CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 INTRODUCTION
The electrical/maintenance section is the power house of the company. All other section depends of it, either directly or indirectly. The major functions carried out in this section are repairs of electrical equipments (grinding and cutting machines, generator sets, welding machine compressors etc.) from site. It’s also in charge of installing TV cables, telephone lines, repairing and fixing of light fittings, construction of welding cables and building of electrical panels. On rare occasions, the section is in charge of supervision of house wiring of the company’s residential area. This report is into two chapters, the first chapters outlines the importance and aim of SIWES, it gives an over view of the company’s profile and a good representation of the organizational structure of the management. The second chapter describes the various industrial equipments, their mode of operation, how there are troubleshot and repaired. Chapter three treats the procedures for conduit wiring a with emphases on the working of the electrical lighting arrestors and earth pit while the last is the conclusive chapter which highlights the skills I acquired by virtue of my training, the challenges I encountered and possible recommendations.

1

1.1 OBJECTIVE OF SIWES
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is a federal government policy, which is aimed at assisting students to obtain relevant practical experience and skills in their course of study among other reasons; it is an effort designed to bridge the gap between the theory and practical aspect in various degree program. It also strengthens employer’s involvement in educational process and also in preparing students for employment.

1.2 COMPANY’S PROFILE
Alcon Nigeria Limited was launched into Nigeria construction industry as LED construction Nigeria Limited on the 10th of May 1982 and on the 30th march 1984 it was renamed Alcon Nigeria Limit. It is located at plot 17 Trans- Amadi industrial layouts, Portharcourt, Rivers state. FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES Alcon has track records of excellent project performance across abroad industry spectrums either as a simple construction contractor or as a main contractor responsible for turn key projects in the following fields.
2

• Oil and gas upstream and mid stream prospects • Refining chemical and petrochemical

• Power generation and distribution • Infrastructure • Civil works. I t is a full single source provider, a strategic partner ally for • Project management

Engineering procurement construction and installations

• Operations and maintenance

Alcon is committed to executing its projects safely without compromising quality in a timely manner and within stated budget.

SECTIONS
• Electrical / maintenance section • Welding section • Iron bending/ panel beating section • Mechanical/automobile section
3

Marketing Mngr.• Carpentry section • Quality control department • Account department • Store department 1. Store Mngr.3 MANAGEMENT ORGANOGRAM Chairman Director Deputy General Manager Quality Mngr. Maintenance Mngr. Acc Mngr. 4 . Utility Mngr. Admin Mngr. Security Officer.

equipment welding I got acquainted many others.Senior officer Maintenance Engr. Utility Engr. grinding and cutting machine amongst 5 . Asst. Asst. generator set (big). Admin Officer Lab. Officer Admin Officer Marketing Officer Officer Officer Fore man Security Guards Sub. Officer Senior officer Acc. machines machine. Helper Workers Helper Lab boy Workers Workers CHAPTER TWO INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS They were some with. industrial The electrical are. Officer Cashier Asst. Engr. Asst.

Some welding machine use a transformer to convert the high voltage current from the wall outlet into a lower voltage current for outlet while other types or welding machines uses a motor or combustion engine to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. 2. Sometimes troubling shooting 6 . The first thing to check when a welding machine is not working fine is if the wire is feeding properly.2. Welding machines takes electrical current from a high-voltage power source and coverts it into viable energy to fuse two materials together. An alternator or generator is then used to convert this mechanical energy into a low current electrical output. When checking. A worn drive roller can affect the feed and causes it to slip. look for debris and dirt on the liner. This can also cause bird hesting.1 MAINTENANCE OF A WELDING MACHINE I. They are available in variety of sizes and output voltage.0 WELDING MACHINE: Welding machines are used to permanently connect metal piece with heat generated from electrical energy.

II. A worn out tip doesn’t allow the electricity to efficiently hit and this creates a lot more work on the job. This generator produces a regulated constant current output that produces the wonderful arc. The first generator is the exciter (the nose that sticks out the front of the machine. that the welder’s love. IV.welding machine is as simple as cleaning it and allowing the wire feed freely. The fig below shows a typical Lincoln SA-200 generator set. 7 . Inspect the ground clamp. when the part of the clamp is coated with oxide. It comprises of two DC generators working in tandem. The second generator is the welding generator. Burn back can cause a bad wire. A bad ground clamp can cause a lot of resistances and change the way current comes back to the machine. III. GENERATOR: A big generator set used mostly in the company is the SA-200 Lincoln generator.2 Examine the welding cable for worn spots. The exciter is actually a 2kw DC generator that provides a DC current that is adjusted to control the welder output. 2. Look out for the tip near the wire exist inside the gun. electrons can’t ready transfer. The exciter also provides an auxiliary 115 volts DC for accessories.

8 .Figure 1. Lincoln SA-200 generator set 2.2a EXCITER PARTS LOCATION AND DEFINITIONS. The graphic below is a standard Lincoln SA-200 exciter with cap removed.

The exciter armature is held onto the armature shaft by nut secured by a lock washer. 6. 2. 2. The left-handed brush holder is the negative spring loaded brush holder. Facing the machine from the front the parts are named as follows: 1.2b HOW IT WORKS 9 . 4. lincoln SA.Figure 2. Behind the left brush holder is the left exciter coil. The right hand brush holder is the positive spring loaded brush holder. 5. The brush springs the hold the brush in place. Behind the right brush holder is the right exciter coil.200 exciter. 3.

The exciter generator produces 115 volts DC that is fed to the auxiliary power outlet and to the main exciter shunt coils. The system is a series wound compound generator.3 TROUBLE SHOOTING THE EXCITER FIELD COILS In fig c below. This controls the strength of the magnetic field. light 10 .A fault in either circuit or the machine will not weld if the failure is in the exciter shunt circuit the generator can still produce power. The fine current control (heat control) rheostat varies the exciter voltage that is applied to the main stator shunt coils. When DC current flows through the exciter coil. the magnetic fields produced by the exciter coils are broken by the winding on the exciter armature producing approximate 115 volts DC at full RPM. This DC current is varied by the fine current control rheostat (like a valve) then fed into the main exciter shunts coils. which controls the amount of welding current that is a variable . 2. the wiring diagram. you will see that there are two halves of the exciter circuits. with an additional shunt coil across the exciter armature. the variable control the output current (heat) of the arc.The exciter coils and the poles pieces form electromagnets. This can be verified by checking the auxiliary with a meter. The faster the engine turns the more voltage the exciter produces.

check resistance between the right brush lead to each to the separated wire. II. It’s only then will you be able to check the coils separately. 2. the two halves of an exciter circuit. If they are spliced or connected with bolt and nut.or a grinder if you can grind but not weld the exciter shunt coil is faulty. you must break this wire apart. remove both exciter brush from their holders and make sure they do not touch anything while making measurement with the VOM on the lowest resistance scale you can use. Figure 3. Reach under the exciter armature and locate the black and blue leads. the wire should be connected with a butt splice or bolted together. If the wire is 11 .3a HOW TO TROUBLE SHOOT THE MAIN EXCITER SHUNT COILS I. To check the exciter field coils.

or a very low resistance(less than 100 ohms) the coil must be replaced. If the coils check out ok. One of the wires will show continuity. then the exciter armature will be the next to be suspected. one wire will show resistance. clean the commutator with a commutator cleaning stone. this is normal. between the lead and the rheostat. If the measurement shows very high resistance or an “open coil” infinite resistance. 2. It is not normal for brushes to deposit enough carbon powder to contaminate the commutator. The next thing to check is the resistance from each coil leads to the outside terminal (it may have a red wire attached) of the fine current control rheostat. IV. V.) III. 12 . Both measurements should be identical.3b TROUBLE SHOOTING THE EXCITER ARMATURE The defects to look out for when trouble shooting an armature includes: 1. Before further check. the other will not. If you get no resistance go to the next higher range (make sure you do not touch the lead with your hand else you could be reading the resistance of your body.good. The resistance should be approximately 130-170 ohms. Burnt or blacked commutator bar.

or damaged commutator bars.Note: that a properly maintained commutator should be the colour of a used burnished penny. With the VOM set to the highest resistance range to check for a short to ground. Check for an armature shorted to ground. 2. Armatures have two problems. This makes the brush jump and results to excessive sparking. Sometime a high bar may occur. 4. Note: if a bright green spark is seen when the unit is running. 3.3c FLASHING THE FIELD 13 . 2. This is done by placing one lead to a clean spot on the armature shaft. A winding that is shorted to the armature shaft or broken (open) windings. With the other lead check each commutator bar. A high bar simply means that one of the commutator bars has come loose and is sticking up. broken wires. If there is any resistance reading in any of the cummutator then the armature needs to be replaced. Inspect the windings for any burnt insulation. That is a sign of a shorted (to ground) armature winding.

This is how it is done: 1. Connect the positive (+) lead to the right brush lead terminal. 5. not with standing in front of the machine in a trench coat. Touch the negative (-) lead. 2.The exciter field coils are held in place with solid iron “pole piece”. the brushes. They hold a small amount of residual magnetism to provide “self-excitation” so the exciter will start generating current from a dead start. Start the engine and makes sure it is running at its slow speed. The pole piece can lose their magnetism as the unit sits idle for a long period to time and there is no easy test to detect the loss. When the exciter field coils. They retain a small amount of residual magnetism just a bit. you will generate a strong spark. the only thing left to do is “flash the field”. to the left brush lead terminal. Remove the exciter dust cover. 3. The special pieces of iron do more than just hold the exciter coils in place. This is normally done with a 12 volts car battery. Connect jumper wires first to the battery then to the exciter brush terminals. 4. Hold the lead on the terminal for approximately two seconds 14 . and the exciter armature check out.

15 . Figure 4. shows parts of an exciter that is being flashed.there will e strong spark the field poles will be “flashed”.

smothering rough surface. Check if the wire terminal at the plug of machine is still tightly connected. They are mostly used by the welders. 2.The other machine that we repair and service at the work shop includes. cutting almond cables etc. If the brushes are worn off then they should be changed or replaced. Check for continuity of the wire. 16 .4 HOW TO TROUBLE SHOOT A GRINDING AND CUTTING MACHINE: 1. Check if the carbon brush at both sides of the machine located beside the armature is worn off. 2. then the wire is in good condition. or if it does. If a sound is heard from the VOM. This is done by placing the leads of the VOM at the neutral and life components of the wire. They are used for cutting metals. carpenters. it brings out offensive odour. 3. only then do we go further to check the armature. If all the listed above have been checked and rectified and still the machine doesn’t work at all. grinding and cutting machine. 4. panel beater and on rear occasion by electricians. woods.

This commonly 17 . A well designed conduit wiring system has adequate capacity for future expansion. CHAPTER THREE 3. It may be made up of metal.On checking the armature. Some types of conduit are improved for direct encasement in concrete. it is burnt and should be replaced or rewired. plastic. Conduit wiring provides mechanical protection and electrical safety to persons and property and provides convenient accessible ducts for the conductor. Varying number. as existing conductors can be withdrawn. The term conduit is commonly used to describe any system that contains electrical conductor but it has a more restrictive definition when used in wiring regulations.0 CONDUIT WIRING It is an electric piping system used for protection and routing of electrical wiring. types and size can be pulled into a conduit which simplifies the designs and constructions compared to multiple runs of cable. fiber or fired clay. if it is covered with a black substance. and new conductors installed with little or no disruption along the path of the conduit. Frequent wiring changes are made simple and safer through the use of electrical conduit.

and it can be use to run wire under drive way. stainless and aluminum. 3.1 TYPES OF CONDUIT WIRING i. RIGID METAL CONDUCT (RMC) It is a thick treaded tubing usually made of coated steel. service feeder installation in extreme conditions. It common applications are in commercial and industrial construction. One major disadvantage of the type of wiring is that it doesn’t dissipate heat as readily as those installed in open wiring.use in commercial building to allow electrical and communication outlet to be installed in the middle of large open areas. ELECTRICAL METALLIC TUBING (EMT) 18 . GALVANIZING RIGID CONDUIT (GRC) It is a galvanized tubing system. Iii. Therefore it is advised that the current capacity of each the conductor be reduced. Conduit wiring is more expensive than other forms of electrical wiring. Ii. It is the thickest and heaviest of all other type of conduit. This is particularly advantageous when following irregular or curved building profile. Metal and plastic conduit can be bent in the jobsite to allow neat installation without excessive number of manufactured fittings.

It is commonly use instead of GRC as it is less costly and much lighter. The thin-PVC are only burial and exposed work. It doesn’t maintain any permanent bend. Typical examples of where flexible conduit is applied are in water heaters. V. Since PVC has a higher thermal 19 . Vi. ALUMINUM CONDUIT It is similar to galvanized steel conduit. It is a rigid conduit generally used in commercial and industrial application (in food processing plants) where higher resistance to corrosion is needed. attic vent etc. It is used mainly in dry areas where it would be impractical to install any non-flexible conduit. Iv. yet where metallic strength would be required.PVC resist moisture and any corrosive substance. POLYVINLY CHLORIDE CONDUIT (PVC) This is the most commonly used type of conduit because it is the lightest and cheapest compared to other conduit materials. FLEXIBLE METALLIC CONDUIT (FMC) It is made through the coiling of a self-interlocked strip of aluminum or steel. Aluminum conduit cannot be directly embedded in concrete since the metal will react with alkalis in the cement.It is sometimes called thin wall. forming a hallow through which wire can be pulled. though it is damage easy.

they are used to provide access to wires placed within the conduit it differ from a junction box which allows 20 . Since it is not conductive it is advised to always run green grounded (earthing) wire in the conduit for proper grounding method at connection. * Couplings. they join conduit to a junction boxes. The figure below show a typical example of a PVC in a junction box. it must be mounted so as to allow for expansion and contraction for each run. PVC conduit pipe. it connects two pieces of conduit bodies together. 3. * Condulets. One major reason why PVC is preferred in conduit wiring is because it is insulated.2 FITTINGS FOR PVC CONDUIT WIRING. * Box connectors.coefficient of expansion other types. Figure 5.

nails sledge hammer. aluminum and PVC. flat headed screw drivers.access for pulling wires and space for splicing. U-junction box. hack saw. male brush PVC adhesive. T-shaped bodies and –shaped bodies. Some of the Condulets includes Lshaped bodies. Y-way junction box. PPE.3 PIPING FOR PVC CONDUIT WIRING MATERIALS NEEDED. PVC pipe. bending spring. moisture rating and materials including galvanized steel. claw hammer. 3. wire strippers. files. Etc. knockout boxes. The figure below show some fittings for PVC wiring. Condulets are in various types. 21 . 4-way wire coupling.

5mm cable 15A switch socket outlet Air conditioners. Table3. wires of various sizes depending on the circuit being wired. lightning sockets are connected. When passing a pipe through a junction. scaffold. also if the lent of the pie will not reach to its destination. outlet boxes for switches.4 WIRING FOR CONDUIT This is done after the piping activity. 3x4mm PVC single core cable water 3x4mm PVC single core cable PVC single core heaters . in cases where the piping is done before plastering is done. fishing tape.Piping is mostly done before plastering or decking. Here the major tools used are.5mm PVC single core cable 3x2. 3. cooker control units 22 . It is important to note that during pipe. The table below shows the sizes of cables used in some wiring units. couplings and adhesive gums are used to extend the length. the PVC pipe needs to be bent using a bending spring.0 WIRING UNITS Lightning points/ ceiling fans 13Aswitch socket outlet SIZES OF CABLES USED 2xI. then the walls have to be broken and holes bored through which the pipes will pass.

A conduit has an open face with removable cover secured to the surface and the wires are placed inside it. thus enabling minimum effort upgrading. Installation is carried out by connecting the upper layer to the down layer with the connecting lead. The lightening rod takes the lightening along a part through the ground where it is dispersed without harm to the building or its inhabitants. It is often used for telecommunication wiring such as network cables.5 SURFACE MOUNTING RACE WAY/ TRUNKING This type of decorative conduit is designed to provide an aesthetically acceptable passage for wiring without holding it inside or outside a wall. Aside from the fact that if the appearance may not be acceptable to the observers. It is used were additional wiring is required and were going through a wall will be difficult.5 LIGHTENING ARRESTORS AND EARTH PIT Lightning rods are designed to give lightening a safe part to travel if it happens to hit a house. The upper part consist of the following • Gold plated centered needle • Gold platted 45c bended flat needles • Gold plated 90c bended needles 23 . 3.3. one of the major advantage is that it is easily be accessible for future changes.

• Gold pated base ball • Positive conductor • Parabolic dish steel clamp. the ground electrode provides physical connection to the mass of the earth and negative conductor is 24 . The down layer include • Negative conductors • Copper plate • Plate connectors Connecting lead consists of 20mm/2m copper stripes. The copper stripes are thoroughly insulated and concealed within a PVC pipe from upper layer to down layer. Pre-requisites for installation • GI pipr ¾ • PVC pipe(1) • Earth pit • Charcoal • Bentonate powder In the earthening system.

Bentonate powder and charcoal provides conductivity to the earth. Soil resistance. Resistance of the rods couplers and connection. Items needed for the construction of earth pit • Rod material • Couplers • Driving equipments 25 .7 EARTHING PIT Earthing resistance of an electrode is dependent on several factors including.used to deliver faulty current to it. Coppers should not be used along side with aluminum roofing. It should be noted that the cable should not be bent sharply to a ‘U’OR ‘V’ formation at any point. Contact resistance of the electrode to the earth. the role of the earthening system is to dissipate the lightening current into the earth as quick as possible whilst minimizing the ground potential rise and maximizing the potential fall off from the current injection pit. 3. In the lightening protection. The cable should run horizontally or downward to the ground.

Due to the high earth resistance. While deep installed electrodes provides stable resistance of less than 5 ohms. 3. To maintain full rod to soil contact a slurry mixture of sodium betonite (naturally occurring clay) is injected into the coupler void as the rods are installed. This is because low earth 26 . Only the first rod will maintain a soil contact. The couplers should be used to couple the rod together in such a way as to limit soil contact with the surface of the additional rods. the follow points must be taken into consideration. The location of the pit should be such where the soil has reasonable chances of becoming moist. the rod material coupler designed must be able to withstand the force necessary to drive the rod into the sub-soils. Mechanical drivers are necessary to drive the rods deep into the ground. the typical shallow electrode is unable to maintain an electrical system at earth potential during transient voltage conditions of lighting. however.• Wires Installation ground rods should be 10-12 foot long. i. This provides conductive material between the rod surface and the soil over the depth of the rod. Electrode depth of 30-60feet are more effective and practical than that of 8-10 foot because resistance of a shallow electrode will vary greatly as seasonal conditions changes.8 CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH PIT Before an earth pit is constructed.

0 Skills Acquired 27 . Inside the building. pavement and roads are definitely avoided for locating the earth pit. ii.resistance is required to give effective earthling protection to electrical fittings and a moist soil has such quality. water drains. vi. should be earthed too. v. iv. Entrance. in addition to all electrical appliances. the position of the earth plate or pipe when fixed should be clear from all building foundations. Earth plates and earth wires must be of the same metal. or rain water pipes. A masonry enclosure should be made over earth pit. Wood coal powder (charcoal) and salt must be filled in the earth pit around the earth pipe or plate. If possible earth plates or pipes should be located near water tap. vii. all switches boxes etc. vii. CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION 4. iii.

industrial generating set. It also gave me the opportunity to learn about good work ethics and good interpretation and communication skills. Not only was I exposed to this equipments. 28 . I learnt the principles with which they operate in. electrical mobile panels. • I got a firsthand knowledge of some electrical industrial equipment like the grinding cutting machine. safety briefings. circuit breakers. It helped me broaden my view on what is expected of me as a prospect engineer. This enlightened me a lot on the risks and hazards involved in the electrical world • Ability to work effectively in a team and to communicate effectively with others in related field. spanners. • I learnt the proper use of electrical tools such as the AVO meter. • I was privileged to attend a number of tool boxes. screw drives. miller welding machines etc. cutting machines etc. My industrial training has positively contributed to my training as a future electrical/electronic engineer. I have acquired the following skills from my SIWES work place.By virtue of this training I received.

One of the major problems I encountered was getting an ideal industrial placement. 4. going to company that does something close or related to my course of study) 2.4. I was not given project or research to carry out and this slowed down my learning process. Ideal the sense that the company suits with course of my study. 2. Institutions and SIWES management should provide effective supervision of students during then period of industrial training experience. 29 . The SIWES management should make provision for automatic placement of students in related industries. At the cause of my training. I was forced out of frustration to settle for something close to what is needed(that is. As a result of this. 1.1 Problems encountered my SIWES. 3. I was not closely supervised by neither university nor industry based supervisor. T he SIWES management should go through the federal government to make sure all the industries are involved in providing effective industrial training opportunities for students and also ensure that they are given benefits.2 Ways of improving the SIWES programs 1.

so that they can be attached on time. instead of just working in any organization for the sole purpose of getting money. 3.4. 30 . Students should have in mind the main aim of the SIWES and offer themselves better alternatives rather than settling for anything. carrying out assignments and tasks judiciously. They should learn the art of getting involved by observing earnestly. they should enroll in institutions that will impact more practical knowledge even if they have to pay for it.3 Advice For Future Participants 1. asking question. They should also start their placement application on time. Better alternatives in the sense that. because that is basically the only way they can acquire true knowledge. 2.