High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels within the steel and metals industry

High temperature stainless steels What properties are demanded of a high temperature alloy? The various process stages in the metallurgical industry. The most common type of reaction is the precipitation of non-desirable phases. which makes heavy demands on the construction materials used for that equipment. i. the stress that causes rupture after 10 000 or 100 000 hours (Rkm 10 000 and Rkm 100 000). the stress resulting in a strain of 1% after 10 000 or 100 000 hours (RA1/10 000 and RA1/100 000). the demands on high temperature alloys may be as follows: • High creep strength • Stability of internal microstructure • High resistance to oxidation and HT corrosion • Good resistance to erosion-corrosion These properties are discussed in more detail in the following text. which result in impaired properties. provided the ductility is high enough. From room temperature up to a certain temperature (550 – 600°C for most austenitic steels). this phenomenon leads to a reduced toughness/ductility of the material – especially at room temperature. usually take place at high temperatures. the 2 Most flue gases (except from coal combustion) have an increased water vapour content. Moreover. the oxide growth CREEP RESISTANCE rate will increase and the layer will finally crack and spall off.e. or the fatigue strength of a component. Besides lowering the corrosion resistance by consuming beneficial alloying elements (above all chromium). Water vapour The design stress for a material specifies the load to which this material can be subjected at high temperatures without failing or being significantly deformed during service. right through from ore to the finished. HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION Oxidation When a material is exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere at high temperatures. chi. This layer will retard further oxidation. because the properties of any formed oxide layer will determine the resistance to other aggressive elements in the environment. the design stresses are based on the proof strength of the material. The problem can be solved by selecting special alloys for parts exposed to particularly difficult conditions. MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY Most high temperature alloys suffer from a common disadvantage when used at sufficiently high temperatures – diffusion controlled microstructural changes. and Laves phase. In a creeping component. the wear resistance. the creep deformation strength. Above that temperature. or major service transients) is proportional to the ductility. Depending on the operating conditions. but carbides and nitrides are also common. stress redistribution due to creep can off-load the heaviest stressed parts. Although oxidation is seldom the main cause of high temperature corrosion failures. Its presence will reduce the oxidation resistance of an alloy. Carburization and nitridation Carburization and nitridation are common heat treatment processes in which the surface of the material is intentionally enriched in carbon and/or nitrogen to improve the hardness. . The production equipment used in these processes is subjected to intense heat from hot gases or from red-hot or molten materials. an oxide layer is formed on the surface. but simultaneously reducing the ductility substantially. thus losing its protective effect – the scaling temperature has been reached. As a rule. resistance to low cycle fatigue (during start-ups and shut-downs. possibly increasing the creep strength somewhat. i. The toughness and adherence of the oxide layer also determine the erosion resistance of the alloy. grain growth may occur. For components that are more sensitive to deformation. the more temperature dependent creep strength will determine the design stress values. An often neglected mechanical property is the ductility. If the temperature of the material increases. the oxidation performance is of primary interest. Equipment manufacturers also make the following demands on the material they use: • Good formability and machinability • Good weldability • Good availability on the market The precipitates are often intermetallic phases such as sigma. At even higher temperatures. should be used as a basis for design calculations.e. rolled or forged product. creep strength is expressed as the creep rupture strength.

These effects can also occur for other reasons. and 4845).3 17.4948 1. there are three proprietary AvestaPolarit alloys: 153 MA. A ductile and adherent oxide layer is therefore beneficial.4833 1.4833 1.15 – – 0.4948 1.5 18. This will lead to problems such as embrittlement due to precipitation of chromium rich carbides/nitrides and impaired corrosion resistance because of the simultaneous chromium depletion in the matrix. and molten salts and metals Molten metal corrosion is rarely occurring. An old rule-of-thumb says that nickel-containing alloys should be avoided in reducing sulphidizing environments. Sulphur attacks are often life limiting in many high temperature applications.g.5 9. typical values C N Cr Ni Si Others 0.4893 1. halogens.05 – – 0.4835 1.5 1.15 18.. Molten salts and slags can attack an existing protective oxide film.17 – 0.4828 1.High temperature stainless steels Even if the furnace components in these processes are constructed of more resistant materials.0 1. the austenitic microstructure is required for good mechanical properties. nonequilibrium sulphides can form and grow under oxidizing conditions. the properties of these steels have proved to be equivalent or even superior to those of grades with higher contents of alloying elements. Even if initially formed sulphides are later overgrown by oxide or dissolved.5 11 20 35 0. and 353 MA are patented grades with trademarks used by AvestaPolarit. their earlier existence has made the oxide layer less protective. 4828. 253 MA and 353 MA are registered. 4878. Two types of attack can appear – dissolution of the solid metal (or one or another alloying element) in the melt. 253 MA. In practice. or at least make it less protective. Due to kinetic factors. but when it does.3 2.4878 1. These three alloys are based on the same concept: • Improved oxidation (and thus also HT corrosion) resistance by an increased silicon content and addition of very small quantities of rare earth metals (micro-alloying=> MA).4828 1. Materials selection will be determined by the application and operating conditions in each individual case.09 0. Erosion-corrosion Particle impact on and/or abrasion of an oxide layer can remove it.7 1. • Enhanced creep strength due to increased contents of nitrogen (and carbon for 253 MA). the cyclic exposure to the carburizing/nitriding environment will eventually lead to an excessive pick-up of carbon/ nitrogen.7 9. 4948.0 0. The chemical compositions of the AvestaPolarit high temperature steels are shown in the table below.5 20 22.4878 1. In many cases. e. it can be very detrimental.5 1.4845 – Z6 CN 18-09 Z6 CNT 18-10 – Z17 CNS 20-12 Z15 CN 23-13 – Z8 CN 25-20 – 2333 2337 2372 – – 2368 2361 – 153 MA.4854 ASTM 304 H 321 H S30415 – 309S S30815 310S S35315 Chemical composition. 3 . and 353 MA .4818 1.4891 1. Attack by sulphur. 253 MA.05 0.5 12 12.5 – Ti Ce – – Ce – Ce National steel designations. since the formation of low melting point nickelsulphur compounds may lead to a rapid deterioration of the alloy.05 0. The extent of the attack will depend on the composition of both the alloy and the melt. however. since their chromium contents were high enough to enable the formation of a protective oxide layer.05 0. 4833. %. and a number of nickel containing alloys have shown excellent performance in sulphur-bearing environments. carburization due to oil residues on heat-treated components and nitridation due to overheating in nitrogen containing gases or to cracking ammonia. 153 MA is normally intended for use at somewhat lower service temperatures than the other two grades. causing rapid brittle cracking.06 0. or penetration of the melt into the grain boundaries of the solid metal. COMPOSITION AND STANDARDS Table 1: Chemical compositions and designations of AvestaPolarit high temperature alloys AvestaPolarit designation 4948 4878 153 MA 4828 4833 253 MA 4845 353 MA EN 1. superseded by EN BS DIN NF SS 304S51 304S51 – – 309S16 – 310S24 – 1.05 0. AvestaPolarit high temperature stainless steels Besides the common HT alloys presented below (i.04 0.4845 1.5 0.e. Halogens (such as chlorine and fluorine) or their salts (halides) may also cause serious damage.5 21 25 25 8.

Diagram 1 shows clearly that 153 MA and 253 MA have higher proof strength values at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures. much less sigma is formed. a result of the higher nitrogen content. instead of absolute values: For each alloy and temperature. Diagram 4: Charpy V toughness after 200 hours’ ageing 4 . it may be as low as for a sigma phase embrittled alloy.(E. i.e. 4828. A more obvious way to illustrate the difference between various steels is to use relative. The higher creep strength of the MA alloys is. 4833. the strength and its variation with temperature are only shown graphically here.High temperature stainless steels TENSILE AND CREEP STRENGTH PROPERTIES gives rupture after 100 000 hours with the corresponding value for 253 MA.) The analogous curves for the other creep strength parameters (i. 353 MA has a similarly high room temperature strength. In fact. and 4845 are only half as strong as 253 MA. there are no specified proof strength values at higher temperatures. Diagram 2 shows the 100 000 hours creep strength as a function of temperature for all our HT steels.. also in this case. the Diagram 1: Elevated temperature proof Diagram 3: Relative 100 000 hours creep rupture strength Diagram 2: 100 000 hours creep rupture strength.e. while the loss in toughness is substantial for 4828. Therefore. most alloys become more or less embrittled.. carbide and nitride precipitation will take place during service. the relative strength has been calculated by dividing the stress value that Upon service exposure at elevated temperatures. and in addition. and RA1/100 000) show similar behaviour. at 800°C. RA1/10 000. twice the material thickness is required for “normal” dimensioning. due to an extensive precipitation of the intermetallic sigma phase. 4948. 4833. MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY Most strength values are tabulated in the AvestaPolarit data sheet “High Temperature Stainless Steel”. Rkm 10 000. which will result in a loss in RT impact toughness. This is a result of the higher nitrogen contents in these two alloys. In 253 MA and 353 MA. At present. Instead.g. and 4845. and especially 4878 are little affected.

The specimens were cooled down to room temperature once a week for weighing. service experience indicates that the ductility is superior at lower deformation rates. at which the oxidation rate becomes unacceptably high. one must bear in mind that this ranking can change with increasing time. for “Maximum recommended service temperature”. despite of its lower alloy content. Additional alloying elements may improve the properties further.4878 321H 1.4818 S30415 1. isothermal and cyclic laboratory tests. This temperature is 850°C for 253 MA and 1000°C for 353 MA. 153 MA was developed as a leaner alloyed variant of 253 MA for applications where high demands are made on toughness. However.e. The carbon/nitrogen solubilities in the MA alloys increase with increasing temperature. . Diagram 5 shows that. i. which is based on service experience together with long.4828 – 1. 253 MA shows better oxidation resistance than 4845 under cyclic conditions. Water vapour Carburization/nitridation Table 2: Recommended maximum service temperatures Diagram 6: Long-term oxidation at 1100°C. Obviously. Since this temperature is of little technical importance. and above a certain temperature. rich in chromium. the post-service toughness will be sufficiently high. However.4835 S30815 1. aluminium.4854 S35315 The resistance of high temperature alloys to carburization/nitridation increases primarily with increasing nickel content but also with increasing contents of silicon and chromium. the REM addition and increased Si content of 253 MA have improved the adherence of the oxide so that the alloy can retain a thicker oxide layer before it starts to spall due to thermal shock. the temperature.and short-time.4948 304H 1. and/or silicon. we have abandoned the “Scaling temperature” concept. see Table 2. Experience has shown that it takes only traces of 5 The presence of water vapour in the environment will make any formed oxide layer more porous and hence less protective.4845 310S 1. The specimens were cooled down to room temperature every two hours The oxidation resistance of all HT grades rely on the formation of a protective oxide layer. HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION Oxidation Diagram 5: Cyclic oxidation at 1150 °C. in spite of its lower chromium content. the oxidation resistance of an alloy has been specified as the “scaling temperature”. The reduction in maximum service temperature can be 50 – 150°C. Short-term tests.High temperature stainless steels toughness reduction will be more rapid since the precipitation of carbides/nitrides is faster than that of sigma phase.4833 309S 1. but 253 MA has also performed well under certain conditions in carburizing/nitriding environments. Historically. 153 MA will have a sufficiently high toughness after service at all temperatures. Diagram 6. 353 MA is therefore the best of the MA grades. are a rapid method of ranking alloys. These alloys can of course be applied at lower temperatures if the loss in RT impact toughness is born in mind when maintenance and repair work is performed. AvestaPolarit designation 4948 4878 153 MA 4828 4833 253 MA 4845 353 MA EN ASTM Maximum service temperature (°C) in dry air 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1100 1100 1150 1. cf. as in Diagram 5. depending on steam content.

The corrosion problems often occur at the melt-air-interface. See “Machining Guidelines” for each alloy. their machinability is also affected. heat treatment may be required to relieve material stresses (e. has been developed for applications where embrittlement is unacceptable.g. Nevertheless. Suitable welding methods are shielded metal arc welding. Under such cicumstances. Hot forming should be carried out in the temperature range 1150 – 900°C (the minimum temperature for 353 MA is 980°C). The best results are achieved by using AvestaPolarit 253 MA filler metal for both l53 MA and 253 MA. These grades have good weldability. when such a scale cannot form.g. 253 MA. Diagram 7. see e. MACHINING. or submerged arc welding (the latter not for 353 MA). 253 MA. the oxide layer is rapidly dissolved and the bare metal is exposed to attack. 253 MA-NF. molten flue gas deposits or accidentally contaminating metals/alloys can be much more damaging. where particles are often entrapped in the rapidly moving combustion gas stream. If a somewhat poorer oxidation resistance. AND WELDING The workability of 153 MA. and 353 MA are harder than conventional austenitic steels. Since 153 MA.g. it can be a disadvantage in a sulphur-rich environment. and 353 MA are better suited for such environments than materials with similar or higher nickel contents. In some cases. the MA grades have shown excellent resistance due to the thin adherent oxide layer formed on them. Their tendency towards work hardening during cold deformation must also be taken into account in machining. 6 . nickel-free (or at least low Ni) alloys should be used.g. and microstructural stability are acceptable. A new SMAW electrode. AvestaPolarit 309 filler metal can also be used. Another type of erosion-corrosion occurs in flue gas channels. attack is delayed only as long as the material is protected by a thin. In reducing sulphurous atmospheres. Certain heat treatment steps are carried out in molten salt or metal pots. 353 MA and 4845 are better alternatives. Erosion-corrosion Replacing salt/metal pots with fluidized bed furnaces will put other demands on the construction material from being corrosion resistant to being able to withstand the abrasive wear. 253 MA. the maximum service temperature is lower than in air. However. in the form of carbon dioxide or steam) to produce a thin and tough oxide layer on 253 MA. although they work-harden in the same way as other austenitic stainless steels. In both these types of erosion. More detailed welding instructions are given in a special AvestaPolarit Welding brochure entitled “How to weld 253 MA”.High temperature stainless steels oxygen in the furnace gas (e. if the oxide grows in thickness and begins to crack. Sulphur attack While high nickel content is beneficial to the resistance of the material to carburization and nitridation. under reducing conditions. It is generally not necessary to perform heat treatment after forming or welding since the material will be exposed to high temperatures when in operation. Molten salts and metals Diagram 7: Erosion test results They have good formability in cold condition. there is a filler metal with a matching composition and a special welding instructions brochure. In oxidizing gases. they also have higher mechanical strength and require higher deformation forces during cold working. since these grades have high nitrogen contents. 153 MA. Due to their firmly adhering protective oxides. inert gas welding with pure argon. fan impellers). where sulphur occurs in the form of sulphur dioxide. However. FORMING. which provides good protection against pick-up of both carbon and nitrogen. but can be managed. Attacks from e. However. creep strength. continuous oxide film. Also for 353 MA. and 353 MA is similar to that of ordinary austenitic stainless steels. the gas will be able to penetrate through to the base material and continue the attack.

This can be carried out in batches in tiltable pallets (Fig. wire and filler metals are manufactured by AvestaPolarit subsidiaries. seamless tubes by AB Sandvik Steel. gas piping. Special attention will be given in the descriptions to the application of the micro-alloyed high temperature (X53 MA) steels developed by AvestaPolarit. limestone. these examples will also apply to the production of non-ferrous metals. principally for the various process stages in the production and processing of iron and steels. sheet and strip Bar. and the vacuum it creates causes the combustion front to move down through the charge. The entire AvestaPolarit range of high temperature steels. etc. is outlined on the last page of this brochure. which consists of a mixture of ore concentrate. which is higher than that of rolled material. high temperature materials are typically used for the recuperators in which the blast Applications in the steel and metals industries The application of heat-resistant alloys. welded pipes and tubes. Since both the coking oven gas and the blast furnace Sintering is used for converting fine-grained ore concentrate into larger pieces. high temperature materials are used principally in the form of castings for the grids and sheet for the wind boxes and burners in the firing hoods. Wire Welded pipe and tube Seamless tube Fittings Fabricated products of sheet and plate Welding consumables Castings 253 MA 353 MA placed over the surface of the charge. is assured. a creep strength. and coal dust. down to the ambient outdoor temperature at the combustion air intake. By employing castings with higher carbon contents and special cast microstructures. Cast grids of 253 MA have been dimensionally stable over a long service time. 153 MA and 253 MA are more suitable than alloys with higher nickel contents. In the sintering process. The charge. without the gas permeability being affected or the grids becoming jammed or distorted. which are better suited for the blast furnace process. the charging mechanism for pulverized stock charged into the furnace. The most common material problems in this application are the deformations caused by high and fluctuating temperatures. BLAST FURNACE PLANTS • Sheet and plate products are manufactured by AvestaPolarit. The coking ovens used for producing the blast furnace coke are also equipped with recuperators for recovering heat from the hot gases. such as copper.High temperature stainless steels AVAILABLE PRODUCT FORMS 153 MA Hot rolled plate and sheet Cold rolled plate. the circulation fans. etc. 2). In many cases. High temperature alloys may also be necessary for the discharge doors and collecting grids of the coking ovens. A wind box is connected below the grid. fittings. both standard and micro-alloyed. 1) or continuously on a conveyor type of sintering furnace. In blast furnaces. which are subjected to high temperatures and abrupt temperature changes in conjunction with water-cooling. The grids are subjected to relatively rapid • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • temperature variations from the charging of cold ore concentrate mixture up to the ignition and discharge of the sintered material. aluminium. and castings are produced by licensees. Since both the ore and the coal dust contain sulphur. PELLET SINTERING PLANTS air is preheated by the furnace gas (Fig. The furnace and conveyor belt both have a cast grid base with intervening gaps for the extraction of combustion gases. The temperature in the recuperators may vary from 1150°C at the hot-gas inlet end. is ignited in both cases from above by means of a burner ignition cool dust ore concentrate finest combustion front recycled bedding sinter grid Figure 1 suction 7 . is described below.

ferritic chromium steels have commonly been used. and billets are usually heated in box-type or continuous reheat furnaces. slide-rails.g. but a change to 253 MA. there has been a transition from “common” burners to oxy-fuel burners. 253 MA. 153 MA. AvestaPolarit 253 MA has also been successfully used in expansion bellows (Fig. they are better suited for this application. or even 353 MA may be used in these applications to avoid serious deformation and frequent repairs. This is known as a muffle or retort and is made of a high temperature steel or a nickel base alloy. If heat treatment requires a controlled furnace atmosphere – an inert gas.High temperature stainless steels gas contain sulphur. scrap into the arc furnace or other alloying additions into the converter. slabs. 253 MA and 353 MA have also been used successfully in chutes for feeding e. Lately. Depending on the maximum service temperature. ingots. ROLLING MILLS Before rolling or forging. the components subjected to high temperature stresses are principally the rollers. AND CONTINUOUS CASTING PLANTS When steels and other metals are melted and refined in arc furnaces and converters. and the preheaters for ladles and scrap are subjected to high thermal stresses. bridges. Numerous installations at rolling mills in several countries have yielded very favourable results. or vacuum – a gas-tight inner casing is used in the furnace. Figure 2 HEAT TREATMENT FURNACES Steelworks. As both 153 MA and 253 MA have much higher creep strength than ferritic steels. an active gas. dampers. In such furnaces. In addition to all the benefits. increased the service life of the bellows from 3–6 months to several years. which will increase the demands on oxidation resistance of the construction materials. AvestaPolarit 253 MA has proved to be an excellent material for such components. where the combustion air is replaced by oxygen. or walking beams used for moving the material through the furnace. Figure 3 8 . Many different types of furnace with different atmospheres and temperature cycles are used for this purpose. Gas or oil burners or electric resistance elements are used for heating. STEEL MELTING. hatches. They also have better resistance to the effects of sulphurrich gases than equivalent high temperature steels and nickel-base alloys. 3) for cyclically heated components. This applies particularly to equipment. Due to its high creep strength. SMELTERS. which cannot be protected by water cooling or refractory lining. there is one draw-back – the flue gas water vapour content will increase substantially (10 – 40%). and special hardening shops carry out heat treatment to give various products the required properties. metal works. The framework and edge reinforcements for the charging and discharging doors are also subjected to high temperatures. Expansion bellows for recuperator installations used to be made of 4878 or 4948. components such as fume extraction hoods. which has led to problems of creep deformation in the hottest zones. flue gas ducts.

bars. which encloses the material to be heat-treated in a controlled furnace atmosphere. The material problems and their solutions are therefore similar to those associated with bell-type furnaces. the heating elements in the bottom are protected by a hearth made of high temperature material (Fig. the diffuser.High temperature stainless steels The retort is actually a pressure vessel and is thus intended for higher gas pressures than a muffle. In box-type furnaces. Box-type furnaces The box-type furnace is charged horizontally through a door and is provided with a gas-tight muffle if used for heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere. AvestaPolarit 153 MA and 253 MA are suitable alternatives to conventional high temperature steels. with a domed end welded to the top. The most important furnace types and the material problems commonly occurring are discussed below. 1. Other problems include failure of welded joints and carburization and/or nitridation from the base fan diffuser Figure 4 Figure 5 9 . wire rods.4828). 253 MA should be employed for temperatures above 850°C. The base.-Nr. 4845 (310S). or 4828 (W. The shell or “bell” has a refractory insulation and is placed over the muffle. and the fan impeller may also distort because of the high temperatures and mechanical stresses. by electric resistance elements. The material to be heat-treated may be coils of strip. which helps to distribute the circulating gas in the muffle Fig. due to their better creep resistance. such as AvestaPolarit 4833 (309S). which is recessed into the floor. Service experience shows that furnace components made of these alloys are easier to repair and require less maintenance. If electric heating is employed. more highly alloyed nickel alloys such as 353 MA will be necessary. A pit furnace is. in principle. an inverted bell-type furnace. or that the entire bottom part of the muffle deforms due to creep. 5). Pit furnaces • Molten salt/lead pots • Continuous furnaces • Furnaces with fluidized beds A bell-type furnace consists of a vertical cylindrical or rectangular shell. heat-resistant materials are muffle (inner cover) also used for fans to ensure uniform temperatures and for pier protection caps. The material is placed on a base above a grid known as the diffuser. If there is a risk of carburization and/or nitridation (and 253 MA has proved inadequate). • Bell-type furnaces • Pit furnaces • Box-type furnaces Bell-type furnaces The problems usually arising are that the muffle is distorted adjacent to the burner zones due to nonuniform temperature. The distortion is accentuated at points where the muffle is secured or at the bottom. 4. due to the cooling effect of intermediate partition the supports. The most common material problem is that the muffle and hearth become distorted due to high temperatures and temperature differences. or small parts. A fan at the bottom of the muffle circulates the hot gas inside it to ensure a uniform temperature throughout the furnace. or by radiant tubes between the bell and the muffle. Heating is carried out by gas or oil burners. The material selected for the muffle will depend on the maximum service temperature and the atmosphere in the furnace.

The most common molten metal application is patenting of wire in molten lead (or bismuth) baths. Continuous furnaces In addition to the furnace structure itself discussed above. the main problems are attacks from salt vapours and from contaminations in the salt bath. so that it does not corrode or become embrittled. or other separate work pieces (see Fig. U-shaped. furnace components and accessories that are common to a number of furnace types. In this context. Molten salt/metal furnaces Salt bath furnaces are frequently used for liquid carburization and/or nitridation (case hardening). 6). which should be covered with pulverized coal. Therefore. also require high temperature materials. For the neutral salt mixtures of KCl. Another conveying device is the conveyor belt. 253 MA has yielded better results than materials such as 4845 (310S) and materials with even higher contents of alloying elements. electric resistance elements. The hot gas flows through the tubes. A common type is the straight tunnel furnace used for the annealing. and BaCl2 . The feed of the charge through the furnace are carried out by means of e. due to the excellent heat transfer and energy efficiency. NaCl. A more common problem is that the conveyor belts become elongated after a certain service time and must be shortened. for example. FURNACE COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES In more recent generations of furnaces. baskets. a high nickel alloy should be beneficial. These furnaces can also be equipped with a gas-tight muffle (Fig. wire. based on heat transfer by the fluidized bed principle. rollers. The materials used and alternative solutions employed are the same as those described above for bell-type furnaces. but also for “neutral” heat treatments. This type of furnace may. At lower temperatures. anchor bolts for insulating mats. radiant tubes. trays. radiant tubes are used for heat transfer to the furnace. chains. The tubes may be straight. or tempering of rolled strip. Heat-resistant materials are also used for driving gears and deflector rolls. and thermocouple sheathing.High temperature stainless steels furnace atmosphere. either in cast or in welded form (Fig. machine components. the combustion gases must be kept away from the charge. 153 MA is a suitable alternative to type 4833 (309S). 7) made of high temperature material. The lead itself is not extremely aggressive unless the construction material has a too high nickel content. These components are e. 253 MA has proved to be suitable as a structural material for the furnace walls. slats. 10 If oil or gas burners are used. or W-shaped. walking beams. if the annealing process demands a controlled furnace atmosphere. hardening. Furnaces with fluidized beds Figure 7 Figure 6 The conveyor belts must have good resistance to the furnace environment. or possibly a solid strip of heat-resistant material. which may lead to serious oxidation attacks or embrittlement. Radiant tubes In a continuous furnace. It is usually made of wire mesh. on which the heat-treated material is pulled through the furnace. fans. For the case hardening salt pots. 8).g. The main problem is instead attacks from lead oxide at the metal/air surface. and trolleys. which are thus heated and emit radiant heat from the outer surfaces. heat treatment of the material takes place as the material is continuously fed through the furnace.g. and fixtures. heat exchangers. the resistance to erosion caused by the pulverous bed material is important. . be used as a replacement for molten lead or salt bath furnaces for heat treatment of steel wire. The creep strength (and ductility) of the materials used for such conveyor belts is thus crucial. and are made of high temperature material.

most radiant tubes were cast. caused e. Welded tubes of 253 MA have successfully replaced centrifugally cast radiation tubes in continuous heat treatment furnaces with a nitrogen/hydrogen gas atmosphere. and the effect of hot. aggressive gases containing abrasive dust. AvestaPolarit 153 MA and 253 MA are suitable for the fans used in bell-type furnaces (Fig. Nickel-base alloys are less prone to embrittlement and deformation. and strip • lower weight and more efficient heat transfer due to thinner material • reduced sensitivity to thermal fatigue • easier to reinforce in exposed areas and easier to repair by welding • reduced likelihood of deposits and less risk of high temperature corrosion. in the range between 800 and 1050°C. Electrical resistance material results. Welded tubes offer the following advantages compared to cast tubes: • easier to manufacture to suit the requirements of the users. The most common material problems are deformation and embrittlement due to carburization and/or nitridation and overheating. for which abrasive dust has given rise to problems. due to their combination of high resistance to oxidation and high creep strength. Experience has shown that 253 MA used as resistance material may have a service life of up to twice that of ferritic materials. Fans Fans used for circulating or extracting hot gases are subjected to very difficult conditions due to the stresses caused by the centrifugal force. i.g. In these cases it has been possible to reduce the wall thickness from 8–10 to 3 – 4 mm.e. 353 MA may be a suitable alternative for more aggressive gas environments. This material has been tested in the form of resistance wire as well as corrugated strip elements (Fig. 4845 (310S). They also have a low creep strength and thus deform readily. all-welded tubes are becoming increasingly common. Material selection will depend on the temperature and gas environment. due to smoother surfaces. since it could then become unbalanced. the choice of material must be based on a thorough assessment of the operating conditions. neither must it deform nor accumulate thick deposits.4). A fan impeller must not become so brittle that it fails. Heat exchangers Recuperators for heat recovery from blast furnace gases have been mentioned earlier. Tubular heat exchangers (Fig. Relatively thin-walled tubes in straight lengths can be produced by centrifugal casting.g. The materials used for electrical resistance elements are usually ferritic chromium-aluminium steels or nickelbase alloys. but are more expensive. due to the availability of high temperature materials in the form of plate. The former can withstand high temperatures. 9) and has yielded good Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 11 . Heat-resistant materials are also used for tube spacers and supports. 253 MA has also proved to be more resistant to erosion than e. but become brittle after some service time. 10) and plate heat exchangers are also used for improving the efficiency of (p)reheating and heat treatment furnaces.High temperature stainless steels In the past. However. sheet. by misaligned internal burners. So. due to its high creep strength and lower risk of embrittlement. When used for fans. 253 MA may be used for heating elements for furnaces operating at moderate temperatures.

and must have a high creep strength and a good resistance to oxidation to perform their task satisfactorily. refractory linings. or plate. baskets. Fasteners of high temperature materials are also used for securing electrical resistance elements. Figure 13 12 . ceramic compounds (Fig. which are then charged into the furnace (Fig . wire rod. AvestaPolarit 253 MA has proven to be a good alternative to both nickel-base alloys and other high temperature materials. Trays. Alloys with high nickel contents are often used for this purpose. etc. 253 MA has produced good results for trays and baskets thanks to its very high creep strength. so AvestaPolarit 353 MA may be a suitable alternative. In spite of its lower content of alloying elements. and fixtures Figure 11 Small machine components that require heat treatment are often loaded into baskets or onto trays. 11). The mat is then pressed over the bolts and is held in position by the lock washers (Fig. These thermocouple sheathings must be thin-walled to ensure fast temperature response and must also be capable of withstanding the temperatures and gases in their environment. These insulating mats are secured to the inside of the furnace wall by means of special bolts with lock washers.13). 12).High temperature stainless steels Anchor bolts and fasteners Modern heat treatment furnaces are often insulated with highly effective fibre mats instead of refractory bricks or ceramic compounds. The bolts are welded to the inside of the shell at suitable intervals. radiant tubes. Sheathings made of 253 MA have yielded good results in this application as well as for use in gas analysers. The fasteners and anchor bolts employed for this purpose may be made of bar. Thermocouple sheathing Figure 12 Thermocouples used for recording and controlling the furnace temperatures must be protected from attack by the furnace gases if they are to provide correct temperature readings. The materials used for these baskets and trays must be capable of withstanding the temperature cycles and furnace atmospheres when used repeatedly over a long service time.

etc. expansion bellows. wind boxes.High temperature stainless steels Summary of the areas of application The various examples of applications of AvestaPolarit micro-alloyed high temperature steels in the steel and metals industries can be summarized as follows: Pellet sintering plants Steel melting. piping. and preheaters for scrap and ladles. conveyor belts. etc. Blast furnace plants Muffles. and heat exposed parts of coking ovens. smelters. burners. dampers. circulation fans. fans. retorts. anchor bolts and fasteners for refractory materials. electric heating elements. framework. tube spacers and supports. fixtures for brazing work. edge reinforcements for doors. recuperators for blast furnace gas. bridges. tubes in gas analysers. Charging pipes for pulverized coal (and ore pellets). Rolling mills (heating furnaces) Furnace rollers. thermocouple sheathing. radiant tubes. Pellet sintering plants Blast furnace plants Steel melting. furnace hearths. doors. feed chutes. and continuous casting plants Heat treatment furnaces and furnace accessories Rolling mills (heating furnaces) 13 . and continuous casting plants Extraction hoods. slide-rails. pier protection caps. flue gas ducts. etc. fans. walking beams. smelters. trays and baskets. heat exchangers. Heat treatment furnaces and furnace accessories Grids.

05 0. superseded by EN DIN 1. 14 .15 – – 0.4835 1.05 0. 4828. and 353 MA are patented grades with trademarks used by AvestaPolarit.3 17. 4878. angle and other profiles Steel grades: 253 MA. 353 MA. 4878 Manufactured products from plate and sheet To purchaser's specifications Welding consumables Manual welding electrodes: Steel grades: 253 MA.17 – 0.4948 1.35 mm Steel grades: 153 MA. Advice and assistance provided without charge are given with the best knowledge and in good faith. flat.0 1. 353 MA. 4845 Drawn wire Diameters: 0. but without any responsibility. P7.4828 1.5 0. Submerged arc Steel grades: 253 MA. 4878.06 0.3 2.5 Others – Ti Ce – – Ce – Ce BS 304S51 321S51 – – 309S16 – 304S24 – National steel designations. 4845 Cold-rolled sheet and strip Widths: 5–790 mm Thicknesses: 0.8–5 mm Steel grade: 253 MA Welded pipe and tube. AvestaPolarit can provide both micro-alloyed stainless high temperature steels as well as standard steels of the chromium-nickel type. 309L.avestapolarit. 253 MA. 4845 Widths: 50–1350 mm Thicknesses: 0. 310. 4845.15–1. typical values AvestaPolarit 4948 4878 153 MA 4828 4833 253 MA 4845 353 MA EN 1. 4833. 253 MA.4845 – NF Z6 CN 18-09 Z6 CNT 18-10 – Z17 CNS 20-12 Z15 CN 23-13 – Z8 CN 25-20 – SS 2333 2337 2372 – – 2368 2361 – 153 MA.7 9.05 0. 253 MA. For high temperature applications. P10 Castings From licensees. 253 MA.5– 6.4–4 mm Steel grades: 153 MA.4854 ASTM 304 H 321 H S30415 309S S30815 310S S35315 C 0.5 9. 353 MA. STEEL GRADES Chemical composition. 4828 Widths: 1350–2000 mm Thicknesses: 1.05 0. 353 MA. PRODUCTS Hot-rolled plate Widths: 1000 – 3000 mm Thicknesses: 5– 86 mm Steel grades: 153 MA.4878.5 12 12. 4878. 4845. 253 MA and 353 MA are registered.04 0.09 0.com ADVICE Advice in matters concerning AvestaPolarit materials as well as references to previous deliveries can be obtained from the Application Department at the Avesta Research Centre or from your local AvestaPolarit representative. rectangular.High temperature stainless steels What can AvestaPolarit offer the steel and metals industries? AvestaPolarit and its subsidiaries offer a wide range of stainless steel grades and products.4878 1.5 1. P10 (nickel-base) Welding wire for automatic welding:MIG. 353 MA.4948 1. 4833. 4833.5 1.5 20 22.05 N – – 0. 253 MA. 4828.5 21 25 25 Ni 8.4818 1. %.4833 1.4878 1. 4845 Bar Sections: round.4845 1.4833 1.15 Cr 18. 353 MA 4828.4891 1. fittings Diameters: 6–1600 mm Wall thicknesses: 1–25 mm Steel grades: 153 MA.5 11 20 35 Si 0.4828 1.5 18.0 0.7 1.6 mm Steel grades: 153 MA. TIG. More detailed information concerning each product is available in special AvestaPolarit data sheets which can be obtained from your nearest AvestaPolarit office or downloaded from our website: www. 4833. 253 MA.4893 1. 409.

1200°C 1100°C 1050°C 980°C 930°C 870°C 810°C 760°C 700°C 650°C 600°C 15 .High temperature stainless steels Colour-temperature scale for glowing steel The steel should be judged under dark or dimly lit conditions – not in direct sunlight. The colour scale should be viewed in normal diffuse daylight – not sunlight or lamplight.

Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate but AvestaPolarit and its subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be misleading. Suggestions for or descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and the company and its subsidiaries accept no liability in respect thereof. AvestaPolarit's focus is exclusively on stainless steel. Today. The Group combines cost-efficient production with a global sales and distribution network and offers customers one of the broadest product ranges on the market. Ever since the Group's formation in January 2001. in which the stainless steel business is a core area. the company. Graphic Concept AB / Edita Västra Aros AB. Inc) Information 104103EN. a fast-growing industry sector. The cover picture shows 253MA radiant U-tubes mounted horizontally in a heat treatment furnace (courtesy by Rolled Alloys.com www. 09-2003. it is the responsibility of the customer to ensure the suitability of the product for its intended use. AvestaPolarit is an integral part of the Outokumpu metals and technology group.com An Outokumpu Group company . will often be able to help. AvestaPolarit's vision has been to become “Best in stainless”.AvestaPolarit is one of the world's leading stainless steel producers. If further assistance is required. Before using a product supplied or manufactured by the company. Information given in this publication is subject to alteration without notice.avestapolarit. which has extensive research facilities. Technical Application Department: AvestaPolarit AB Avesta Research Centre SE-774 80 Avesta Tel: +46 (0)226-810 00 Fax: +46 (0)226-810 77 E-mail: research@avestapolarit.