegetables in Hubli, Dharwad markets, A Thesis
submitted to UAS, Dharwad (Unpublished).
Naik, A. D. (1993). Production and marketing of onion in
Bijapur District, Karnataka—an Economic analysis. A
thesis submitted to UAS, Dharwad (Unpublished).
Shah, Deepak (1999). An economic evaluation of onion
production and its marketing in Maharashtra. Ind. Jour.
Agril. Maktg. 13(3) : 11-20.
Shyamsundar, M. S. and Lalith Achoth (1996). Price spread
in marketing of Irrigated onion in Chickballapur Taluka
of Kolar Distrct. Indian Journal of Agricultural
Marketing, 10(1) : 52-57.
Thakur, D. S. and Singh, N. (1971). Marketing supply and
prices of onion in Ludhiana and Panipat markets of
Punjab and Haryana. Agricultural marketing, 13(4) :
11-14.
Singh, R. V. and Patel, R. K. (1974). Resource productivity,
allocation efficiency and farm size. Agril. Situation in
India, 28(4) : 827-829.
________
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Quality Issues in Supply Chain :
A Case of Kesar Mango at Saurashtra Region
—DEODHAR, S. Y.
1
AND PANDIT P. S.
2
Introduction
I
n the new WTO led freer trade environment, Indian food
industry can compete globally only if it is price and quality
competitive. However, many times, price competitiveness
of Indian food products is a reflection of price discounting
due to poor quality and/or poor quality reputation. In fact,
Indian food industry is faced with a symmetric trade
opportunities. When international prices are low there is
deluge of imports into India, and, when international prices
are high there is no symmetric spurt in exports due to quality
problems. It is imperative that farmers and entrepreneurs
engaged in post-harvest handling and food processing will
have to commit themselves wholeheartedly to food quality
management.
While policy issues on food quality are discussed at
various forums, issues of problem identification and
resolution at the micro enterprise level are seldom taken up.
The devil is in the details. Kesar mango being the pride of
Gujarat's horticultural crops, which also has strong potential
for exports. Mango is one of the major fruit of Gujarat, as
it shared 17% of the total fruit production of state (Naik
and Pandit, 2001). Major mango producing region in the
state are Saurashtra, South Gujarat and some part of Kheda
and North Gujarat. Saurashtra is the major mango-producing
region of Gujarat, mainly Junagadh district. Gujarat has
produced 34,000 tonnes of mango during 1997-98. The
major mango varieties of Gujarat are Kesar, Langra,
Rajapuri, Badami and Gola. Out of that Kesar is the most
favourite fruit, due to its attractive saffron pulp colour,
delicious taste and sweet aroma (fragrance). As Talala and
Vanthali are the most dense talukas of Junagadh district for
this mango tree, a audio-video survey was carried out in
these areas by the Professor and his Associate of Centre for
Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management,
Ahemedabad; to understand the status and problems of post-
harvest handling practices of mango at growers, transporters,
wholesalers, retailer, consumers and R & D Scientist level.
Production
India is at first position in the production of mango in the
world. The production and productivity of mango is shown
in Table 1. It was observed that the growth rate of
producitivity goes down during 1991 to 1999.
Table 1
Production and Productivity (99-2000)
Region Production Productivity
(million MT) MT/HAC
Gujarat 0.38 6.64
India 12.00 9.23
World 24.97 9.03
Share of Gujarat in India 3.17% —
1.1 Varieties
There are about 1100 documented varieties of Mangifera
indica L. in the world, out of that over 1000 varieties are
grown in India itself. Most popular commercial varieties of
India are given in Table 2.
Table 2
The most popular commercial varieties of mango
grown in India
State Varieties
Andhra Pradesh Banganpali, Totapuri, Neelum, Rumani,
Alampur Baneshan, Dashaheri,
Malgoa, Chinnarasam, Peddarasam,
Cheru-Kursam, Panchdarakalasa,
Kothapalli Kobbara, Navaneetam,
Himayatpsand, Phirangiladua,
Bihar Bathua, Bombay, Himsagar,
Kishanbhog, Sukul
Goa Fernandin, Mankurad
Gujarat Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj,
Jamedar
Haryana Dashehari, Langra, Sarauli, (Bombay
Green)
Karnataka Alphonso, Neelum, Banglora, Mulgoa,
Pairi,
Madhya Pradesh Alphonso, Bombay, Langra
1
Professor, Center for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
2
Research Associate, Center for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
28 Agricultural Marketing
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1 2
Maharashtra Alphonso, Mankural, Kesar, Mulgoa,
Pairi
Orissa Beneshan, Langra, Neelam,
Suvarnarekha
Punjab Dashehari, Langra, Samarbehisht,
Chausa, Kalapad, Sendurg, Banglora,
Mulgoa, Peter Sarauli, Neelum,
Rumani,
Uttar Pradesh Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli,
Langra, Safeda Lucknow,
Samarbehisht, Chausa
West Bengal Bombay, Himsagar, Kishanbhog,
Langra
Source : wwww.apeda.com/html/mango. htm.
2.2 Composition
Although the composition of mangoes varies consid-
erably with variety on an average the following composi-
tion is observed:—
Edible Portion 55—75%
Seed 7—23%
Peel 8—22%
Sugar Content 15—20%
Kesar has relatively larger edible meat, smaller seed,
thin peel, and it is very sweet. The chemical composition of
ripe Kesar mango is given in Table 3 and its comparison
with some other varieties of India is given in Table 4.
Table 3
Chemical Composition of ripe Kesar mango
Moisture : 78.00%
Protein : 0.60%
Fat : 0.11%
Salt : 0.30%
Fiber : 1.10%
Carbohydrate : 11.60%
Acidity : 0.28%
Vitamin (A,B,C) : 11.03mg/100g
Reducing Sugar : 4.15%
Non Reducing Sugar : 8.55%
Total Sugar : 13.15%
Total Carotenoids : 9.478mg/100g
Ascorbic Acid : 46.692mg/100g
TSS : 18.54%
Source : Dudhat, 1996.
Table 4
Comparison of chemical composition of ripe Indian mangoes
Variety Total Acidity as Total Reducing
Soluble Malic Acid (%) Sugar (%) Sugar (%)
Solid (%)
Alphonso 17-20 0.14-0.64 10.5-18.5 2.5-4.0
Baneshan 14-19 0.15-0.30 10.5-15.5 4.5-7.0
Chausa 18-24 0.20-0.35 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
Dashehari 18-22 0.20-0.30 13.5-16.0 2.5-4.0
Fazli 18-20 0.10-0.20 12.4-15.5 5.0-7.5
Kesar 16-20 0.15-0.30 13.5-18.0 4.5-6.3
Langra 18-22 0.20-0.35 12.1-14.0 2.4-3.5
Mulgoa 14-20 0.10-0.25 15.0-15.5 3.2-4.0
Neelum 16-18 0.15-0.30 11.4-15.5 5.0-7.0
Pairi 14-16 0.10-0.34 11.6-15.6 2.5-5.2
Totapuri 14-16 0.20-0.45 11.2-15.4 4.0-5.8
Source : Rajgopalan, 1997
3. Cultivation
The farmers of these talukas have mango-cultivated
plants from 0.5-15 h. The plant-to-plant and row-to-row
distance varies from 35 to 45 ft and 30 to 45 ft respec-
tively. In Gujarat, it is believed that Saurashtra is the
oldest land which was to be cultivated for mango plan-
tation. The fruit bearing age varies from 5 to 50 years or
more than that. The entire tree is being irrigated by dugout
lined well. The irrigation method used by farmers are,
either furrow or drip.
It is observed that the old plantation is very dense (at
25 x 25 ft), so trees do not have enough area for the full
development of canopy. Every year tree bears new leaves
in early monsoon, so tree become itself dense. The grow-
ers are also not following the pruning practice, so the
fruits, which are inside the canopy, cannot get enough
sunlight to grow properly. The flowering starts from Janu-
ary to early February. The farmers are not used to spray
growth regulator for the higher yield from tree. As the
monsoon of this region is uneven and this region does
not have big water conservation command area, the
ground water table level of this region remains very
uneven. This region also comes under semi-rid region
and so trees many times feel water stress.
The pest attack is also affecting the fruit quality. The
major pests and diseases, which are being responsible for
the losses in mango, are given in Table 5.
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Table 5
The major pests and diseases and its solution for mango tree.
A. Diseases in the mango tree
Disease Infection area/part Causal organism Treatment Dose
Major
Powdery Flowers, Stem, Twig, Oidium Sulphur or 2 g/lit
Mildew Small fruit (Khataki) mangiferae Bavistin 0.5 g/lit
Anthracnose Twig, Fruit, Leaves Colletotrichum Bavistin or 1-2 g/lit
Mancozeb
Die back Old dry branches Colletotrichum Plant sanitation
Malformation New branch and new Fusarium Plant sanitation
flower moniliformae
Spongy tissue Fruit Sun burn Protection from
soil heat
Minor
Stem end rot Fruit pedicel Botryodiplodia Hot water
Bavistin or 0.5 g/lit
Benomyl
Anthracnose Fruit Colletotrichum Hot water
Bavistin or 0.5 g/lit
Benomyl
Soft rot Fruit Rhizopus Hot water
arhhizus Bavistin 0.5 g/lit
Black rot Fruit Aspergillus niger Hot water
B: Pests in the mango tree.
Pest Infection area/part Treatment
Mealy bug Twig Plant Sanitation
Stem and root borer Stem and Root Kerosin,
Endosulfan
(Blocking of Air)
Leaf webber Leaves Webbing
Fruit fly Fruit Trap with Dichlorovos (nuvan) and Methyl euginol solution
Mango hopper Inflorescence Monocrotophos (ETL 7 hopper/inflorance)
Source : Om Prakas and Srivastava, 1987. Note
Plant sanitation=Removal of infected part from the tree.
4. Harvest and Post-Harvest Practices
4.1 Harvesting
The harvesting season of (Kesar) mango in the Saurashtra
region is from April to June. The main maturity index for
the fruits considered by growers is the white powder on the
skin. A team of mango harvesting worker is rented. Gener-
ally rent of mango harvesting, for a man and a woman is
Rs. 70 and pay Rs. 50 plus one time food per day. The
harvesting is carried out up to mid of the day, depends on
the quantity of mango that is to be harvested. The harvester
used is traditional mango harvester locally called Vedi. In-
dividual fruit has harvested by pulling the harvester, which
break the pedicel of fruit from uneven length. The short
length of pedicel oozes the latex, which creates black rot
during the ripening and also provides environment for the
fungal and bacterial growth. The fallen fruit gets the me-
chanical injuries, which results in diseases or soft rot dur-
ing the ripening. The harvested fruits are collected in the
Tagaras or Bamboo Toplas and transported for the pack-
aging. The rough surface of collecting vessel may create
bruising on the skin of mango, which also invites the dis-
ease. There is no any loading and unloading platform in the
field so almost all the mango thrown down from the vessel
to ground from almost 2—2.5 ft height.
4.2 Grading
The fruits are not graded in this region by any way i.e.
according to size, weight or quality, and so healthy fruits
get infection by diseased fruit or not evaluated at high price.
4.3 Packaging
The fruits are not even washed to get better price during
the bargaining, because the price of mango in the market
depends on the white powder on fruits, instead of its size,
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weight or quality. Due to that the fruit temperature remains
as it is during entire post-harvest handling chain. During
the harvesting the packaging of fruits is also carried out in
the locally available 10 kg corrugated cardboard boxes. The
ripe and over decayed fruits are to be thrown away during
the packaging. To get better price, small fruit are hide at the
bottom of box and big fruits are kept at the top. The boxes
were bind with nylon or jute (Kathi) string and stacked at
side the "KESAR" is pre-printed on the boxes and all kinds
of mango can be packed in that. The capacity of the box is
decided by the manufacturer not by growers or any author-
ized agency. These boxes do not have enough stacking
strength and ventilation. Some times used boxes were re-
used for packaging. If boxes are costly or not available then
the mangoes are packed in to the cement or fertilizer (ny-
lon) bags (kothalo). The newspaper is used as a cushioning
and covering material in the packaging. Some good farmers
arrange the fruits as the tip remains at the top in the boxes.
4.4 Handling, Transportation and Marketing
The boxes are not handled carefully in the farm, market,
truck and even in the retailing shop. the farmer's children
are use to play/sleep/sit on the staked boxes at the farm. the
Three-wheeler (Chakada) is loaded as much as possible to
reduce the transportation cost.
Generally Chakada is used for short distance (up to
300km), while Tempos and Trucks are used for long dis-
tance or for more than 100 boxes. One or two person are
use to sit on the loaded boxes during the travelling. The
persons, who sit on the boxes, are not known with the
quality deterioration and loss.
The complete marketing channel of this region is shown
in the flow chart 1. The harvested mango fruit boxes were
brought to mango market and stacked against the shop of
trader/agent, before 3:00 p.m. These are the open markets,
where the growers can sale their produce to any one and at
any rate. No amount has to pay by farmers to the market
for the dealing, but the agent has to pay 6% commission
and rent for loading and unloading of boxes as 1 Rs/box,
according to government rules. At 3:00 p.m. auction starts,
which is carried out from the one corner of the market. The
wholesaler, trader, agent and farmers get together with a
market authority person. The market authority person note
down the quantity to be sold, at what rate to be sold, who
has purchased and who has sold. the auctioneer pulls out
the mango from any one box and show to the crowd. As
there is no display platform in the market , they are used to
stand on the boxes and encouraging the agents to increase
the price by dancing and shouting. After fixing the price,
the fruits are tied up and loaded on the vehicles by the
buyer. These mangoes are marketed further as shown in the
flow chart 1.
Flow chart: 1. Complete marketing channel of Saurashtra
region
The quanity of mango coming to the market was ini-
tially 13220 kg and finally 198200 kg in the 2001-2002.
All the mangoes are only Kesar. there is no standardization
in the mango size, but still there are three grades according
to visual size of mangoes and on that based prices are
decided during the bargaining. The average price of mango
also varies according to the size of mango (Table 6).
Table 6
Price of Kesar mango at Talala market in season 2001-2002.
Price (Rs. per 10 kg box)
Date 21-04-01 28-04-01 05-05-01 12-05-01 19-05-01 22-05-01 23-05-01 24-05-01
Small 100 105 105 75 55 60 89 87
Medium 175 176 170 140 125 125 135 135
Large 255 215 220 170 153 160 170 165
Quantity (kg) 13220 14000 85000 89250 130000 191750 190000 198200
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Figure 1 shows that the mango price is influenced by the
quantity and it's size at the Talala mango market. In the
initial days of season the price is high due to less quantity,
and these things lead the growers to harvest the fruits at the
premature stage. As the quantity increased the price goes
down, it shows that fluctuation of price depends on the
quantity brought to market. There is also a significant
difference of price according to size of the mango through-
out the season. These happened every year at both Vanthali
and Talala mango market, and so growers harvested their
mangoes before maturity, which will not ripe properly and
thus quality is deteriorating.
Figure 1 Effect of quantity and size on the price of
mango.
There is no cool chain, throughout the marketing chain
of Kesar mango. Mangoes reach to the wholesaler after
about 24-36 hrs. travelling, and till that 7% mango get
spoiled due to heat, jerk and vibration in the truck, which
was loaded without cushioning materials. The total post-
harvest loss in mango was estimated about 20-35%
(Jadeja, et. al., 1994) the wholesaler sell this mango as
it (in boxes) to the retailer/hawkers/overhead vendors. The
retailer some times grades the mango according to quality,
by his experience to attract consumes. The harvesting
season of Kesar mango is very late, till that other mangoes
like, Totapuri, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Pairi etc. are available
to compete the Kesar. These also affect the price of Kesar
mango at the market. The retailer sell the mangoes at
about 150% higher price than the Talala market price.
The figure 2 shows the price difference of the 10 kg
Kesar mango box between retailer and market price. It
means out of consumer price grower gets only 40% and
rest 60% goes to mediators. Out of these only 40% farmer
has to handle all the farm economy, which includes; water
charges, labour charges, cost of pesticides, cost of fertilizer
and his survival etc.
Figure 2: Difference in the price of mango at retailer
shop and at Talala market.
Consumer selects the mango by his experience i.e. on
the basis of size, colour, and quality. Some times consumer
becomes confused to select right quality mango, because he
doesn't know the better quality criteria and varieties of
mango.
5. Conclusion
5.1 Problems
1. The growers of the Saurashtra are not aware about the
importance of quality. They don't tackle the mango
cultivation professionally.
2. The effective growth regulators are not used by the
growers to stop the falling of flower during flowering
stage of mango tree.
3. The harvester used by farmers is not so efficient, which
leads the losses.
4. No one followed the pretreatment of fungicide to
reduce the quality losses by disease due to mechanical
damage and brushing injuries.
5. In entire supply chain nowhere cold chain is used,
which is very important factor to reduce the fruit
temperature and thus, increase the shelf life as well as
quality.
6. About 4% fruits get damaged due to jerk and heat
during transportation (Jadeja, et.al., 1994).
7. The packaging boxes do not have enough strength and
even ventilation to absorb jerk and to reduce the
respiration heat respectively.
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8. The marketing system of the mango is not grower's
profit oriented, i.e. growers get little bit low profit.
9. The market environment is not so suitable for the
bargaining process and also unhygienic.
10. There is no standardization of mango grade, which
may leads the early harvesting of mango.
11. The consumers are not aware about the quality of
mango, date of harvesting, etc.
12. There is not any brand name in the mango marketing
system.
5.2 Possible Solutions
z Education for the quality importance of their produce
must be given to the growers, harvesting and handling
of fruits could be improved. The growers can think
farming as business. The value addition starts from the
farmers' field.
z The standard growth regulator and stabilizer should be
recommended and advertised so that the falling of
flowers can be reduced and thus, the production of
mango can be increased.
z The standardized pretreatments of fungicide application
should be encouraged, which help to reduce the post
harvest diseases.
z The growers should encourage, starting co-operative
mango society, so that they could get hold on the mango
market or reduce the hold of brokers and agents in
the market. By such organization they can maintain
the quality criteria.
z Providing loan or subsidy, etc help the cold chain
equipments establishment, should be encouraged i.e.
equipment like; pre-cooler, evaporative cooling
structure for small and marginal growers, small-scale
cold or cool storage structure for big growers or co-
operative societies. The shelf like of Kesar mango can
be extend up to 40 days after proper post-harvest
handling, vacuum packaging at 700mm Hg and in 13ºC
and 95% RH storage condition (Pandit, 2001).
z The less damage generate harvester should be
developed and it should be encouraged in the mango
cultivated area.
z The well-strengthened and ventilated packaging box
should be developed and during that investigation the
price per box should also be considered because the
farmer will hesitate to utilize the costly packaging
boxes.
z The transportation by trucks, tempos and trollies for
the perishable commodity should be developed which
can beat the respiration heat of commodity as well as
reduces the mechanical injuries from jerk.
z No market or marketing yard in the Gujarat is suitable
for the highly perishable and sensitive commodity, so
the improvement of entire structure; from environment,
activity, transportation and hygienic point of view
should be needed.
z The less vegetables producing countries like Australia,
Belgium, France, UK, US, etc have standard for all
the commodities form size, variety and quality point
of view, whereas, being the second largest fruit and
vegetables, producer, we should have our own standard
and accordingly market should get flow. For the
standardization, scientists and reserchers should find
out the different physical and qualitative criteria for
the standardization.
z The consumers should be aware with the importance
of quality and the composition of each variety of fruits
in the shop, so that while selecting the fruits they can
consider the quality i.e. the nutritional value in mind
instead of price.
z There must be some brand name for particular variety
of mango, like Parley, Britannia, etc. so that even child
or blind man can trust on the quality of the branded
fruit.
6. Quality in Supply Chain
Quality problems in the supply chain are caused by many
factors. A comparative analysis of practices that are
considered ideal internationally and the practices that are
actually followed in presented below :
Sl. No. Ideal Practices* Actual Practices
(i) Orchard Size
z Large size of orchards so that infrastructure invest- z The farmer we visited had a relatively large orchard of about 30 hectares,
ment on orchards is ecnomical. But many have orchards much smaller in size. Drip irrigation still not
followed.
z With large size, old trees can be removed and z Farmer had only recently started harvesting mangoes, as the trees were barely
new planted on a rotational basis. 6-7 year old. Another farmer had trees as old as 75 years. But there is no
diversity in the tree age within an orchard.
(ii) Orchard maintenance
z Sometimes branches bow down and rests on the z The practice of erecting bamboo-rest is being used but not adequately. This
ground. Due to this fruit comes in contact with would result in saving significant amount of fruit being damaged due to
the ground resulting in some damage. to overcome bruises.
this, a bamboo rest is used to lift the branches.
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Sl. No. Ideal Practices* Actual Practices
z At times, Mango Hoppers could damage mango tree.z Appropriate pesticides must be applied in time to avoid damage due to
It creeps inside the stalk and eats away the whole mango hoppers.
tree. z The scale of fruit-fly control method seems inadequate.
z Fruit flies also attack the fruit for which a mix of
two chemicals can be used. One chemical attracts
the flies and the other kills the fly.
z Pesticide spray is another option.
(iii) Selection of fruit for the harvest
z Mature fruit is thick and shoulders bulging out. z Generally growers have a fair idea about the harvesting stage of the fruits.
Stem should be depressed. Generally immature z Often, traders to ensure early arrival of the fruit to the retail market goes
fruit is more elongated and thinner. for premature plucking of the fruit, which fails to develop good colour,
z Appearance of white powder and pigmentation flavour and high soluble solids. Artificial ripening by applying carbide
should be there on the skin. granules improves the colour from outside, but the flavour and aroma
z Lesser the curvature between shoulder and the remain poor and the fruit blackens from inside.
beak the better.
z A size of about 350 g (plus minus 20 g) is
considered appropriate.
z Fruit be absolutely firm and little reddish-yellow
blush on shoulders may have appeared.
(iv) Harvesting
z In the early hours of the day when the ambient z Occurrence of mangoes falling on the ground is not rare. Latent and
temperature is relatively low. external damage takes place.
z 10-20 cm stem should be attached when clipped z Fallen mangoes packed along with the rest. They can spoil others later.
by hand. z Also the some of the fruits were plucked without sufficient margin of the
z Hand cutters or traditional kind of mango stem on the fruit. Resulting in latex flowing on the surface of the skin.
nippers can be used.
z Fruits, which have fallen on to the ground, should
not be mixed with the properly harvested fruit.
z Care should be taken while transporting the fruit to
the pack house to ensure that fruit is not exposed
to the sun.
(v) Treatment
z Mangoes should be kept upside down for two z No such treatments in practice resulting in the loss due to spoilage of fruit
hours on a holed pallet after making a cut on after ripening. Appearance also deteriorates.
the stem at a length of 1 cm from the fruit. z Some amount of pesticide residues, organic matter, fruit fly may stay onfruits.
The latex will flow out from the fruit com- z Results in wastage of fruits by the time it reaches final consumer.
pletely without flowing on to the fruit. z Farmers, traders are reluctant to wash the fruit as it will lose the white powder
z Mangoes should be washed with a solution (10- that stays on it. Somehow, the presence of white powder gives a guarantee
litre solution having 10grams detergent and 1 gram that the fruit is a mature one.
of Benomyl-powder/Bavistin as fungicide). z While presence of white powder while harvesting gives an indication of
Mangoes are kept in solution for 2 minutes and mature fruit, it need not stay on the fruit afterwards. But credibility problem
USA and can be imported.) washed with soft muslin. makes everyone keep it on the fruit. In the process. washing is never practiced
z Dry the fruit and apply wax (food grade edible jeopardizing the fruit quality at later stages.
slugar based wax duly approved by EEC and
USA and can be imported.)
z Hot water treatment should also be done for
mangoes. For the mangoes to be exported
to US this is a pre-condition.
(vi) Grading
z Fruits are graded on the basis of size and the z No such grading done, ignoring the fact that grading could fetch them higher
quality. prices and profits.
z As per EU specifications there are three cate- z Only sorting of mangoes done by removing already spoiled mangoes.
gories: Extra Class (superior quality, characteristic.
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Sl. No. Ideal Practices Actual Practices
(vi) shape & colouring of the variety & free of z No such grading done, ignoring the fact grading could fetch them higher
defects), class I (Good quality, slight defects prices and profits.
provided these do not affect general appearance z Only sorting of mangoes done by removing already spailed mangoes.
& keeping quality), Class II (satisfying minimum
requirements).
z Size criteria : A 200-350 g
z B -351-550 g, C-551-800 g
(vii) Packing
z Weight of the packing boxes should be 300 g/m
2
z The diagonal strength of the boxes appeared quite good to hold the fruit for
z 8% of the total surface area of the box should short distance.
be left for ventilation. z The boxes used never accounted for such specifications and even the existing
z Mangoes should be kept in layers and all the holes were not pricked to have enough aeration.
stems in one direction so as to have minimum z No such practices followed to keep mangoes in layers. Mangoes are simply
friction between mangoes. Use of straw mat or dumped into the boxes. The people carrying out these operations are ignorant
paper could also be made to separate mango about handling practices.
layers. z We also saw at some places boxes being reused. Does affect the quality of
mangoes while they are in transit.
(viii) Transportation
z Boxes should be stacked properly in pallets and z While loading and unloading, boxes are simply thrown. laborers have little
overloading should be avoided. idea of the damage it causes to the product.
z For export markets, availability of cool chain z Laborers sit on top of the heaped boxes while mangoes are being traded or
essential. In fact, even for domestic market it transported.
must be developed. z Cool chain non-existent.
(ix) Retailing
z Loss due to transpiration and spoilage be minimal z Due to unavailability of cool chain, between Talala and Ahmedabad, 20 per-
due to various practices followed earlier. cent of the weight of the fruit is lost due to reduction in water due to heat.
z Market promotion and advertising by Mexican z Adding spoilages at the orchard, transit, and the retailer, total loss could be
exporters and US importers on the cards. about 40%.
z Marketing and promotion not done for export market. Must educate customers
of various ways of eating mangoes. e.g. Mango bottle, mango cone, mango
cup, mango ball and mango cut and slices.
*On the basis of Rabo India Finance (2000). "Gujarat Agrovision 2010" report.
7. REFERENCES
National Horticulture Board (1999). "Indian Horticultural Database,"
National Horticultural Board, Min. of Agriculture, Govt. of
India.
Rabo India Finance (2000). "Gujarat Agrovision 2010", report submitted
to the Government of Gujarat.
Deodhar, S.Y. (2001). "Quality Issues in Supply Chain : Case of Kesar
Mango," a video documentation on CD, Indian Institute of
Management, Ahmedabad.
Om Prakas and Srivastava, K.C. (1987). Mango diseases and their
management: A world review, Today and Tomorrow's printers and
publishers, New Delhi.
Dudhat, H.S. (1996). Location effects on the yield and quality of
mango fruit cv. Kesar. (Unpublished) M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis
submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krishi
Nagar.
Jadeja, K.B.; Varshney, A.K.; Bhuva, J.V. and Radadia, L.B. (1994). Post
harvest handling and losses in mango fruit in Gujarat state. Paper
presented in 29th Annual Convention of ISAE, Feb. 10-12, Junagadh.
Naik, G. and Pandit, P.S. (2001). "An Overview of Fruits and Vegetables
Production and Trade : Implication for India and Gujarat". Paper
presented in Conference cum Workshop on Management of Post
Harvest System for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables of Gujarat, IIM,
Ahmedabad, 5-7 April, 2001.
Pandit, P.S. (2001). Studies on storage and ripening of Kesar mango.
(Unpublished) M.Tech. (Agril. Process and Food Engg.) thesis
submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krishi Nagar,
Gujarat.
Rajagopal. (1997). Post-harvest management of mango—A case study
of Kesar variety in Junagadh district. Training programme on
post-harvest management of mango, December 29-30, 1997,
National Institute of Agricultural Marketing, Jaipur : 4-8.
October—December, 2002 35
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Marketing Strategies of Rice in Chhattisgarh—A Case Study
—A.K. GAURAHA, K.N.S. BANAFAR, P.K. VERMA, V.K. CHOUDHARY, AND B.C. JAIN*
Introduction
A
griculture in Durg district of Chhattisgarh is dominated
by rice cultivation. The marketing of rice in Durg district
is not properly organised. This district occupies 12 percent of
the total rice area in the state and contributes 14 percent to
state output during 1999-2000. Rice is grown in the district
as principal crop under rainfed condition during Kharif.
However, very little attention has been given to its marketing
aspect. There are greater variations of production cost and
marketing system existing in different district of Chhattisgarh.
It is therfore, felt necessary to analyse the present marketing
strategies of rice and to estimate the producers' share in
consumers rupee, marketing cost, margin of intermediary
marketing efficiency and price spread etc., in different
marketing channels of Durg. This study was taken up to help
farmers to identify the deficiency in management of marketing
systems and to improve their profit margin.
Methodology
The methodology adopted in this study was a two-step
stratified random sampling technique. The study was
conducted in three blocks of Durg district, having maximum
area under paddy cultivation. the villages were considered as
primary units whereas households as secondary units. In the
first stage 3 villages namely Malud, Pasood and Pendri were
selected at random and in second stage a complete direct
enumeration of the holding in each sample village was made.
The operational holdings are thus stratified into 3 (three) size
groups as small (up to 2 ha.), medium (2-4 ha.), and large
(above 4 ha.) farmers, from each size group 10 (ten) samples
were drawn at random.
Thus 90 (10×3×3) farm families from three villages have
been taken into account. Primary data from rice growers,
traders, village merchants, wholesale merchants, professional
shops and consumers were collected by a specially designed
pretested questionnaire through personal interview method.
The tabulation and percentage analysis were made to find
out marketing cost, return and pricespread. The marketing
efficiency was estimated by using shepherd's formula
V
ME = -1
1
Where, ME = Index of marketing efficiency
V = value of goods sold (consumer price)
I = Total marketing cost
Results and Discussion
During peak period the marketing cost and margins were
worked out for rice in Durg market. The marketing margin
and price spread very much depends upon the channels
through which rice passes on its way to the end users.
Rice Marketing Pattern
In Durg market, mostly the producers bring their produce
to the yards of the commission agent, where the auction takes
place and purchasers who make the highest bid, purchase the
produce. The important marketing channels of rice have been
established as follow :
Channel-I, Producer to consumer
Channel-II, producer to retailer to consumer
Channel-III, Producer to trader to retailer to consumer.
Marketing Cost and Margin
The relevant data relating to marketing cost and margin
are presented in Table 1. It is noted that the expenses incurred
by the producer in channels I and II were 9.43 percent of the
price paid by the consumer, In channel II and Channel III
expenses incurred and margin taken by the retailer were 3.23
percent and 5.34 percent respectively of the price paid by the
consumer. The total marketing cost were Rs. 30 Rs. 67.12
and 67.68 per quintal of rice sold through channels I, II and
III respectively. The marketing cost thus varies according to
the length of the distriibution channel. The marketing cost of
rice in channel III is Rs. 0.56 more than that of channel II.
Similarly, the marketing cost of rice in channel II is Rs. 17.12
more than that of channels I. In Channel-II and III total margin
of intermediaries were 5.34 percent and 11.19 percent of
consumer's rupee respectively as shown in table 2.
Price Spread
It is revealed from table 1 that the price paid by consumer
per quintal of rice in Durg market are same (Rs. 530.00)
irrespective of marketing channel, but variation occurs only
*Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur (C.G.)
36 Agricultural Marketing
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in price received by the farmers in different channel because
of its lower or higher marketing cost and margin. The
producer's share expressed.
As consumer's rupee in case of channel III was only Rs.
403 per quintal of rice (76.04%) which is 16.04 percent and
7.27 percent less than that of in channels I and II respectively.
Similarly in channel II share of farmer expressed in end users
rupee was Rs. 434.60 per quintal of rice (82%) which is 9.46
percent less than in channel I. Hence the share of producer in
consumer's rupee was inversely proportional to the length of
the distribution channel.
Marketing Efficiency
Analysis of indices of marketing efficiency in the selected
three channels were indicated in table 3 that index of
marketing efficiency is highest for channel I followed by
channels II and III, the corresponding values 16.67, 6.90 and
6.82 respectively. This shows to what extent the marketing
agencies are able to move the goods from producer to
consumer at the minimum cost extending maximum service.
It is clear that efficiency of channel I, having no intermediaries
was highest than all other channels.
Conclusion
The study shows that there is a tendency on the part of the
farmers to sell their produce to retailer (in channel II) though
they are aware that their share in consumers rupee is high in
channel I (producer to consumer). Effort should, therefore,
be made by government to provide physical facilities in and
around market including storage, transport processing, market
intelligence facilities etc to facilitate efficient marketing of
rice and hinder the intermediaries in taking advantages from
the situation. A support price policy is helpful to farmers
having marketable surplus and therefore it would produce
same kind of protection to marginal & small categories of
farmers.
REFERENCES
Singh R. and George, M.V. (1970) price spread and marketing
margin of Rice in Punjab, Agricultural Situation in
India, 25 (3): 253-257
Neogi A.K. and Barkataky M. (1979) Management of price
spread for Rice in Assam Indian Journal of Agricultural
Economics 34 (4) : 306-309.
Table 1
Marketing Costs and Margins
Sl. No. Particulars Channel-I Channel-II Channel-III
1. (a) Net price received by the producer 480.00 (90.57) 434.60 (82.00) 403.00 (76.04)
(b) Expenses incurred by the producer 50.00 (9.43) 50.00 (9.43) —
(i) Transportation 5.83 5.83 —
(ii) Market charges 4.17 4.17 —
(iii) Labour charges 2.00 2.00 —
(iv) Pressing cost 31.00 31.00 —
(v) Other charges 7.00 7.00 —
2. (a) Sale price of the producer purchase price — 481.97 359.75
of the wholesaler/trader/retailer
(b) Expenses incurred by the wholesaler/trader — — 50.56 (9.54)
(1) Transportation — — 5.73
(2) Market charges — — 4.20
(3) Labour charges — — 2.10
(4) Processing cost — — 32.00
(5) Other charges — — 6.53
(c) Margin of the Trader/wholesaler — — 31.00 (5.85)
3. (a) Sale price of the wholesaler/trader — 481.97 481.97
purchase price of the retailer/consumer
(b) Expenses incurred by the retailer — 17.12 (3.23) 17.12 (3.23)
(i) Weighing charges — 0.81 0.81
(ii) Labour charge — 1.72 1.72
(iii) Market charges — 4.07 4.07
(iv) Taxes — 4.88 4.88
(v) Gunny bag cost — 4.00 4.00
(vi) Other charges — 1.62 1.62
(c) Margin of the retailer — 28.30 (5.34) 28.30 (5.34)
4. Price paid by the consumer 530 (100.00) 530 (100.00) 530 (100.00)
Figures in parentheses indicate percentages.
October—December, 2002 37
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Table 2
Marketing Margins
Particulars Channel I Channel II Channel II
Margin of trader/wholesaler — — 31.00 (5.85)
Margin of retailer — 28.30 (5.34) 28.30 (5.34)
Marketing margin of intermediaries — 28.30 (5.34) 59.30 (11.19)
Figures in parentheses indicate percentages.
Table 3
Indices of marketing efficiency in the selected three channels
Particulars Channel I Channel II Channel III
Value of goods sold
Consumer price (V) 530 530 530
Marketing Cost (I) 30 67.12 67.68
Index of marketing 16.67 6.90 6.82
v
efficiency = -1
1
38 Agricultural Marketing
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October—December, 2002 39
:/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. 2 to 86 Page No. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh
Source :—Press Information bureau, Govt. of India New Delhi, dated 26.12.02.
(ii) Import of 300 Sensitive Items—Data for April-
October 2002
The total import of 300 sensitive tariff lines for the period
April-October 2002 has been Rs. 7805 crore against Rs. 6671
crore for the corresponding period of last year thereby showing
a growth of 17%. However, this growth is almost entirely due
to significant increase in the import of crude palm oil, but for
which import of all other sensitive items together show
negative growth.
Imports of cotton & silk, alcoholic beverages and poultry
have shown a decline at broad group level during the period.
Imports of edible oil, fruits & vegetables, automobiles, milk
& milk products, SSI products and foodgrains have shown
increase during the period under reference.
In the edible oil segment, the imports have increased from
Rs. 4016 crore last year to Rs. 4907 crore for the
corresponding period this year. However, significant feature
of edible oil import is that while import of crude palm oil has
gone up, that of refined palm oil has come down leading to
better utilisation of the processing capacity in the country.
Import of Sunflower oil both crude & refined, has gone down.
Imports from Indonesia, Malaysia, Guinea Bisu, Ivory
coast, Czech Republic & Brazil etc. have shown some increase
while those from Argentina, Australia, Paraguay, Thailand,
Benin & Iran etc. have shown some decrease.
Import of Sensitive Items-Provisional Estimate
Value (Rs. Crore)
Sl. No. Commodity Group No. of Import
Tariff lines April-Oct. 01 April-Oct. 02
1. Milk & MIlk Products 22 8.82 26.70
2. Fruits & Vegetables 48 493.70 936.77
3. Poultry 13 0.25 0.03
4. Foodgrains 12 2.72 3.12
5. Edible Oil 27 4015.74 4900.69
6. Alcoholic beverages 8 18.69 15.05
7. Cotton & Silk 6 1745.35 1259.21
8. Automobiles 32 39.35 200.49
9. Products of concern to SSI 20 63.80 78.65
(toys, writing instruments,
tiles, glassware etc.)
10. Others 112 282.14 384.61
Total 300 6670.55 7805.31
Directorate General of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry,
New Delhi, dated 26th December, 2002
(iii) High Quality Draft Sequence of rice Genome
Declared Completed
A high quality draft sequence of rice genome by the
International Rice Genome Sequencing project (IRGSP) has
been declared completed. This was announced by the Japanese
Prime Minister Mr. Junichiro Koizumi in Tokyo at the just
concluded ceremony organised to commemorate the event of
decoding of the rice genome. He hailed it as a great
achievement in international cooperation in plant science
research and epoch making feat comparable to the completion
of the first draft of the human genome two years ago.
In a message to the ceremony, the Prime Minister Shri
Atal Bihari Vajpayee said it is a matter of great pride for India
that its scientists have contributed to this international effort.
He complimented in particular the Department of
Biotechnology which in association with the Indian Council
of Agricultural Research, Jointly launched the Indian initiative
at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute and the University
of Delhi, South Campus. Also congratulating scientists from
ten participating nations, Shri Vajpayee expressed the
confidence that 'publicly available rice genome sequence will
be used by crop scientists to pursue their goal in basic science
and agriculture.
India has the largest area in the world under rice cultivation
totalling 28 percent of its arable land. The Indian scientists
completed the international obligation as member of the
IRGSP in a record time of two and half years, contributing
15 million bases of sequence for Chromosome 11. the rice
genome sequence harboring 62,435 genes would serve as
global heritage and golden standard for gene discovery and
precision breeding for crop improvement. This sequencing
will also help in uncovering useful genes from wheat, maize
and millets etc., close relatives of rice.
A working group meeting was also held as part of the
ceremony to plan future strategies for genome completion
and annotation. As parallel future strategy, the Department
of Biotechnology has evolved a functional genomics effort,
on inter-institutional basis, covering all scientists and agencies.
These endeavours have heralded a new era in plant molecular
biology research, for crop improvement, the Department of
biotechnology says.
(iv) Export Promotion Council for EOUs Finally Set Up
With the issuance of Certificate of Registration by the
Registrar of Societies, the Export Promotion Council for
Export Oriented Units (EOUs) has been finally set up and
come into force. Shri R. Veeramani, Chairman, EPC for EOUs
and Shri Sharad Jaipuria, Vice-Chairman, EPC for EOUs on
behalf of all EOUs and units in SEZs have welcomed the
formation of EPC for EOUs as their long felt need of the
EOUs for a separate Export Promotion Council has finally
been fulfilled and the Council has started functioning with
immediate effect.
Shri Veeramani said the EPC for EOUs would specifically
cater to the needs of EOU/SEZ Sector which has over 2300
operational EOUs/SEZ units spreading all over the country
40 Agricultural Marketing
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providing direct employment to over 7 lakhs people and has
a credible achievement of 13% share in the national exports.
The export earnings of this sector in 2001-02 was Rs. 28,000
crores registering a growth of 14.66% over the previous year
and compares very favourablywith the national export growth
of only 2.1% in the same period. The EOUs/SEZ units cover
major industrial sectors, like textiles, garments & yarn; food
& agro products, electronics & software, chemicals,
engineering, minerals, granites etc. The Council with the help
of this sector and export of high value added and manufactured
products will do its every effort to bring name and fame to
the country. Shri Veeramani added that the EOU sector has
shown a double-digit continuous growth much more than that
of the national exports. This sector has proved its uniqueness
and the future direction of this country in exporting
manufacturing goods through value addition using state-of-
the art technology.
The Council with the support of EOUs/SEZ Sector has an
ambitious road map to achieve and contribute 25% of the
national export through manufacturing exports by the year
2007. In the next couple of years this sector is looking for
achieving 10 billion US dollars exports. Shri Veeramani said
that this sector fully deserved an EPC because of its
performance, vast membership, regional and sectoral spread
and employment provided. We are happy that after two
decades of operation of the EOU Scheme, finally the EPC
for EOUs has started functioning.
The Council has plans to organise Seminars on issues
pertaining to EOUs in different states. To start with, the council
plans to organise such Seminars at Hyderabad, Jaipur and
Delhi. Shri Veeramani has thanked the Union Commerce &
Industry Minister, Shri Arun Shourie, Minister of State for
Commerce & Industry, Shri Rajiv Pratap Rudy; Commerce
Secretary, Shri Dipak Chatterjee; and the Director General of
Foreign Trade (DGFT), Shri Lalit Mansingh and other senior
officials of the Ministry of Commerce for all the help and
cooperation in the formation of the Council. Shri Veeramani
also assured the EOUs and SEZs that this Council will take
care of all their problems with total dedication in a time bound
manner.
Source : Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India, New Delhi, Dated
22-1-2003.
USE 'AGMARK' GRADED SPICES
October—December, 2002 41
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Vol. XLV-No. 3 vkf'ou—ikS"k] 1924 ¼'kd½ OCTOBER—DECEMBER. 2002

ISSN. 0002–1555 PAMA–116, VOL–XLV, No.–3 500

o`Ãf"k foi.ku
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
EDITORIAL BOARD
1. SHRI P. K. AGARWAL, AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ADVISER TO THE GOVT. OF INDIA. 2. DR. G. R. BHATIA, ADDL. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ADVISER. 3. SHRI H. P. SINGH, JOINT AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ADVISER. 4. SHRI D. N. TIWARI, JOINT AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ADVISER. 5. SHRI A. P. BHATNAGAR, DIRECTOR (COLD STORAGE AND REFRIGERATION). 6. DR. P. K. JAISWAL, DIRECTOR OF LABORATORIES. 7. SHRI G. H. DHANKAR, DEPUTY AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ADVISER. (i). (ii). (iii). (iv). 1. 2. CONTENTS Marketing of Kinnow in Rajasthan. —Shiv Prakash Sharan and V. K. Singh Production and Marketing of Broilers in Jabalpur District of M.P. —Ashutosh Shrivastava, S. K. Gupta & A. M. Mishra 3. 4. 5. A study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab. —P. S. Rangi, M. S. Sidhu and Harjeet Singh Marketing and Export of Fresh Vegetables. —Ajay Verma, Sudhir Kumar and P. M. Singh Price Spread in Marketing of White Onion in Raigad District of Maharashtra State. —A. V. Gadre, J. M. Talathi and S. S. Wadkar Quality Issues in Supply chain : A Case of Kesar Mango at Saurashtra Region. —Deodhar, S. Y. & Pandit P. S. 7. Marketing Strategies of Rice in Chhattisgarh —A Case Study. —A. K. Gauraha, K. N. S. Banafar, P. K. Verma, V. K. Choudhary and B. C. Jain HOME NEWS 38 35 22 18 9 5

Page No.
2

6.

27

eaMh vf/kfu;e dh folaxfr;ksa ij fopkj ds fy, lfefr cusxhA
Import of 300 Sensitive Items—Data for April— October, 2002 High Quality Draft Sequence of Rice declared completed. Genome

EDITOR
SHRI N. K. MISRA, MARKETING OFFICER

Export Promotion Council for EOUs Finally Set up.
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ANY ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THIS JOURNAL CAN BE REPRODUCED PROVIDED DUE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE TO THE SOURCE. THE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THE ARTICLE ARE THOSE OF THE AUTHORS AND NOT NECESSARILY OF THE DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING & INSPECTION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. READERS MAY SEND POPULAR ARTICLES OF TOPICAL INTEREST IN HINDI AND ENGLISH TO THE EDITOR, AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, DIRECTORATE OF MARKETING & INSPECTION, NEW C. G. O. BUILDING, N. H. IV, FARIDABAD-121001.

Marketing of Kinnow in Rajasthan
—SHIV PRAKASH SHARAN Introduction itrus is one of the major commercial fruit crops grown in India. Among the fruits, citrus group is one of the most important fruit crops in India with a ranking of seventh largest producer of citrus fruits in the world. Again, among the citrus groups, mandarin/kinnow is the most important fruit crop in India as the demand for its consumption is very high due to the nutritional value and its availability at cheap prices. In Rajasthan state, the total area and production under kinnow cultivation during the year 1996-97 was 2.07 thousand hectares and 39 thousand tonnes, respectively. With the rapid increase in the area under the crop in the state, several problems of production and marketing have emerged which needed careful investigation. Efficient marketing plays an important role in the development of any enterprise. Hence, it was found necessary to investigate the prevalent marketing systems and channels, the marketing costs, margins and price spread in different channels as well as in different markets and other general problems faced by the kinnow growers in selling their produce. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate marketing aspects of the kinnow cultivation with the following specific objectives : To examine the pattern of sales of kinnow and marketing costs and margins; and To analyse the production and marketing problems faced by kinnow growers. Methodology Out of 32 districts of the Rajasthan State, Sri Ganganagar district was selected purposively, as it had the highest area under kinnow cultivation. To select the representative markets, the market arrival of kinnow in all regulated markets of Sri Ganganagar district were obtained for the year 199798 to 1999-2000. On the basis of average arrivals these markets were arranged in ascending order. These markets then were grouped into two categories viz. large and small based upon cumulative total method. Then one market each from large and small group was selected randomly. Thus, Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets were selected in the study area to represent large and small markets respectively. Five villages were randomly selected from Sri Ganganagar Tehsil. From the five selected villages, a list of kinnow growers was prepared. A sample size of about 30
AND

V. K. SINGH*

C

per cent from each village was selected by applying the techniques of probability proportion to size where the number of farms in each village acted as a size from the selected five villages. Relevant information was collected from the selected respondents by conducting personal interviews on a specifically designed schedule. The required data on marketing cost, purchase price, sale prices, etc., were collected from the selected intermediaries involved in the selected marketing channels. The data on arrivals and prices in two markets, viz., Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur in which all the growers of the area under study sold their produce, were collected from the respective market committee offices. To find out the marketing margins and costs for different channels and for different markets, in all 20 contractors, 10 commission agents and 24 retailers were selected from both the markets for the collection of relevant data on pretested schedule. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Marketing costs and Margins It is apparent from the Table 1 that packing material was the major item in marketing costs (37.78% of the total marketing cost) followed by picking, grading and packing cost (26.04%) followed by transportation (17.08%) watch and ward (13.93%) and loading and unloading charges (5.17%). On an average, marketing cost per quintal worked out to be Rs. 100.31. Tomer et al, (1995) worked out the economics of grape cultivation in Haryana and observed that major items of this were packing and transportation and each constituted about 57 and 24 per cent share of the marketing, respectively.
Table 1 Marketing cost of kinnow in Sri Ganganagar district (1999-2000) (Rs./q) Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Items Watch and ward Picking, grading and packing cost Packing material Loading and unloading charges Transportation charges Total marketing cost Amount percentage of total marketing cost 13.97 26.20 37.90 5.17 17.07 100.31 13.93 26.04 37.78 5.17 17.08 100.00

*Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar—125 004.

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The study of marketing margin and price spread is important for the knowledge of the nature, extent and genuineness of various marketing charges. The study of marketing margin and price spread can be utilized to develop appropriate price policy that aims to provide incentive prices to producers and assures him of a legitimate share in consumer's rupee. It is helpful in the development and evaluation of the market policies like the regulation of the market charges for different market functionaries and functions. The marketing margin and costs may vary from channel to channel and market to market. The marketing margins and cost for different channels and for different markets have been presented in Table 2 and 3, respectively. 1. 2. Producer--pre-harvest contractor-commission agentwholesaler--retailer--consumer (contract sale). Producer--Direct consumer (Direct sale)

Table 2 Marketing Costs and Margins of Kinnow under channel-1 in Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets (1999-2000). Sl. No. 1 Items Markets Sri Ganganagar 2 3 210.12 (24.72) 13.97 (1.65) 26.20 (3.08) 37.90 (4.46) 5.17 (0.61) 17.07 (2.01) 100.31 (11.80) 159.57 (18.77) 470.00 (55.30) 4.65 (0.55) 22.82 (2.68) 28.20 (3.32) 7.52 (0.88) 31.45 (3.70) 94.64 (11.13) 85.36 (10.04) 650.00 (76.47) 12.13 (1.43) 9.21 (1.08) 22.77 (2.68) 10.00 (1.17) Kesari Singhpur 4 185.12 (21.04) 13.65 (1.55) 26.95 (3.06) 40.53 (4.60) 4.93 (0.56) 14.32 (1.63) 100.38 (11.40) 199.50 (22.67) 485.00 (55.11) 4.52 (0.52) 23.07 (2.62) 29.10 (3.31) 7.76 (0.88) 33.11 (3.76) 97.56 (11.09) 92.44 (10.50) 675.00 (76.70) 12.40 (1.41) 9.12 (1.04) 26.14 (2.97) 11.15 (1.27) 10.96 (1.24) 69.77 (7.93)

1. Net price received by producer/purchase price of pre-harvest contractor 2. Costs incurred by the pre-harvest contractor I. Watch and ward II. Picking, grading and packing cost III. Packing materials IV. Loading and unloading charges V. Transportation charges Sub-total (2—I to V) 3. Net margins of pre-harvest contractor 4. Sale price of pre-harvest contractor/ purchase price of wholesaler 5. Costs incurred by the wholesaler I. Loading and unloading charges II. Grading and repacking charges III. Commission @ 6 per cent IV. Market fee @ 1.60 per cent V. Spoilage and storage charges Sub-total (5-I to V) 6. Net margin of wholesaler 7. Sale price of wholesaler/purchase price of retailer 8. Sale incurred by the retailer I. Transportation charges II. Loading and unloading charges III. Spoilage IV. Packing material (Polythene bag)

The analysis has been done for the channel : producerpre-harvest contractor-commission agent-wholesale-retailerconsumer in Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets to see the efficiency of different markets. It is apparent from the table 2 that the consumer's purchase price was Rs. 850.00 per quintal and Rs. 880.00 per quintal for Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets, respectively. The marketing costs incurred by the producer were Rs. 100.31 and Rs. 100.38 per quintal accounting 11.80 per cent and 11.40 per cent of consumer's rupee at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets, respectively, out of which cost of packing material was highest followed by picking, grading and packing cost. The retailer's net margin was observed Rs. 132.84 per quintal and Rs. 135.23 per quintal accounting 15.63 per cent and 15.37 per cent of consumer's rupee at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur, respectively. The preharvest contractor, sale price at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets were found to be Rs. 470.00 per quintal and Rs. 485.00 per quintal accounting 55.30 per cent and 55.11 per cent of consumer's rupee of Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur, respectively. Net margin earned by pre-harvest contractor under this channel were 18.77 and 22.67 per cent of consumer's rupee in both the markets, respectively. However, the lower net margins of pre-harvest contractor in Sri Ganganagar market may be due to lower sale price of pre-harvest contractor owing to larger arrivals in this markets. In relative terms the margins of wholesaler and retailer were found the same in both the markets under this channel. The net price received by the producer was worked out Rs. 210.12 per quintal and Rs. 185.12 per quintal accounting 24.72 per cent and 21.04 per cent of consumer's rupee at Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur markets, respectively. October—December, 2002

V. Other charges (rent of cart of shop etc.) 13.05 (1.54) Sub-total (8—I to V) 67.16 (7.90)

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2 to 86 Page No. Tomer. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . lack of competition among buyers.65 (3. it is suggested to remove all problems faced by the producer's to make this vital enterprise a more paying venture. 1997. Items No. et al. Marketing of grapes in Haryana.03 (91. Sale price of retailer/purchase price of consumer Note :Figures in parenthesis are the percentage to the consumer's price. Economic analysis of grape cultivation in Haryana. Tomer.15) 33.. Channel—II : Producer—Direct Consumer. (1995) Tomar et al.S. 1994. Table 3 Marketing costs and margins of kinnow under channel-II in Sri Ganganagar and Kesari Singhpur Markets (1999-2000) Sl.50) 20. CCS HAU. Net price received by producer Cost incurred by the producer (a) Watch and Ward (b) Picking cost Sub-total (2.00) 4 135.50) 400. Tomer et al.24 (91. B.00) 33. the selling of produce through self marketing by the grower was found profitable in comparison to contact sale to the pre-harvest contractors. 88. The net price received by the farmer worked out to be Rs. An economic analysis of ber cultivation in Haryana. The results are consistent with the studies conducted by Singh and Khatkar (1994). The producer's share in consumer's rupee was observed more in Channel-II (Direct sale) as compared to ChannelI (contract sale) due to elimination of pre-harvest contractors. Agricultural Marketing 10. K.00 (100. Department of Agricultural Economics. lack of stay arrangement in the market. The next major problems faced were delay in payment.50) Kesari Singhpur 356. 1992.00 (100. et al. Channel—1 (Producer-Pre-harvest contractor—Commission agent— wholesaler—retailer—consumer). 33. B. In this channel. An economic analysis of citrus (malta and kinnow) cultivation in Haryana. 4 Tomer. So the above analysis of marketing costs and margin indicates that the producer's share in consumer's rupee may be increased by decreasing the number of intermediaries in the existing marketing system. the marketing cost incurred by the grower are Rs. 2.S. As shown in Table 3.25 per quintal accounting 91.65) 390. Department of Agricultural Economics.50) 20.97 (8. Hisar. lack of cold storage facilities and lack of better and cheaper packing material accounting about 95.84 (15. lack of marketing information.00 and Rs. Hisar. respectively accounting 8.65 per cent of the consumer's rupee in the market. 366. The producer sold his produce at farm level or in the market direct to consumers.03 and Rs.00) Markets Sri Ganganagar 366. This may be made through creating efficient marketing and processing infrastructure.S.00 (10. Sri Ganganagar being a large market was found more efficient and more paying to producer as compared to smaller market of Kesari Singhpur. Sale price of producer/purchase price and consumer 13.00) Difficulties faced by the kinnow growers in marketing the grapes Although. no intermediaries between producer and consumer was involved. 1995. CCS HAU. CCS HAU.75 (8.00 (5. B. Further. (1997). R. respectively. Picking and watch and ward were the major items of costs in both the markets. 356. respectively.35 per cent of the consumer's rupee in case of both the markets.23 (15. The cost of picking and watch and ward was almost the same for both the markets accounting about 5 per cent.50 per cent and 8. 400. malpractice in weighing methods etc. Hisar. it may be concluded that the producer's share is consumer's rupee was observed more in direct sale as compared to contract sale. :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. REFERENCES Singh Virender and Khatkar. 83 and 82 per cent. Net margins of retailer 3 132. 1.97 (3. 33. Department of Agricultural Economics. et al.00) 13.97 per quintal and Rs. the study has revealed several problems faced by the kinnow growers in selling their produce by self marketing.I to II) 3.75. 390.35) Note : Figures in paranthesis are the percentage to the consumer's price channel-II (producer-direct consumer). due to elimination of pre-harvest contractor.10 (5. It is clear from the data in Table 4 that the lack of support price and lack of organisation were the major problems faced by the growers in marketing their produce because all the selected farmers faced these problems.37) 880.50 per cent and 91. The consumer's purchase price was Rs. The growers also reported other problems like lower prices due to seasonal gluts.00 per quintal for both the markets. Agricultural Marketing. Marketing cost and margin indicate that producer's share in consumer's rupee may be increased by decreasing the number of intermediaries in the existing marketing system. These problems need to be tackled to enable the grower to get higher returns.63) 850.1 2 9.00 (100. July-Sept. 11-15. Conclusion On the basis of above findings. A few of the major problems are given in Table 4.

the study was taken up in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh. There were quite large number of retailers. medium and large. 98 for broiler production and marketing. Madhya Pradesh is one of the major egg producing states in India. Out of the total cost. etc. (2) To study the various marketing channels operating in the market for broilers.41 per cent on small 53. The main broiler production and marketing centres in the state are Japalpur. There were only 3 wholesalers in broiler market. Indore mandi. only commercial production of broilers is studied. income tax exemption for poultry sector. the feed cost alone accounted for more than 50 per cent (51. Depreciation on fixed capital items is calculated on the basis of the life span of items. 2002 5 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. GUPTA & A. These are.) and world average of 8 kg. Objectives (1) To find out the cost of production of broilers on the organised and unorganised farms. Variable cost includes cost of feed for layers. Agro-Economic Research Centre. Jabalpur (M. 3 from small size group. Clearly there is a long way to go. iron. 3 from medium size group and 6 from large poultry farms keeping broilers respectively. 52.).e. cages and equipments and interest on capital investment. 97 to March. Indore and Bhopal. If a growth rate of 15 per cent in broiler production can be sustained for the next 10 years the per capita consumption of broiler meat will increase to 2. S. The per capita availability of poultry meat in India (850 gms) is far below the required level (21 kg. *Research Officers.55 per cent on medium. It also has the biggest hatcheries of the state. K. the per capita per year availability of broiler meat is very low in our country i. Results and Discussion Under this. The cost items are divided into (a) fixed cost (b) variable cost. Jabalpur is one of the biggest egg producing centres of the state with more than 14 lakh population and state headquarters of the NECC (National Eggs Coordination Committee). electricity charges. The fixed cost consists of value of birds. The absence of own farms in the small and medium farms revealed the fact that due to paucity of finance small and medium farmers were not interested in establishing permanent infrastructure and leased in the old farms. It has one of the most favourable agro-climatic conditions. A farmer usually reared 7 to 12 batches depending on the market demand and finance available with the farmer. fat. 50 per cent of the broiler farmers were selected from each size group i. The number of poultry birds for meat (broilers) also increased significantly during the last decade.482004.P. calcium. Broiler is on way to become the first choice among available sources of animal protein (other than milk & eggs). The reference period for the study was from April.50 per cent on large leased-infarms respectively). During 1995-96 the total number of broilers in the state was 5. The per bird cost of production was about equal (Rs. a total of 12 broiler farms were selected for this purpose randomly. The introduction of new and efficient modern management techniques. 40) on all the farms irrespective of size of farms. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . India is 22nd largest broiler producer in the world. higher purchasing power of the consumers were the contributing factors for the rapid strides of poultry industry in the country. The data related to prices of broilers at different marketing channels were collected from wholesalers and retailers. Five retailers for broilers were contacted.e. medicines and labour charges. Hence all wholesalers were selected. For a broiler. However. JNKVV. October—December. During the last 35 years poultry industry has transformed itself from a backyard business activity into an organised and sophisticated medium scale industry. Intensive production and marketing system developed in different parts of country encouraged progress. M. For broiler production study. All the poultry units were categorised in three different groups : small.68 per cent on large own farms and 52. Jabalpur mandi and Bhopal mandi. Together these two items accounted for more than 85 per cent of the total cost leaving the balance of 15 per cent as other operational costs (Table 1). One hundred grams of bird's flesh gives 165 calories. MISHRA* Introduction E ggs and broilers (flesh) are the two most important products of poultry industry. depreciation on poultry shed. Bird cycle refers the period from a day old chick to the period when it is marketed for meat purpose. Therefore.5 million. inspite of all these. 2 to 86 Page No. 850 gm as compared to the world average of 8 kg. it is 40 to 45 days. The meat of broiler provides important nutrients like proteins.Production and Marketing of Broilers in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh —ASHUTOSH SHRIVASTAVA. Methodology There are 3 egg producing areas in the state.3 kg. vitamins. Thus. The bird cost accounted for more than 33 per cent.

30 50.00 Net Return Per Bird Per Cycle The estimated net return on small and medium leased in farms and large-own farms and large leased-in farms came to Rs.05. 50.60* Small % 4.75 52.00 0.42 0.60 38. The income from broiler sale contributed more than 97 per cent share. 3.49 0.65 0.50 100.11 Leased-in 1.30 20.30 0. Jabalpur district. Sale of broiler Manure Sale of gunny bags etc.03 0.95* 1.10 3. Rs.50 0. 2.05 1.25 13. 13. 3.15 33.37 The lower expenses on labour on the small farms indicated that these farmers did not hire full time labourers or casual labourers and hired them only for some special purposes like cleaning of the sheds and mulching of litter etc.85 Large Own % 97.35 0.99 Own 0. Table 2 Gross receipts of poultry units—per bird cycle. Particulars Small Leased-in Gross receipts/per bird (Rs. 1.47 1.00 Rs. 48.31 0.35 6 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.15 Size of broilers farms Medium Large own Leased-in 50.0 % 2.00 0. Rs. 49.75 53. Total 49.30 0.00 Rs. Depreciation of sheds Depreciation of equipment Day old chicks Medicine/Vaccines Labour Litter charges Feed cost Miscellaneous Total * Rent per bird. (Figures—Rs.87 1.15.74 2.30 21.) Sl.82 100.20* Medium % 2.65 0.No .40 48.P.70 100.35 Leased-in % 97.75 52. 2 to 86 Page No.50 34.10 1.75 2. 10. 4.00 48.00. (Figures—Rs.30 40.35 for small and medium leased-in farms and large own and large leased-in farms respectively. 8.05 % 99. (Table 2).65 1.90 35. Item Small Leased-in Rs.00 1. 8. No.40 49.50 1.86 2. 48.30 21. 50.Table 1 Cost of Production per bird per cycle.00 Size of farms Medium Leased-in Rs.15 0. Jabalpur district.P.87 3.68 3. Rs. 1. Receipts from other items like sale of bags and manure were very small.50 1.25 100. 6.00 34.40 — 0. 2. 7.50 % 1.0 13. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .25 0.85 40. Table 3 Net Return per bird per cycle.No .08 3.00 1.77 51.40 0.90 11.15.00 8.81 100.) Total cost per bird (Rs.65 1.75 0. M.55 1.00 1.70 0.35 40.77 1. The average gross receipts per bird per farm from all the sources worked out to Rs.41 4.13 3.0 Large Leased-in 0.40 40.80 Large Leased-in 49. 47.P.55 2.05 38. Particulars Leased-in 1.) Net return per bird (Rs. 11.15 % 98.30 21.75 0. M. Sl.50 1.10 0.0 13.15 40.80 and 9.60 100.35 respectively (Table 3). Jabalpur district. M.50 3. 5. Rs.75 — 0. 2.) 50.60 1.00 40.49 100.15 10.35 50.) Sl.11 100.85 and Rs.65 1. 49.00 9.

00 — 80. Re.229. selected farms.) Cost/Kg. 0.90 32. because they operated within the thickly populated areas like consumers or hotels etc. body weight in the total production cost of a bird minus the receipts from sale of manure and gunny bags etc. Broiler Farmers Association Price Spread The producers share in consumer's rupee was highest in channel I (99. 0.00 100.85. 26.00 1:1. Table 5 Different marketing channels for broilers. Cost Benefit ratio 10. This is due to higher price received per bird by small leased-in farms. On the other hand.55 34. Medium farms sold 12 per cent of the produce likewise. respectively. the consumers could purchase at less price if approach the farm7 1. M.00 4.65 30. Marketing of broilers In Jabalpur district broiler market is not as organised as the egg market and mainly 3 channels are operating. and Re.90) and small leased-in farms (Rs. Sl. it could be concluded that the producer receive roughly the same price and it does not vary due to marketing channels in the marketing of broilers. (a) (b) (c) (d) Particulars Small Leased-in Total cost/farm per batch (Rs. body weight of broiler = from manure & gunny bags Total production in Kilograms Table 4 Cost of production per kg.00 24.65) on large-own farms followed by medium leasedin farms (Rs.00 7.00 26. Small broiler farms sold 20 per cent of their produce through this channel. medium leased-in farms and small leased-in farms. 2. Producer—Consumer This channel exists only where consumer has direct access to the broiler farms.012.00 100.P.27.00 Small Medium Large Source : Mahakoshal.50 885.00.) (a—b ) Total production per batch (kg.250.90 7. Producer—Retailer—Consumer This channel was popular among small (sold 80 per cent) and medium (sold 48 per cent) size farmers who had transport facility and had interest in marketing.00 Total (%) 100.25 1:1.237. body weight came to Re. Large farms marketed only 4 per cent of the produce through this channel. Jabalpur district.315.25 Large Leased-in 2.00 96.50 10.00 1.27 The cost of production of per kg.25. 2002 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.00 48. Re.000.308. In this channel the broiler farmers especially smaller farmers sold their produce (broiler) directly to consumers. the share of broiler farmers decreased in channel II (80. Net return per Kg.515. Producer—Wholesaler—Retailer—Consumer All the big size broiler farmers preferred this channel. However.Cost of Production per Kg.28.90 6. This channel controlled more than 90 per cent of the total broiler produce of large farms (Table 5).00 1.50 7.00 22. large leased-in farms (Rs.225.00 25.) Income from gunny bags & manures (Rs. Cost of production on per Cost of a bird (—) Income kg. Size of farms Percentage of total broilers marketed P—C (%) P—R—C P—W—R—C (%) (%) 20.30 on owned large farm. 3.09 per cent in Channel III. 0. Producer Producer Producer — Consumer — Retailer — Consumer — Wholesaler — Retailer — Consumer 3.70%). October—December. 25. Thus. Large farms did not contribute any thing in this channel. Jabalpur district.35 7. 0.20 32. 25.20). Receipt/Kg.00 25.P. Body Weight of Broilers The cost of production of per kg. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .00 — 30.50 5. divided by the total production in kilograms. body weight. 2.50 570.94.28 Size of farms Large own 1.50 79.750.15 1:1.95 1:1.885.30 Medium Leased-in 22. which is the most active channel and commanded 90 per cent share of the total broiler market.00 5. 2 to 86 Page No.55). 24.00 per cent) and it further declined to 79. the cost benefit ratio is lowest on large-own farms as compared to other farms and the estimated earning over per rupee investment on per kg. leased-in large farms. M. These are— 1.500. No.00 12. of body weight is lowest (Rs.00 385.90. As the intermediaries like retailers and wholesalers increase.50 7.

40 0. some organisational set up like N. Therefore. Profit margin C Wholesaler's sale/retailer's purchase price Expenses incurred by retailers 1.E.40 9. 2 to 86 Page No.45 50.25 0.) which accounted for nearly 300 to 350 gms. Table 7 Month-wise variation in broiler prices Jabalpur district.00 0. February and March.09 Month-wise Variation in the Prices of Broilers The average month-wise broiler fluctuated between Rs.0 39.00 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 48.33 15. 3.0 33.0 37.E.15 — 0.C.) 38. Telephone/Electricity charges/Postages.08 7.25 — — — — — 100.5 in the months of January. 8 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Transportation 3.00 0.82 2. Study also revealed that the dressed chicken cost the consumer more due to wastage (beak.0 37.07 100. 12.50 1. 10.15 — — — — 80.00 79.10 0. 39.ers directly.00 — 0. Month April 1997 May 1997 June 1997 July 1997 August 1997 September 1997 October 1997 November 1997 December 1997 January 1998 February 1998 March 1998 Price (Rs.70 1.00 Channel III (%) 79.50 60. 9.50 Rs.C.00 Rs.58 0.4 37.31 0.25 0." like organisation worsened the situation further. etc. 4.00 Channel I (%) 99.17 2. A Net price to the producer (including margin of Profit) Expenses incurred by producers 1. Margin of profit D Retailers sale/consumer's purchase price (Dressed chicken) — — — — 49. body/weight (Table 6). 48.05 0.) 4.25 48. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .3 in the month of May to Rs. Broiler market is functioning without any effective price intervention mechanism.35 0.5 39.50 53. Labour 2. 1. due to absence of any practical solution (technologies) the withholding of broilers during slump is not practically possible and forced many small farmers out of the business.05 4. for broilers marketing should also be formed. Transportation 3.50 1.4 39.41 87.00 74.00 Channel II (%) 80. 5.5 kg. Moreover.0 34. the fluctuation was not as volatile as in the case of eggs.3 38. Table 6 Break-up of price spread of a broiler Functionaries/Item cost Rs.C. Other expenses B Producer's sale/wholesalers purchase price Expenses incurred by wholesaler 1.22 9.5 Suggestions The analytical results and the discussion on emerging policy issues lead to following recommendations— (1) In broiler farming the system of "all out" should not be the criterion for finance to broiler units by NABARD/Banks but the relay system of raising broiler should also be equally considered. Agricultural Marketing Broiler market is not as organised as the egg market and it needs to be addressed properly.30 0. Other expenses (Electricity) Telephone/Postages etc.35 5. intestines. 4. of a bird of 1. However. 32. Other expenses (Rent of shop.25 — 0.70 74. feathers. M. Labour 2.10 — 0. No. Labour 2.10 — 0. 2. Sl. 7. (2) Exotic breed which are fast growing and productive should be encouraged and popularised with adequate training facilities and technical know how from Agricultural University particularly for the tribal and rural areas.00 — 0. legs. 6. etc.41 0.5 39. (3) Poultry marketing especially broiler marketing is not well organised and the absence of "N.P.16 49. 11. 8.00 32.20 0.75 100. 48.C.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Market arrivals of farm produce The market arrival of food grains and non-food grains has increased manifold in Punjab during the last about three decades. (iv) market research. The efficient marketing can correct snags which have discouraging effects on production and helps in improving the economic lot of the farmers. The Punjab State Agricultural Marketing Board now known as Punjab Mandi Board has been established under this Markets Act to guide.68 per cent for wheat. 2002 9 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. S. 1939.65. paddy and totals foodgrains and non-foodgrains for the period 1974-75 to 1998-99 is given in Table 1.e. All the market committees contribute a fixed proportion of their income from market fee to the Market Development Fund (MDF) of the Board depending upon the volume of fee collected by each market committee. Its production has also increased from about 25 lakh tonnes in 1967-68 to about 145 lakh tonnes in 1998-99. Data base This paper is based on the comprehensive study entitled. The present study has been undertaken to examine the market infrastructure in the State. respectively. "A Study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab" conducted by the first two authors of the present article. The per market committee arrival of wheat has increased from 20. The marketing of farm produce has become orderly and efficient. the Punjab State enacted the Punjab Agriculture Produce Markets Act. pucca platforms.85 thousand tonnes in 1998-99. The per market committee arrivals of wheat. particularly at the assembly point. The Punjab Mandi Board not only creates market infrastructure. levy and collect the market fee on the sale and purchase of the agricultural commodities at a rate determined by the Board in consultation with the State Government. It recommended the enactment of market legislation to curb rampant malpractices and realize better returns. In that context. (Chawla. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . A large number of market committees were set up to supervise the functioning of the agricultural produce markets. The manifold increase in the agricultural production might not have been achieved without the successful development of an efficient marketing system. The market committees numbering 144. The information has also been collected regarding market arrivals from the various issues of Statistical Abstracts of Punjab. The major expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board is on the link roads which in percentage terms worked out at about 40-45 per cent.68 thousand tonnes in 1974-75 to 43. 1998). *Senior Economist (Marketing).59. The poor market infrastructure results in high marketing lossses. sheds. SIDHU AND HARJEET SINGH* Introduction T he development of farm sector depends not only on advancement in farm technology but improvement in market infrastructure is also essential to ensure better returns to the farmers. 0. According to the study conducted by PAU in eighties. At present. 1997). drainage system. Ludhiana 141004. levy of market fee on the market arrival of farm porduce and investment of a part of this fee back for creating necessary market infrastructure and facilities like link roads in rural areas for still higher production and efficient marketing system is unique in the developing countries of the world (Rangi and Sidhu. The Punjab model of agricultural marketing. The expenditure on development of mandis is less which resulting in poor market infrastructure like roads within the yards. (v) market information and (vi) even some welfare activities. maize. all the markets have been regulated. Economist (Marketing) and Research Fellow. (iii) grading of farm produce. 0. the marketing losses were 0. 2 to 86 Page No. Department of Economics and Sociology. RANGI* M. supervise and control the market committees of the State for better and efficient marketing of farm produce. 1984).A Study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab —P. October—December. The Punjab Mandi Board has provided necessary help to the farmers in the form of (i) providing necessary market infrastructure. The study is mainly based on the secondary data obtained from the Punjab Mandi Board. S. Punjab Agricultural University.. i. The Royal Commission on Agriculture (1928) pointed out that there were no common yardstick to measure the quality of produce. This Act was further amended in 1961 and is operative at present in the State. This analysis shows that arrival of wheat has more than doubled during the period under reference. About 42 per cent of the total cropped area is under wheat crop. et al.21 and 0. the market fee is charged at the rate of two per cent ad-valorem. electricity.35. paddy. the weights and measures were unstandardized and the private market operators exploited the farmers. Wheat is the principal crop of the State. (ii) linking all the villages to the market with pucca roads. 0. etc. The regulation of markets has solved quite a few problems of agricultural marketing. Under this Act. but also provides financial assistance to the economically weak market committees of the State from the MDF. gram and barley respectively in Punjab (Gill.

31 12.05 thousand tonnes in 1974-75 which has further increased to 65. The size of the area depended on the volume of market arrival of different commodities.85 Paddy 14.34 thousand tonnes in 1974-75 to 162.03 48.85 23. the area of sub-yards is also linked with the volume of market arrivals. The data about area was not available for 26 yards.85 100.20 6. about 22 per cent between 20 and 30 acres.61 38.42 44. Amritsar.34 18.00 12. It has also been observed that local transporters park their vehicles during the lean months there. cotton (American). paddy crop is sown all over Punjab. Gurdaspur and Kapurthala.31 3.84 8.83 47.02 9. Out of these.12 thousand tonnes in 1998-99. Except some pockets of Kandi area and cotton belt.46 58. of principal yards 7 11 8 8 13 16 16 5 10 5 31 130 % age 5. The rest about 57 per cent of the sub-yards were having area upto 10 acres. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .93 153. oilseeds and fruit and vegetables are prominent in Punjab. Table 2 Area of principal yards in Punjab. During the year 1998-99.81 101. about 13 per cent between 20 and 30 acres. about two per cent between 40 and 50 acres and about three per cent 50 acres and above (Table 3).66 55.15 6.42 52.Table 1 Market arrival of wheat. For all foodgrains and non-foodgrains taken together.15 10. about 18 per cent between 10 and 20 acres. cotton (Desi). there were 252 focal points.22 65.53 160.33 41.33 51.46 6. The principal yards with these market committees are 156 because fruits and vegetable markets have separate yards for principal markets of the State. Among the non-foodgrain crops..94 65.39 53. The concerned market committee may discourage such practices during the lean months. Table 3 Area of sub-yards in Punjab.56 6.00 Next to wheat. there are 144 market committees in Punjab.84 162. 1998-99 Area (in acres) 1 Up to 5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 No. About 93 per cent and 98 per cent of the sub-yards and focal points respectively were having pucca platforms.81 43.30 62. paddy is the most important cereal crop of Punjab.85 7.50 thousand tonnes in 1998-99. 2 to 86 Page No. In rest of the principal yards.89 44. The large scale cultivation of paddy crop was started in mid-seventies only.38 8. The information regarding area was not available in case 48 per cent of the sub-yards. Stray cattle roam there frequently. It occupies about 30 per cent of the total cropped area of the State. 1998-99 Area (in acres) Up to 5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50 and above Total No.56 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. about 97 per cent of the principal yards were pucca whereas this figure was about 66 per cent for the purchase centers.68 39.20 153.50 47. 118 sub-yards and 932 purchase centres.02 159.60 3. of sub-yards 2 24 11 6 5 4 4 % age 3 39. about 12 per cent 10 Area of sub-yards There were 118 sub-yards in the State during the year 1998-99. about 16 per cent between 30 and 40 acres.18 148. Except during the peak arrival of rabi and kharif crops in Punjab. Market Infrastructure As already stated. about 24 per cent of the yards were having 50 acres and above area. As in case of principal yards.12 Total foodgrain and non-foodgrain 50-34 87.05 39. 1974-75 to 1998-99 (per market committee in 000 tonnes) Year/crop 1974-75 1979-80 1984-85 1989-90 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 Wheat 20. It means that arrival has increased by about four times. The average arrival of paddy in each market committee was 14.85 124. the per maket committee arrival has increased from 50. its cultivation was confined to the traditional paddy growing districts viz. these yards remained unutilized mostly during the lean period. The area of the principal yards during the year 1998-99 is shown in Table 2. about six per cent between 30 and 40 acres. about 12 per cent between 40 and 50 acres.50 between 10 and 20 acres and about 14 per cent had area up to 10 acres. paddy and total foodgrains and nonfoodgrains in Punjab. Earlier.

00 operate only for wheat and paddy procurement seasons (45 days). officials of market committees. focal points and purchase centers did not have the facility of permanent light arrangements. it is considered as a social service in Punjab. of Purchase Centres 2 249 32 18 20 11 2 1 1 321 % age 3 77. ponies. etc. 2 to 86 Page No.58 12. It may be mentioned here that drinking water was not a major problem in the markets because almost every market had a hand pump or there was water supply by the municipal committees/corporations/public health department. Above all.98 7. In the rest of these focal points. Drinking water It has been observed that majority of the principal yards had permanent drinking water arrangements.65 100.97 15. about 16 per cent were having 5 to 15 acres. the area was up to 10 acres in case of about 59 per cent focal points.57 9. tea stall.31 100. such facility is mostly provided on temporary basis in the sub-yards.00 Area of focal points The information regarding area of focal points is given in Table 4. Even bullocks. Some voluntary social organizations also serve drinking water to the public particularly during the summer months on the road sides of various markets. almost all the commission agents in the mandis serve drinking water to the sellers.28 — 1. buyers. The Punjab Mandi Board may evolve a policy to keep a maximum of ten acres of area for the purpose centres.14 3. about six per cent from 15 to 25 acres and the rest about one per cent were of more than 25 acres. horses.31 0. camels. labourers.28 3. Besides. Street light arrangements It has been found that majority of the principal yards had permanent street light arrangements.12 25.18 3. therefore. officials of public procurement agencies. It will be sufficient Table 5 Area of purchase centres in Punjab. Rather. 1998-99 Area (in acres) 1 Up to 5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50 and above Total No. 2002 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Since almost all the purchase centres October—December. About 78 per cent of the purchase centres were having up to 5 acres of area. 1998-99 Area (in acres) 1 Up to 5 5-10 No. 11 Area of purchase centres The information regarding area of purchase centres in the State is given in Table 5.97 5. transporters.64 3.31 — — — 0. purchase centers and focal points by keeping pitchers there.62 0.00 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35 and above Total for efficient market operations even in the peak market arrival of wheat and paddy.1 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50 and above Total 2 2 5 — 1 2 61 3 3. majority of sub-yards.61 2. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . On the other hand. This data were not available in case of 98 focal points out of the 252. Table 4 Area of focal points in Punjab.25 1. Only temporary light arrangements were provided in the peak marketing season of rabi and kharif crops. dhaba and sweet shop owners in the markets also serve some drinking water to the public.28 100. On the other hand. of focal Points 2 51 40 24 20 11 5 2 — — — 1 154 % age 3 33. did not face any problem of drinking water throughout the year in all the markets of the State.43 0. about 29 per cent of the focal points were having area between 10 and 20 acres and about 12 per cent had more than 20 acres of area. large area may not serve much useful purpose. without any hesitation. etc.

1982 to 1993 Year 1982 1985 1986 1991 1992 1993 No. all other Table 6 Facility of covered sheds in the markets of Punjab.A perusal of the table showed that 55 per cent of the principal yards had the facility of covered sheds. It was suggested that in small markets only one operation. the actual capacity utilization of these units in case of paddy season was 107. 1998-99 Sl. New purchase centres may not be economically viable.13 63. To save the agricultural commodities from the vagaries of nature. new purchase centres may not be set up keeping in view political considerations of the ruling party in the State. As a result of this. In the decade 1982 to 1992.78 partially mechanized markets. They have also not been repaired for a long time. rumours were spread out by some quarters that with the coming of these units.05 43. purchase centres and focal points may also have this facility in the State by the year 2010.Covered sheds The information regarding covered sheds in the markets is given in Table 6. cleaning. The capacity of small units was 100 bags of wheat. the Punjab Government decided to undertake implementation of partially modernized market on an experimental basis. 17 and 9. Such markets were termed as 12 open sky and were being damaged by rains (Grewal. Mechanical handling units in grain markets The grain markets in Punjab were classified into small. There are only a score of mechanics to look after these units but at most of these units only chowkidars were looking after these machines. The year-wise detail is given in Table 7. I II III IV Type of market Principal yards Sub-yards Focal points Purchase centres Marckets having covered sheds 86 75 174 408 % age to the total 55. the Punjab Mandi Board may evolove a policy to build up covered sheds in all the principal yards in the near future. The actual capacity utilization for wheat was 11. i. filling of bags. Sahnewal and Doraha were installed by the agricultural engineers of the Punjab Agricultural University. the performance in case of wheat season was dismal. these units were finally put to use in 1982 after all the formalities were taken care of. of mechanical handling units No. 2001). On the other hand. more than 14 times and the number of modernized markets increased from 3 to 34.. In the year 1980. This was termed as nominal mechanization. these units were operated to their full capacity and the results were up to the expectations. Most of these units were lying under an Table 7 Number of mechanical handling units in Punjab. weighing of bags and stitching of bags were proposed to be mechanized through small mechanical handling units. six mechanical handling units in three markets namely Khamano. For example. Due to financial and other constraints. In medium sized markets.55 69. A number of such units were proposed to be established in each market depending upon the need. Only some machines were under proper sheds. 50 bags of paddy and that of big units was 200 bags of wheat and 100 bags of paddy per hour (Grewal. 117 and 115 per cent during the years 1988.. Even during these years. cleaning operation be mechanized. medium and large markets based upon the seasonal quantum of foodgrains handled in each market.e. Given the present number of purchase centres is sufficient. the capacity of which would match the manual unloading rates. about 16 per cent between two and four acres and the rest about six per cent had four acres and above area. It has been observed that when these units were introduced. There are two types of sheds in the State. About 64 and 69 per cent of the sub-yards and focal points had this facility in Punjab.e. 2001). Area of covered sheds It was found that about 78 per cent of the principal yards had sheds up to two acres of area. Most of these units have been lying idle for the last many years. The infrastructural facilities may be strengthened in the existing markets. the commission agents will become Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. therefore. 2 to 86 Page No. These units were capable of automatic weighment.3 per cent during these three years respectively. the experiment of fully mechanized grain markets have not been taken up by the Punjab Mandi Board and State Government so far. As a long run policy measure. of markets 6 10 22 32 68 88 3 4 8 12 29 34 sub-yards. the area of covered sheds was found to be up to one acre whereas this figure was half an acre for almost all the focal points as well as purchase centres. 1989 and 1990 respectively. No. At present. filling and stitching of bags. this was available only in about 4 per cent of the purchase centers. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . In almost all the sub-yards. the Board constructs RCC as well as tin sheds. Up to the late eighties. Ludhiana with the financial support of Punjab mandi Board. the number of such units has increased from 6 to 88 i.

1966-67 1976-77 1986-87 1993-94 1998-99 Source : Statistical Abstract of Punjab.49 and Rs. Against this. 123. 20 lakhs contribute 20 per cent of their income to the Board whereas this figure is 40 per cent for the committees with income from Rs. It may be mentioned that committees with an annual income up to Rs. kms in 1966-67. The expenditure of the Board was Rs. 69. The market committees collect the market fee @ 2 per cent of the value of the produce from the buyers of farm produce. Keeping in view the overall unsatisfactory performance of these units during the last about two decades in the State. each principal market served 257 villages in India (Rangi and Sidhu.70 crores mainly this way in 1996-97. The commercial electricity connection of these units are still going on and the payment of these bills is being made by the concerned market committees. kms (Rangi and Sidhu..12. Rs. 1997-1998 and 1998-99 respectively. The financially sound commitees with income above Rs. 1966-67 to 1998-99 year No of regulated Average No. It was found that each market committee served 139 villages in 1966-67 which fell to 86 in 1998-99. 31. Rs.59. 45. with the result that most of the commission agents in such markets started opposing this scheme. over a period of time. It may be mentioned here that a farmer of Punjab has not to travel more than 8 to 10 kms for sale of principal crops. wheat and paddy. these units may be auctioned by the Punjab Mandi Board and resources generated in this regard may be invested for the development of other infrastructure in the mandis. 16. Rs. The data given in Table 8 show the growth in the number of market committees in Punjab from 1966-67 to 1998-99. These units were filled with power cleaners that cleaned wheat and paddy in a better way. But later on power cleaners were made compulsory for the commission agents after which these units became almost idle. Income and expenditure of the Board The income and expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board for 1996-97 through 1998-99 is shown in Table 9. Rs. With the establishment of new market committees.70. 2002 13 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Thus. cleaning.e. kms) 572 466 357 352 352 purpose. During the last one decade or so. 4 per qtl more than the fixed price and the payments were made on the spot.44 and Rs. Each year. It also reduced congestion in the main yards of the market committees. The financially weak committees contribute less whereas the committees with high income contribute more. 2001). Expansion of market committees The expansion of regulated markets has brought a number of improvements in the system of agricultural marketing. 2 to 86 Page No. October—December. 114. 94. It may be mentioned that most of the other Boards and Corporations of the State Government are in the red whereas the Punjab Mandi Board had positive closing balance of Rs. this figure declined to 352 sq. This shows the sound financial health of the Board. Therefore. the area served per principal market in India was 1424 sq. The opening balance during these respective years was Rs. 31.89. The data given in Table 9 showed that the Board got Rs. stitching and loading of the produce. This not only saves time of farmers but also bring efficiency in various marketing operations like unloading.19 crores respectively. 20 to Rs.61 crores during the years 1996-97. The electricity connections of these units should be terminated if these units are not to be made operational. of markets villages served per regulated market 88 108 141 144 144 139 113 88 86 86 Av. sufficient funds were left unutilized and were carried to the next financial year. 79.12 and Rs. 2001). These units also saved a lot of time.81. The model of agricultural marketing development of Punjab is often cited as an example for other States of India. The high establishment cost left little funds for development Table 8 Number of market committees in Punjab. The average area served per market committee in Punjab was 572 sq. 31. Against this. 31. The officials of procurement agencies were also not interested in this scheme because they were also hand in glove with the commission agents (Grewal. This difference has been kept to provide rational allocation of funds for development to all the market committees of the State.idle and they will be thrown out of their business. the State Government and the Punjab Mandi Board decided in mid-eighties not to have rapid expansion in this regard. kms in 1998-99. Rs. i. 82. 40 lakh contribute 50 per cent of their income to the Board. 2001). the total funds available with the Board during these three years were Rs. 92..49 crores respectively. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively.93 and Rs.68 crores during these respective years. 40 lakhs. Area served per regulated market (sq. Their number which was 88 in 1966-67 rose to 144 in 1993-94. All the market committees have to contribute a fixed proportion of their income from this source to the Punjab Mandi Board. Various Issues. 111. new market committees have been established in a few cases because of high establishemewnt cost of each committee. The operation of these units was beneficial to the farmers of the State because they got Rs.81 and Rs. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . 92. filling.

IV.00 (19.51 12392.16) 500.76) 500.07 (62. in lakhs) Sl.31) 251.91 (100. Rural Development Fund.96 3148.05) 25.94) 1.62 (10.41) 500.87 1596.89 (0. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . III.85 (3.06) 5787.32 9211. II. 1996-97 through 1998-99 (Rs. Provident Fund.96) 182.34 (0.89 (0. IX.00 (5. II.49) 32. Grand total 1996-97 4558.50 (2.32 1434.Table 9 Income and expenditure of Punjab Mandi Board.02) 48.06 (100.50 (100.46) 500.40 (12.39) 102. Particulars Opening balance on Ist April Income during the year Total (I + II) Expenditure during the year Closing balance on 31st March (III-IV) Components of expenditure Establishment expenses Contingencies—Recurring Contingencies—Non-recurring Loans and advances to employees Construction work Development of mandis Board's works Central assistance Link roads Financial aid/loan Repair and maintenance of Kisan Bhawan Investment and purchase of property Securities refund Development schemes Deposits in suspense Miscellaneous adjustable/recoverable payments for advance to District Mandi Officers.11) 50.98) 282.44) 5729.24) — 4599.00 (5.29) 5404.70 11470.03) 400.15) 1800.26) 243.04) — 1997-98 3181.00 (5. X.08) 95.00 (6.54 (1.04) 61.06) — 4708.53) 1.45 (0.00 11118.00 (0.00 (1.87 9457.53) 65.69) 5.60) 980.00 (0. VIII.87 7970.60) 97.00 (0.81 (0. (a) (b) (c) (d) VI.00 (25.67 (1.00 (2.00) (P) means provisional.17) 166. Chandigarh.01) 26.78 (50.99 (17.70 (1.27) 273.93 (1.91 3181.30 (1.39) 56.68 (55. 2 to 86 Page No.00 (4.00 (3.12) 1027. IV V I. etc.43 (0.00 (57. 8288.29) 42.53 6911. market committees' works. I.76 (0. III.53) 9457.88) 300.00) XIII.84) 50. 14 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.68) — 6.38 (17.41) 9243.00 (0.00 (0. Source : Punjab Mandi Board. V.38 (69.50 1661. XI.69 (2.00) 1998-99(P) 3148.05) 3200. No.83 9243. Note: Figures in parentheses indicate percentages to total expenditure. XII.00 (33.23 8288. Insurance Claims.37 2448.74) 119.00 (0.58) 200.23) 5.68 (3.25 (0. VII.84 (0.

The expenditure on link roads alone was Rs.04 0.81 25600. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively which in percentage terms worked out at about 55.14 crores. three and five per cent of the expenditure of the Board during 1996-97. The Board spent about 12. Another important component of expenditure of the Board has been on the development of mandis. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively.95 10884. more than 99 per cent of the villages of the State have metalled link roads.97 0. expenses Total expenditure 289. covered sheds and electricity. Ludhiana. About one.50 11.003 0. fire fighting and related equipment. the expenditure on this head may be doubled from the next financial year.34 0. The non-recurring expenses included purchase of new vehicles.78 11.39 139. Apni Mandi (Farmers' Market).23 0. in lakhs Sl. metallic bins and weigh bridges. the income is Rs. The funds saved from the construction of new link roads may be utilized for the development of mandis and strengthening of infrastructure there. travelling expenses. Table 10 Income and expenditure of market committees in Punjab. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. grading of fruit and vegetables.55 1106.42 30.25 1616.61 4. 15 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.82 crores respectively.66 67. The opening balance on 1st April. The Income from licence fee and other sources was Rs. It is suggested that existing link roads may be repaired and may be widened keeping in view the traffic intensity in a particular area.00 crores in 1996-97. These measures of the Board in the form of development schemes have brought efficiency in the marketing system and proved a boon to the farmers of the State. The notable recurring expenses were telephone and electricity bill. The expenditure on recurring and non-recurring contingencies were about four.51 and 34 of the total expenditure of the Board. Keeping in view lack of the market infrastructure in the State. the total income was Rs.30 187. From this source.28 crores. 2000-2001* Rs. research grant to the Punjab Agricultural University.00 *Budget estimates.12 824. 46. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively. 256. 2 to 86 Page No. furniture and fixture and audit fee. development of mandis and other works of the Board.65 0. Expenditure on the same proportion may be reduced from the sub-head of link roads. new link roads may not be the priority area of the Board. It also included expenditure on the upliftment of infrastructural facilities such as providing pucca platforms.A perusal of Table 9 further revealed that major expenditure of the Board was on the development of market infrastructure in the form of construction of link roads. provision of power cleaners in the mandis.58 crores. 35. Expenditure I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Mandi development Mechanical units Link roads Cotton grading Landscaping Establishment expenses Travelling expenses Contingencies-recurring Contingenceis-Non-recurring Loans Contribution to Board LIC fee 5860. Thus. 2002 Income and expenditure of market committees The income and expenditure of all the 144 market committees in Punjab for the year 2000-01 is given in Table 10.04 19. As already stated.22 7. 308. It was mainly on the installation of mechanical handing units in the grain markets. therefore. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .58 35. grading of foodgrains and oilseeds. 32. Source: Punjab Mandi Board. half and three per cent of its expenditure on the development schemes during 1996-97.00 B. running and maintenance of cars and other vehicles.37 1481. medical aid.93 0. It is charged from the buyers of the farm produce. postage and publicity. the main source of income of the market committees is from the market free levied@ two per cent of the value of the produce.81 100.19 100.45 XIII XIV XV XVI Audit fee Amenities Misc. Rs 47. 1997-98 and 1998-99 respectively was on loans and advances to its employees.94 5.34 30893.97 1294.76 18. four and five per cent of the total expenses in 1996-97. 2000 was Rs.09 and Rs. The Board also utilized about one.67 1. As already stated.65 2362.00. data processing and computers. 11 and 19 per cent of its total expenditure on this head in 1996-97.98 30827. No A. 1.87 and Rs 14. printing and stationery. The income of each market committee was worked out at Rs 2.10 2. October—December. Punjab is the second State after Haryana in the country to link almost all the villages by metalled roads.44 0. Particulars Amount %age Income I II III IV V Opening balance Market fee Licence fee Other income Total income (I to IV) 3557.22 4.54 83.30 3.38 400. Chandigarh.00 corres.37 6004. As already discussed.

In the peak marketing seasons of rabi and kharif crops. it will also have negative affect on the development of infrastucture in the mandis. etc. Additional funds may also be provided in this regard by the concerned quarters. Ludhiana. April 18. levy of market fee on the market arrival of farm produce and investment of a part of this fee back for creating necessary market infrastructure and facilities like link roads in rural areas for still higher production and efficient marketing system is unique in the developing countries of the world. Each market committee in the State utilized about Rs 41 lakhs on mandi development. 1984. In the era of liberalization. Deptt. drainage system. public procurement agencies. Mandis lack facilities. a fixed proportion of income from the market fee goes to the Mandi Board. the market infrastructure may be of international standards. sheds. the existing link roads may be repaired and widened wherever required. New such centers may not be established for a minimum of next five years. The major expenditure of the Punjab Mandi Board is on the link roads which in percentage terms worked out at 40-45. V. pp 1-72. 2 to 86 Page No. Chandigarh.117(106). existing levies/cesses may be allowed to continue on all the agricultural commodities. II. As already stated. Gill.15 crores during the year 2000-01. The Punjab model of agricultural marketing. The number of projects/ schemes to be initiated in a particular year may be formulated keeping in view the financial constraints/ implications.e. new link roads may not be laid anywhere in Punjab. Therefore. As already stated. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . buyers. The poor market infrastructure results in higher marketing losses. Those mechanical handling units which are not operative may be auctioned by the Punjab Mandi Board and resources generated in this regard may be invested for the development of other market infrastructure in the mandis. The expenditure on the development of mandis is less which resulted in poor infrastructure like roads within the yards. III. At present. privatization and globalization. i. Therefore. The schemes may be formulated keeping in view the economic interests of the farmers. such construction or rapair work creates problems in the mandis. I. It will generate funds for the development of infrastructure in the mandis. The expenditure on loans to employees was about four per cent. The expenditure per market committee was marginally high to the extent of about Rs. The manifold increase in the agricultural production might not have been achieved without the successful development of an efficient marketing system. 2. electricity. the overall market infrastructure is not adequate. Any reduction in such levies/cesses will adversely affect the income of the market committees. The marketing of farm produce has become orderly and efficient particularly at the assembly point. In the peak period. The number of principal yards. recurring and non-recurring contingencies taken together about four per cent and audit fee about one per cent. focal points. 1997. The infrastructure may be built up in the existing purchase centers. REFERENCES Chawla. the expenditure on the link roads may be reduced by the market committees and allocation for the mandi development may be enchanced. p 3. VII. The construction work or repair work in the mandis may be done only during the lean months when the arrival of farm produce is low. The share of link roads was about eight per cent in the total expenses. Foodgrain losses at farm level in Punjab. repair works in the mandis may not be initiated. Market infrastructure can play an important role in this regard. 1000 as compared to the average income.S. It may be mentioned here that total expenditure per market committee was Rs. The establishment expenses were 19 per cent. Rather. Of Economics and Sociology. The number of purchase centre is sufficient in the State. Such job may be completed in the lean months. sub-yards and purchase centers is sufficient to meet the requirements of farmers in all the 12428 villages. Therefore. etc. Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Ultimately. The financial resources of the State are limited. The establishment expenses of the Punjab Mandi Board and market committees may be reduced. new mandis should not be set up anywhere in the State at least during the next five years. IV.S. et al^^. pucca platform. Quality of farm produce will have to play a crucial role in the years to come. Conclusion and suggestions The regulation of markets has solved quite a few problems of agricultural marketing. K. The Tribune.x ekdZ. Punjab Mandi Board and State Government. VIII. About five per cent of the expenses were on amentities and four per cent were miscellaneous expenses. K. The length of the existing metalled link roads in the rural areas is adequate in the State. The saving of funds from the rural link roads may be utilized for the development of infrstructure in the mandis. Vol.The pattern of expenditure of market committees revealed that about 35 per cent of this was contribution to the Punjab Mandi Board. PAU.. Research Bulletin. The following suggestions 16 will go a long way to bring improvements in this regard. VI.

Indian Journal of Agricultural pp 100-109.Grewal. P. Deptt.S.koÙkk ds izek. 2 to 86 Page No.Chandigarh. Marketing.kkyh gSA October—December. G. Mimeograph. p 1.d iz.xekdZ dh . Eighty-eight mechanical handling units lie unutilized. _______ ^^. 2002 17 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Rangi and M. pp 1-89. January 12.S. Ludhiana. 2001.ku . Role of Punjab Mandi Board in marketing development. of Economics and Sociology. The Tribune.xekdZ Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk xq.S. PAU. 1998. Vol 12(1&2). Rangi. Sidhu 2001.S. A Study on Market Infrastructure in Punjab. and M. Sidhu. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Vol 121(12). P.S.

In theory markets supply food corresponding to consumer preferences. A take place to promote the product and to put it in the right place. notably those for storage and transport. apart from transport costs. although it may offer other more social benefits. Marketing is one of the most important. employment and foreign exchange earnings have been generated. For economists the concept often transcends the idea of a mere physical location and is used in a broader sense to indicate the meeting of supply and demand. the costs of 18 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Prices are the result of the functioning of the market and are determined by supply and demand which.Marketing and Export of Fresh Vegetables —AJAY VERMA. Marketing margins are relatively high in developing countries. Price differences over time and between market locations should correspond to the marketing (transaction) costs incurred. To the farmer it is simply selling what he produces on his farm. Market situations are constantly changing and it is important to know what competitors or potential competitors are doing or planning to do. prices that consumers are willing to pay for different commodities and grades should be transferred to producers in order to encourage production of that produce which is in demand. Varanasi. marketing by a large number of small traders will. whatever the circumstances. for example. lack of information is generally seen as being one of the main reasons. There can be many reasons for this. The business of growing vegetable has been shown to be an important part of agriculture and to have an important place in supplying needed food to human beings. This will also include determining any legislation governing standards and which varieties of crop receive the best prices and at what time of year. Market performance is related to the functioning of arbitrage. Links between markets thus become more likely as marketing costs dectrease. The market must be studied in detail to determine current supply and demand forces by studying previous market data and picking up possible trends of what the market might be in the future. a well-defined sequence of events has to *Indian Institute of Vegetable Research. under normal conditions. vegetables can not be grown or it has been found preferable to buy their demands. yet misunderstood. SINGH* Introduction wareness about the importance of vegetables for well-balanced nutrition and as a potential generator of farmer's income. at the right time and at the right price for a sale to be made. Marketing Concept The "market" concept has many connotations. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . it is selling of inputs to the farmer. SUDHIR KUMAR AND P. value. are influenced by costs of production. business activities and frequently means different things to different people. many people will continue to grow vegetables to sell and many will be engaged in the auxiliary business that serve vegetable growers. To the retailer in the agricultural sector. Many people think of marketing solely in terms of the advertising and selling of goods. in theory. The higher the level of marketing costs between markets. Arbitrage is the process of exhange of commodities with the objective of taking advantage of price differences that exceed marketing costs. 2 to 86 Page No. To meet these needs the commercial vegetable business has grown up.M. Market Importance Markets provide the necessary facilities and services to producers and consumers to enable price formation to take place and exchange to be facilitated. The vegetable producing business is too varied in nature to permit a single description or even a good classification. Simultaneously. At present there is a series of forces increasing the pressure for expansion of production and trade of vegetables in the world. World vegetable trade has increased manifold in last two decades. However. Spatial arbitrage should equalize supply and demand at different market places until price differences are reduced to the level of transport costs. However. Countless farmers and others could improve both their diet and economic position by growing more vegetables and by preserving & using them throughout the year. The potentials and constraints for vegetable consumption and marketing need special attention to provide new outlets for vegetable products coming from farm enterprises. prestige pricing. Modern civilization leaves millions of people in situations where. for high marketing costs. This being so. whereas in reality marketing starts long before the goods exist and continues long after they are sold. For example. quality packaging and labeling perceive quality as an intangible characteristic for many consumers. in turn. be economically less efficient than trading carried out by a limited number of large traders. An initial step should be the determination of quality standards. For geographers it usually refers to a physical area and denotes the place where commercial exchange takes place. the smaller the probability that exchange will take place between them.

The assembler or wholesaler may also perform a storage and warehousing function. including a large-scale market. Small-scale producers may be limited to local or regional markets while larger producers are able to market on national and international levels as well. It is important that the farmer should be able to sell the produce at a convenient stage of the marketing channel. A retail market. but is the one that matches cultivators particular circumstances at any given time. In case of perishable commodities for a producer. An essential feature of a market is the opportunity it can provide to immediately and easily compare prices between different sellers of the same product. buying and selling produce. only dealing in foreign trade. there is usually a sales area where goods are displayed. Export Performance India has been a large exporter of agricultural products for centuries. the huge expenditure the marketing cost also affects the income of the cultivators. like any other type of market. is more complex because of the special characteristics like highly perishable nature. All retail markets involve a large number of transactions of relatively small quantities of goods on a face-to-face basis between a seller and buyer. Marketing has much importance in vegetable trade. of delivering to a local assembly market. Studies conducted on marketing of vegetables have shown the exploitation by middleman resulting in very low share of consumers rupee. Local markets are easier to access because an individual grower can serve them with a small or large volume of produce. However. marketing the produce. but no one knows when this price will be offered. the price received depends mainly on the produce prices in local markets and any premium the consumer is willing to pay for higher quality or freshness of produce. Availability of information on market conditions at different locations or different points in the marketing chain is necessary for choosing where to market. With the growth in economy. For example. be brokers dealing in orders rather than goods. 19 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. seasonality.g. Some small growers are able to access national markets by selling their produce through a growers' cooperative. the real problem starts when he attempts to dispose of the same i. Besides. 2 to 86 Page No. Therefore. especially with the growth of more import intensive sectors. as well as allowing economies of scale to be obtained in the transportation of produce from farm to market. Pricing Strategy When selling directly to consumers at the farmer's market or to other local outlets. risk bearing and time) involved when the farmer decides to sell in a market segment closer to the final consumer. the larger the volume of produce handled. Opportunities for most farmers to take advantage of spatial arbitrage possibilities are therefore restricted. With a conventional shop. Marketing Methods Deciding where to market depends in large part on the volume of produce to be marketed. In general. due to seasonality of produce. 2002 for the farmer is not always an optimal solution. a shop front used for advertising the goods and a service area where goods can be received re-packed and stored. bulkiness etc. which are cultivated by farmers for market only. and needs special care and immediate disposable. higher density areas of cities and small towns and in the centers of villages in rural areas. The marketing operations have crucial role. the greater the number of marketing alternatives. transport. When selling to a produce dealer at a farmer's market. The marketing of vegetables. the price received depends on the price the broker or grower's agent receives. Retail markets provide low-cost retailing facilities based on smallscale operations and are typically found in the low and middle-income. Market Activities Wholesaling facilitates the economic function of buying and selling (usually termed as "price formation") by allowing the forces of supply and demand to converge to establish a single price for a commodity. One of the more difficult marketing decisions is knowing when to accept a price and when to wait for something better. Growers first consider marketing alternatives available in local markets. unlike in case of cereals. Careful attention to market trends will help you decide whether to accept a price or wait for something better. Such opportunities are further hindered by the small quantities produced by most. This depends on the costs (e. The best market for a grower is not just the market that offers the highest price. With a market stall these functions occur at one place. A market strategy that attempts to achieve an acceptable price has a better chance of success than one that aims for the highest price. be commission agents (or factors) acting for the producers (and without title to the produce) or be export/ import agents. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . some farmers have the option of selling at farm gate. the need for foreign exchange earnings from agricultural exports becomes increasingly more important from the national point of view. a maximum value added October—December. Farmers often have limited outlets for their produce and are often bound by traditional trading relationships. is a location at which there is a public gathering of buyers and sellers at a known time.e. The people involved in wholesaling can act simply as merchants.marketing and by consumer preferences. in deciding the profit of the farmer on one hand and level of availability to consumers on other side. which may include and element of credit provision by the trader. of supplying a wholesale market direct or of selling directly to retailers or even to consumers. The purpose of retail markets for any commodity is to provide an environment for looking at and buying merchandise that is displayed for sale. among other things. growers must know that price level is consistent with an acceptable profit for the total farming operation. Growers would like to sell their products at the highest possible price.

85 290.13 12.96 1085.87 400.05 152. of India Project Marketing Planning And Design Centre (MPDC) conducted certain trial with regard to packaging of fruit and vegetables.91 115626.73 15. Packing and Organic Farming Vegetable marketing has followed an expected pattern of growth and international participation has increased over the years.8 113409.K.S.46 4467. innovative product closeness to the customers and capacity to take decisions at lower level.0 2123. $ 6 million were exported from the country. The general expansion in the demand and trade of vegetables has been accompanied by a greater internationalization of trade due to a greater number of importing countries as well as supplier countries in world trade.81 487.48 1.E.07 2.8 6045.7 1980.96 % share 5.7 1545. The new liberal policies have assessed to global 20 inventories.1 1838.41 1. Although fruit and vegetables are not among the dominant foreign exchange earners while able to achieve strong growth over the years.1 2192.0 3300.01 558. Table 1 Export of Fresh Vegetables in World Market MT Country Bangladesh Bahrain Canada Spain U.82 2. The results of these trials increased substitution of traditional wooden/bamboo packages with telescopic carton.83 2221.In 2000-01 agri products valued at more than U.3 1186.37 1.56 6.74 15. Tissue paper or polyethylene sheets are used for wrapping to reduce evaporation and thereby prolonging shelf life of the fresh vegetables like asparagus.95 43.95 203.93 1. The consumer demand for organically produced food is driven by food safety concerns.19 4.24 10233. which has intensified the trading contracts among countries.2 2528.7 3805.20 32.1 543.5 16511.71 100. UAE. India is able to fulfil vegetable demands of foreign markets on ad-hoc basis. the country exported other fresh vegetables to the tune of Rs.37 1020.56 11.49 23.94 708. In many cases trade was local or bilaterally oriented is now more international.69 717.07 6.14 crore in the preceding year. Vegetables are proved to have more export potential than other crops.44 2. there are strict checks and watch on the production techniques.42 1872.1 44101.34 99-00 1114. India has been exporting agricultural products as raw products.2 2930.15 523.94 310. World wide there has been considerable research over the type of packaging material for agricultural commodities.84 4. and USA together accounted for more than 50% of the total exports of fresh vegetables in 2000-01.6 1462. use of inputs and processing so that the extra money paid by consumer bring added satisfaction.4 00-01 7290. 2 to 86 Page No.2 3178.63 499. (Lakhs) 00-01 1074.0 -% share 5.5 1870.44 2.12 426.3 8218.0 1610.17 2.94 603.5 1999.9 2453. both raw and processed. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .48 2946.09 100.6 99-00 17579.62 Rs.64 331.51 2.6 2986. capsicum.6 323.77 195.9 1718.21 1.55 2.8 432. The country exports in this sector include commodities and processed food items.84 crores over Rs. India over the years has been regularly exporting a variety of fresh vegetables.62 2.3 133992.3 2142.7 43549.14 413.93 325.2 1852.6 329. 144.82 6. Kuwait Sri Lanka Maldives Nepal Qatar Saudi Arabia U.14 676.5 12063. Sri Lanka.7 2243. semi-processed and processed items.2 1535.7 1372.94 382.61 229.47 444.08 828.29 2511.2 3488.2 64654.68 1.32 7.56 394. Right from production to the shellf. The FAO/UNDP/Govt. In 2000-01.1 10408.89 335. USA Netherlands France Belgium Total 98-99 3646.0 11641.4 3650.84 1249.89 19084.0 98-99 263. chillies.91 2. 190. representing a growth of 32. Packing size depends upon requirement of importing country whereas packing material depends upon the acceptance by the airlines.60 1.0 2324.31 312.47 420.25 324.0 Fresh vegetables are considered as one of the most potential commodities for export in world market as reflected above.7 1890.15 318.73 2.0 1276.A.2 744.4 6037.7 3971.8 861.89%. The moveAgricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.4 1676.32 417.63 2.77 1.19 1251.6 6276.0 2954. brinjal and okra.7 4678.13 2434.22 14414. The growth and survival of domestic entrepreneurs will depend on their strength.

such as storage. Within the country there are wide variations in productivity level. Agreement on Agriculture. and plants that are more efficient in extracting and utilizing nutrients. Conclusion Growing produce can be profitable. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Weakness in export infrastructure specific to vegetable products. herbicides are strong in the developed countries. imposing quality barrier. In this direction accelerated agricultural research is desired which aimed at issues such as host plant resistance to pests.T. but also ability to deliver the desired quantity at demanded destination in time. organically produced vegetables are available in the market at a premium price. nitrogen fixation from the air.ment towards increasing food safety and consumption of organic food produced without the use of chemical inputs such as pesticides. In developed countries. The problems and opportunities associated with vegetable production need to be carefully considered. Now it involves not only price competitiveness. But of equal importance are the problems and opportunities associated with marketing. port handing facilities. as per the W. The stagnating vegetable export from country in recent year can be traced partially to distorted domestic prices for certain products. but not everyone who attempts to grow produce will be successful. 2 to 86 Page No.O. The developed countries are setting higher standards of quality. AGMARK STANDS FOR PURITY AND QUALITY BUY AGMARK PRODUCTS October—December. lack of large scale processing technology and export quota restrictions makes Indian supply sources unreliable and hinder the exploitation of full export potential. 2002 21 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. our national productivity is less than world average. A sound marketing strategy should be developed before a crop is planted. at progressively higher levels to prevent entry of country exports into their markets. Then. Raising the level of productivity and quality standards to Internationally competitive levels is one of the major challenges following the dismantling of quantitative restrictions on imports. The competitiveness in global market has acquired a multidimensional concept. called non-tariff barriers. good management is needed to ensure high yields of high quality products that are packed and labeled according to market specifications. The International trade in vegetable is increasingly being dominated by concern of quality to safe the human health. For several commodities.

23 0.32%) of the capital investment on the farms was on irrigation structure. O Marketing Efficiency (ME) The ratio of the total value of goods marketed to the total marketing cost is used as a measure of efficiency.) where white onion cultivation is concentrated in the Konkan region. India.03 Large 1. GADRE1 J.14 ha in large group with an overall average of 0. and its production was 32 lakh MT in 199798. Ratnagiri. Buldhana and Aurangabad occupying about 89 per cent of area under onion in the state Particularly.18 to 0.72 ha. In Raigad district of the Konkan region about 100 ha area is under white onion crop in Rabi season.S.09 (14.17 (22. Highly industrialized nations such as United Kingdom and Germany are leading importers of onion. It is grown in three seasons of the year (i) Kharif (ii) Late Kharif and (iii) Rabi.1 I Where ME = Index of Marketing Efficiency V = Value of goods sold (Consumer's Price) I = Total Marketing Cost. Dapoli.03 1.21 54487 (21.89 Medium 1.35)** (25.36 q with the overall average of 144. (i) Small Group upto 0. Iran.) Methodology A sample of 100 white onion growers was selected randomly from 10 villages in Alibag Tahsil of Raigad district (M. 2 and 3 Associate Professor.84)** 143. Onion crop has a very important place in the economy of Maharashtra.33 ha in large group with 0. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Russia. Shepherd's Equation is. Solapur.14 Overall 0.09 ha in small group. in Konkan region of the state white onion is grown by cultivators in certain pockets only. Particulars No.46)+ 144. M.49)** 140.390 ha.36 68130 (23. Turkey.27 ha.92)* (139. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth.89 1. Economics. WADKAR3 nion (Allium Cepa) is an important and indispensable item in every kitchen as condiment and vegetable in India. V ME= — . 0. (Q) Small 0. (M.33 0. Nearly one fourth (23.89 q to 150. The selected cultivators were classified into three categories viz. about three fourth of global production is accounted for by 24 countries in the world. Spain. Brazil and Japan. TALATHI2 AND S.80)+ 1. Ahmednagar.72 0. The demand for onion is world-wide and is not limited to any particular climate and nationality. The area under onion in India was 301.) 22 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.S.89 ha. and (iii) Large Group 0.91 per cent for sample farms.31)+ 150.86 (131. an attempt in this study is made to study profitability and resource productivity in white onion production in Raigad district. (M. Jalgaon. Dr. It is an important crop in all continents and is commercially cultivated in various countries.35)* (127.32)+ Per farm investment on 64182 irrigation structure (Rs. However.S.74)** (19.28 0. In view of this. 1 2 3 4 5 Total operational holding (ha) Gross Cropped area (ha) Area under White Onion in Rabi Season Productivity per ha.23 ha in medium group and 0. Dist. It has destination of largest contributor accounting for nearly 30 per cent to the national production with only 24 percent of the area under onion in India. in small group to 1. The standard cost concepts were used to study the objective. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General Information Table 1 indicates that the size of operational holding for sample farms of white onion was increased from 0.91 q. S. Sl. Higher the ratio the higher the efficiency and vice versa.28 ha and above on the basis of area under white onion cultivation. the important countries are China. The principal onion growing districts in the Maharashtra State are Nasik. Osmanabad. The per farm area under white onion was 0. Table 1 General Indicators of Sample Farms of White Onion.91)* 0.) (26.62 (111. Pune. Satara.Price Spread in Marketing of White Onion in Raigad District of Maharashtra State —A. The average cropping intensity was 127.42)* 0. This stratification was done with the help of mean and standard deviation. USA. Department of Agril.17 ha area under white onion at the overall level.91 57856 (23.17 ha (ii) Medium Group upto 0. 2 to 86 Page No. The productivity per hectare of white onion ranged between 140. China ranks first in area and second in onion production in the world. V. The disposal pattern and price spread in different channels of marketing for white onion were studied for the year 1998-99 by collecting data from selected white onion growers and important market functionaries in the study area. Dhule. Ex-Post Graduate student.

88) 1.2 105904.98 (4.38 4642.78 2153. No.) Overall Quantity Value (Rs.54 (3. Bulbs Production 140.53%) 12.01 kg per hectare at overall level.67) 147.) Medium group Quantity Value (Rs.9 115683. Disposal i.21 (100. Seed production (kg) 4734. Hence the quantity was very low.69 7117. 3.31 q per hectare (89.01 7337.97) 129.32) 5.46 143.9 2997.67%) in large group.89 124038.58 per cent in large size farm of the total production. I. loss in storage and transport Losses (%) B.84 (92.42) 2.23) 141.00) 101106.48 (1. This has resulted into generating large marketed surplus of white onion with increase in farm size.16q (78.94 99249.29 II.08 (6.41 per cent in large group.16) 2. October—December.84 per hectare (93. 2 to 86 Page No. Out of total production very small quantity was used as gift to relatives/friends which was 3.05 2342.48 133921.89 (100.83%) 11.37 per cent in small.32 per cent produce was consumed at home in small group. in medium size farms 1.31 (89.18 18435.84 (93.16 q per hectare (78. At the overall level. Disposal of produce The per hectare disposal of produce is given in Table 2 It was observed from the table 2 that out of total production 14.00) 136075.26) 2.66 7436.24 93079.) A.52 ii.01 (1. in medium group 11. Cultivator choose the channel as per their convenience their produce in the study area.68 per cent.84 q per hectare (92.06) 140.16 (78. **Figures in parenthesis indicate proportion to gross cropped area. Table 2 Per hectare disposal of white onion.69 kg per hectare with the 12.87 per cent in medium group.53 per cent. It was observed that with the increase in farm size quantity of produce sold also increased from 110.65 9.36 (100. Farmers took production of seed considering their own requirement. the losses were observed to the extent of 2.15) 135. 23 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.34) 140. 4.19%) in small group.58%) 11.71 (96.48 6941.34 iii. medium and large group respectively.26 150. Marketing of White Onion The marketing system for white onion in Raigad district is without interference of the Government at any stage of marketing. Home consumption 20. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .11 (2.41) 2.06%) in medium group and 140.91 (100. This has showed that post-harvest losses in white onion were reduced with increase in farm size.76 (1.83 per cent and 1.98 (98.48 kg per hectare and in large group 11. where it was 6.38 6.80 144. Marketed surplus Total 100686. Sl.) Large group Quantity Value (Rs.84q (93.26 per cent at the overall level.25 (97.56 1819.31 8306.32) 5.23) 131.88 5.*Figures in parenthesis indicate cropping intensity.00) 128773.81) 110.17 (14.23 per cent and 1. 131. 1.47) 3. Particulars Small group Quantity Value (Rs.86 (1.73 (Figures in parentheses indicate percentages) It was observed that losses in storage and transport in small size farms were 3.75 iv. +Figures in parenthesis indicate proporiton to per farm investment in assets.23%).31 kg per hectare. Gifts to relatives 4917 1242. Total marketed surplus was 110.81 per cent.58 (98.45 (1.00) 1186681.68%) 13. The marketed surplus at the overall level was 129. 2002 It was observed that seed production in small group was 13.52 1856.67%) in large group.04 127460.63 4927.38 (3.13 (3.19%) in small group to 140.

2.11 2.93 10. 4. Consumer Retailer Wholesaler Total Agency Qty 0.75 3. No. 3. 23 (69. of Growers 7 Qty Marketed (Qtls) 0. 4.99) 85. wholesalers. No. 2.62%) and Channel I (1. and comparison of costs incurred can give a appropriate measure of efficiency which is presented subsequently. The white onion growers were observed to use different channels viz.) 7 (7. Channel Producer-Consumer No.03 20.00) 17 (100. marketing of white onion was in the hands of marketing functionaries to the extent of 93.70) 33 (100. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . retailers and consumers. The commodity passed through four different channels of trade namely.00) Qty — 10. Producer → Retailer → Consumer IV. producerwholesaler-consumer. The various marketing functions performed by different agencies.00) 57 (57.50 7.00) Overall Qty 0. 36 (36%) through retailers and 7 (7%) growers directly to consumers. The next important functionary was sale through retailers (Channel III) and lowest quantity was sold directly to consumer. Assembling (AC) Grading (GC) Transport (TC) Losses (SL) Others (OCWS) Total 24 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.54 11.00) Qty — — 45. 1. maximum i.01 30.e.54 58.00 1.78 69.) 7 (14. While in large group all i.00) 50 (100. out of 100 cultivators maximum i.21 35. 17 (100%) growers sell their produce through wholesalers only.00 per cent. (1) Marketing Cost The per quintal cost on marketing of white onion incurred by different agencies is given in Table 5. 5.00 1.90%) growers sell their produce through retailers.00) 36 (36.18 10.e.70%) growers preferred to sell their produce through wholesalers while 10 (30.92 14. Thus.37 (100.Table 3 White Onion sold to agencies Sl. Marketing Channels for White Onion In the marketing system for assembling and distribution of white onion. while 17 (34%) growers preferred to sell their produce through wholesalers and remaining 7 (14%) growers preferred to sell their produce directly to consumers.07%).e. At the overall level.99%) followed by Channel III (17.32) 57. 2 to 86 Page No.52 9. Producer-Wholesaler-Consumer 10 3.32%). 3.e.48 (14.00) 26 (52. out of 33 sample cultivators.35 Small No (qt.00) It is observed from Table 3 that out of 50 cultivators in small group maximum i. it was revealed that the maximum quantity was marketed through wholesalers (Channel IV).00 Retailer 1. Based on quantity marketed through different functionaries.07) 12.. I. Cost item of Producer — 0.) — 10 (30.00) 17 (34. 26 (52%) growers preferred to sell their produce through retailers.19 (66.98 Large No (qt) — — 17 (100. Channel II (14.90) 23 (69. 57 (57%) growers sell their produce through wholesalers.94 25. Table 5 Cost of marketing incurred per quintal of white onion by different agencies Sl. agencies involved were accounted as white onion cultivators. In medium group.57 85.50 10. Producer → Wholesaler → Consumer III.98 45.92 4. Producer-Retailer-Consumer Producer-Wholesaler-RetailerConsumer 36 47 100 1. The detail break up of other costs incurred by retailers and wholesalers are given in Appendix IV.85 52.00) 100 (100. Table 4 Channel-wise Distribution of White Onion Marketed Sl.56 Wholesaler 2.78 (17.49 2.37 No (qt.68 9. The channel-wise distribution of white onion growers and quantity marketed is given in the Table 4. producer-retailer-consumer and producer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer respectively. No. Producer → Consumer II.23 1. 1. producer-consumer.04 Medium No (qt. Producer → Wholesaler → Retailer → Consumer Operational Efficiency in Marketing of White Onion Operational efficiency can be measured by cost benefit ratio.62) 14.92 (1.00) It is observed from the table that the maximum quantity of white onion was passed through Channel IV (66.

(iv) Gross market Margin The percentage share of marketing margins in consumers price paid was 1.44 per cent in channel IV.00) (100. truck etc. III and IV. (iii) Share of Retailers This agency was final link between the wholesalers and consumers and played an important role in delivering the goods and services at the desired time and place. direct sale). Particulars No.50 for producers Rs.56 (4.27 (88. 2 to 86 Page No. II. tempo. 2.02 per cent of consumers rupee in channel II. It was also noticed that the volume of commodity handled by this agency was very large.88) It was noticed from Table 7 that the marketing efficiency (ME) was much higher in Channel I (84) than that of Channel II (2..44 (9. This revealed that the higher marketing margins were taken 25 October—December. This spread consists of marketing costs and margins of the intermediaries. Retailers and wholesalers used various modes of transport such as bullock cart.63 2. The marketing margin was highest in Channel II. sale through retailer) was comparatively profitable channel for sale of white onion in the study area.44) 110. 1.19). Value of the produce sold (Consumers Price Rs.02) III 845. 25.39. The losses were Rs. Rs. Next to channel I (i.54 for wholesalers.60 per cent in channel IV. Channel II (2.73 2.46 (ME = 1200 1200 (100.11 for retailers. Market Margins and Price Spread The price spread refers to the difference between the price paid by the consumer and the price received by the producer for an equivalent quantity of farm produce. (i) Share of Producer The producers share in consumers rupee was the highest (98.57 and 28. IV was lower than channel I because the producers marketed their produce through the wholesaler and retailer who reaped away large amount from the consumers rupee.73 (31. 10. while it was lowest in Channel I due to absence of market functionaries.60) 125. 58.24) The producer's share was highest (98.93 to wholesalers. in which they had disposed of their marketed surplus directly to the consumer.85 for retailers and wholesalers.49 (4. The net margin of retailers in consumer rupee was worked out to 24.00) 354. 0.69 per cent and 9.23 for wholesalers.56 and by wholesalers Rs.27 (65. channel III (i.38) and Channel IV (2. The average marketing cost incurred by producer was Rs.54 and Rs.18 for retailers and Rs. for transport of white onion.26 (24. In case of transport it was Rs. respectively.e. 1. respectively.69) 58. The share of other costs was Rs.82 346. Particulars No. The producers share in consumer rupee in channel II. The price spread will be helpful in studying the efficiency of the marketing system. Rs. 1.52 for retailers and Rs. and it was 10.82 (29. 31.49.95%) in channel I and it was lowest (65. 7.15. Table 7 Marketing Efficiency (ME) in Marketing of White Onion Sl.18 (70.85) — — 10 (1. 11. 10.15) 52.73 per cent in Channel III and 68.50 for producer. 2002 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.60) 324. 35.24 (10. The producers share in consumers rupee in other channels varies as 70.19 III 1200 IV 1200 354. Table 6 Per Quintal Price Spread and Returns of White Onion obtained through different Channels Sl. 2. III. The cost of grading was Rs.20) 110.60%) in channel II. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Net price realized by producer Wholesalers net margin Retailers net margin Cost of marketing Consumers Price Gross market Margin I 840 (98. Marketing efficiency (ME) estimated in marketing of white onion crop is presented in Table 7.00 for producers Rs. respectively.38 2.00 retailer was Rs.00) 376. 2.46).88 per cent in Channel I.43) — 296. which ultimately determine the overall effectiveness of a marketing system.21 for retailers and Rs.24 (27. (ii) Share of Wholesalers The net margin share of wholesaler's accounted for 27.39) II 823. 3. 1.95 (9. 9./q) Marketing efficiency V I -1) I 850 10 84 Marketing Channels II 1200 376.85%) in channel I.57) 346. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . 1.00 for producers Rs./q) (V) Marketing Cost (I) (Rs.00) 10 (1.37) 1200 (100.88) IV 823.20 per cent in channel III and IV. 29. The cost and margin for each agency in various channels was estimated and their share in different channels is given in Table 6.88 (28.It is observed from Table 5 that the per quintal cost of assembling was Rs.15) 850 (100. 52.e. This higher share was made possible due to the total elimination of middlemen intervening between producers and consumers. 10.94 for wholesalers.

However growers gave different reasons for losses in storage viz. 2. Price spread in marketing of Irrigated onion in Chickballapur Taluka of Kolar Distrct. The information is presented in Table 8. 29. Thakur. 60 40 50 100 It is observed from the Table 8 that the reasons for storing white onion by respondents were to reap benefits of higher prices (93. Shah. S. Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing. of which 89.00%) for home consumption (99.00%) and protections against decline in prices (7. Resource productivity. The maximum quantity of white onion was passed through Channel IV i. REFERENCES Kairesur.e.00%) and non availability of time to dispose of produce after harvest (27. On the whole. R. V. 60 07 40 60 (C) Methods of storage (D) Causes of storage losses 1.91 quintals per hectare. N. A thesis submitted to UAS. Situation in India. The percentage share of marketing margins in consumer price paid was 11. decay in storage particularly in heap method (40%).85%) and it was lowest (65. Agricultural marketing. growers of white onion need scientific knowledge about proper method of storage (100. 4.88 per cent in Chanel I. in adequate space for storing of onion (50. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . The white onion cultivators should streamline marketing stragegy to minimize the role of marketing functionaries to harness better from white union cultivation. 28(4) : 827-829.00%). K. D.60%) in Channel II. Dharwad (Unpublished). Storage of White Onion The growers were asked about reasons for storing white onion and to mention advantages of storage and causes of storage losses. (1974). Top reap benefits of higher prices For home consumption Non availability of time to dispose of produce after harvest Higher price realized Protection against decline in prices Heap Method Hanging the wreaths on bamboo structure for storage of long duration Losing of the onion from wreaths Decaying in storage (Heap method) Inadequate space for storing of white onion Lack of knowledge about proper method for storage of onion 93 99 27 (B) Advantages of storing white onion 1. Production and marketing of onion in Bijapur District. III and IV respectively. S. ProducerWholesaler-Retailer-Consumer (66.56. The producer share in consumer's rupee was the highest in Channel I (98. An economic analysis of marketing of vegetables in Hubli. Producer-Wholesaler-Consumer (14.e. 3. Agril. (A) Reasons for storing white onion 1. and Singh. Deepak (1999). they had mainly higher price realization (60. A Thesis submitted to UAS. The marketing efficiency (ME) was much higher in Channel I (84%) than that of Channel II (2. R. Maktg. No. R. 13(3) : 11-20. 3. Particulars Proportions of respondents (N=100) Conclusion It was observed that the production of white onion on sample farms was 144. M. 1. (1987).46).00%). Producer-Retailer-Consumer (17. A. (1993).96%) followed by Channel III i.e. Ind. Dharwad (Unpublished).. III and IV resulted in the poor efficiency in the marketing of white onion. Singh. losing of the white onion from wreaths (60. 13(4) : 11-14.62%) and Channel I i. Forty per cent were following heap method for storing white onion and sixty per cent were having the wreaths on bamboo structures for long duration storage. allocation efficiency and farm size. V. Agril. Jour.23 per cent was marketed surplus. and Lalith Achoth (1996). However.00%).99.07%). 31.32%) Channel II i. Dharwad markets. Shyamsundar. II. Marketing supply and prices of onion in Ludhiana and Panipat markets of Punjab and Haryana.00%). lack of knowledge about proper method of storage (100.57 and 28. 2. 10(1) : 52-57.00%).e. 2. 2 to 86 Page No. The marketing system for white onion was in the hands of marketing functionaries to the extent of 93 percent. D. and Patel.away by the market intermediaries in the Channel II. Table 8 Storage of White Onion Sl.38) and Channel IV (2.00%). Karnataka—an Economic analysis. An economic evaluation of onion production and its marketing in Maharashtra. 2. Naik. (1971). ________ 26 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.19) and Channel III (2. Producer-Consumer (1.

consumers and R & D Scientist level. Langra. Kesar mango being the pride of Gujarat's horticultural crops. mainly Junagadh district.97 3. S. Saurashtra is the major mango-producing region of Gujarat. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . 2 to 86 Page No. Cheru-Kursam. Phirangiladua. While policy issues on food quality are discussed at various forums. Neelum.38 12. Alampur Baneshan. Mankurad Alphonso. South Gujarat and some part of Kheda and North Gujarat. However. Ahmedabad October—December. (Bombay Green) Alphonso. Rumani. 2002 27 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. which also has strong potential for exports. Himayatpsand. Indian food industry is faced with a symmetric trade opportunities. in the world. Langra.Quality Issues in Supply Chain : A Case of Kesar Mango at Saurashtra Region —DEODHAR. Table 2 The most popular commercial varieties of mango grown in India State Andhra Pradesh Varieties Banganpali. It is imperative that farmers and entrepreneurs engaged in post-harvest handling and food processing will have to commit themselves wholeheartedly to food quality management.1 Varieties There are about 1100 documented varieties of Mangifera indica L. out of that over 1000 varieties are grown in India itself.2 Introduction n the new WTO led freer trade environment. Totapuri. Navaneetam. As Talala and Vanthali are the most dense talukas of Junagadh district for this mango tree. Kesar.64 9. Neelum. Sarauli. The major mango varieties of Gujarat are Kesar. Bombay.03 — Gujarat India World Share of Gujarat in India 1. 2001). Major mango producing region in the state are Saurashtra. a audio-video survey was carried out in these areas by the Professor and his Associate of Centre for Management in Agriculture.17% Productivity MT/HAC 6. when international prices are high there is no symmetric spurt in exports due to quality problems. wholesalers. delicious taste and sweet aroma (fragrance).23 9. many times. Ahemedabad. Panchdarakalasa. Indian Institute of Management. Chinnarasam. Banglora. Gujarat has produced 34. In fact. Alphonso. Vanraj. Production India is at first position in the production of mango in the world.1 AND PANDIT P. transporters. due to its attractive saffron pulp colour. Bombay. S. Badami and Gola. Mulgoa. Jamedar Dashehari. Mango is one of the major fruit of Gujarat. When international prices are low there is deluge of imports into India. to understand the status and problems of postharvest handling practices of mango at growers. The devil is in the details. Center for Management in Agriculture. price competitiveness of Indian food products is a reflection of price discounting due to poor quality and/or poor quality reputation. Kothapalli Kobbara. Bathua.00 24. Indian food industry can compete globally only if it is price and quality competitive. Y. The production and productivity of mango is shown 1 2 I in Table 1. Ahmedabad Research Associate. retailer. as it shared 17% of the total fruit production of state (Naik and Pandit. Rajapuri. Pairi. Out of that Kesar is the most favourite fruit. Indian Institute of Management. Dashaheri. Peddarasam. issues of problem identification and resolution at the micro enterprise level are seldom taken up. Center for Management in Agriculture. Langra Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Professor. Kishanbhog. Indian Institute of Management. Table 1 Production and Productivity (99-2000) Region Production (million MT) 0. Malgoa.000 tonnes of mango during 1997-98. and. Rajapuri. Himsagar. Most popular commercial varieties of India are given in Table 2. Sukul Fernandin. It was observed that the growth rate of producitivity goes down during 1991 to 1999.

5 4. Langra. The entire tree is being irrigated by dugout lined well. 2 to 86 Page No. As the monsoon of this region is uneven and this region does not have big water conservation command area.692mg/100g 18.15% 9.30 0.5-4. The irrigation method used by farmers are.5-7.0 13. Mulgoa. are given in Table 5.4-3.0 5. Neelam.45 10. This region also comes under semi-rid region and so trees many times feel water stress. Kishanbhog. Suvarnarekha Langra. Dashehari.3 2. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .5-4.10-0.55% 13. The chemical composition of ripe Kesar mango is given in Table 3 and its comparison with some other varieties of India is given in Table 4.4-15.15-0.5-18.2 4.5-16.10-0. so the fruits.5 13.C) Reducing Sugar Non Reducing Sugar Total Sugar Total Carotenoids Ascorbic Acid TSS Source : Dudhat.11% 0. which are inside the canopy.20 0. Kalapad. Samarbehisht. Bombay Green.0-5.10-0. The pest attack is also affecting the fruit quality. Himsagar.15% 8.1-14.5 11.apeda.20-0.2-15.5-18. so trees do not have enough area for the full development of canopy.5 10.4 Reducing Sugar (%) Dashehari. Mulgoa.5 16. smaller seed. 1996.5-5. Sendurg.5 3. cannot get enough sunlight to grow properly.30 0.03mg/100g 4.25 0. It is observed that the old plantation is very dense (at 25 x 25 ft). Pairi Beneshan. The plant-to-plant and row-to-row distance varies from 35 to 45 ft and 30 to 45 ft respectively.5-15.0 12. The flowering starts from January to early February.4-15.35 0.30 0. Every year tree bears new leaves in early monsoon.5 11.54% 28 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.1 Maharashtra Orissa Punjab 2 Alphonso. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 78.8 Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Source : wwww. Chausa Bombay.35 0. which are being responsible for the losses in mango.20-0.15-0. Table 3 Chemical Composition of ripe Kesar mango Moisture Protein Fat Salt Fiber Carbohydrate Acidity Vitamin (A.0 15.0-7. Banglora. Mankural.0 5. either furrow or drip. Agricultural Marketing Kesar has relatively larger edible meat.0 2.20-0. The major pests and diseases. The growers are also not following the pruning practice. Peter Sarauli.28% 11.30% 1.0 12. it is believed that Saurashtra is the oldest land which was to be cultivated for mango plantation. Neelum.34 0.0-7.20-0.00% 0. Cultivation The farmers of these talukas have mango-cultivated plants from 0.2 Composition Although the composition of mangoes varies considerably with variety on an average the following composition is observed:— Edible Portion Seed Peel Sugar Content 55—75% 7—23% 8—22% 15—20% Source : Rajgopalan. Langra.478mg/100g 46.B.60% 0.0-15. Rumani. 1997 3. In Gujarat. The farmers are not used to spray growth regulator for the higher yield from tree.6 11. Chausa.0 4. Langra 2. Kesar.6-15.30 0.0 2.64 0.0-18. Fazli.2-4.60% 0.14-0.15-0. thin peel. 2.0 2.0-3. Safeda Lucknow. htm. The fruit bearing age varies from 5 to 50 years or more than that. and it is very sweet.5-15 h. Samarbehisht.10% 11. the ground water table level of this region remains very uneven. so tree become itself dense.5-6. Alphonso Baneshan Chausa Dashehari Fazli Kesar Langra Mulgoa Neelum Pairi Totapuri Table 4 Comparison of chemical composition of ripe Indian mangoes Variety Total Acidity as Total Soluble Malic Acid (%) Sugar (%) Solid (%) 17-20 14-19 18-24 18-22 18-20 16-20 18-22 14-20 16-18 14-16 14-16 0.com/html/mango.

Generally rent of mango harvesting. 1987. 4. and so healthy fruits get infection by diseased fruit or not evaluated at high price. Pest Mealy bug Stem and root borer Fruit Fruit Rhizopus arhhizus Aspergillus niger 0. There is no any loading and unloading platform in the field so almost all the mango thrown down from the vessel to ground from almost 2—2.e. The harvested fruits are collected in the Tagaras or Bamboo Toplas and transported for the packaging. A team of mango harvesting worker is rented.5 g/lit Infection area/part Twig Stem and Root Treatment Plant Sanitation Kerosin. The harvester used is traditional mango harvester locally called Vedi. weight or quality. Stem. The fallen fruit gets the meOctober—December. which break the pedicel of fruit from uneven length.Table 5 The major pests and diseases and its solution for mango tree. instead of its size. Harvest and Post-Harvest Practices 4. The main maturity index for the fruits considered by growers is the white powder on the skin. 70 and pay Rs. Note Plant sanitation=Removal of infected part from the tree. depends on the quantity of mango that is to be harvested. Fruit. A. The short length of pedicel oozes the latex. Individual fruit has harvested by pulling the harvester.5 g/lit Flowers. 29 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. 2002 chanical injuries. Small fruit (Khataki) Twig. Diseases in the mango tree Disease Major Powdery Mildew Anthracnose Die back Malformation Spongy tissue Minor Stem end rot Fruit pedicel Botryodiplodia Hot water Bavistin or Benomyl Hot water Bavistin or Benomyl Hot water Bavistin Hot water 0. The harvesting is carried out up to mid of the day. which also invites the disease. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . which results in diseases or soft rot during the ripening.1 Harvesting The harvesting season of (Kesar) mango in the Saurashtra region is from April to June. which creates black rot during the ripening and also provides environment for the fungal and bacterial growth. according to size.5 g/lit 1-2 g/lit Infection area/part Causal organism Treatment Dose Anthracnose Fruit Colletotrichum 0.3 Packaging The fruits are not even washed to get better price during the bargaining. Twig.5 g/lit Soft rot Black rot B: Pests in the mango tree. The rough surface of collecting vessel may create bruising on the skin of mango. 4. because the price of mango in the market depends on the white powder on fruits. 2 to 86 Page No. 4.5 ft height. 50 plus one time food per day. for a man and a woman is Rs. Leaves Old dry branches New branch and new flower Fruit Oidium mangiferae Colletotrichum Colletotrichum Fusarium moniliformae Sun burn Sulphur or Bavistin Bavistin or Mancozeb Plant sanitation Plant sanitation Protection from soil heat 2 g/lit 0.2 Grading The fruits are not graded in this region by any way i. Endosulfan (Blocking of Air) Webbing Trap with Dichlorovos (nuvan) and Methyl euginol solution Monocrotophos (ETL 7 hopper/inflorance) Leaf webber Fruit fly Mango hopper Leaves Fruit Inflorescence Source : Om Prakas and Srivastava.

Some good farmers arrange the fruits as the tip remains at the top in the boxes. The complete marketing channel of this region is shown in the flow chart 1. All the mangoes are only Kesar. The capacity of the box is decided by the manufacturer not by growers or any authorized agency. but still there are three grades according to visual size of mangoes and on that based prices are decided during the bargaining. per 10 kg box) Date Small Medium Large Quantity (kg) 21-04-01 100 175 255 13220 28-04-01 105 176 215 14000 05-05-01 105 170 220 85000 12-05-01 75 140 170 89250 19-05-01 55 125 153 130000 22-05-01 60 125 160 191750 23-05-01 89 135 170 190000 24-05-01 87 135 165 198200 30 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. while Tempos and Trucks are used for long distance or for more than 100 boxes. the auctioneer pulls out the mango from any one box and show to the crowd. market. If boxes are costly or not available then the mangoes are packed in to the cement or fertilizer (nylon) bags (kothalo). The newspaper is used as a cushioning and covering material in the packaging. Some times used boxes were reused for packaging. As there is no display platform in the market . Transportation and Marketing The boxes are not handled carefully in the farm. The boxes were bind with nylon or jute (Kathi) string and stacked at side the "KESAR" is pre-printed on the boxes and all kinds of mango can be packed in that. trader. are not known with the quality deterioration and loss. they are used to stand on the boxes and encouraging the agents to increase the price by dancing and shouting.m. No amount has to pay by farmers to the market for the dealing. The market authority person note down the quantity to be sold. according to government rules. 4. To get better price. Flow chart: 1. who sit on the boxes. truck and even in the retailing shop. Complete marketing channel of Saurashtra region The quanity of mango coming to the market was initially 13220 kg and finally 198200 kg in the 2001-2002. auction starts. at what rate to be sold. where the growers can sale their produce to any one and at any rate. Price (Rs. Due to that the fruit temperature remains as it is during entire post-harvest handling chain. The persons. who has purchased and who has sold. there is no standardization in the mango size. At 3:00 p. small fruit are hide at the bottom of box and big fruits are kept at the top. These are the open markets. One or two person are use to sit on the loaded boxes during the travelling. During the harvesting the packaging of fruits is also carried out in the locally available 10 kg corrugated cardboard boxes. The ripe and over decayed fruits are to be thrown away during the packaging. but the agent has to pay 6% commission and rent for loading and unloading of boxes as 1 Rs/box. These boxes do not have enough stacking strength and ventilation. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Table 6 Price of Kesar mango at Talala market in season 2001-2002. The wholesaler.weight or quality.m. These mangoes are marketed further as shown in the flow chart 1. agent and farmers get together with a market authority person. the farmer's children are use to play/sleep/sit on the staked boxes at the farm. 2 to 86 Page No. Generally Chakada is used for short distance (up to 300km).4 Handling. The harvested mango fruit boxes were brought to mango market and stacked against the shop of trader/agent. which is carried out from the one corner of the market. After fixing the price. the fruits are tied up and loaded on the vehicles by the buyer. the Three-wheeler (Chakada) is loaded as much as possible to reduce the transportation cost. The average price of mango also varies according to the size of mango (Table 6). before 3:00 p.

The effective growth regulators are not used by the growers to stop the falling of flower during flowering stage of mango tree. which is very important factor to reduce the fruit temperature and thus. :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Alphonso. Rajapuri. These also affect the price of Kesar mango at the market. colour. it shows that fluctuation of price depends on the quantity brought to market. In entire supply chain nowhere cold chain is used. 5. which will not ripe properly and thus quality is deteriorating. Pairi etc.. Totapuri. al. The figure 2 shows the price difference of the 10 kg Kesar mango box between retailer and market price. These happened every year at both Vanthali and Talala mango market. 1994) the wholesaler sell this mango as it (in boxes) to the retailer/hawkers/overhead vendors. cost of pesticides. 4.e. It means out of consumer price grower gets only 40% and rest 60% goes to mediators. are available to compete the Kesar. The packaging boxes do not have enough strength and even ventilation to absorb jerk and to reduce the respiration heat respectively. The harvesting season of Kesar mango is very late. As the quantity increased the price goes down. and quality. Consumer selects the mango by his experience i. Mangoes reach to the wholesaler after about 24-36 hrs. water charges.Figure 1 shows that the mango price is influenced by the quantity and it's size at the Talala mango market. In the initial days of season the price is high due to less quantity. Figure 2: Difference in the price of mango at retailer shop and at Talala market. Out of these only 40% farmer October—December. Some times consumer becomes confused to select right quality mango. et. throughout the marketing chain of Kesar mango. because he doesn't know the better quality criteria and varieties of mango. jerk and vibration in the truck. which leads the losses. Conclusion 5. 3. There is no cool chain. 6. 2002 1. labour charges. and till that 7% mango get spoiled due to heat. 1994). has to handle all the farm economy. There is also a significant difference of price according to size of the mango throughout the season.. The retailer sell the mangoes at about 150% higher price than the Talala market price. 2 to 86 Page No. The total postharvest loss in mango was estimated about 20-35% (Jadeja. till that other mangoes like.al. About 4% fruits get damaged due to jerk and heat during transportation (Jadeja. They don't tackle the mango cultivation professionally. et. cost of fertilizer and his survival etc. and these things lead the growers to harvest the fruits at the premature stage. increase the shelf life as well as quality. and so growers harvested their mangoes before maturity. which was loaded without cushioning materials. which includes. 5. 31 2. The harvester used by farmers is not so efficient. by his experience to attract consumes.1 Problems Figure 1 Effect of quantity and size on the price of mango. The retailer some times grades the mango according to quality. on the basis of size. 7. No one followed the pretreatment of fungicide to reduce the quality losses by disease due to mechanical damage and brushing injuries. The growers of the Saurashtra are not aware about the importance of quality. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . travelling.

Orchard maintenance Sometimes branches bow down and rests on the ground. scientists and reserchers should find out the different physical and qualitative criteria for the standardization. Sl. A comparative analysis of practices that are considered ideal internationally and the practices that are actually followed in presented below : Actual Practices The farmer we visited had a relatively large orchard of about 30 hectares. The growers should encourage. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . The less vegetables producing countries like Australia. The growers can think farming as business. activity. as the trees were barely 6-7 year old. harvesting and handling of fruits could be improved. 12. which help to reduce the post harvest diseases. 2 to 86 Page No. No market or marketing yard in the Gujarat is suitable for the highly perishable and sensitive commodity. Belgium.e. By such organization they can maintain the quality criteria.8. i. vacuum packaging at 700mm Hg and in 13ºC and 95% RH storage condition (Pandit. producer. US. 9. The standardized pretreatments of fungicide application should be encouraged.e. But there is no diversity in the tree age within an orchard. etc have standard for all the commodities form size. 11. so that while selecting the fruits they can consider the quality i. Farmer had only recently started harvesting mangoes. The transportation by trucks. The marketing system of the mango is not grower's profit oriented. old trees can be removed and new planted on a rotational basis. Drip irrigation still not followed. No. pre-cooler. we should have our own standard and accordingly market should get flow. The well-strengthened and ventilated packaging box should be developed and during that investigation the price per box should also be considered because the farmer will hesitate to utilize the costly packaging boxes. etc. should be encouraged i. There must be some brand name for particular variety of mango. Providing loan or subsidy. Due to this fruit comes in contact with the ground resulting in some damage. For the standardization. The shelf like of Kesar mango can be extend up to 40 days after proper post-harvest handling. There is no standardization of mango grade. The value addition starts from the farmers' field. Another farmer had trees as old as 75 years. etc help the cold chain equipments establishment. The consumers should be aware with the importance of quality and the composition of each variety of fruits in the shop. so that even child or blind man can trust on the quality of the branded fruit. (i) Ideal Practices* Orchard Size Large size of orchards so that infrastructure investment on orchards is ecnomical. 5. The practice of erecting bamboo-rest is being used but not adequately. etc. so that they could get hold on the mango market or reduce the hold of brokers and agents in the market. Quality in Supply Chain Quality problems in the supply chain are caused by many factors. to overcome this. With large size. date of harvesting. from environment. 2001). There is not any brand name in the mango marketing system. 6. 10. so the improvement of entire structure. But many have orchards much smaller in size. The standard growth regulator and stabilizer should be recommended and advertised so that the falling of flowers can be reduced and thus. France. equipment like. (ii) The less damage generate harvester should be developed and it should be encouraged in the mango cultivated area. The market environment is not so suitable for the bargaining process and also unhygienic. growers get little bit low profit.2 Possible Solutions Education for the quality importance of their produce must be given to the growers. 32 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. transportation and hygienic point of view should be needed. whereas. UK. starting co-operative mango society. Britannia. like Parley. variety and quality point of view. This would result in saving significant amount of fruit being damaged due to bruises.e. evaporative cooling structure for small and marginal growers. The consumers are not aware about the quality of mango. the nutritional value in mind instead of price. small-scale cold or cool storage structure for big growers or cooperative societies. tempos and trollies for the perishable commodity should be developed which can beat the respiration heat of commodity as well as reduces the mechanical injuries from jerk. being the second largest fruit and vegetables. a bamboo rest is used to lift the branches. the production of mango can be increased. which may leads the early harvesting of mango.

washing is never practiced jeopardizing the fruit quality at later stages. In the process. (iii) Mature fruit is thick and shoulders bulging out. Latent and external damage takes place. characteristic. No. Fruits. For the mangoes to be exported to US this is a pre-condition. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Fruit be absolutely firm and little reddish-yellow blush on shoulders may have appeared. Only sorting of mangoes done by removing already spoiled mangoes. Appearance also deteriorates. traders to ensure early arrival of the fruit to the retail market goes for premature plucking of the fruit. Occurrence of mangoes falling on the ground is not rare. Somehow. the presence of white powder gives a guarantee that the fruit is a mature one. (iv) Selection of fruit for the harvest Generally growers have a fair idea about the harvesting stage of the fruits. it need not stay on the fruit afterwards. Actual Practices Appropriate pesticides must be applied in time to avoid damage due to mango hoppers. Also the some of the fruits were plucked without sufficient margin of the stem on the fruit. Ideal Practices* At times. Mangoes should be washed with a solution (10litre solution having 10grams detergent and 1 gram of Benomyl-powder/Bavistin as fungicide). Mango Hoppers could damage mango tree. (v) Treatment Mangoes should be kept upside down for two hours on a holed pallet after making a cut on the stem at a length of 1 cm from the fruit. Some amount of pesticide residues. Resulting in latex flowing on the surface of the skin. ignoring the fact that grading could fetch them higher prices and profits. It creeps inside the stalk and eats away the whole tree. fruit fly may stay on fruits. One chemical attracts the flies and the other kills the fly. While presence of white powder while harvesting gives an indication of mature fruit. (vi) Fruits are graded on the basis of size and the quality. As per EU specifications there are three categories: Extra Class (superior quality. Pesticide spray is another option. Results in wastage of fruits by the time it reaches final consumer. Lesser the curvature between shoulder and the beak the better. But credibility problem makes everyone keep it on the fruit. 2 to 86 Page No.) washed with soft muslin. but the flavour and aroma remain poor and the fruit blackens from inside. Appearance of white powder and pigmentation should be there on the skin. Harvesting In the early hours of the day when the ambient temperature is relatively low. A size of about 350 g (plus minus 20 g) is considered appropriate. Generally immature fruit is more elongated and thinner. October—December. They can spoil others later.Sl. Fruit flies also attack the fruit for which a mix of two chemicals can be used. organic matter. Fallen mangoes packed along with the rest. The scale of fruit-fly control method seems inadequate. Often. Artificial ripening by applying carbide granules improves the colour from outside. Stem should be depressed. which fails to develop good colour. Dry the fruit and apply wax (food grade edible slugar based wax duly approved by EEC and USA and can be imported. Grading No such grading done. 10-20 cm stem should be attached when clipped by hand. 2002 33 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. should not be mixed with the properly harvested fruit. No such treatments in practice resulting in the loss due to spoilage of fruit after ripening. Mangoes are kept in solution for 2 minutes and USA and can be imported. which have fallen on to the ground. Farmers. Care should be taken while transporting the fruit to the pack house to ensure that fruit is not exposed to the sun.) Hot water treatment should also be done for mangoes. traders are reluctant to wash the fruit as it will lose the white powder that stays on it. flavour and high soluble solids. Hand cutters or traditional kind of mango nippers can be used. The latex will flow out from the fruit completely without flowing on to the fruit.

Mangoes should be kept in layers and all the stems in one direction so as to have minimum friction between mangoes. (2001). mango cup. mango cone. report submitted to the Government of Gujarat. Mango diseases and their management: A world review.Sl. (1987). (2001). Studies on storage and ripening of Kesar mango. P. 2 to 86 Page No. laborers have little idea of the damage it causes to the product.K. Jaipur : 4-8. Process and Food Engg. The people carrying out these operations are ignorant about handling practices. New Delhi. "Quality Issues in Supply Chain : Case of Kesar Mango. Ahmedabad. Naik. transit. December 29-30.Sc.C. Class II (satisfying minimum requirements). 5-7 April. Post harvest handling and losses in mango fruit in Gujarat state. 20 percent of the weight of the fruit is lost due to reduction in water due to heat. even for domestic market it must be developed. boxes are simply thrown. National Institute of Agricultural Marketing. Sardar Krishi Nagar. C-551-800 g Actual Practices No such grading done. Mangoes are simply dumped into the boxes. Location effects on the yield and quality of mango fruit cv. 2001. (Agril. (1997). H.Tech. (vi) Ideal Practices shape & colouring of the variety & free of defects). Jadeja.) thesis submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University.S. REFERENCES National Horticulture Board (1999).B. (Unpublished) M. Pandit. Govt. 34 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. e. total loss could be about 40%.. Sardar Krishi Nagar. and Radadia. Mango bottle.g." a video documentation on CD. A. K. Retailing Loss due to transpiration and spoilage be minimal due to various practices followed earlier. Deodhar. J. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . and the retailer. IIM. (2001). of Agriculture. Varshney. Bhuva. Does affect the quality of mangoes while they are in transit. In fact. Must educate customers of various ways of eating mangoes." National Horticultural Board. 10-12. (Unpublished) M. L. The boxes used never accounted for such specifications and even the existing holes were not pricked to have enough aeration. Paper presented in Conference cum Workshop on Management of Post Harvest System for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables of Gujarat. (1994). slight defects provided these do not affect general appearance & keeping quality). of India. 7. Transportation Boxes should be stacked properly in pallets and overloading should be avoided. class I (Good quality. G. Om Prakas and Srivastava. Adding spoilages at the orchard. Today and Tomorrow's printers and publishers. "Gujarat Agrovision 2010".B. Only sorting of mangoes done by removing already spailed mangoes. Gujarat. Rajagopal. Rabo India Finance (2000). (viii) Packing The diagonal strength of the boxes appeared quite good to hold the fruit for short distance. 1997. K. We also saw at some places boxes being reused. "Indian Horticultural Database. and Pandit. Laborers sit on top of the heaped boxes while mangoes are being traded or transported. Due to unavailability of cool chain. Cool chain non-existent. Paper presented in 29th Annual Convention of ISAE. Market promotion and advertising by Mexican exporters and US importers on the cards. Kesar. No. Min. Training programme on post-harvest management of mango.) thesis submitted to Gujarat Agricultural University. S. Dudhat. (vii) Weight of the packing boxes should be 300 g/m2 8% of the total surface area of the box should be left for ventilation. While loading and unloading. Use of straw mat or paper could also be made to separate mango layers. No such practices followed to keep mangoes in layers. P.V. Indian Institute of Management. Feb..S.S. "An Overview of Fruits and Vegetables Production and Trade : Implication for India and Gujarat". (1996).Y. (Agri. "Gujarat Agrovision 2010" report. availability of cool chain essential. Ahmedabad. mango ball and mango cut and slices. Size criteria : A 200-350 g B -351-550 g. between Talala and Ahmedabad. For export markets. (ix) *On the basis of Rabo India Finance (2000). Junagadh. ignoring the fact grading could fetch them higher prices and profits. Post-harvest management of mango—A case study of Kesar variety in Junagadh district. Marketing and promotion not done for export market.

C. JAIN* Introduction griculture in Durg district of Chhattisgarh is dominated by rice cultivation.34 percent respectively of the price paid by the consumer. GAURAHA.. Marketing Cost and Margin The relevant data relating to marketing cost and margin are presented in Table 1. the marketing cost of rice in channel II is Rs.19 percent of consumer's rupee respectively as shown in table 2. It is noted that the expenses incurred by the producer in channels I and II were 9. In channel II and Channel III expenses incurred and margin taken by the retailer were 3. wholesale merchants.56 more than that of channel II. in different marketing channels of Durg.Marketing Strategies of Rice in Chhattisgarh—A Case Study —A. and large (above 4 ha. The total marketing cost were Rs.N. felt necessary to analyse the present marketing strategies of rice and to estimate the producers' share in consumers rupee. having maximum area under paddy cultivation. The marketing efficiency was estimated by using shepherd's formula V ME = -1 1 Where. but variation occurs only A *Department of Agricultural & Natural Resource Economics.). There are greater variations of production cost and marketing system existing in different district of Chhattisgarh. V. Producer to consumer Channel-II. purchase the produce.12 and 67. The marketing cost thus varies according to the length of the distriibution channel. Similarly. Thus 90 (10×3×3) farm families from three villages have been taken into account.) October—December. P. The marketing cost of rice in channel III is Rs.23 percent and 5.34 percent and 11.G. ME = Index of marketing efficiency V = value of goods sold (consumer price) I = Total marketing cost Results and Discussion During peak period the marketing cost and margins were worked out for rice in Durg market. professional shops and consumers were collected by a specially designed pretested questionnaire through personal interview method. from each size group 10 (ten) samples were drawn at random. AND B.43 percent of the price paid by the consumer. The marketing of rice in Durg district is not properly organised. 530. Producer to trader to retailer to consumer.K. Pasood and Pendri were selected at random and in second stage a complete direct enumeration of the holding in each sample village was made.) farmers.). Methodology The methodology adopted in this study was a two-step stratified random sampling technique. margin of intermediary marketing efficiency and price spread etc. CHOUDHARY. It is therfore. very little attention has been given to its marketing aspect. The marketing margin and price spread very much depends upon the channels through which rice passes on its way to the end users.K. K. However. 2002 35 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.K. The study was conducted in three blocks of Durg district. medium (2-4 ha. 30 Rs. 2 to 86 Page No. return and pricespread. the villages were considered as primary units whereas households as secondary units. where the auction takes place and purchasers who make the highest bid. The operational holdings are thus stratified into 3 (three) size groups as small (up to 2 ha. 67. This study was taken up to help farmers to identify the deficiency in management of marketing systems and to improve their profit margin. Rice Marketing Pattern In Durg market. village merchants. In Channel-II and III total margin of intermediaries were 5. This district occupies 12 percent of the total rice area in the state and contributes 14 percent to state output during 1999-2000. The important marketing channels of rice have been established as follow : Channel-I.68 per quintal of rice sold through channels I. The tabulation and percentage analysis were made to find out marketing cost. VERMA.S. BANAFAR. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Raipur (C. producer to retailer to consumer Channel-III. In the first stage 3 villages namely Malud. 0. 17. Indira Gandhi Agriculture University.12 more than that of channels I. II and III respectively. traders. mostly the producers bring their produce to the yards of the commission agent.00) irrespective of marketing channel. Rice is grown in the district as principal crop under rainfed condition during Kharif. Primary data from rice growers. Price Spread It is revealed from table 1 that the price paid by consumer per quintal of rice in Durg market are same (Rs. marketing cost.

(1970) price spread and marketing margin of Rice in Punjab.00 7.34) 530 (100. market intelligence facilities etc to facilitate efficient marketing of rice and hinder the intermediaries in taking advantages from the situation. A support price policy is helpful to farmers having marketable surplus and therefore it would produce same kind of protection to marginal & small categories of farmers.20 2.88 4. Similarly in channel II share of farmer expressed in end users rupee was Rs.00) 50. having no intermediaries was highest than all other channels.97 Channel-I 480.00 31.07 4.00 6.83 4.53 31.43) 5.27 percent less than that of in channels I and II respectively. Marketing Efficiency Analysis of indices of marketing efficiency in the selected three channels were indicated in table 3 that index of marketing efficiency is highest for channel I followed by channels II and III. 403 per quintal of rice (76.04%) which is 16.00 1.00 (76. Hence the share of producer in consumer's rupee was inversely proportional to the length of the distribution channel. 1. Conclusion The study shows that there is a tendency on the part of the farmers to sell their produce to retailer (in channel II) though they are aware that their share in consumers rupee is high in channel I (producer to consumer).82 respectively.04 percent and 7. Agricultural Situation in India. 25 (3): 253-257 Neogi A.00 (9.00 31.81 1.54) 5.07 4.43) 5. (a) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2.17 2.in price received by the farmers in different channel because of its lower or higher marketing cost and margin.00) 17.73 4. and Barkataky M.00 481. Expenses incurred by the wholesaler/trader Transportation Market charges Labour charges Processing cost Other charges Margin of the Trader/wholesaler Sale price of the wholesaler/trader purchase price of the retailer/consumer Expenses incurred by the retailer Weighing charges Labour charge Market charges Taxes Gunny bag cost Other charges Margin of the retailer Price paid by the consumer — — — — — — — — 530 (100.83 4. transport processing.10 32.62 28. It is clear that efficiency of channel I. This shows to what extent the marketing agencies are able to move the goods from producer to consumer at the minimum cost extending maximum service.00 1.30 (5.00 (90.30 (5. 434.46 percent less than in channel I. 6.97 50.V.90 and 6.62 28.67. the corresponding values 16.75 Figures in parentheses indicate percentages. Table 1 Marketing Costs and Margins Sl. (1979) Management of price spread for Rice in Assam Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 34 (4) : 306-309.00 7.56 (9.60 per quintal of rice (82%) which is 9.34) 530 (100.00 (9.00 — Channel-II 434.81 1.85) 481. No.72 4.00) — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 481.23) 0.97 Channel-III 403.K. 36 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.23) 0.60 (82. The producer's share expressed. REFERENCES Singh R. (a) Particulars Net price received by the producer Expenses incurred by the producer Transportation Market charges Labour charges Pressing cost Other charges Sale price of the producer purchase price of the wholesaler/trader/retailer (b) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (c) 3. (a) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (c) 4. As consumer's rupee in case of channel III was only Rs.72 4. be made by government to provide physical facilities in and around market including storage. and George. therefore.17 2.04) — — — — — — 359.12 (3. 2 to 86 Page No.57) 50. M.00 (5.12 (3.00) 17.88 4. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Effort should.

82 Channel I Channel II Channel III Channel I — — — Channel II — 28.67 530 67.30 (5. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .85) 28. 2002 37 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Table 3 Indices of marketing efficiency in the selected three channels Particulars Value of goods sold Consumer price (V) Marketing Cost (I) Index of marketing efficiency = v 1 -1 530 30 16. 2 to 86 Page No.30 (5.34) 59.30 (5.68 6.00 (5.34) 28.12 6.19) October—December.90 530 67.34) Channel II 31.30 (11.Table 2 Marketing Margins Particulars Margin of trader/wholesaler Margin of retailer Marketing margin of intermediaries Figures in parentheses indicate percentages.

k ds mi.xekd 'kq)rk dh igpku gS .k gSA eaMh izkax.ksx djus okys dSjksflu Mhyjksa dks deh'ku nsus ds vkns'k Hkh tkjh gks pqds gSaA . lfefr cusxh Hkksiky.d lqj{kk vf/kdkjh vkSj ukS lqj{kkdfeZ.Home News dEiuh lekpkj (i) eaMh vf/kfu.s xfBr eaf=ifj"kn dh mi lfefr dh cSBd fo/kkulHkk esa lEiUu gqbZA cSBd esa crk.d dj foHkkx }kjk crk.sxkA cSBd esa d`f"k ea=h egsUnz flag] foRr ea=h vt.kksa esa fu.ksfxrkxat eaMh izkax.fer lkQ&lQkbZ dk dk.iz-½ lacaf/kr O.fljksgh] d`f"k lfpo vks-ih.s fd.k x.k tk.k fd eaMh vf/kfu. fu.s Hkstk x.l.s Kkiuksa esa mBk.kt] Qy vkSj lCth ds O.xekd ^.kfT.k vukt nygu ij dj <kaps ds laca/k esa jkT.e dh folaxfr.k x. ofj"B vf/kdkjh mifLFkr FksA . 2 to 86 Page No.k fd bl laca/k esa fu..sUn ikBd mifLFkr FksA cSBd esa [kk| foHkkx dh vksj ls crk.k fd d`f"k mitksa dh vuqlwph esa frygu esa 10oas Øekad ij mYysf[kr 'kCn fcukSyk dks foyksfir dj fn.a=.hA okf.kikfj.s 'kklu }kjk .k eq'kjku] okf.kZ.k esa lqj{kk ds fy. fy.s tkus ds laca/k esa vkns'k tkjh gks pqds gSaA QkeZ 13 dh lqfo/kk dk okLrfod mi.y-ih-th.kr ls fHkUu jhfr esa fdlh LFkkuh.h ysoh uhfr ds fy. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh .k tk jgk gSA blesa O.&le.eq[.kikjh la?kksa dks nsus dk fu. ysus ds igys fuokZfpr eaMh lfefr.ksa ij fopkj ds fy.k gSA vr% fcukSyk eaMh vf/kfu.ksa ds lq>ko ij eaMh lfefr us y{eh ckbZ uxj vkSj la.e esa la'kks/ku ds fy.Z L=kksr %&d`"kd txr] fnukad 2&8 fnlEcj] 2002] jk"Vªh.s x.ea=h fnfXot.kikj txr esa gq. ij fn.ksa dks nwj djus vkSj fo'o O. ukjk.a=.k x.izns'k esa [kjhn djus ds laca/k esa eaMh vf/kfu. ifjorZuksa dks /.s nksuksa n'kkvksa esa .kikjh izfrfuf/k dks Hkh 'kkfey fd.ksa ds laca/k esa Hkh ppkZ dh x.kZ dLVe fefyax nj 39 #i.d dj foHkkx dh izeq[k lfpo lq"kek ukFk] m|ksx foHkkx ds izeq[k lfpo ds.kchu dk eaMh VSDl vafre fcUnq ij djus ds laca/k esa cSBd esa dgk x.k vkns'k 1977 dks lekIr djus laca/kh izLrko Hkkjr ljdkj dks Hkstk x.qfDr dh xbZ gSA lks.xekdZ 38 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.h gSA cSBd esa okf.flag o vU.e esa la'kks/ku dk izLrko 'kklu ds ikl fopkjk/khu gSA eaMh vf/kfu.kZ eqfDr iznku dh x.kfT.ksa vkSj vkS|ksfxd la?kksa }kjk le.s fofHkUu eqn~nksa ds laca/k esa lq>ko nsus ds fy.k gSA pkoy ij lEiw.d izfr'kr dh nj ls fu/kkZfjr dh x.s .oa O.kikjh la?kksa ds izfrfuf/k..kikjh izfr& fuf/k .k x.ksa dh fu.kZ.s tkus ds laca/k esa crk.'kadjukjk.ksx ds fy. vFkok fofuekZ.d dj ea=h ujsUnz ukgVk] [kk| jkT. d`f"k v[kckj] HkksikyA ¼e.jkor vksj eaMh cksMZ ds izca/k lapkyd ds-ds.ksa ls lq>ko ysuk Bhd jgsxkA eaMh ykblsal vkthou djus ds laca/k esa crk. eaMh vfèfu.k gSA eaMh cksMZ dh vksj ls crk.k x.k fd eaMh lfefr bankSj ds O. ea=h lR.e ds fu.h gSA blds vykok izns'k ds ckgj ls vk.e dh folaxfr.k fd pkoy dh u.k x. izn'kZu rFkk ewY.d lfefr dk xBu fd.e dh /kkjk 19 ¼6½ ls fcukSyk 'kCn gVk.ku esa j[krs gq. 'kklu }kjk fopkj ds ckn iqufoZØ. {ks= esa vukt rFkk nygu ds izos'k ij izos'k dj ls iw.s x.kfT.k] [kk| foHkkx ds izeq[k lfpo vkj-.k x.k fd bl izko/kku ls e/. flag dks O.k ls eqDr gks pqdk gSA cSBd esa vkyw] I.dk ewY.s izLrko Hkkjr 'kklu dh vuqefr ds fy.kikfj.

6671 crore for the corresponding period of last year thereby showing a growth of 17%.25 2. Jointly launched the Indian initiative at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute and the University of Delhi. However. This was announced by the Japanese Prime Minister Mr. the Export Promotion Council for Export Oriented Units (EOUs) has been finally set up and come into force.69 1745. Commodity Group No. for crop improvement. maize and millets etc. 9. Paraguay. Vice-Chairman. Ministry of Commerce and Industry. 6.35 39. close relatives of rice. have shown some increase while those from Argentina.49 78. the rice genome sequence harboring 62.74 18. South Campus.02. fruits & vegetables. Imports from Indonesia.82 493. dated 26th December. As parallel future strategy. that of refined palm oil has come down leading to better utilisation of the processing capacity in the country. 5. alcoholic beverages and poultry have shown a decline at broad group level during the period. 2002 (iii) High Quality Draft Sequence of rice Genome Declared Completed A high quality draft sequence of rice genome by the International Rice Genome Sequencing project (IRGSP) has Source :—Press Information bureau. In a message to the ceremony. on inter-institutional basis. 3.12 4900.72 4015. Veeramani. dated 26. the Department of biotechnology says. milk & milk products. Junichiro Koizumi in Tokyo at the just concluded ceremony organised to commemorate the event of decoding of the rice genome. (iv) Export Promotion Council for EOUs Finally Set Up With the issuance of Certificate of Registration by the Registrar of Societies. writing instruments. No. Imports of edible oil. tiles. Australia. New Delhi. In the edible oil segment. 4. 2002 39 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss.(ii) Import of 300 Sensitive Items—Data for AprilOctober 2002 The total import of 300 sensitive tariff lines for the period April-October 2002 has been Rs. However. significant feature of edible oil import is that while import of crude palm oil has gone up. this growth is almost entirely due to significant increase in the import of crude palm oil. 2. Benin & Iran etc. Import of Sunflower oil both crude & refined..65 been declared completed. Shri R. glassware etc.80 26.77 0. Malaysia. The Indian scientists completed the international obligation as member of the IRGSP in a record time of two and half years.21 200. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . the Department of Biotechnology has evolved a functional genomics effort. EPC for EOUs and Shri Sharad Jaipuria. A working group meeting was also held as part of the ceremony to plan future strategies for genome completion and annotation. Czech Republic & Brazil etc. Also congratulating scientists from ten participating nations.61 7805. Imports of cotton & silk. Chairman.03 3. automobiles.) Others Total 22 48 13 12 27 8 6 32 20 8. but for which import of all other sensitive items together show negative growth. Milk & MIlk Products Fruits & Vegetables Poultry Foodgrains Edible Oil Alcoholic beverages Cotton & Silk Automobiles Products of concern to SSI (toys. India has the largest area in the world under rice cultivation totalling 28 percent of its arable land.70 936. Guinea Bisu.31 Directorate General of Foreign Trade. have shown some decrease. 112 300 282. He complimented in particular the Department of Biotechnology which in association with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 02 1. SSI products and foodgrains have shown increase during the period under reference.69 15. October—December. Import of Sensitive Items-Provisional Estimate Value (Rs. has gone down. Crore) Sl. contributing 15 million bases of sequence for Chromosome 11. covering all scientists and agencies. Shri Vajpayee expressed the confidence that 'publicly available rice genome sequence will be used by crop scientists to pursue their goal in basic science and agriculture.05 1259. Govt.55 384. Ivory coast. 7. the imports have increased from Rs. the Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee said it is a matter of great pride for India that its scientists have contributed to this international effort. 4907 crore for the corresponding period this year. He hailed it as a great achievement in international cooperation in plant science research and epoch making feat comparable to the completion of the first draft of the human genome two years ago. of India New Delhi. Thailand. 2 to 86 Page No. 8. 7805 crore against Rs.35 63.70 0. 01 April-Oct. These endeavours have heralded a new era in plant molecular biology research.12. Shri Veeramani said the EPC for EOUs would specifically cater to the needs of EOU/SEZ Sector which has over 2300 operational EOUs/SEZ units spreading all over the country 10.435 genes would serve as global heritage and golden standard for gene discovery and precision breeding for crop improvement.14 6670. 4016 crore last year to Rs. EPC for EOUs on behalf of all EOUs and units in SEZs have welcomed the formation of EPC for EOUs as their long felt need of the EOUs for a separate Export Promotion Council has finally been fulfilled and the Council has started functioning with immediate effect. This sequencing will also help in uncovering useful genes from wheat. of Import Tariff lines April-Oct.

Shri Veeramani has thanked the Union Commerce & Industry Minister. minerals. the council plans to organise such Seminars at Hyderabad. vast membership. Shri Rajiv Pratap Rudy. Shri Arun Shourie. regional and sectoral spread and employment provided. Shri Lalit Mansingh and other senior officials of the Ministry of Commerce for all the help and cooperation in the formation of the Council. The Council with the support of EOUs/SEZ Sector has an ambitious road map to achieve and contribute 25% of the national export through manufacturing exports by the year 2007. Shri Veeramani also assured the EOUs and SEZs that this Council will take care of all their problems with total dedication in a time bound manner. New Delhi. We are happy that after two decades of operation of the EOU Scheme. Source : Press Information Bureau. The Council with the help of this sector and export of high value added and manufactured products will do its every effort to bring name and fame to the country. 28. The EOUs/SEZ units cover major industrial sectors. and the Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT). Dated 22-1-2003. chemicals. finally the EPC for EOUs has started functioning. Minister of State for Commerce & Industry. USE 'AGMARK' GRADED SPICES 40 Agricultural Marketing :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. Shri Veeramani added that the EOU sector has shown a double-digit continuous growth much more than that of the national exports. The Council has plans to organise Seminars on issues pertaining to EOUs in different states. The export earnings of this sector in 2001-02 was Rs. Jaipur and Delhi. garments & yarn. Commerce Secretary. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . Govt.000 crores registering a growth of 14. of India. In the next couple of years this sector is looking for achieving 10 billion US dollars exports. To start with.66% over the previous year and compares very favourablywith the national export growth of only 2.1% in the same period.providing direct employment to over 7 lakhs people and has a credible achievement of 13% share in the national exports. food & agro products. like textiles. This sector has proved its uniqueness and the future direction of this country in exporting manufacturing goods through value addition using state-ofthe art technology. engineering. 2 to 86 Page No. Shri Veeramani said that this sector fully deserved an EPC because of its performance. granites etc. electronics & software. Shri Dipak Chatterjee.

500/Rs. 100/- N. 250/Half page Rs. 1 to Fresh & Pagination Mahabir Singh . :— The rates are increased by (i) 50% for 1st Opening page and outside back cover. 2002 41 :/ws4/My Documents/4107M&I-2003 107 M&I/2003 Mss. 2 to 86 Page No. 23812527 October—December.LET "AGRICULTURAL MARKETING" (QUARTERLY JOURNAL) BE YOUR MEDIUM OF PUBLICITY The Pre-payable rates are : Period 4 Issues (Year) Single issue Full page Rs. 150/Quarter page Rs. Apply for further particulars to :— The Controller of Publications Department of Publications Civil Lines DELHI-110 054 Telephone No. 350/Rs.B. and (ii) 25% for Inside front Cover and Inside back cover for which full page advertisements are accepted. 800/Rs.