4.1 Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load Space heat gain is the rate at which heat enters a space, or heat generated within a space during a time interval. Space cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from the conditioned space to maintain a constant space air temperature. Figure 3 shows the difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load. The difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load is due to the storage of a portion of radiant heat in the structure. The convective component is converted to space cooling load instantaneously.

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Figure 3 Differences between Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load

1 Thermal Control
The thermal system of a building is described in Figure 1. The main heat flow quantities are listed as follows: Qi = Internal heat gain from electric lights, people, power equipment and appliances. Qs = Solar heat gain through fenestration areas and, conduction heat gain through roofs and external walls by using the sol-air temperature. Qc = Conduction heat gain or heat loss through the enclosing elements, caused by a temperature difference between outside and inside. Qv = Ventilation heat gain or heat loss due to natural or mechanical ventilation and infiltration. Qm = Mechanical heating or cooling produced by some energy-based installation. Qe = Latent heat gain or loss from moisture transfer through permeable building materials. (1)

(1) determines the requirement of SPACE HEATING AND COOLING.If Eqn. (1) = 0. a thermal balance exists. Figure 1 Thermal System of Building Figure 2 Outdoor Dry-bulb and Wet-bulb . Except Qm which is quite small. net value of all heat flow quantities in Eqn. (1) < 0. the indoor temperature increases. (1) > 0. If Eqn. If Eqn. the indoor temperature decreases.

Temperature Curves for A Typically Hot 2 Design Conditions .

1 Outdoor Design Conditions It is not economical to choose either the annual maximum or annual minimum values of the outdoor weather data in determining the outdoor conditions.5% of the total number of hours (i. 2. and (ii) 28 oC wet bulb temperature Figure 2 shows the outdoor dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature curves for a typically hot summer day in Hong Kong. August and September. and the daily mean dry bulb temperature is 30.m.1. July.5 oC. 2928 hours) in June.1 Summer Design Condition The recommended summer design and coincident wet bulb temperature. Usually the maximum temperature of 33 oC occurs at 2 p. The outdoor design data is usually determined according to the statistical analysis of the weather data so that 1 to 5% of the total possible operating hours is equalled or exceeded the outdoor design values. The daily range of dry bulb temperature is about 5 to 6 oC. 2.e. when chosen as being equalled to or exceeded by 2. and the minimum temperature of 28 oC occurs just before sunrise. are (i) 23 oC dry bulb temperature. .In principle. the heating and cooling loads are calculated to maintain the indoor design conditions when the outdoor weather data do not exceed the design values.

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2.5% of the total number of hours (i. are (i) 9 oC dry bulb temperature.1. January and February. 2. or 7 a.2 Winter Design Condition The recommended winter design and coincident relative humidity.m. when chosen as being equalled to or exceeded by 1% or 2. 2160 hours) in December.e. and (ii) 50% relative humidity Minimum temperature occurs at 6 a.m. before sunrise and the daily range is about 6 to 8 oC during very cold winter days.2 Indoor Design Conditions .

20 . 40 . the recommended indoor temperature and relative humidity are as follows: (i) Summer: 23.60 % relative humidity (ii) Winter: 21 .5 oC dry bulb temperature.23.5 oC dry bulb temperature.5 .30 % relative humidity .For most of the comfort air-conditioning systems used in the commercial and public buildings.25.

or other surfaces. The wind speed has great effect on high infiltration loss and on outside surface resistance in conduction heat transfer. ceiling. assembly halls. floor. etc. 3. glass. and (ii) the infiltration losses through cracks and openings. therefore.3 Heating Load Calculation The heat loss is divided into two groups: (i) the heat transmission losses through the confining walls. the heating load is estimated for winter design temperature usually occurring at night. lighting. Internal heat gain is the sensible and latent heat emitted within an internal space by the occupants. the most unfavourable but economical combination of temperature and wind speed is chosen. internal heat gain is neglected except for theaters. industrial plant and commercial buildings.1 Heat Transmission Loss Heat loss by conduction and convection heat transfer through any surface is given by: . Normally. electric motors. electronic equipment. As a basis for design. or heat required to warm outdoor air used for ventilation.

(2) where Q = heat transfer through walls. A = surface areas U = air-to-air heat transfer coefficient Ti = indoor air temperature To = outdoor air temperature Heat transfer through basement walls and floors to the ground depends on: (i) difference between room air temperature and ground temperature/outdoor air temperature.2 Infiltration and Ventilation Loss . and (iii) conductivity of the surrounding earth. glass. roof. These portion of heat transmission is neglected in Hong Kong because of the fact that the weather in winter is not so severe and the values are very small in comparison with other forms of heat transmission. (ii) materials of walls and floor of the basement. etc. 3.

3.2.2 Latent Heat Loss.1 Sensible Heat Loss.The heat loss due to infiltration and controlled natural ventilation is divided into sensible and latent losses.2. Qsb The energy associated with having to raise the temperature of infiltrating or ventilating air up to indoor air temperature is the sensible heat loss which is estimated by: (3) where r = air density V = volumetric air flow rate Cpa = specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure Ti = indoor air temperature To = outdoor air temperature 3. Qla .

The energy quantity associated with net loss of moisture from the space is latent heat loss which is given by: (4) where r = air density V = volumetric air flow rate wi = humidity ratio of indoor air wo = humidity ratio of outdoor air hfg = latent heat of evaporation at indoor air temperature .

1 Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load Space heat gain is the rate at which heat enters a space. The convective component is converted to space cooling load instantaneously. Figure 3 shows the difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load. or heat generated within a space during a time interval.Cooling Load Calculation 4. Space cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from the conditioned space to maintain a constant space air temperature. The difference between the space heat gain and the space cooling load is due to the storage of a portion of radiant heat in the structure. ??? .

. 4. as shown in Tables 1 and 2.2 Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD) and Cooling Load Factor (CLF) Cooling load temperature difference and cooling load factor are used to convert the space sensible heat gain to space sensible cooling load.2. CLTD values are found from tables. Corrections and adjustments are made if the conditions are different. etc. latitudes.1 Cooling Load Temperature Difference The space sensible cooling load Qrs is calculated as: (5) where A = area of external wall or roof U = overall heat transfer coefficient of the external wall or roof. which are designed for fixed conditions of outdoor/indoor temperatures.Figure 3 Differences between Space Heat Gain and Space Cooling Load 4.

4oC.oC 1 1 2 0 3 -1 4 -1 5 -1 6 -1 7 -1 8 0 9 1 10 2 11 4 12 5 13 7 14 7 15 8 16 8 17 7 18 7 19 6 20 4 21 22 23 24 3 2 2 1 The values are calculated for an inside temperature (Ti) of 25.2.5 .5oC and outdoor daily mean temperature (Tom) of 29.2 Cooling Load Factor The cooling load factor is defined as: (6) CLF is used to determine solar loads or internal loads. Correct CLTD = CLTD + (25.4) Table 2 Cooling Load Temperature Difference (40 degree North Latitude in July) for Roof and External Walls (Dark) . Table 1 Cooling Load Temperature Difference for Conduction through Window Glass Solar time. hour CLTD. Some CLF values are shown in Table 3.29.4.Ti) + (Tom .

3oC -3.4oC Wall: N NE E SE S SW W NW +1.5oC Table 3 Cooling Load Factor for Window Glass with Indoor Shading Devices (North Latitude and All Room Construction) .Solar time.5oC -0.6oC -2. hour Roof External wall North North-east East South-east South South-west West North-west 1 14 8 9 11 11 11 15 17 14 2 12 7 8 10 10 10 14 15 12 3 10 7 7 8 9 8 12 13 11 4 8 6 6 7 7 7 10 12 9 5 7 5 5 6 6 6 9 10 8 6 5 4 5 5 5 5 8 9 7 7 4 3 4 5 5 4 6 7 6 8 4 3 4 5 5 4 5 6 5 9 6 3 6 7 5 3 5 5 4 10 8 3 8 10 7 3 4 5 4 11 11 4 10 13 10 4 4 5 4 12 15 4 11 15 12 5 5 5 4 13 18 5 12 17 14 7 5 6 5 14 22 6 13 18 16 9 7 6 6 15 25 6 13 18 17 11 9 8 7 16 28 7 13 18 18 13 12 10 8 17 29 8 14 18 18 15 15 12 10 18 30 9 14 18 18 16 18 17 12 19 29 10 14 17 17 16 20 10 15 20 27 11 13 17 17 16 21 11 17 21 22 23 24 24 21 19 16 11 10 10 9 13 12 11 10 16 15 13 12 16 15 14 12 15 14 13 12 21 20 19 17 12 11 11 19 18 17 16 15 The values are calculated for an inside temperature of 25. Correction values for 22 degree north latitude in July are as follows: Roof: +0.4oC +1.4oC -2.5oC and outdoor daily mean temperature of 29.3oC -0.8oC +1.4oC.

68 0.16 0.27 0.19 0.82 0.02 0.12 0.65 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.24 0.58 0.06 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.07 0.79 0.06 0.80 0.16 0.38 0.15 0.76 0.3 Space Cooling Loads Space cooling load is classified into three categories: 4.02 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.03 0.12 0.03 0.14 0.69 0.66 0.17 0.25 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.04 0.12 0.83 0.59 0.76 0.21 0.45 0.89 0.89 0.13 0.20 0.38 0.11 0.31 0.14 0.33 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.15 0.11 0.29 0.04 0.08 0.85 0.91 0.44 0.53 0.73 0.03 0.08 0.09 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.28 0.86 0.05 0.03 0.75 0.07 0.22 0.50 0.62 0.22 0.75 0.06 0.74 0.16 0.17 0.71 0.18 0.57 0.49 0. hour Orientation: North North-east East South-east South South-west West North-west Horizontal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0.07 0.23 0.81 0.82 0.06 0.03 0.13 0.05 0.03 0.12 0.06 4.04 0.04 0.20 0.20 0.56 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.03 0.41 0.22 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.52 0.72 0.05 0.16 0.19 0.18 0.26 0.12 0.04 0.03 0.58 0.10 0.11 0.61 0.04 0.3.08 0.27 0.30 0.11 0.04 0.03 0.16 0.06 0.81 0.75 0.1 External Cooling Loads External cooling loads have the following components: .19 0.06 0.27 0.02 0.07 0.07 0.80 0.82 0.24 0.05 0.35 0.69 0.68 0.78 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.81 0.Solar time.09 0.73 0.14 0.07 0.02 0.25 0.16 0.08 0.14 0.22 0.03 0.73 0.02 0.58 0.74 0.17 0.04 0.16 0.13 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.85 0.81 0.37 0.03 0.72 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.86 0.72 0.07 0.42 0.04 0.59 0.10 0.27 0.03 0.04 0.24 0.11 0.47 0.

Qfes (7) where As = unshaded area of window glass Ash = shaded area of window glass max. 95 .3. W/m2 Jan. 101 Dec. 117 Oct.4.1 Solar Heat Gain through Fenestration Areas. 107 Mar. 98 Feb. 133 Sept. SHGF = maximum solar heat gain factor for window glass (Table 5) SC = shading coefficient (Table 6) The corresponding space cooling load Qfs is: (8) Table 4 Maximum Solar Heat Gain Factor of Shaded Area Month SHGFsh. 114 Apr. 107 Nov. SHGFsh = maximum solar heat gain factor for the shaded area on window glass (Table 4) max. 126 May 137 June 142 July 142 Aug.1.

March. April May June July August September October November December 88 97 107 119 142 180 147 123 112 100 88 84 140 265 404 513 572 589 565 502 388 262 142 101 . February. W/m2 North North-east / north-west East / west South-east / south-west617 704 743 719 687 666 671 694 705 676 606 579 789 759 663 516 404 355 391 496 639 735 786 790 696 578 398 210 139 134 140 223 392 563 686 730 704 808 882 899 892 880 877 879 854 792 699 657 South Horizontal January.Table 5 Maximum Solar Heat Gain Factor for Sunit Glass on Average Cloudness Days Month Maximum solar heat gain factor for 22 degree north latitude.

46 0. mm Solar transmission Shading coefficient Venetian Roller shade.45 0.57 0.42 .38 0.21 0.41 0.64 0.40 0.52 0.79 0.42 0.34 0.54 0.25 0.56 0.38 10 0.29 0.28 0.34 0.44 0.25 0.50 SCa=0.23 0.57 0.45 0.23 0.55 0.38 0.12 5-6 0.33 0.49 0.53 0.65 0. opaque Draperies.30 SCa=0.Table 6 Shading Coefficient for Window Glasses with Indoor Shading Devices Window glass Nominal thickness.33 0.40 SCa=0.30 0.60 Insulating glass: Clear out6 0.60 0. light colour Medium Light Dark White Openb Closedb Clear Heatabsorbing Heatabsorbing Reflective coated 3 .50 0.51 0.80 0.49 0.0.59 0.25 SCa=0.78 .28 0.

40 0.40 6 0.30 SCa=0.35 a Shading coefficient with no shading device.27 0.clear in SCa=0.55 Reflective SCa=0.67m/s) 3 mm thickness 5 mm thickness 6 mm thickness 12 mm thickness 3 mm thickness 5 mm thickness 6 mm thickness 12 mm thickness .27 0.39 0. Table 7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for Window Glasses Window Glass Overall heat transfer coefficient.16 0.80 0.43 0.84 Heat absorbing out-clear in SCa=0.26 0.20 SCa=0.22 0.18 0.33m/s) Winter (outdoor wind velocity = 6.56 0.36 0.36 0.29 6 0.34 0.33 0. and closed weave indicate 3% openness. b Open weave means 40% openness. W/m2K Summer (outdoor wind velocity = 3.19 0.18 0.25 0.

8 2.9 2.0 4.3 6.8 2. Qfe The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through fenestration area is calculated as: (9) where A = fenestration area U = overall heat transfer coefficient for window glass (Table 7) CLTD = cooling load temperature difference (Table 1) 4.6 2.2 3.6 3.1.1 2.Single-glazed Reflective Double-glazed 6mm airspace Double glazed 12mm airspace 5.9 3.7 2.3 Conduction Heat Gain through Roofs (Qrs) and External Walls (Qws) The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through roofs or external walls is calculated as: (10) .0 4.4 5.7 4.7 5.3.7 2.0 2.2 Conduction Heat Gain through Fenestration Areas.3.6 2.4 4.4 5.1 5.1.2 5.

2. ceilings and floors is calculated as: (11) where A = area for interior partitions.1.3.where A = area for external walls or roofs U = overall heat transfer coefficient for external walls or roof CLTD = cooling load temperature difference (Table 2) 4.4 Conduction Heat Gain through Interior Partitions.1 Electric Lighting Space cooling load due to the heat gain from electric lights is often the major component for commercial buildings having a larger ratio of interior zone. Ceilings and Floors. ceilings or floors Tb = average air temperature of the adjacent area Ti = indoor air temperature 4. Qic The space cooling load due to the conduction heat gain through interior partitions. Sensible heat released from electric lights is in two forms: .3.3. ceilings or floors U = overall heat transfer coefficient for interior partitions.2 Internal Cooling Loads 4. Electric lights contribute to sensible load only.

(i) convective heat from the lamp. The sensible heat released (Qles) from electric lights is calculated as: (12) where Input = total light wattage obtained from the ratings of all fixtures installed Fuse = use factor defined as the ratio of wattage in use possibly at design condition to the installation condition Fal = special allowance factor for fluorescent fixtures accounting for ballast loss. and (ii) types of building construction and furnishings. (ii) radiation absorbed by walls. CLF depends on the magnitude of surface and the space air flow rates. Therefore.30 The corresponding sensible space cooling load (Qls) due to heat released from electrical light is: (13) CLF is a function of (i) number of hours that electric lights are switched on (for 24 hours continuous lighting. tube and fixtures. floors. and furniture and convected by the ambient air after a time lag. CLF = 1). varying from 1. .18 to 1.

4. Table 8 Heat Gain from Occupants at Various Activities (At Indoor Air Temperature of 25.3.2. women and children of which heat released from adult female is 85% of adult male.5 oC) . and that from child is 75%. and (ii) the time elapsed since first entering. CLF is equal to 1 if the space temperature is not maintained constant during the 24-hour period.2 People Human beings release both sensible heat and latent heat to the conditioned space when they stay in it. CLF for people is a function of (i) the time people spending in the conditioned space. The space sensible (Qps) and latent (Qpl) cooling loads for people staying in a conditioned space are calculated as: (14) (15) where n = number of people in the conditioned space SHG = sensible heat gain per person (Table 8) LHG = latent heat gain per person (Table 8) Adjusted values for total heat shown in Table 8 is for normal percentage of men.

4. W Adult.3.3 Power Equipment and Appliances . W Latent heat. writing Seated.2. light work. typing. male Adjusted Sensible heat. Standing.6W person released from food. W Seated at rest Seated.Activity Total heat. light work or walking slowly. eating Seated. Light bench work Light machine work Heavy work Moderate dancing Athletics 115 140 150 185 235 255 305 470 400 585 100 120 170b 150 185 230 305 470 375 525 60 65 75 75 90 100 100 165 120 185 40 55 95 75 95 130 205 305 255 340 b Adjusted for latent heat of 17. very light work.

In estimating a cooling load.8 28.3 Loads from Infiltration and Ventilation Infiltration load is a space cooling load due to the infiltrated air flowing through cracks and openings and entering into a conditioned room under a pressure difference across the building envelope. Eqns (3) and (4) are valid to estimate the sensible and latent cooling loads respectively. Table 9 shows the summer outdoor design dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures at 22 degree north latitude. For more information.8 33.0 27.7 27.4 28.2 29.1 30.1 28.8 32.3 26.1 26.0 28.3. The introduction of outdoor ventilation air must be considered in combination with the infiltrated air.3 28.9 .7 32.5 26. Chapter 26 of ASHARE Handbook 1993 Fundamentals can be referred.9 27.7 29. hour Dry bulb temp.7 26. The estimation is not discussed in this lecture note. oC Wet bulb temp.6 28.7 25.1 25.0 32.5 25.5 31.4 26. Infiltration and ventilation loads consist of both sensible and latent cooling loads.4 27.0 29. oC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 28.1 28.8 26.5 27.6 25. and sometimes both.7 26.4 25.2 32.8 25.6 27.8 31.9 30. heat gain from all heat-producing equipment and appliances must be taken into account because they may contribute to either sensible or latent loads.4 29.6 25. Table 9 Summer Outdoor Design Dry Bulb And Wet Bulb Temperatures At 22 Degree North Latitude Solar time.7 25. 4.8 28.6 27.8 31.0 27.2 28.0 28.