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FREE ENERGY AND ANTIGRAVITATIONAL
DEVICES AND SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE
GRAVITATIONAL MASS FLUCTUATIONS
William S. Alek
INTALEK, INC., 3506 43rd Place, Highland, IN 463223129, USA Phone:(219) 9242742 http://www.intalek.com/ mailto:wsalek01@intalek.com
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to reveal a portion of classical physics that contains an intrinsic relativistic phenomenon called Gravitational Mass Fluctuations. A correlation has been established between mass, inductors, and capacitors, thereby linking gravity to electromagnetism. A simplified gravitational mass relativity model called Natural Relativity (NR) Theory is presented and shown to be a primary gravitational effect. This theory is correlated to Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) Theory, and as a consequence, creates a new “Principle of Equivalence Theorem” and a secondary gravitational effect. A temporal rotation operator is introduced using Euler’s Identity, which shows the complex (i.e., timefuture) motion of matter. The speed of light c, Planck's constant h, permeability µ0, permittivity ε0, Boltzmann's Constant k, electric charge q, and the Fine Structure Constant α are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity because the fluctuation or curvature of the parameters that compose these constants are shown to evaluate to unity gain. In other words, these constants remain constant anywhere with a given gravity well. Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that the magnetic field energy produced by a moving electron is equivalent to its’ special relativistic mass fluctuation, and therefore, is shown to couple to gravity. This motion can either have a typical velocity or a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity. If the velocity is complex, then the special relativistic mass fluctuation of an electron is NEGATIVE, exhibit an antigravitational effect, and produce a complex (i.e., timefuture) magnetic field. In addition, the total field energy of a complex magnetic field contained within a volume is NEGATIVE. In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, an Amperian Current is described as an electron circulating around a nucleus at a relativistic speed. This creates a magnetic induction emerging from the center of the nucleus. Canceling this field by applying an external magnetic induction causes the velocity of the electron to become complex. The presence of NEGATIVE RESISTANCE, the production of NEGATIVE ENERGY, and the control of GRAVITY/ANTIGRAVITY occur by fluctuating the mass of an object. The theory presents a conceptual breakthrough in energy and highspeed field propulsion technology, and explores solutions based entirely within the framework of classical physics.
INTRODUCTION
Puthoff (1996) coined the phrase, “metric engineering”, and Puthoff, Little and Ibison (2002) consider the vacuum to be a polarizable medium, and that it can be expressed in terms of tensor formulations of curved spacetime. The bending of light passing near a massive object is caused by induced spatial variation in the refractive index of the vacuum near the object. This is correlated to changes in permeability µ0 and permittivity ε0 of the vacuum. Changes occurring in the vacuum also affect the mass of objects, the length and bending of rulers, the frequency of clocks, the energy of light, etc. This paper links gravity with electromagnetism by presenting formulations of curved spacetime in terms of classical physics, which are caused by relativistic fluctuations of mass M , inductance L , and capacitance C of an object. For example, when an object with mass M naturally falls downward in a given gravity well, its’ natural relativistic mass M increases due to Newtonian Gravitation, or universal mass attraction. Therefore, the new mass of an object is displaced to a new position within this well, and massenergy remains conserved. However, by converting this increase in relativistic mass M to energy, a force acts upon the object, and
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
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the new mass is now displaced to its original position that was higher vertically in the well. The object exhibits an antigravitational effect. The rate of change of this fluctuation could cause the speed of the object to easily exceed the speed of light. This is because the relativistic gravitational mass of the object, which is shown to be convergent, is moving at right angles to a relativistic inertial mass, which is shown to be divergent. Since the speed of the object with relativistic gravitational mass has no known upper limit, the resulting speed through deep space could be enormous and necessitates the use of the warp factor equation.
EVERYTHING IN THIS UNIVERSE IS CURVED!
CURVATURE DUE TO GRAVITY
OBSERVER ON MOON WOULD SEE SAME OBJECT ON EARTH AS BEING MORE MASSIVE AND SMALLER IN SIZE
SAME OBJECT WITH MASS OF 1kg AND VOLUME OF 1m3
SAME OBJECT WITH MASS OF 1kg AND VOLUME OF 1m3
r EYE SURFACE OF MOON
gMOON
r
g0 EYE
SURFACE OF EARTH
OBSERVER ON EARTH WOULD SEE SAME OBJECT ON MOON AS BEING LESS MASSIVE AND LARGER IN SIZE
FIGURE 1. The same sphere changes in mass and size due to changes of gravity.
Shown above are two spheres with equal mass and size. Since the gravity of the Moon g MOON is approximately 1 6 the gravity of the Earth g 0 , an observer on the Moon would measure an identical sphere on the Earth as having more mass and being smaller in volume. Likewise, an observer on the Earth would measure an identical sphere on the Moon as having less mass, and larger in volume. This is due to the curvature of space and time caused by universal mass attraction, or gravity. So, relative to an observer on the Earth, a 1 kg sphere of mass on the Moon has less mass than the same 1 kg sphere of mass on the Earth. And, a 1m3 sphere of volume on the Moon is larger in size than the same 1m3 sphere of volume on the Earth. This relativistic change in mass and volume are referred to as Gravitational Mass Fluctuations, or GMF.
THE MUTUAL EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE
Marmet (2001) considers “separately” the influence of a gravitational potential upon matter, and assumes for the moment that kinetic energy is zero. He’s implicitly invoking what I call the mutual exclusion principle, and therefore, considers kinetic energy and gravitational energy independently. The mutual exclusion principle is a tool used to compute the curvature or fluctuation of various parameters related to Gravitational Energy systems. For Kinetic Energy systems, the following fluxbased parameters mass M , inductor L , and capacitor C , are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity gY . However, for Gravitational Energy systems, and given an equipotential surface of gravity reference, the following temporalbased parameters relativistic mass ±∆M , relativistic inductor ±∆L , and relativistic capacitor ±∆C , fluctuate or curve between equipotential surfaces of gravity. The kinetic energy of Gravitational Energy systems is assumed to be zero. By applying the product rule, the mutual exclusion principle is mathematically expressed as,
z (t ) = d dx dy ( x y) = y + x = yx+ x y dt dt dt
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is,
z (t ) = y x
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And the Gravitational Coupling Term or temporalbased fluctuating system is,
z (t ) = x y
The first term is regarded as kinetic or fluxes, and therefore, couples to inertia and is Newtonianbased. The second term is regarded as temporal, and therefore, couples to gravity and is nonNewtonianbased. This principle, which has been implicitly used for several centuries, excludes one term from the other. The fixed distance + y and the changing distance + y or +∆y are directed towards the center of gravity. The fixed distance + x and the changing distance + x or +∆x are directed across an equipotential surface of gravity.
GRAVITATIONAL MASS FLUCTUATION
FLUCTUATING MASS M ±M
−y +y
r∓r
g0
FIGURE 2. The fluctuating mass of an object.
The complete ideal momentum model is composed of two terms,
fM (t ) =
dpY d ( M vY ) dv dM = = M Y + vY = M vY + vY M dt dt dt dt
(1)
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is M vY , and mass M is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity gY . The Gravitational Coupling Term is vY M , and changing mass M fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity. For a “mass fluctuating system”, the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero Newtons. So, given an object 2 having mass M moving at constant velocity vY , or vY = 0 m s , the Flux Coupling Term is,
fM (t ) = M vY = 0 N
(2)
This removes the Flux Coupling Term, leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term,
fM (t ) = vY M ≠ 0 N
(3)
Since M has units of resistance in mNs m 2 , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If
M is negative, it has units of negative resistance or, M < 0 mNs m 2
(4)
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Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PM of a fluctuating mass M is,
PM (t ) = vY fM (t ) = vY 2 M
(5)
So, for certain values of M , the total instantaneous power PM can be NEGATIVE or,
PM (t ) < 0 Watts
(6)
Then, integrating PM with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of mass M or,
EM (t ) = ∫ PM (t ) dt = vY 2 ∫ M dt = vY 2 M (t ) < 0 Joules
(7)
If M is positive, it has units of positive resistance or,
M > 0 mNs m 2
(8)
Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PM of a fluctuating mass M is,
PM (t ) = vY fM (t ) = vY 2 M
(9)
So, for certain values of M , the total instantaneous power PM can be POSITIVE or,
PM (t ) > 0Watts
(10)
Then, integrating PM with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of mass M or,
EM (t ) = ∫ PM (t ) dt = vY 2 ∫ M dt = vY 2 M (t ) > 0 Joules
(11)
So, the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EM is,
EM (t ) = M (t ) vY 2
(12)
By rearranging terms, the mass equivalent of energy M is,
M (t ) = EM (t ) vY 2
(13)
The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M is,
M = EM vY 2
(14)
So, the gravitational momentum model is,
fM (t ) = M vY = EM E v = M 2 Y vY vY
(15)
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Letting y = dy dt = vY , the Gravitational Force Coupling Term is,
fM (t ) = EM y
(16)
By rearranging terms, the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EM is,
EM = fM (t ) y
(17)
The total energy EM contained within matter is,
EM (t ) = M (t ) c 2
(18)
The change in this total energy EM is,
EM = M c 2
(19)
By rearranging terms, the change in total mass M is,
M = EM c2
(20)
So, the time derivative form of the Gravitational Mass Coupling Term is,
M =
fM (t ) y c2
(21)
The derivative form is,
dM =
fM dy c2
(22)
The difference form is,
∆M =
fM ∆y c2
(23)
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GRAVITATIONAL INDUCTIVE MASS FLUCTUATION
FLUCTUATING INDUCTANCE −y +y
IL L±L
g0
+
vL

FIGURE 3. The fluctuating inductance of an object.
The complete ideal inductor model is composed of two terms,
ν L (t ) =
dI d dL ( L I L ) = L L + I L = L I L + I LL dt dt dt
(24)
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is L I L , and inductance L is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity
gY . The Gravitational Coupling Term is I LL , changing inductance L fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity.
For an “inductive fluctuating system”, the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero volts. By applying a constant current I L through inductor L , or I L = 0 Amps s , the Flux Coupling Term is,
ν L (t ) = L I L = 0Volts
This removes the Flux Coupling Term, leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term,
(25)
ν L (t ) = I L L ≠ 0 Volts
(26)
Since L has units of resistance in ohms, Ω , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If L is negative, it has units of negative resistance or,
L < 0Ω
(27)
Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PL of a fluctuating inductor L is,
PL (t ) = I L ν L (t ) = I L 2 L
(28)
So, for certain values of L , the total instantaneous power PL can be NEGATIVE or,
PL (t ) < 0Watts
(29)
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Then, integrating PL with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of inductor L or,
EL (t ) = ∫ PL dt = I L 2 ∫ L dt = I L 2 L(t ) < 0 Joules
(30)
If L is positive, it has units of positive resistance or,
L > 0Ω
(31)
Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PL of a fluctuating inductor L is,
PL (t ) = I L ν L (t ) = I L 2 L
(32)
So, for certain values of L , the total instantaneous power PL can be POSITIVE or,
PL (t ) > 0 Watts
(33)
Then, integrating PL with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of inductor L or,
EL (t ) = ∫ PL dt = I L 2 ∫ L dt = I L 2 L(t ) > 0 Joules
(34)
Equate this to the energy equivalent of mass EM ,
EL (t ) = EM (t )
(35)
Then, the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EL is,
EL (t ) = vY 2 M L (t ) = I L 2 L(t )
(36)
By rearranging terms, the mass equivalent of energy M L is,
M L (t ) = EL (t ) I L 2 L(t ) = vY 2 vY 2 I L 2 L(t ) M L (t )
(37)
vY 2 =
(38)
The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M L is,
ML = EL I L 2 L = vY 2 vY 2
(39)
So, the gravitational inductor model is,
fL (t ) = M L vY =
EL E I 2L vY = L = L vY 2 vY vY
(40)
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Letting y = dy dt = vY , the Gravitational Inductive Force Coupling Term is,
fL (t ) =
EL (t ) y
(41)
By rearranging terms, the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EL is,
EL = fL (t ) y
(42)
The total energy EL contained within matter is,
EL (t ) = M L (t ) c 2
(43)
The change in this total energy EL is,
EL = M L c 2
(44)
By rearranging terms, the change in total mass M is,
ML = EL fL (t ) y I L 2 L I 2L M (t ) L = = 2 = 2L = L 2 2 L(t ) c c y I L L(t ) M L (t )
(45)
So, the time derivative form of the Gravitational Inductive Coupling Term is,
L=
fL (t ) L(t ) y M L (t ) c 2
(46)
The derivative form is,
dL =
fL L dy M L c2
(47)
The difference form is,
∆L =
f L L ∆y M L c2
(48)
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GRAVITATIONAL CAPACITIVE MASS FLUCTUATION
FLUCTUATING CAPACITANCE C ±C
−y +y
g0
+
iC VC

+
V

FIGURE 4. The fluctuating capacitance of an object.
The complete ideal capacitor model is composed of two terms,
iC (t ) = dV d dC = C VC + VC C (C VC ) = C C + VC dt dt dt
(49)
Where, the Flux Coupling Term is CVC , and capacitor C is invariant within any equipotential surface of gravity
gY . The Gravitational Coupling Term is VC C , and changing capacitance C fluctuates between equipotential surfaces of gravity.
For a “capacitive fluctuating system”, the Gravitational Coupling Term is NOT zero amps. By applying a constant voltage across capacitor C , or VC = 0Volts s , the Flux Coupling Term is,
iC (t ) = C VC = 0 Amps
(50)
This removes Flux Coupling Term, leaving only the Gravitational Coupling Term,
iC (t ) = VC C ≠ 0 Amps
(51)
Since C has units of conductance in mhos, , its direction of change could either be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE. If C is negative, it has units of negative conductance or,
C<0
(52)
Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PC of a fluctuating capacitor C is
PC (t ) = iC (t ) VC = VC 2 C
(53)
So, for certain values of C , the total instantaneous power PC can be NEGATIVE or,
PC (t ) < 0Watts
(54)
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Then, integrating PC with respect to time when the total power is less than zero watts results in NEGATIVE energy of capacitor C or,
EC (t ) = ∫ PC dt = VC 2 ∫ C dt = VC 2 C (t ) < 0 Joules
(55)
If C is positive, it has units of positive conductance or,
C>0
(56)
Now, the instantaneous gravitationally induced power PC of a fluctuating capacitor C is,
PC (t ) = iC (t ) VC = VC 2 C
(57)
So, for certain values of C , the total instantaneous power PC can be POSITIVE or
PC (t ) > 0 Watts
(58)
Then, integrating PC with respect to time results in excess POSITIVE energy of capacitor C or,
EC (t ) = ∫ PC dt = VC 2 ∫ C dt = VC 2 C (t ) > 0 Joules
(59)
Equate this to the energy equivalent of mass EM ,
EC (t ) = EM (t )
(60)
Then, the energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy) EC is,
EC (t ) = vY 2 M C (t ) = VC 2 C (t )
(61)
By rearranging terms, the mass equivalent of energy M C is,
M C (t ) = EC (t ) C (t ) VC 2 = vY 2 vY 2 VC 2 C (t ) M C (t )
(62)
vY 2 =
(63)
The fluctuating mass equivalent of energy M C is,
MC = EC VC 2 C = vY 2 vY 2
(64)
So, the gravitational capacitor model is,
fC (t ) = M C vY =
EC E V 2C v = C = C 2 Y vY vY vY
(65)
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Letting y = dy dt = vY , the Gravitational Capacitive Force Coupling Term is,
fC (t ) =
EC y
(66)
By rearranging terms, the fluctuating energy equivalent of mass EC is,
EC = fL (t ) y
(67)
The total energy EC contained within matter is,
EC (t ) = M C (t ) c 2
(68)
The change in this total energy EC is,
EC = M C c 2
(69)
By rearranging terms, the change in total mass M is,
MC = EC fC (t ) y VC 2 C VC 2 C M (t ) C = = = 2 = C 2 2 2 C (t ) c c y VC C (t ) M C (t )
(70)
So, the time derivative form of the Gravitational Capacitive Coupling Term is,
C=
fC (t ) C (t ) y M C (t ) c 2
(71)
The derivative form is,
dC =
fC C dy M C c2
(72)
The difference form is,
∆C =
fC C ∆y M C c2
(73)
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THE GRAVITATIONAL COUPLING OF A FLUCTUATING MASS, INDUCTOR OR CAPACITOR
y
22,500.0
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
19,920
1kg OBJECT (BEFORE) y0
RADIUS
g yn = G
ME yn 2
NATURAL MASS FLUCTUATION DUE TO FREE FALL
∆y = y0 − y1
INCREASED GRAVITY
7,529 6,378.1 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5
1kg OBJECT (AFTER) y1
10.0
g yn
g y0 = 1.0
g y1 = 7.0 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY m sec2
g 0 = 9.8
FIGURE 5. The natural mass fluctuation of an object due to gravitational free fall.
Natural universal mass attraction or classic Newtonian gravity is a force f y that acts through a center of mass of the Earth with mass M E and a test mass M separated by a distance y ,
fy =
G ME M = gy M y2
(74)
So, given, Gravitational constant G = 6.67259 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg Radius of Earth yE = 6.3781× 106 m The surface gravity g 0 of the Earth is,
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) g0 = = = 9.80665 m sec2 2 yE 2 6.3781× 106 m ) (
(75)
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The gravity g y0 at GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE position y0 is,
g y0 =
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 1.00537 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 (19.920 ×10 m )
(76)
The gravity g y1 at position y1 is,
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67259 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 7.03767 m sec 2 g y1 = 2 y12 7.529 × 106 m ) (
(77)
Marmet (2001) equates force fM produced by a fluctuating mass dM to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fM (t )
(78)
The derivative form of a fluctuating mass dM is,
dM = fM dy g y M dy = c2 c2
(79)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of mass dM M and the energy equivalent of mass dE E displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dM dEM g y dy = = 2 M EM c
(80)
Marmet states the equation above shows a “calculated change of energy levels as a function of gravitational potential is in perfect agreement with the Pound and Rebka and also the Pound and Snider experiments”. Therefore, energy increases as a function of downward or positive displacement within a given gravity well. Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solutions of the derivative form of mass and energy equivalent of mass are,
∫
M y1
M y0
1 1 dM = 2 M c
My
∫
g y1 y1
g y0 y0
dYg y
(81)
ln ( M ) M 1 =
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(82)
⎛ My ln M y1 − ln M y0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ My ⎝ 0
(
)
(
)
⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠
(
)
(83)
M y1 M y0
=e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(84)
M y1 = M y0 e⎝
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(85)
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EM y1 = EM y0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
(86)
So, the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment used Mossbaurer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22.6 m . With the gamma rays emitted upward, they showed the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result,
⎛1 1 ⎞ G ME ⎜ − ⎟ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ = 1 = 2 c c2
SHIFT =
∆M ∆EM = M EM
(87)
( 6.67259 ×10
SHIFT =
−11
⎛ ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) ⎜ − ⎜ ( 6.3781226 × 106 m ) ( 6.3781000 × 106 m ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (2.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = −2.465961× 10−15
(88)
(89)
With the gamma rays emitted downward, they showed the BLUE SHIFT was,
( 6.67259 ×10
SHIFT =
−11
⎛ ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) ⎜ − ⎜ ( 6.3781000 × 106 m ) ( 6.3781226 × 106 m ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (2.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2.465961× 10−15
(90)
(91)
Now, the force fL produced by a fluctuating inductor dL is equated to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fL (t )
(92)
The derivative form of a fluctuating inductor dL is,
dL =
fL L dy g y L dy = M L c2 c2
(93)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductor dL L displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dL g y dy = 2 L c
(94)
Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solution of the derivative form of an inductor is,
∫
Ly1
Ly0
1 1 dL = 2 L c
∫
g y1 y1 g y0 y0
dYg y
(95)
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ln ( L ) L 1 =
Ly
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(96)
⎛ Ly ln Ly1 − ln Ly0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ Ly ⎝ 0
( )
( )
⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠
(
)
(97)
Ly1 Ly0
=e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(98)
Ly1 = Ly0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
(99)
So, the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an inductor L is,
⎛1 1 ⎞ G ME ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ = c2
SHIFT =
∆L = L
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2
(100)
Now, the force fC produced by a fluctuating capacitor dC is equated to the gravitational force f y ,
f y (t ) = fC (t )
(101)
The derivative form of a fluctuating inductor dC is,
dC =
fC C dy g y C dy = M C c2 c2
(102)
The derivative form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitor dC C displaced dy within a given gravity well g y is,
dC dEC g y dy = = 2 C EC c
(103)
Let dYg y = g y dy , the exponential solution of the derivative form of a capacitor is,
∫
C y1
C y0
1 1 dC = 2 C c
Cy
∫
g y1 y1 g y0 y0
dYg y
(104)
ln ( C ) C 1 =
y0
1 Yg c2 y
g y 1 y1 g y 0 y0
(105)
⎛ Cy ln C y1 − ln C y0 = ln ⎜ 1 ⎜ Cy ⎝ 0
( )
( )
⎞ 1 ⎟ = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎟ c ⎠
(
)
(106)
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C y1 C y0
=e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
(107)
C y1 = C y0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(108)
So, the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a capacitor C is,
⎛1 1 ⎞ G ME ⎜ − ⎟ ∆C g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ = = SHIFT = 2 C c c2
(109)
NATURAL RELATIVITY THEORY
M − ∆M DECREASED GRAVITY DECREASING MASS GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE INCREASING MASS INCREASED GRAVITY M + ∆M TOWARDS CENTER OF GRAVITY CURVATURE DUE TO −∆y GRAVITY
gy
MASS M AT REST
+∆y
FIGURE 6. A change of relativistic mass due to gravity.
The establishment of a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE is defined as a fixed point of reference within a given gravity well g y . This point may be located in a plane of equipotential surface of gravity, and is used throughout this paper. Natural relativistic changes of mass, volume, frequency, energy, etc. fluctuate or curve as a function of displacement ±∆y from this point of reference. This displacement defines a new point within a new plane of equipotential surface of gravity g ±∆y , and the gravity at that point may be increased or decreased based upon the sign of the displacement. Marmet (2001) invokes the principle of massenergy conservation regarding the displacement of matter between planes. For example, an object of mass M displaced a distance ∆y changes back to its original mass when returned to its original position within a given gravity well. Therefore, a new and simplified relativity model is introduced. For gravitational energy systems, and given an equipotential surface of gravity reference, the following parameters including relativistic mass ±∆M , relativistic inductance ±∆L , and relativistic capacitance ±∆C , fluctuate or curve between equipotential surfaces of gravity by displacement ±∆y . Again, the kinetic energy of gravitational energy systems is assumed to be zero. So, given a common equipotential surface of gravity reference g y , an increase in gravity causes a natural relativistic increase in mass, energy equivalent of mass (gravitational energy), inductance, and capacitance. Likewise, a decrease in gravity causes a natural relativistic decrease in the same metrics.
William Alek
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INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Given an object with a rest mass M y0 , an equivalent energy of the rest mass EM y0 , an inductance Ly0 , and a capacitance C y0 , the new rest mass M y1 , the new equivalent energy of the rest mass EMy0 , the new inductance Ly1 , and the new capacitance C y1 are,
M y1 = γ NR M y0 = M y0 ± ∆M y0 EMy1 = γ NR EMy0 = EMy0 ± ∆EMy 0 Ly1 = γ NR Ly0 = Ly0 ± ∆Ly0 C y1 = γ NR C y0 = C y0 ± ∆C y0
(110) (111) (112) (113)
The natural relativistic gamma γ NR is,
γ NR = e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜ ⎜ c2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(114)
The difference forms and the exponential forms of the natural relativistic mass M y1 model, energy equivalent of mass EMy1 model, inductor Ly1 model, and capacitor C y1 model at position ±∆y within a given gravity well g y are,
⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ = M y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = M y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
M y1 = M y0 ± ∆M y0
(115)
EMy1 = EMy0 + ∆EMy0 = EMy0
⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = EMy0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(116)
⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Ly1 = Ly0 + ∆Ly0 = Ly0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = Ly0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(117)
⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ C y1 = C y0 ± ∆C y0 = C y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = C y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(118)
In summary, Natural Relativity (NR) Theory is the primary gravitational effect.
William Alek
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INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY
c dt
ds0 = c dt0
A
dr = vr dt
B
STATIONARY OBSERVER
OBSERVER IN MOTION
FIGURE 7. The definition of a spacetime interval relative to Observer B in motion.
Einstein (1905) formulated his theory of special relativity and is described as Observer B, moving at velocity vr relative to a stationary Observer A, undergoes a relativistic effect. This effect changes the mass, lengths, time intervals, frequencies, and energy of the observer in motion. It’s expressed as a Pythagoreantype quantity called a spacetime interval, and evaluates as a Lorentz temporal correction shown below.
ds0 2 + dr 2 = c 2 dt 2 ds0 2 = c 2 dt 2 − dr 2
(119) (120)
Since the velocity vr of Observer B is,
vr = r = dr dt
(121)
dr = vr dt
(122)
So,
ds0 2 = c 2 dt 2 − vr 2 dt 2 ds0 = c 2 dt 2 − c 2 dt 2 vr 2 v2 = c dt 1 − r2 c2 c
(123)
(124)
Since the speed of light c is,
c = s0 = ds0 dt
(125)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
ds0 = c dt0
(126)
So, the Lorentz temporal correction relative to Observer B is,
c dt0 = c dt 1 − vr 2 c2
(127)
dt0 = dt 1 − dt0
vr 2 c2
(128)
dt =
v2 1 − r2 c
(129)
Therefore, relative to Observer B in motion with a time interval dt B0 , stationary Observer A’s clock with a time interval dt A will be ticking faster or BLUE SHIFTED, and have the following Lorentz temporal correction,
dt A = dt B0 v2 1 − r2 c
(130)
dt A > dtB0
(131)
Likewise, relative to stationary Observer A with a time interval dt A0 , Observer B’s clock at time interval dt B will be ticking slower or RED SHIFTED, and have the following Lorentz temporal correction,
dt B = dt A0 1 − dt B < dt A0 vr 2 c2
(132) (133)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
TIME FUTURE DECREASED GRAVITY
M − ∆M
t
TIME FORWARD
+ jvx
−∆y
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE INITIAL MASS M, AT REST AND t = 0 sec
gy CURVATURE DUE TO VELOCITY
+∆y
INCREASED GRAVITY t
vx M + ∆M
FIGURE 8. A change of relativistic mass due to velocity.
Given the rest mass of an object M , the special relativistic mass M v model presented by Einstein (1905) shows an object moving at velocity vx is,
Mv = M v2 1 − x2 c = γ M = M + dM
(134)
The gamma γ is,
γ=
1 v2 1 − x2 c
(135)
Implementing the binomial expansion of the above equation,
γ SR = 1 +
1 vx 2 3 vx 4 5 vx 6 35 vx 8 + + + + ... 2 c 2 8 c 4 16 c 6 128 c8
(136)
Using the 1st order term of the expansion shown above where vx
c , the new special relativistic gamma γ SR is,
γ SR = 1 +
vx 2 2 c2
(137)
The derivative form of the special relativistic mass M v model moving at velocity vx is,
⎛ v2 ⎞ M v = γ SR M = M ± dM = M ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2c ⎠
(138)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The derivative form of a fluctuating mass dM is,
dM = M vx 2 2 c2
(139)
An object can move at a real (i.e., timeforward) velocity vx , at an imaginary (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx , or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore, can be described as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ , which functions as a temporal rotation operator.
vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ
(140)
So, the derivative form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of mass dM M , energy equivalent of mass dEM EM , inductor dL L , or capacitor dC C of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
SHIFT = dM dEM dL dC vx 2 = = = = 2 2c M EM L C
(141)
The exponential solution of the derivative form of mass is,
∫
Mv
M0
v2 1 dM = x 2 2c M
Mv
(142)
ln ( M ) M =
0
vx 2 2 c2
(143)
⎛M ⎞ v 2 ln ( M v ) − ln ( M 0 ) = ln ⎜ v ⎟ = x 2 ⎝ M0 ⎠ 2c
⎜ 2⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ Mv = e⎝ ⎠ M0
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(144)
⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(145)
Mv = M0 e
(146)
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
EMv = EM 0 e Lv = L0 e
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(147) (148) (149)
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝
Cv = C0 e
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
So, the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of a mass M , an energy equivalent of mass EM , an inductor L , and a capacitor C is,
SHIFT = ∆M ∆E M ∆ L ∆ C v x 2 = = = = 2 2c M EM L C
(150)
The special relativistic gamma γ SR is,
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
γ SR = e
(151)
The difference forms and the exponential forms of the special relativistic mass M v model, energy equivalent of mass EMv model, inductor Lv model, and capacitor Cv model of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx are,
⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ M v = M 0 ± ∆M 0 = M 0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ = M 0 e ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(152)
E M v = E M 0 ± ∆E M 0
⎛ v2 = EM 0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c
⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = EM 0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(153)
⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ Lv = L0 ± ∆L0 = L0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ = L0 e⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠
(154)
⎛ v2 Cv = C0 + ∆C0 = C0 ⎜1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c
⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = C0 e ⎠
⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(155)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
DID EINSTEIN GET IT RIGHT, OR NOT?
Einstein’s General Relativity Theory (1916) equates Newton’s second law of motion, f = mi a , where mi is the inertial mass to Newton’s gravitational force, f = mg g , where mg is the gravitational mass. Is this concept correct? Einstein used this to formulate his equivalence principle and stated, “There is no experiment a person could conduct in a small volume of space that would distinguish between a gravitational field and an equivalent uniform acceleration”. Is this statement correct? Lets test Einstein’s principle in the following thought experiment:
AT REST
ACCELERATING
dM g = 0
d 2M i > 0
fg
fi
ON THE EARTH
IN SPACE
FIGURE 9. An elevator at rest on the Earth is NOT equivalent to an elevator accelerating in space.
As shown above, the natural relativistic mass fluctuation of an elevator at rest on the surface of the Earth is zero, or dM = 0 . However, the second order special relativistic mass fluctuation of the same elevator accelerating in space is nonzero or d 2 M > 0 , and as a consequence, radiates electromagnetic waves. According to Woodward (1998), radiation reaction is observed in bodies being accelerated based upon Newton’s second law of motion, f0 = m a . Therefore, given this scenario, the gravitational mass can’t be equivalent to its’ inertial mass due to their differences in mass fluctuations.
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
FREE FALL A GIVEN DISTANCE
CONSTANT VELOCITY
dM g > 0
dM i > 0
fg = 0
fi = 0
NEAR EARTH
IN SPACE
FIGURE 10. An elevator in free fall above the Earth is equivalent to an elevator moving at constant velocity in space.
As shown above, an elevator traveling a distance + dy in free fall and the same elevator moving at a constant velocity vx at right angles to free fall produce virtually no radiation reaction. So, given this second scenario, these mass fluctuations are considered equivalent, hence, establishing a new Principle of Equivalence Theorem.
A NEW PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE THEOREM
M INCREASING INERTIAL MASS (RED SHIFT) INERTIAL REFERENCE
1.00
⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜ vx ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 2 c2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
1.10
1.05
M0 e
INERTIAL MASS (kg)
vx DECREASING INERTIAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT) TIMEFUTURE TIME FORWARD
0.95
0.90 1.0 j × 108
7.5 j × 107 5.0 j × 107 2.5 j × 107 0.0 VELOCITY (m/sec) 2.5 × 107 5.0 × 107 7.5 × 107 1.0 × 108
FIGURE 11. Velocity profile of a 1kg inertial mass.
William Alek
Page 24
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The inertial RED SHIFT of an object due to velocity vx is,
SHIFT = v2 ∆M = x2 2c M
(156)
1.0000000000 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE g y0 0.9999999998 GRAVITATIONAL MASS (kg) DECREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT) 0.9999999996
⎛ gy y −gy y ⎞ 0 0⎟ ⎜ 1 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
M y0 e
0.9999999994
0.9999999993485 DECREASING GRAVITY
0.9999999992
INCREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (RED SHIFT)
y 4.0 × 107 6.0 × 107 8.0 × 107 10.0 × 107
y0 0.9999999990
M 2.0 × 107 0.0 6.3781× 106
DISPLACEMENT FROM CENTER OF EARTH (m)
FIGURE 12. Displacement profile of a 1kg gravitational mass due to Earth’s gravity well.
And since the gravitational RED SHIFT of the same object due to gravity g y is,
⎛1 1 ⎞ G ME ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ = c2
SHIFT =
∆M = M
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2
(157)
By equating an inertial RED SHIFT to a gravitational RED SHIFT, a new Principle of Equivalence Theorem is determined as,
⎛1 1 ⎞ G ME ⎜ − ⎟ g y y1 − g y0 y0 vx ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ = 1 = 2 2 2c c c2
2
(158)
William Alek
Page 25
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
So, an object displaced ±∆y within the Earth’s gravity well g y is equivalent to the same object moving at complex velocity vx ,
⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(
)
(159)
∆y −7.0 × 106
DECREASING INERTIAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT)
−6.0 × 106
−5.0 × 106
DISPLACEMENT (m)
∆y =
−4.0 × 106
−3.0 × 106
−2.0 × 106
−1.0 × 106
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000 0 0 2000 j 4000 j
EARTH’S SURFACE y0 = 6.37810 × 106 m vx
6000 j 8000 j 10000 j
INCREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (RED SHIFT)
INERTIAL GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
1.0 × 106
VELOCITY (m/sec)
2.0 × 106
3.0 × 106
INCREASING INERTIAL MASS (RED SHIFT)
4.0 × 106
FIGURE 13. Equating an inertial RED (BLUE) SHIFT to a gravitational RED (BLUE) SHIFT.
As shown above, if the displacement ∆y = y0 − y1 of an object is POSITIVE, then the object is moving at a real velocity vx . However, if the displacement ∆y is NEGATIVE, then the same object is moving at a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity
−1 vx , or velocity j vx , where j = −1 . The real and imaginary components are rotated
William Alek
Page 26
DECREASING GRAVITATIONAL MASS (BLUE SHIFT)
⎛ ⎜ 1 y0 ⎜1 − ⎜ 2 ⎜ 1 + y0 vx ⎜ 2G M E ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
about the temporal axis as a complex velocity. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ , which functions as a temporal rotation operator.
vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ
(160)
So, given an object moving at a complex velocity vx , the equivalent displacement to position y1 within the Earth’s gravity well g y , where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME vx 2 ⎞ y0 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟= 2 ⎠ g y1 ⎝ y v2 1+ 0 x 2G ME
y1 =
(161)
Therefore, the equivalent displacement ∆y within the Earth’s gravity well g y is,
⎛ ⎜ 1 = y0 ⎜ 1 − ⎜ y v2 ⎜ 1+ 0 x ⎜ 2G M E ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
∆y = y0 − y1 = y0 −
y0 y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E
(162)
The equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max at y1 = ∞ is
1+
y0 vx 2 =0 2G ME
(163)
vx max = −
2G ME y0
(164)
So, given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max , the minimum mass M min at y1 = ∞ is,
⎜− ⎟ ⎛ ⎛ G ME ⎞ ⎜ y c2 ⎟ v2 ⎞ 0 ⎝ ⎠ = M y0 ⎜ 1 + x 2 ⎟ = M y0 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ = M y0 e y0 c 2 ⎠ 2c ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ G ME ⎞
M min
(165)
In summary, this new Principle of Equivalence Theorem describes an object moving at onehalf the square of a real velocity vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen down a displacement + dy within a given gravity well g y . This object naturally acquires more relativistic mass, inductance and capacitance as it moves at a real velocity
vx , and augments its’ own gravitation with other objects. On the other hand, the same object moving at onehalf the square of a complex velocity j vx is equivalent to the same object having fallen up a displacement −dy in the same gravity well. This object naturally loses more relativistic mass, inductance and capacitance as it moves at a complex velocity j vx , and diminishes its’ own gravitation with other objects. Therefore, special relativity is considered to be a secondary gravitational effect.
William Alek
Page 27
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 1. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic timeforward velocity vx , compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v . So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Mass of object M 0 = 1.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1.0 × 108 m sec The timeforward velocity vx of an object is,
vx = v e jθ = (1.0 ×108 m sec ) e j 0° = 1.0 ×108 m sec
(166)
The new special relativistic inertial mass M v is,
Mv = M0 e
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
= (1.0 kg ) e
2 ⎛ 1.0×108 m sec ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2 2.99793×108 m sec ⎝
(
)
(
)
2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(167) (168)
M v = 1.05721 kg
The inertial mass of the object was increased by,
M v − M 0 = (1.05721 kg ) − (1.0 kg ) = 0.05721 kg
(169)
Example 2. Given the velocity profile above of an object having a mass M 0 moving at a special relativistic velocity timefuture j vx , compute the new special relativistic inertial mass M v . So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Mass of object M 0 = 1.0 kg Velocity of object v = 1.0 × 108 m sec The timefuture velocity vx of an object is,
vx = v e jθ = (1.0 × 108 m sec ) e j 90° = 1.0 j × 108 m sec
(170)
The new special relativistic inertial mass M v is,
Mv = M0 e
⎛ vx 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
= (1.0 kg ) e
2 ⎛ 1.0 j ×108 m sec ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2 2.99793×108 m sec ⎝
(
)
(
)
2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(171) (172)
M v = 0.94589 kg
The inertial mass of the object was reduce by,
M v − M 0 = ( 0.94589 kg ) − (1.0 kg ) = −0.05411 kg
(173)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 3. Given the gravitational profile above of an object having a mass M y0 displaced to a position −∆y within Earth’s gravity well g y , compute the new natural relativistic gravitational mass M y1 . So, given, Mass of object M y0 = 1.0 kg Object on Earth’s surface y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Object displaced to y1 = 1.0 × 108 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The acceleration due to gravity at surface of Earth is,
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 y0 2 6.3781× 106 m ) (
g y0
(174)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 1.0 × 108 m above the Earth is,
g y1 = G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 = y12
−11
(1.0 ×10 m )
8
N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg )
2
= 0.039894 m sec 2
(175)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model, the new gravitational mass is,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 8 2 6 ⎜ 0.039894 m sec 1.0×10 m − 9.80665 m sec 6.3781×10 m ⎜ 2 8 ⎜ 2.99792458×10 m sec ⎝
(
)(
)(
)(
)⎞ ⎟
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
M y1 = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
(
)
(176) (177)
M y1 = 0.9999999993485 kg
The gravitational mass of the object was reduced by,
M y1 − M y0 = ( 0.9999999993485 kg ) − (1.0 kg ) = −6.516 × 10−10 kg
(178)
Example 4. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth, compute the new minimum natural relativistic gravitational mass M min of an object at y1 = ∞ . So, given, Mass of object M y0 = 1.0 kg Object on Earth’s surface y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The minimum gravitational mass M min at y1 = ∞ is,
⎛ G ME ⎜− ⎜ y c2 0 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ −11 2 2 24 ⎜ 6.67260×10 N m kg 5.9787×10 kg ⎜− 2 ⎜ 6.3781×106 m 2.99792458×108 m sec ⎝
(
)(
)⎞ ⎟
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
M min = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
(
)(
)
(179) (180)
M min = 0.9999999993041 kg
The gravitational mass of the object was reduced by,
M y1 − M y0 = ( 0.9999999993041 kg ) − (1.0 kg ) = −6.959 × 10−10 kg
(181)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE VOLUME OF OBJECTS
An object of volume Vy (length L y , width Wy , and height H y ) contracts as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise, the same the volume Vy dilates as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object of volume ∆V V displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L ∆W ∆H = = =− 1 L W H c2
(182)
The difference forms and exponential forms of the natural relativistic object of volume Vy at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 = L y0 e⎝ ⎟ 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(183)
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Wy1 = Wy0 ∓ ∆Wy0 = Wy0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = Wy0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(184)
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ H y1 = H y0 ∓ ∆H y0 = H y0 ⎜ 1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = H y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(185)
HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS THE VOLUME OF OBJECTS
An object of volume Vv (length Lv , width Wv , and height Hv ) contracts moving at a real velocity vx . Likewise, the same object of volume Vv dilates moving at a complex velocity j vx . So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an object of volume ∆V V moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
v2 ∆L ∆W ∆H = = =− x2 L W H 2c
(186)
William Alek
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The difference forms and exponential forms of the special relativistic object of volume Vv moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ ⎠ Lv = L0 ∓ ∆L0 = L0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎟ = L0 e⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(187)
⎛ v2 Wv = W0 ∓ ∆W0 = W0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎝ 2c
⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ = W0 e ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(188)
⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ ⎠ H v = H 0 ∓ ∆H 0 = H 0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎟ = H 0 e⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎝
(189)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE FREQUENCY OF TIME
A mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f y contracts (i.e., slows down) as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise, the same mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f y dilates (i.e., speeds up) as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating at a frequency ∆f f displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆f =− 1 f c2
(190)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic frequency f y of an oscillator at position ±∆y is,
f y1 = f y0 ∓ ∆f y0
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ = f y0 ⎜ 1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = f y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(191)
HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS THE FREQUENCY OF TIME
A mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f v contracts (i.e., slows down) while moving at a real velocity vx . Likewise, the same mechanical oscillator vibrating at a frequency f v dilates (i.e., speeds up) while moving at a complex velocity j vx . So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating at a frequency ∆f f while moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
v2 ∆f =− x2 2c f
(192)
William Alek
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The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic frequency f v of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎛ v2 ⎞ ⎠ f v = f 0 ∓ ∆f 0 = f 0 ⎜ 1 ∓ x 2 ⎟ = f 0 e ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(193)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS AN INTERVAL OF TIME
A mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time t y contracts (i.e., slows down) as a function of position
+∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise, the same mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time t y dilates
(i.e., speeds up) as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well. So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating for an interval of time ∆t t displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆t =− 1 t c2
(194)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic time interval t y of an oscillator at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ t y1 = t y0 ∓ ∆t y0 = t y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = t y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(195)
HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS AN INTERVAL OF TIME
A mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time tv contracts (i.e., slows down) while moving at a real velocity vx . Likewise, the same mechanical oscillator vibrating for an interval of time tv dilates (i.e., speeds up) while moving at a complex velocity j vx . So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of an oscillator vibrating for an interval of time ∆t t while moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
v2 ∆t =− x2 2c t
(196)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic time interval tv of an oscillator moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
⎛ v2 tv = t0 ∓ ∆t0 = t0 ⎜1 ∓ x 2 ⎝ 2c
⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ ⎠ = t0 e ⎝ ⎟ ⎠
⎛
vx 2 ⎞
(197)
William Alek
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HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS LINEAR MOMENTUM
The momentum p y of an object of mass M y moving at velocity vx increases as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise, the momentum p y of the same object decreases as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well,
p y = M y vx
(198)
So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum ∆p p of an object displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
∆p g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = p c2
(199)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic momentum p y at position ±∆y is,
⎜ ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ p y1 = p y0 ± ∆p y0 = p y0 ⎜ 1 ± 1 ⎟ = p y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(200)
HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS LINEAR MOMENTUM
The momentum pv of an object of mass M 0 increases moving at a real velocity vx . Likewise, the momentum pv of the same object decreases moving at a complex velocity j vx ,
pv = M 0 vx
(201)
So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of momentum ∆p p of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
∆p vx 2 = p 2 c2
(202)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic momentum pv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ pv = p0 ± ∆p0 = p0 ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ = p0 e⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(203)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The angular momentum S y of an object of mass M y moving at velocity vx with a radius r is invariant as a function of position +∆y within gravity well g y . Likewise, the angular momentum S y of the same object is invariant as a function of position −∆y in the same gravity well,
S y = M y vx r
(204)
William Alek
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So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum ∆S S of an object displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
∆S =0 S
(205)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic angular momentum S y at position ±∆y is,
S y1 = S y0
(206)
HOW VELOCITY AFFECTS ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The angular momentum Sv of an object of mass M 0 is invariant moving at a real velocity vx with a radius r . Likewise, the angular momentum Sv of the same object is invariant moving at a complex velocity j vx ,
Sv = M 0 vx r
(207)
So, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of angular momentum ∆S S of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
∆S =0 S
(208)
The difference form and exponential form of the special relativistic angular momentum Sv of an object moving at a real velocity vx or a complex velocity j vx is,
Sv = S0
(209)
William Alek
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THE SPACETIME MEDIA OR THE AETHER
E Zε
M TI E
ZG t
Zµ B
FIGURE 14. The spacetime media or aether.
According to Puthoff (1996) and Puthoff, Little and Ibison (2002), the vacuum is described as having magnetic permeability µ0 and dielectric permittivity ε0, and acts to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter. Direct modification of these components changes the nature of light and matter.
gy
+∆y gy' +∆y ' CURVATURE DUE TO GRAVITY
r1
r1 − ∆r1
RAREFYING OF SPACETIME MEDIA
r2 − ∆r2
r2
M 1 + ∆M 1
M 2 + ∆M 2 M2
M1 GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
FIGURE 15. Two similar objects undergoing natural universal mass attraction.
The “active vacuum” of space, or spacetime media (i.e., the aether) is composed of uncondensed relativistic mass. An object M 1 made of matter (i.e., atoms) and given a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point undergoes universal mass attraction (i.e., gravitational free fall) with another object M 2 . Both objects acquire relativistic mass by a natural means from the surrounding spacetime media as a function of displacement +∆y between the two objects. This media condenses onto both objects as more relativistic mass, thereby increasing their total mass M n + ∆M n , inductance Ln + ∆Ln , and capacitance Cn + ∆Cn . This action changes the relativistic momentum of both objects resulting with increasing force of attraction. The spacetime media between these objects rarefy or relativistic mass condenses out of the media thereby affecting both the magnetic permeability µ0 and the dielectric permittivity ε0 of free space. This rarefaction of media is referred to as a gravity well, and as a consequence, causes the volume of space occupied by both objects and the space between them to be reduced. The spacetime media in a rarefying state means gravity between these objects is increasing, which causes light passing near these objects to amplify in energy Eλ y and increase in frequency f λ y as proven by the Pound and Rebka experiment (1964). This behavior of spacetime media acts as an impedance upon the natural motion of matter and the propagation of light.
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THE GRAVITATIONAL COUPLING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
DECREASED GRAVITY g −∆y PHOTON A
−∆y
RED SHIFTING: DECREASING FREQUENCY AND ENERGY
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
gy
MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT SOURCE
+∆y
BLUE SHIFTING: INCREASING FREQUENCY AND ENERGY
PHOTON B INCREASED GRAVITY g +∆y TOWARDS CENTER OF GRAVITY
FIGURE 16. Electromagnetic waves propagating within a given gravity well.
Shown above is the BLUE SHIFTING of an electromagnetic wave due to gravity. Relative to a GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE point or equipotential surface of gravity within a given gravity well g y , PHOTON A decreases in energy Eλ y and frequency f λ y as it propagates through decreasing gravity g −∆y . Likewise, PHOTON B increases in energy Eλ y and frequency f λ y as it propagates through increasing gravity g +∆y . This effect was demonstrated in the Pound, Rebka and Snider experiment, which used Mossbaurer spectroscopy to measure the electromagnetic gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of 14.4 keV gamma rays emitted from Fe57 through a vertical distance of 22.6 m . Using the difference form of fluctuating energy ∆Eλ of an electromagnetic wave propagating through gravity well g y and the gamma rays emitted upward, the RED SHIFT was within one percent (1%) of this result,
SHIFT = ∆Eλ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = Eλ c2
(210)
SHIFT =
(9.806581 m sec2 )(6.3781226 × 106 m) − ( 9.806650 m sec 2 )( 6.3781000 × 106 m ) (2.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = −2.465961× 10−15
(211)
(212)
William Alek
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And with the gamma rays emitted downward, the BLUE SHIFT was,
SHIFT =
( 9.806650 m sec )( 6.3781000 ×10 m ) − (9.806581 m sec )(6.3781226 ×10 m)
2 6 2 6
(2.99792458 × 108 m sec) 2 SHIFT = 2.465961× 10−15
(213)
(214)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic energy Eλ y at position ±∆y is,
⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = Eλ y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
Eλ y1 = Eλ y0 ± ∆Eλ y0 = Eλ y0
Since the energy Eλ of a single photon is,
(215)
Eλ = h f λ
(216)
Then, the Planck's constant h is,
h=
Eλ fλ
(217)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of frequency ∆f λ f λ of an electromagnetic wave propagating ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
∆f λ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = fλ c2
(218)
The difference form and exponential form of the natural relativistic electromagnetic frequency f λ y at position ±∆y is,
f λ y1 = f λ y0 ± ∆f λ y0 = f λ y0
⎜ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜1 ± ⎟ = f λ y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(219)
So, the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
hy1 =
Eλ y1
f λ y1
=
Eλ y0 e
f λ y0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
=
Eλ =h fλ
(220)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Planck's constant hy is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
hy = 6.6260755 × 10 −34 Joule ⋅ sec
(221)
William Alek
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The speed of light c is,
c = λ fλ
(222)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the wavelength ∆λ λ of an electromagnetic wave displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
∆λ =− g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2
λ
(223)
The natural relativistic wavelength λ y at position ±∆y is,
λ y = λ y ∓ ∆λ y = λ y ⎜1 ∓
1 0 0 0
⎛ ⎝
⎜− g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ = λ y0 e 2 c ⎠
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(224)
So, natural relativistic the speed of light c y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎠
c y1 = λ y1 f λ y1 = λ y0 e⎝
f λ y0 e⎝
= λ fλ = c
(225)
Therefore, the natural relativistic speed of light c y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
c y = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec
(226)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE PERMEABLILITY OF SPACETIME MEDIA
The permeability µ0 of spacetime media is given as,
µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m
(227)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of inductance ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2
(228)
The inductance Ly of spacetime media at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Ly1 = Ly0 ∓ ∆Ly0 = Ly0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = Ly0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(229)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
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The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2
(230)
The length L y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = L y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(231)
So, the natural relativistic permeability µ y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
µy =
1
Ly1 L y1
=
Ly0 e
=
L y0 e
L = µ0 L
(232)
Therefore, the natural relativistic permeability µ y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
µ y = 4π × 10−7 H m
(233)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE PERMITTIVITY OF SPACETIME MEDIA
The permittivity ε 0 of spacetime media is given as,
ε 0 = 8.85419 × 10−12 F m
(234)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of capacitance ∆C C displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆C =− 1 C c2
(235)
The capacitance C y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ C y1 = C y0 ∓ ∆C y0 = C y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = C y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(236)
William Alek
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The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of length ∆L L displaced ∆y = y0 − y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
g y y1 − g y0 y0 ∆L =− 1 L c2
(237)
The length L y of spacetime media at position ±∆y is,
⎜− ⎛ g y y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ L y1 = L y0 ∓ ∆L y0 = L y0 ⎜1 ∓ 1 ⎟ = L y0 e 2 c ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ c2 ⎠
(238)
So, the natural relativistic permittivity ε y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎜− ⎜ c2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
εy =
1
C y1
L y1
=
C y0 e
L y0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
=
C = ε0 L
(239)
Therefore, the natural relativistic permittivity ε y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
ε y = 8.85419 × 10−12 F m
(240)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE VIRTUAL RESISTANCE OF SPACETIME MEDIA
The spacetime media has virtual resistance or impedance Z 0 , and therefore, isn't capable of absorbing or dissipating electromagnetic energy. Its REAL resistance is infinite or, R0 = ∞ . This media serves to impede the propagation of light and the motion of matter and is calculated as,
Z0 =
µ0 ε0
(241)
Since it has been shown the permeability µ y and permittivity ε y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
Z y1 =
µy εy
1
= Z0
(242)
1
Therefore, the natural relativistic impedance Z y of spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
Z y = 376.730 Ω
(243)
William Alek
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HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE SPEED OF LIGHT
The speed of light c between spacetime media is,
c= 1
µ 0ε 0
(244)
Since it has been shown the permeability µ y and permittivity ε y of spacetime media are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
c y1 = 1 =c
µy ε y
1
(245)
1
Therefore, the natural relativistic speed of light c y through spacetime media is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
c y = 2.997924 × 108 m sec
(246)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS BOLTZMANN'S CONSTANT
The Boltzmann's Constant k is given as,
k= R N0
(247)
Since the Ideal Gas Constant Ry and Avogadro's Number N y are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
k y1 = Ry1 N y1 =k
(248)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Boltzmann's Constant k y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
k y = 1.380658 × 10−23 Joules ° K
(249)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS AN ELECTRIC CHARGE
A fundamental electric charge q is given as,
q=
f E
(250)
The electric force f y increases with the square of a decreasing distance, and the electric field E y also increases with the square of a decreasing distance at position + dy . Likewise, the electric force f y decreases with the square of a
William Alek
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increasing distance, and the electric field E y also decreases with the square of a increasing distance at position −dy , it follows the natural relativistic electric charge q y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
q y1 = f y1 E y1 =q
(251)
Therefore, the natural relativistic electric charge q y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
q y = 1.60217733 × 10−19 Coul
(252)
HOW GRAVITY AFFECTS THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT
The Fine Structure Constant α is,
α=
q2 2ε0 h c
(253)
Since an electric charge q y , the speed of light c y , the permittivity ε y , and Planck's constant hy are invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity, it follows the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant α y ranging from position −∆y to +∆y evaluates to unity gain or,
αy =
1
q y1 2 2 ε y1 hy1 c y1
=α
(254)
Therefore, the natural relativistic Fine Structure Constant α y is invariant between equipotential surfaces of gravity or,
α y = 7.29738 × 10−3 =
1 137.0356
(255)
William Alek
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A TYPICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
E
B
FLAT SPACETIME MEDIA
t
FIGURE 17. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in flat spacetime.
E
B
t
t
FIGURE 18. Typical B and E Fields.
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GRAVITATIONAL BLUE SHIFTING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
E
NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS, INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED.
B
RAREFYING SPACETIME MEDIA
t
FIGURE 19. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in rarefied spacetime.
E
B
t
t
FIGURE 20. Increasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function.
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GRAVITATIONAL RED SHIFTING OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
E
NOTE: SPACETIME MEDIA IS MODELED AS UNCONDENSED RELATIVISTIC MASS, INDUCTANCE AND CAPACITANCE THAT CAN BE COMPRESSED OR RAREFIED.
B
COMPRESSING SPACETIME MEDIA
t
FIGURE 21. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in compressing spacetime.
E
B
t
t
FIGURE 22. Decreasing magnitude and frequency of B and E Fields by gravitational function.
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FIGURE 23. A Global Positioning Satellite.
Example 5. A Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) transmits an electromagnetic signal at a frequency f λ SAT of
~ 10.23 MHz down to the Earth from an altitude of 20,186.8 km , and has an orbital velocity of 3.874 km sec . The natural relativistic BLUE SHIFT due to gravity and the special relativistic RED SHIFT due to velocity changes the frequency of this transmitted signal. So, given the corrected transmitted frequency f λ SAT , compute the BLUE
SHIFT and RED SHIFT such that a groundbased receiver will read a signal
10230000.000000 Hz . The signal frequency of the satellite is adjustable down to 1 µ Hz .
f λ RX
that is precisely
So, given, Altitude of satellite ∆y = 20.1868 × 106 m Orbital velocity vx = 3.874 × 103 m sec Corrected frequency of satellite f λ SAT = 10229999.995444 Hz Receiver located on surface of Earth y1 = 6.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The initial radius y0 of the satellite above the Earth is,
y0 = y1 + ∆y = ( 6.3781× 106 m ) + ( 20.1868 × 106 m ) = 26.5649 × 106 m
(256)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 26.5649 × 106 m above the Earth is,
g y0 =
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 0.5653 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 26.5649 ×10 m )
(257)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 7.529 × 106 m above the Earth is,
g y1 =
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 9.80665 m sec 2 2 6 y12 ( 6.3781×10 m )
(258)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic frequency model, the gravitational BLUE SHIFTED frequency is,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 6 2 6 ⎜ 9.80665 m sec 6.3781×10 m − 0.5653 m sec 26.5649×10 m ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2.99792458×108 m sec ⎝
(
)(
)(
)(
)⎞ ⎟
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
f λ y1 = f λ y0 e
= (10229999.995444 Hz ) e
(
)
(259) (260)
f λ y1 = 10230000.000854 Hz = f λ
Given the exponential solution of the special relativistic frequency model, the RED SHIFTED frequency of the BLUE SHIFTED frequency computed above is,
⎛ vx 2 ⎜− 2 ⎜ 2c ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
2 ⎛ 3.874×103 m sec ⎜ ⎜− ⎜ 2 2.99793×108 m sec ⎝
fλv = fλ e
= (10230000.000854 Hz ) e
( (
)
)
2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(261) (262)
f λ v = 10230000.000000 Hz = f λ RX
So, a groundbased receiver will read a signal that is precisely 10230000.000000 Hz with a satellite frequency
f λ SAT given above.
FIGURE 24. A constellation of 24 Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) orbiting the Earth.
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
GRAVITOMAGNETIC THEORY
P
dB
r
CURRENT ELEMENT
θ
MAGNETIC INDUCTION
I
dx
FIGURE 25. The magnetic induction produced by a positive current element.
A constant positive electric current I must create a stable magnetic field B around a wire. This stable field is due to the flow of electric current shown above. The change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by a current element dx is calculated using the BiotSavart’s Law,
dB =
µ0 I dx × r 4π r3
(263)
Or,
dB =
µ0 I sin (θ ) dx r2 4π
(264)
Since charge q is quantized in a single electron e − then, electric current I is defined as quantity N of charges e − passing a fixed point per change of time dt or,
I =q=
− dq d ( N e ) = dt dt
(265)
And velocity vx of an electron passing a fixed point is defined as change of distance dx per change of time dt or,
vx = x = dx dt
(266)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Then, the electric current I is redefined as,
I = vx d ( N e− ) dx
(267)
So, the change of magnetic induction dB at a fixed point P produced by quantity N of charges e − moving at velocity vx is,
dB =
− µ0 vx sin (θ ) d ( N e ) 4π r2
(268)
To find the magnetic induction B produced by a single electron at point P when θ = 90 and N = 1 , then integrate,
B = ∫ dB =
µ0 e − vx 4π r 2
(269)
The total energy density uB of magnetic field B contained within volume V is,
uB = UB B2 = V 2 µ0
(270)
Therefore, the total field energy U B of magnetic field B contained within volume V is,
µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 B2 UB = V= V 2 µ0 32 π 2 r 4
2
(271)
The change of magnetic field energy dU B contained within a change of volume d V is,
µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 B2 dU B = dV = dV 2 µ0 32 π 2 r 4
2
(272)
The total energy EM contained within matter is,
EM = M c 2
(273)
Equate total magnetic field energy U B to the total energy EM contained within matter,
U B = EM
(274)
So, the change of magnetic field energy dU B is,
dU B = dM B c 2
(275)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
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Therefore, the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V is,
µ 0 ( e ) vx 2 dU dM B = 2 B = dV c 32 π 2 r 4 c 2
− 2
(276)
ω
rmax rmin
FIGURE 26. The volume V of an electron is modeled as a hollow spheroid.
Since the energy of an electron is finite, no field component can be present at its’ center. So, the volume of an electron is modeled as a hollow spheroid,
V = 2 π ∫ sin (ω ) d ω ∫
0
π
rmax
rmin
r 2 dr = 4 π ∫
rmax
rmin
r 2 dr
(277)
The fluctuating magnetic mass dM B contained within a change of volume d V of a hollow spheroid is,
µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 ⎛ r 1 ⎞ r dM B = d 4 π ∫ r 2 dr = d⎜ dr ⎟ r c 2 ⎝ ∫r r 2 ⎠ 32 π 2 r 4 c 2 8π
2
(
max
min
)
2
max
(278)
min
Given the radius of a fluctuating magnetic mass dM e ranging from a classic electron radius re to infinity, or re ≤ r ≤ ∞ , the derivative form of a moving electron is,
µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 dM B = c2 8π
2
∫
∞
re
1 dr r2
(279)
The fluctuating magnetic mass dM B is,
µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 dM B = 8 π re c 2
2
(280)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
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Rev 3.6
So, given the rest mass of an electron M e , the difference form of the special relativistic mass M ev of an electron moving at velocity vx is
⎛ v2 ⎞ M ev = γ SR M e = M e ± dM e = M e ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2c ⎠
(281)
By equating the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B to the special relativistic mass dM e ,
µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 M v2 ⇔ e x2 2 8π re c 2 c
2
(282)
The equation reduces to,
µ0 ( e − )
8π re
2
⇔
Me 2
(283)
So, given, Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Classic electron radius re = 2.817941× 10−15 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 × 10−31 kg
( 4π ×10
−7
8 π ( 2.817941× 10−15 m )
H m )(1.602177 × 10−19 C )
2
⇔
9.109390 × 10−31 kg 2
(284)
This shows the fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is identical to the special relativistic mass at any velocity vx ,
4.554693 ⇔ 4.554695
(285)
Therefore, the fluctuating magnetic mass dM B is the fluctuating mass dM e of an electron,
dM B = dM e
(286)
So, the magnetic mass M B and the mass M e of the electron is,
MB = Me =
µ0 ( e − )
4 π re
2
(287)
And the fluctuating magnetic mass ∆M B and the fluctuating mass ∆M e is,
µ 0 ( e − ) vx 2 µ 0 ( e − ) v x 2 v2 ∆M B = ∆M e = = = Me x 2 2 2 8 π re c 4 π re 2 c 2c
2 2
(288)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
So, the velocity of an electron is,
vx = 2 c 2 π re ∆M e =c 2 ∆M e Me
µ0 ( e
− 2
)
(289)
Therefore, if the fluctuating mass is positive, then the velocity of the electron is real. However, if the fluctuating mass is negative, then the velocity is imaginary.
B = µ0 H IF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ENERGY ∆U B < 0 , AND ∆M e < 0 , THE VELOCITY vx IS IMAGINARY I A
N
+
S
IF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ENERGY ∆U B > 0 , AND ∆M e > 0 , THE VELOCITY vx IS REAL
PERMANENT MAGNET MODELED AS A SOLENOID
FIGURE 27. The magnetic fluctuating mass.
Now, the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass ∆M B M B and the mass ∆M e M e of a particle moving at a velocity vx is,
∆M B ∆M e vx 2 = = 2 2c MB Me
(290)
A particle can move at a real (i.e., timeforward) velocity vx , at an imaginary (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx , or at a velocity that is a combination of the two. The real and imaginary components are rotated about the temporal axis and therefore, can be described as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. The complex velocity vx is,
vx = v e jθ = v cos θ + j v sin θ
(291)
Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re , the difference forms of the special relativistic magnetic mass M ev model of a particle moving at a complex velocity vx , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° are,
M ev
⎛ v2 = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± x 2 ⎝ 2c
2
⎜ 2⎟ ⎞ ⎜ 2c ⎟ = M e e⎝ ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠
⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(292)
M ev
− µ0 ( e − ) ⎛ ⎜ v 2 ⎞ µ0 ( e ) ⎜ 2 c e⎝ 1± x 2 ⎟ = = M e ± ∆M e = ⎜ 4 π re ⎝ 2 c ⎠ 4 π re 2
(293)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Now, apply the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem where the fluctuating magnetic mass of a moving electron is equivalent to natural relativistic mass due to the Earth’s gravity well,
⎟ µ0 ( e − ) vx 2 ( g y y1 − g y y0 ) = G M M ⎜ y1 y0 ⎠ vx 2 ⎝ ∆M e = = Me 2 = Me E e c2 c2 8 π re c 2 2c
2
1 0
⎛1
−
1 ⎞
(294)
vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜
(
)
⎛1 1 ⎞ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(295)
The position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or
−1 ≤ y0 v x 2 is, 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ∆M e c 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟= ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟ g y1 ⎝ Me ⎠ 2 ⎠ g y1 ⎝
(296)
y1 =
y0 y0 = 2 y v y c 2 ∆M e 1+ 0 x 1+ 0 G ME Me 2G ME
(297)
The equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max at y1 = ∞ is,
vx max = − 2G ME y0
(298)
Given the equivalent maximum complex velocity vx max , the minimum gravitational mass M e min at y1 = ∞ is,
⎜− ⎟ ⎜ y c2 ⎟ ⎛ ⎛ G ME ⎞ v2 ⎞ 0 ⎝ ⎠ = M e ⎜1 + x 2 ⎟ = M e ⎜1 − ⎟ = Me e y0 c 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ G ME ⎞
M e min
(299)
The equivalent maximum fluctuating gravitational mass of the electron ∆M e at y1 = ∞ is,
∆M e max = M e min − M e = − G ME Me y0 c 2
(300)
So, the difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the magnetic mass ∆M B M B and the mass ∆M e M e of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within a given gravity well gY is,
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ∆M B ∆M e = = MB Me c2
(
)
(301)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Given the rest mass of an electron M e or the classic electron radius re , the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within a given gravity well gY are,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟ = M e e⎝ c = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± 2 ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠
M ey1
(
)
(302)
M ey1 = M e ± ∆M e =
2 µ0 ( e − ) ⎛
4 π re ⎜ ⎝
(g ⎜1 ±
y1
⎛ g y −g y ⎞ y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ µ0 ( e− ) ⎜ y1 1c2 y0 0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟= e⎝ 2 ⎟ 4 π re c ⎠ 2
)
(303)
In summary, Gravitomagnetic Theory shows that a moving electron produces an increase in relativistic mass that extends from its’ classic radius re to infinity, and couples to gravity. This motion can either have a velocity vx or a complex (i.e., timefuture) velocity j vx . If the velocity is complex, then the electron will exhibit an antigravitational effect, and produce a complex (i.e., timefuture) magnetic field j B . In addition, the total field energy U B of a complex magnetic field j B contained within a volume V is NEGATIVE. Example 6. An electron e − moving through a wire at a timeforward velocity vx where θ = 0° produces a timeforward magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is forward θ = 0° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 × 10−31 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The timeforward velocity vx , where θ = 0° is,
vx = v e jθ = (1.0 × 10−2 m sec ) e j 0° = 1.0 × 10−2 m sec
(304)
The timeforward magnetic induction B at distance r is,
B=
−7 −19 −2 µ0 e− vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1.602177 ×10 C )(1.0 ×10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1.0 m )
(305)
B = 1.602177 × 10−28 T
(306)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
(1.0 ×10−2 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(307)
∆M e = 5.067782 × 10−52 kg
(308)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 v x 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )(1.0 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10
6 6 −2 2 −11 2 2
(309)
24
kg )
y1 = 6.37809999999490 × 106 m
(310)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 5.0981× 10−6 m
(311)
Example 7. An electron e − moving through a wire at a timeadvanced velocity vx where 0° < θ < 90° produces a timeadvanced magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is advanced θ = 45° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 × 10−31 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The timeadvanced velocity vx , where θ = 45° is,
vx = v e jθ = (1.0 × 10−2 m sec ) e j 45° = 7.071068 × 10−3 + 7.071068 j × 10−3 m sec
(312)
The timeadvanced magnetic induction B at distance r is,
B=
−7 −19 −3 −3 µ0 e − vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1.602177 × 10 C )( 7.071068 × 10 + 7.071068 j × 10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1.0 m )
(313)
B = 1.132910 × 10−28 + 1.132910 j × 10−28 T
(314)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The IMAGINARY fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
( 7.071068 ×10−3 + 7.071068 j ×10−3 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
∆M e = 5.067782 j × 10−52 kg
2
(315)
(316)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 =
( 6.3781×106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 ( 6.3781×106 m )( 7.071068 ×10−3 + 7.071068 j ×10−3 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg )
y1 = 6.3781× 106 m − 5.0986 j × 10−6 m
(317)
(318)
So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 5.0986 j × 10−6 m
(319)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is,
vx max
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − = − y0 ( 6.3781×106 m )
vx max = 1.11846 j × 104 m sec
(320)
(321)
Example 8. An electron e − moving through a wire at a timefuture velocity vx where θ = 90° produces a timefuture magnetic induction B at a distance r . Given, Direction of time is future θ = 90° Velocity of electron e − through a wire v = 1.0 ×10−2 m sec Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.109390 × 10−31 kg Radius r = 1.0 m Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The timefuture velocity vx , where θ = 90° is,
vx = v e jθ = (1.0 ×10 −2 m sec ) e j 90° = 1.0 j ×10 −2 m sec
(322)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The timefuture magnetic induction B at distance r is,
B=
−7 −19 −2 µ0 e − vx ( 4 π × 10 H m )(1.602177 × 10 C )(1.0 j × 10 m sec ) = 2 4π r 2 4 π (1.0 m )
(323)
B = 1.602177 j × 10−28 T
(324)
The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
(1.0 j ×10−2 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(325)
∆M e = −5.067782 × 10−52 kg
(326)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y0 y1 = = y v2 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )(1.0 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10
6 6 −2 2 −11 2 2
(327)
24
kg )
y1 = 6.37800000000510 × 106 m
(328)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = −5.0981× 10−6 m
(329)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is,
vx max = −
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − y0 ( 6.3781×106 m )
vx max = 1.11846 j × 104 m sec vx
(330)
(331)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
THE RELATIVITY OF ORBITAL SPIN
z
ω0
x
x0
r0 r
y0
y
P0
P
FIGURE 28. The definition of a rotating spacetime interval.
A linear spacetime interval is defined as,
ds0 2 + dr 2 = c 2 dt 2
(332)
Since z0 = 0 ,
r0 2 = x0 2 + y0 2 + z0 2 = x0 2 + y0 2 dr = dx + dy + dz = dx + dy
2 2 2 2 2 2
(333) (334)
According to Fock (1964), a rotating spacetime interval is defined as,
x = x0 cos ω t + y0 sin ω t y = − x0 sin ω t + y0 cos ω t
(335) (336) (337)
ds0 2 = c 2 − ω0 2 ( x0 2 + y0 2 ) dt 2 − 2ω ( y0 dx − x0 dy ) dt − ( dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 )
This reduces to,
ds0 2 = ( c 2 − r0 2ω0 2 ) dt 2 − 2ω0 ( y0 dx − x0 dy ) dt − dr 2
(
)
(338)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
COMPLEX AMPERIAN CURRENTS
y
e− Fv ELECTRON IN MOTION NUCLEUS
r
vx e jθ
B e jθ
z
MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT
x
TEMPORAL ROTATION 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°
FIGURE 29. The complete complex Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.
In the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, electrons move at relativistic speeds in discrete circular orbits around a nucleus. It has been determined the increase in relativistic mass of the electron is in the form of total magnetic field energy produced by the circulating electron. So, as a consequence of this motion, a magnetic induction B is produced at the center of the orbit. If an external magnetic field is applied to this induction, the velocity of the electron becomes complex by partially rotating into the imaginary axis. The velocity of the electron may increase or decrease as a function of the applied external field. If the field opposes the induction B , the real velocity will appear to decrease as it rotates into the imaginary axis. If the electron’s velocity is fully rotated into the imaginary axis and therefore moving at a timefuture velocity j vx , a timefuture magnetic field j B will emerge from the center. The complete complex Bohr model includes the following characteristic equations shown below. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as complex motion. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. So, given, Direction of time θ Frequency of orbit f Permeability of free space µ0 Fundamental charge of an electron e − Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r Rest mass of an electron M e Speed of light c Gravitational constant G Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 Mass of the Earth M E Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 Mass of the Sun M SUN
William Alek
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INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The complex frequency of orbit f 0 , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is,
f 0 = f e jθ = f cos θ + j f sin θ
(339)
The complex Amperian Current i of the electron is,
i = e− f0
(340)
The complex Magnetic Dipole Moment µ of the electron is,
µ = π r 2 i = π r 2 e− f0
The complex angular velocity ω0 of the electron is,
(341)
ω0 = 2 π f 0
The complex velocity vx of the electron is,
vx = r ω0 = 2 π r f 0
(342)
(343)
The complex magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 is,
B=
µ0 r 2 i
2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
=
µ0 µ
2π ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
=
µ0 r 2 e − f 0
2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
=
µ0 r 2 e − ω0
4π ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
=
µ 0 r e − vx
4π ( r 2 + z 2 )
3 2
(344)
B=
µ0 i
2r
=
µ0 µ µ0 e − f 0 µ0 e− ω0 µ0 e − vx = = = 2π r3 2r 4π r 4π r 2
(345)
The magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e − vx × B
(346)
2 2
µ 0 ( e − ) ω0 2 µ 0 ( e − ) v x 2 µ0 µ 2 2 − 2 Fv = µ0 π i = = µ0 π ( e ) f 0 = = 4π 4π r 2 π r4
2
(347)
The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The special relativistic mass M ev of the circulating electron is,
⎜ 2⎟ ⎛ ⎜ 2c ⎟ v2 ⎞ M ev = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜1 ± x 2 ⎟ = M e e⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2c ⎠ ⎛ vx 2 ⎞
(348)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The change in relativistic mass of the electron ∆M e is in the form of the change in magnetic field energy ∆U B produced by the circulating electron.
∆U B = ∆Ee = ∆M e c 2
(349)
The difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass ∆M e M e of an electron moving at a velocity vx is,
∆M e vx 2 2 π 2 r 2 i 2 2 π 2 r 2 f 0 2 r 2 ω0 2 2 µ2 = 2 = = = = 2 2 Me 2c 2 c2 c2 ( e− ) c 2 ( e− ) c 2 r 2
(350)
So, the complex velocity vx of the electron is,
vx = 2 ∆M e 2 r π Fv =c µ0 e− Me
(351)
The complex Amperian Current i of the electron is,
i= Fv = e − c ∆M e π r 2 Me
µ0 π
(352)
The complex Magnetic Dipole Moment µ of the electron is,
µ = r2
π Fv ∆M e = e− c r µ0 2 Me
(353)
The complex frequency of orbit f 0 of the electron is,
f0 = 1 e− Fv = c πr ∆M e 2 Me
µ0 π
(354)
The complex angular velocity ω0 of the electron is,
ω0 =
2 e−
π Fv c 2 ∆M e = µ0 r Me
(355)
So, the complex magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
µ0 ( e − ) c 2 ∆M e µ0 ( e− ) ∆Ee µ0 ( e − ) ∆U B = == Fv = 2π r 2 Me 2π r 2 M e 2π r 2 M e
2 2 2
(356)
And the difference form of the inertial RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass ∆M e M e of an electron is,
∆M e 2 π r 2 Fv = 2 Me µ0 ( e − ) c 2
(357)
William Alek
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Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
∆M e = M e vx 2 r 2ω0 2 2 π 2 r 2 f02 2 π r 2 Fv 2π 2 r 2 i2 2µ2 = Me = Me = Me = Me = Me 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2c 2c c µ0 ( e − ) c 2 ( e− ) c ( e− ) c r
(358)
∆M e = M e
(
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 c2
)
⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ y y = G ME Me ⎝ 1 2 0 ⎠ c
(359)
So, the complex velocity vx of the electron is,
⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(
)
(360)
The complex angular velocity ω0 of the electron is,
ω0 =
⎛1 1 ⎞ 1 1 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2G ME ⎜ − ⎟ r r ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(
)
(361)
The complex frequency of orbit f 0 of the electron is,
f0 = 1 πr g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 2 = 1 G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ πr 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(362)
The complex Amperian Current i of the electron is,
i= e− πr g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 2 = e− G M E ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ πr 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(363)
The complex Magnetic Dipole Moment µ of the electron is,
µ = e− r
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 2
= e− r
G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(364)
The complex magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv =
µ0 ( e − ) ( g y y1 − g y y0 )
2
1 0
2π r 2
µ0 ( e − ) G M E ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = ⎜ − ⎟ 2π r 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
2
(365)
William Alek
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The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ y0 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟= g y1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y v2 1+ 0 x 2G ME
(366)
y1 =
r 2 ω0 2 ⎞ y0 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟= g y1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y r 2 ω0 2 1+ 0 2G ME
(367)
y1 =
1 g y + 2 π 2 r 2 f 02 = g y1 y0 0
(
)
y0 2 π y0 r 2 f 0 2 1+ G ME
2
(368)
y1 =
⎛ 1 ⎜ 2π 2 r 2 i2 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 ⎜ ( e− ) ⎝
⎞ y0 ⎟= 2 ⎟ 2π y r 2 i2 ⎠ 1+ − 2 0 (e ) G M E y0 2 y0 µ 2 r 2G M E
(369)
y1 =
⎛ 1 ⎜ 2 µ2 g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 ⎜ ( e− ) r 2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟= ⎟ ⎠ 1+
(370)
(e )
− 2
y1 =
⎛ 2 π r 2 Fv 1 ⎜ g y0 y0 + 2 g y1 ⎜ µ0 ( e − ) ⎝
⎞ ⎟= ⎟ ⎠ 1+
µ0 ( e − ) G M E
2
y0 2 π r 2 y0 Fv
(371)
The difference form of the gravitational RED SHIFT (or BLUE SHIFT) of the mass ∆M e M e of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within Earth’s gravity well gY is,
g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ∆M e G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = = ⎜ − ⎟ 2 Me c c 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(
)
(372)
Given the rest mass of an electron M e , the difference forms of the natural relativistic mass M ey1 model of a particle displaced a distance ∆y within Earth’s gravity well gY are,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟ = M e e⎝ c = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± 2 ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠
M ey1
(
)
(373)
William Alek
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M ey1
⎜ ⎛ G M ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎞ ⎜ = M e ± ∆M e = M e ⎜ 1 ± 2 E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ = M e e ⎝ ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝
⎛ G ME ⎛ 1 1 ⎜ − c 2 ⎜ y1 y0 ⎝
⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠
(374)
In summary, if the real component of the magnetic field is cancelled, or B = 0 , due to an externally applied magnetic field BEXT , the velocity of the circulating electron is complex, or j vx and a complex magnetic field j B emerges. This complex magnetic field is believed to be present in the AharonovBohm Experiment, which affected the flow of electrons. The complex Amperian Current uses the temporal rotation operator or Euler’s identity e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° . As the motion of an electron rotates from real to imaginary, or θ → 90° , the electrons special relativistic mass ∆M e in the form of magnetic field energy ∆U B decreases. In addition, the electrons rest mass M e as well as its charge is invariant during acceleration or deceleration.
y
e− vx Fv ELECTRON IN MOTION NUCLEUS
r
B
z
MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT
x
TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 0°
FIGURE 30. The timeforward Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.
Example 9. In the timeforward Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom the electron e − circulates around the nucleus at a relativistic velocity vx as shown above. This creates a magnetic induction B emerging from the center of the nucleus. So, given, Direction of time is forward θ = 0° Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m
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Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The timeforward frequency of orbit f 0 , where θ = 0° is,
f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 0° = 6.8 × 1015 Hz
(375)
The timeforward Amperian Current i is,
i = e − f 0 = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) = 1.089481× 103 Amps
(376)
The timeforward magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 is,
B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= µ0
r 2 e− f0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(377)
(1.089481×10−3 Amps ) = 12.935946 T i −7 = ( 4π × 10 H m ) B = µ0 2r 2 ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )
The timeforward angular velocity ω0 of the electron e − is,
(378)
ω0 = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) = 4.272566 × 1016 Hz
The timeforward velocity vx of the electron e − is,
vx = r ω0 = ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )( 4.272566 × 1016 Hz ) = 2.260945 × 106 m sec
(379)
(380)
The timeforward magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e − vx B = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )( 2.260945 ×106 m sec ) (12.935946 T ) Fv = 4.685962 × 10−12 N
(381) (382)
The direction of electron motion vx is such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
( 2.260945 ×106 m sec ) = 2.590585 ×10−35 kg v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(383)
The increased special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is,
M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( 2.590585 × 10−35 kg ) = 9.109649 × 10 −31 kg
(384)
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Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )( 2.260945 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg )
6 6 6 2 −11 2 2 24
(385)
y1 = 156.0784 m
(386)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 6.377944 × 106 m
y
(387)
e−
vx e j 45°
Fv ELECTRON IN MOTION NUCLEUS
r
EXTERNAL MAGNETIC INDUCTION BEXT
z
Be j 45° MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT
x
TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 45°
FIGURE 31. The timeadvanced Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.
Example 10. In the timeadvanced Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is partially cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above. As a consequence of this complex velocity v e j 45° , a complex magnetic field B e j 45° emerges. So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2
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Rev 3.6
Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6.96 × 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1.98892 × 1030 kg The timeadvanced frequency of orbit f 0 , where θ = 45° is,
f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 45° = 4.808326 × 1015 + 4.808326 j × 1015 Hz
(388)
The timeadvanced Amperian Current i is,
i = e − f 0 = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )( 4.808326 × 1015 + 4.808326 j × 1015 Hz ) i = 7.703791× 10 −4 + 7.703791 j × 104 Amps
(389) (390)
The timeadvanced magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is,
B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= µ0
r 2 e− f 0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(391)
B = µ0
( 7.703791×10−4 + 7.703791 j ×104 Amps ) i = ( 4π × 10−7 H m ) 2r 2 ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )
B = 9.147095 + 9.147095 j T
(392)
(393)
The timeadvanced angular velocity ω0 of the electron e − is,
ω0 = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 4.808326 × 1015 + 4.808326 j × 1015 Hz ) ω0 = 3.02116 × 1016 + 3.02116 j × 1016 Hz
The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − is,
vx = r ω0 = ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )( 3.02116 × 1016 + 3.02116 j × 1016 Hz ) vx = 1.598729 × 106 + 1.598729 j × 106 m sec
(394) (395)
(396) (397)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is,
vx max
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − = − y0 ( 6.3781×106 m )
vx max = 1.11846 j × 104 m sec vx
(398)
(399)
William Alek
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The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Earth’s gravity well! The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Sun’s gravity well is,
vx max = −
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )(1.98892 × 1030 kg ) 2 G M SUN = − y0 ( 6.96 x 108 m )
vx max = 6.17542 j × 105 m sec vx
(400)
(401)
The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Sun’s gravity well! The timeadvanced magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
Fv = e − vx B Fv = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )(1.598729 ×106 + 1.598729 j × 106 m sec ) ( 9.147095 + 9.147095 j T ) Fv = 4.685962 j × 10−12 N
(402)
(403)
The direction of electron motion vx is timeadvanced or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The IMAGINARY fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
(1.598729 ×106 + 1.598729 j ×106 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
∆M e = 2.590585 j × 10−35 kg
2
(404)
(405)
The special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is,
M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( 2.590585 j × 10−35 kg ) M v = 9.1093897 × 10−31 + 2.590585 j × 10 −35 kg
(406) (407)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 =
( 6.3781×106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 ( 6.3781×106 m )(1.598729 ×106 + 1.598729 j ×106 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 10 24 kg )
y1 = 3.819579 × 10−3 − 156.0822 j m
(408)
(409)
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So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well or,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 6.3781× 10−6 + 156.0822m
(410)
y
e−
vx e j 90°
Fv ELECTRON IN MOTION NUCLEUS
r
EXTERNAL MAGNETIC INDUCTION BEXT
z
Be j 90°
MAGNETIC INDUCTION CIRCULAR ELECTRON ORBIT
x
TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 90°
FIGURE 32. The timefuture Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom.
Example 11. In the timefuture Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, the real magnetic field created by an electron circulating at relativistic speeds is being cancelled by an externally applied magnetic field BEXT . The electron reacts by rotating its velocity into the imaginary axis as shown above. As a consequence of this complex velocity j vx , a complex magnetic field j B emerges. So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Frequency of orbit f = 6.8 × 1015 Hz Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Classic 1st Bohr orbital radius r = 5.291773 × 10−11 m Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg Mean radius of surface of Sun y0 = 6.96 × 108 m Mass of the Sun M SUN = 1.98892 × 1030 kg The timefuture frequency of orbit f 0 , where θ = 90° is,
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f 0 = f e jθ = ( 6.8 × 1015 Hz ) e j 90° = 6.8 j × 1015 Hz
(411)
The timefuture Amperian Current i is,
i = e − f 0 = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )( 6.8 j × 1015 Hz ) = 1.089481 j × 103 Amps
(412)
The timefuture magnetic field B at the center axis of the orbit z = 0 m is,
B = µ0 r2 i 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
= µ0
r 2 e− f 0 2(r2 + z2 )
3 2
(413)
B = µ0
(1.089481 j ×10−3 Amps ) = 12.935946 j T i = ( 4π × 10−7 H m ) 2r 2 ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )
ω0 = 2 π f 0 = 2 π ( 6.8 j × 1015 Hz ) = 4.272566 j × 1016 Hz
(414)
The timefuture angular velocity ω0 of the electron e − is, (415)
The timefuture velocity vx of the electron e − is,
vx = r ω0 = ( 5.291773 × 10−11 m )( 4.272566 j × 1016 Hz ) = 2.260945 j × 106 m sec
(416)
The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Earth’s gravity well is,
vx max
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg ) 2G ME = − = − y0 ( 6.3781×106 m )
vx max = 1.11846 j × 104 m sec vx
(417)
(418)
The timefuture velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Earth’s gravity well. The maximum timefuture velocity vx max within the Sun’s gravity well is,
vx max
2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )(1.98892 × 1030 kg ) 2 G M SUN = − = − y0 ( 6.96 x 108 m )
vx max = 6.17542 j × 105 m sec vx
(419)
(420)
The timeadvanced velocity vx of the electron e − far exceeds coupling to Sun’s gravity well! The magnetic force Fv of the electron e − directed upon the nucleus is,
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Fv = e − vx B = (1.602177 × 10−19 C )( 2.260945 j × 106 m sec ) (12.935946 j T ) Fv = −4.685962 × 10−12 N
(421) (422)
The direction of electron motion vx is timefuture or rotated into the future such that the magnetic force Fv is always an attractive force between the electron and the nucleus. The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
( 2.260945 j ×106 m sec ) = −2.590585 ×10−35 kg v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(423)
The decreased special relativistic mass M v of the electron e − is,
M v = M e + ∆M e = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) + ( −2.590585 × 10−35 kg ) = 9.109131× 10 −31 kg
(424)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )( 2.260945 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg )
6 6 6 2 −11 2 2 24
(425)
y1 = −156.0860 m
(426)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 6.378256 × 106 m
(427)
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COMPLEX ELECTRON DRIFT VELOCITY
SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT
E e jθ e vx e
−
e− vx e jθ e− vx e jθ
A’
jθ
r
I e jθ
A
x TEMPORAL ROTATION 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°
FIGURE 33. The complete complex electron drift velocity model in a copper wire.
If a copper wire is connected to a battery, an electric field E will be set up at every point within the wire. This field E will act on electrons and will give them a resultant motion. An electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in time t . The electric field that acts on the electrons doesn’t produce a net acceleration because the electrons keep colliding with the atoms that make up the conductor. The electrons, therefore, move at an average drift velocity vx . If the electron drift velocity j vx is timefuture, the associated electric field j E and magnetic field j B are also timefuture. The complete complex electron drift velocity model includes the following characteristic equations shown below. These equations contain the real and imaginary components of a moving electron that is rotated about the temporal axis as a complex particle. The rotation is given as 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° , where the real axis is θ = 0° and the imaginary timefuture axis is θ = 90° . The complex number uses the Euler’s identity e jθ , which functions as a temporal rotation operator. So, given, Direction of time θ Current flowing through a conductor I Fundamental charge of an electron e − Radius of copper wire r Density of conductor material ( 20°C ) Datom Number of conduction electrons per atom of conductor katom Avogadro’s Number N 0 Atomic weight of conductor material Watom Segment length of conductor x Speed of light c Rest mass of an electron M e Radius of surface of Earth y0 Gravitational constant G Mass of the Earth M E Resistivity of conductor material ( 20°C ) ρ atom
The complex current I 0 flowing through a conductor, where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is,
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I 0 = I e jθ = I cos θ + j I sin θ
(428)
The complex current density J 0 is,
J0 = I0 I = 0 A π r2
(429)
The volume V of a segment of a conductor is,
V = A x = π r2x
The quantity of conduction electrons natom in a volume of conductor is,
natom = Datom N 0 katom Watom
(430)
(431)
The net charge qatom in a volume of a conductor is,
qatom = natom V e −
(432)
The complex velocity vx is,
vx = x t
(433)
The complex current I 0 flowing through a conductor is,
I0 =
qatom natom V e − = = π r 2 natom e − vx x t vx
(434)
So, the complex drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a conductor is,
vx = I0 = J0 natom e−
π r 2 natom e −
(435)
The fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
∆M e = M e vx 2 2 c2
(436)
Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
∆M e = M e
vx = Me 2 c2
2
(g
y1
y1 − g y0 y0 c2
) =GM
E
⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ y y Me ⎝ 1 2 0 ⎠ c
(437)
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⎛1 1 ⎞ vx 2 = g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = G M E ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠ ⎛1 1 ⎞ vx = 2 g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 = 2 G M E ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ y1 y0 ⎠
(438)
(
)
(439)
The equivalent displacement to position y1 of an electron moving at a velocity vx within Earth’s gravity well gY where 0 < y1 ≤ ∞ or −1 ≤
y0 vx 2 is, 2G ME y1 = vx 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜ g y0 y0 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ g y1 ⎝
(440)
y1 =
y0 y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E
(441)
The resistivity ρ Atom of a conductor is given as,
ρ Atom
V V E x= x = = I I 2 J A πr
(442)
The resistance R of a segment of conductor is,
R= V x x = ρ Atom = ρ Atom π r2 I A
(443)
SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT
E
e− vx e−
e−
vx
A’
r
vx A
I
x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 0°
FIGURE 34. The timeforward electron drift velocity in a copper wire.
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INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 12. A timeforward electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeforward t . The electrons move at an average timeforward drift velocity vx . So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Current through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m The timeforward current I 0 flowing through a conductor, where θ = 0° is,
I 0 = I e jθ = (10.0 Amps ) e j 0° = 10.0 Amps
Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg
(444)
The timeforward current density J 0 is,
J0 = I0 I (10.0 Amps ) = 02 = = 1.901× 106 Amps m 2 2 A πr π (1.294 × 10−3 m )
(445)
The volume V of a segment of copper wire is,
V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.261× 10−6 m3
2
(446)
The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is,
nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu
(447)
nCu
(8.92 ×10 =
6
gm m3 )( 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom )
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(448)
nCu = 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3
(449)
The net charge qCu in a volume of copper wire is,
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C ) qCu = 7.126 × 104 C
(450) (451)
The timeforward velocity vx is,
vx = x t
(452)
The timeforward current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is,
I0 =
qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 10.0 Amps x t vx
(453)
So, the timeforward drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.901×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C )
vx = 1.403 × 10−4 m sec
(454)
(455)
The POSITIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
(1.403 ×10−4 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(456)
∆M e = 9.980 × 10−56 kg
(457)
The POSITIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its’ rest mass M e . Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )(1.403 ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10
6 6 −4 −11 2 2
2
(458)
kg )
24
y1 = 6.3781× 106 m
(459)
So, the equivalent POSITIVE displacement ∆y is gravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 1.8627 × 10−9 m
(460)
Given a timeforward voltage V and a timeforward current I , the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as,
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
ρCu =
V V E x = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr
(461)
The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is,
R=
(1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.294 × 10 m )
SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT
(462)
E e j 45° e vx e
−
e− vx e j 45° e
−
A’
j 45°
r
vx e j 45°
I e j 45°
A
x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 45°
FIGURE 35. The timeadvanced electron drift velocity in a copper wire.
Example 13. A timeadvanced electric current I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timeadvanced t . The electrons move at an average timeadvanced drift velocity vx . So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The timeadvanced current I 0 flowing through a conductor, where θ = 45° is,
I 0 = I e jθ = (10.0 Amps ) e j 45° = 7.071 + 7.071 j Amps
(463)
The timeadvanced current density J 0 is,
J0 = I0 I ( 7.071 + 7.071 j Amps ) = 02 = = 1.344 × 106 + 1.344 j × 106 Amps m 2 2 −3 A πr π (1.294 × 10 m )
(464)
The volume V of a segment of copper wire is,
V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.261× 10−6 m3
2
(465)
The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is,
nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu
(466)
nCu =
(8.92 ×10
6
gm m3 )( 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom )
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(467)
nCu = 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3
(468)
The net charge qCu in a volume of a copper wire is,
qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C ) qCu = 7.126 × 104 C
(469) (470)
The timeadvanced velocity vx is,
vx = x t
(471)
The timeadvanced current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is,
I0 =
qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 7.071 + 7.071 j Amps x t vx
(472)
So, the timeadvanced drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.344 ×106 + 1.344 j ×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C )
(473)
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
vx = 9.923 × 10−5 + 9.923 j × 10−5 m sec
(474)
The fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
( 9.923 ×10−5 + 9.923 j ×10−5 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 ×108 m sec )
∆M e = 9.980 j × 10−56 kg
2
(475)
(476)
The fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude beyond its’ rest mass M e and is imaginary. Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 =
( 6.3781×106 m ) y0 = 2 y v2 ( 6.3781×106 m )( 9.923 ×10−5 + 9.923 j ×10−5 m sec ) 1+ 0 x 2G M E 1+ 2 ( 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 )( 5.9787 × 1024 kg )
y1 = 6.3781× 106 m
(477)
(478)
So, the equivalent IMAGINARY displacement ∆y is shown to be nongravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = 1.0041 j × 10−9 m
(479)
Given a timeadvanced voltage V and a timeadvanced current I , the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as,
ρCu =
V V E x = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr
(480)
The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is,
R=
(1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.294 × 10 m )
(481)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
SEGMENT OF COPPER WIRE ELECTRON DRIFT
jE e−
e− j vx e− j vx
A’
j vx
r
jI
A
x TEMPORAL ROTATION θ = 90°
FIGURE 36. The timefuture electron drift velocity in a copper wire.
Example 14. A timefuture electric current + j I is established if a net charge qCu passes through any cross sectional area A of the conductor in timefuture t . The electrons move at an average timefuture drift velocity + j vx . So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Current flow through copper wire I = 10.0 Amps Fundamental charge of an electron e − = 1.602177 × 10−19 C Radius of 10AWG copper wire r = 1.294 × 10−3 m Density of copper conductor ( 20°C ) DCu = 8.92 × 106 gm m3 Number of conduction electrons per atom of copper kCu = 1 electron atom Avogadro’s Number N 0 = 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole Atomic weight of copper conductor WCu = 63.546 gm mole Segment length x = 1 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Rest mass of an electron M e = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mean Radius of surface of Earth y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Resistivity of copper conductor ( 20°C ) ρCu = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m The timefuture current I 0 flowing through a conductor, where θ = 90° is,
I 0 = I e jθ = (10.0 Amps ) e j 90° = 10.0 j Amps
Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg
(482)
The timefuture current density J 0 is,
J0 = I0 I (10.0 j Amps ) = 02 = = 1.901 j × 106 Amps m 2 2 −3 A πr π (1.294 × 10 m )
(483)
William Alek
Page 80
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The volume V of a segment of copper wire is,
V = A x = π r 2 x = π (1.294 × 10−3 m ) (1m ) = 5.261× 10−6 m3
2
(484)
The quantity of conduction electrons nCu in a volume of copper wire is,
nCu = DCu N 0 kCu WCu
(485)
nCu =
(8.92 ×10
6
gm m3 )( 6.0221367 × 1023 atoms mole ) (1 electron atom )
( 63.546 gm
mole )
(486)
nCu = 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3
(487)
The net charge qCu in a volume of a copper wire is,
qCu = nCu V e − = ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )( 5.261× 10−6 m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C ) qCu = 7.126 × 104 C
(488) (489)
The timefuture velocity vx is,
vx = x t
(490)
The timefuture current I 0 flowing through a copper wire is,
I0 =
qCu nCu V e − = = π r 2 nCu e − vx = π r 2 nCu e − vx = 10.0 j Amps x t vx
(491)
So, the timefuture drift velocity vx of an electron moving through a copper wire is,
vx =
(1.901 j ×106 Amps m2 ) I0 J0 = = π r 2 nCu e − nCu e − ( 8.4533 × 1028 electrons m3 )(1.60217733 × 10−19 C )
vx = 1.403 j × 10 −4 m sec
(492)
(493)
The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass ∆M e of the electron e − is,
(1.403 j ×10−4 m sec ) v2 ∆M e = M e x 2 = ( 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg ) 2 2c 2 ( 2.99792458 × 108 m sec )
2
(494)
∆M e = −9.980 × 10−56 kg
(495)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The NEGATIVE fluctuating mass of an electron is almost 25 orders of magnitude below its’ rest mass M e . Applying the new Principle of Equivalence Theorem,
y1 = y0 = y0 vx 2 1+ 2G M E 1+
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )(1.403 j ×10 m sec ) 2 ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10
6 6 −4 −11 2 2
2
(496)
kg )
24
y1 = 6.3781× 106 m
(497)
So, the equivalent NEGATIVE displacement ∆y is antigravitational within the Earth’s gravity well is,
∆y = y0 − y1 = −9.3132 × 10−10 m
(498)
Given a timefuture voltage V and a timefuture current I , the resistivity ρCu of copper wire is given as,
ρCu =
V V E x = 1.68 × 10−8 Ω m = x= I 2 J I A πr
(499)
The resistance R of a segment of copper wire is,
R=
(1 m ) V x = ρCu = (1.68 × 10−8 Ω m ) = 3.193 × 10−3 Ω 2 −3 I A π (1.294 × 10 m )
(500)
William Alek
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8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
COMPLEX RESISTOR
IR
+
Ve jθ
+
VR R


FIGURE 37. The complete complex resistor.
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, a complex direct current flows through resistor R . A complex voltage VR appears across the resistor. The resulting instantaneous power PR is dissipated or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ Voltage supply V Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ
(501)
The complex current I R flowing through resistor R is,
IR = VS R
(502)
The complex voltage VR across resistor R is,
VR = I R R = VS
(503)
The resistance R is,
R= VS IR
(504)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor is,
PR = VR I R = I R 2 R =
VR 2 R
(505)
William Alek
Page 83
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 15. Given a timeforward voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeforward voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0Volts
(506)
The timeforward current I R is,
IR = VS (10.0 Volts ) = = 4.0 Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(507)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor is,
PR = VR 2 (10.0Volts ) = = 40.0Watts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(508)
Example 16. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timeadvanced current and power being dissipated and absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeadvanced voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 45° = 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts
(509)
The timeadvanced current I R is,
IR = VS ( 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts ) = = 2.8284 + 2.8284 j Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(510)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed of the resistor is,
PR = VR 2 ( 7.0711 + 7.0711 jVolts ) = = 40.0 jWatts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(511)
The resistor is dissipating and absorbing an equal amount of heat. The resistor is therefore, temperature neutral or adiabatic.
William Alek
Page 84
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 17. Given a timefuture voltage source VS and a known resistor value R , compute the timefuture current and instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Voltage Source V = 10.0Volts Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timefuture voltage VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0 jVolts
(512)
The timefuture current I R is,
IR = VS (10.0 jVolts ) = = 4.0 j Amps R ( 2.5 Ω )
(513)
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor is,
PR = VR 2 (10.0 jVolts ) = = −40.0Watts R ( 2.5 Ω )
2
(514)
COMPLEX INDUCTOR
iL
S t ≥ 0sec
+
vR R
+
Ve jθ

L vL
+
FIGURE 38. The complete complex magnetizing inductor.
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R and magnetizes inductor L . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vL appears across inductor L . The resulting instantaneous power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor, the instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor, and the energy EL stored in the inductor. So, given, Direction of time θ Time t Voltage supply V Inductor L
William Alek
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Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ
(515)
The complex voltage across the resistor R is,
vR ( t ) = iL ( t ) R
(516)
The complex voltage across the inductor L is,
vL ( t ) = L diL dt
(517)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is,
VS = vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) = iL ( t ) R + L VS L diL = iL ( t ) + R R dt iL ( t ) = VS L diL − R R dt
diL = − R t dt L ∫t0
diL dt
(518)
(519)
(520)
∫
iL ( t )
1 V iL ( t ) − S R
0
(521)
V ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ iL ( t ) − S ⎟ R ⎠0 ⎝
iL ( t )
=−
R t t L t0
⎞ ⎟ R ⎟ = − ( t − t0 ) L ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(522)
V ⎛ ln ⎜ iL ( t ) − S R ⎝
⎞ ⎛ VS ⎟ − ln ⎜ − R ⎠ ⎝
VS ⎛ ⎜ iL ( t ) − R ⎞ ⎟ = ln ⎜ ⎠ ⎜ − VS ⎜ ⎝ R
(523)
iL ( t ) − − VS R
VS R R R = e − L ( t − t0 ) = e − L t
(524)
iL ( t ) =
R − t ⎞ VS VS − R t VS ⎛ − e L = ⎜1 − e L ⎟ R R R⎝ ⎠
(525)
William Alek
Page 86
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iL ( t ) = R iL 2 ( t ) = The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L is,
PL ( t ) = vL ( t ) iL ( t ) = L iL
2
R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎟ R ⎝ ⎠
2
(526)
diL = VS iL ( t ) − R iL 2 ( t ) dt
(527)
2R R R R R − t ⎞ − t ⎞ − t ⎞⎛ − t ⎞⎞ − t ⎞ ⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ V 2 ⎛ −Rt PL ( t ) = S ⎜ 1 − e L ⎟ − S ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = S ⎜ 1 − e L ⎟ ⎜ 1 − ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎟ = S ⎜ e L − e L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ R ⎝ ⎠ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ R ⎝ ⎠
(528)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy EL stored in the inductor L is,
EL ( t ) = ∫ PL dt = L ∫ iL
t t t0 t0 i (t ) 2 2 diL 1 dt =L ∫ iL diL = L ⎡ ⎡iL ( t ) ⎤ − ⎡iL ( t0 ) ⎤ ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ i ( t0 ) dt 2 ⎣ 2 2 R R ⎡⎛ − t ⎞ − t0 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ ⎢⎜ 1 − e L ⎟ − ⎜ 1 − e L ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(529)
1 ⎡ ⎡V EL ( t ) = L ⎢ ⎢ S 2 ⎢⎢ R ⎣⎣
2 2 R R ⎤ LV 2 ⎡ VS ⎛ − t ⎞⎤ − t0 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ S L L 1 − e ⎟ ⎥ − ⎢ ⎜1 − e ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎥ = R⎝ ⎥ 2 R2 ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎠⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
(530)
R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ 1− e L ⎟ EL ( t ) = 2 ⎜ 2R ⎝ ⎠
2
(531)
Example 18. Given a timeforward voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeforward voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0Volts
(532)
The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5Ω ) R − t ⎞ VS ⎛ (10.0Volts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎟ R⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(533)
iL (1.0sec ) = 3.980 Amps
(534)
William Alek
Page 87
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R − t ⎞ V2⎛ (10.0Volts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ ⎜1 − e PR ( t ) = S ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 2
(535)
PR (1.0sec ) = 39.609Watts
(536)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2R − t ⎞ V 2 ⎛ −Rt (10.0Volts ) PL ( t ) = S ⎜ e L − e L ⎟ = R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ 2 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎛ − ( 2.5 Ω) t − t ⎞ ⎜ e ( 470 mH ) − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(537)
PL ( 0.130sec ) = 10.0 Watts PL (1.0sec ) = 0.195Watts
(538) (539)
The energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )(10.0Volts ) 1− e L ⎟ = EL ( t ) == 2 ⎜ 2 2R ⎝ 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ 2 2
( 2.5 Ω ) ⎞ ⎛ t − ⎜1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
2
(540)
EL (1.0sec ) = 3.723 Joules
(541)
Example 19. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(542)
The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5Ω ) ⎞ R ⎛ − t ⎞ VS ⎛ ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎜ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L 1− e iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(543)
iL (1.0sec ) = 2.815 + 2.815 j Amps
(544)
William Alek
Page 88
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R ⎛ − t ⎞ V2⎛ ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎜ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ PR ( t ) = S ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = 1− e ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(545)
PR (1.0sec ) = 39.609 jWatts
(546)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 2R − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − R t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L L ⎜e ⎟ −e PL ( t ) = ⎜e − e ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(547)
PL ( 0.130sec ) = 10.0 jWatts PL (1.0sec ) = 0.195 jWatts
(548) (549)
The energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ EL ( t ) == ⎜1 − e ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 R2 ⎝ 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(550)
EL (1.0sec ) = 3.723 j Joules
(551)
Example 20. Given a timefuture voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor, and the negative energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timefuture voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0 jVolts
(552)
The timefuture iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 1.0sec is,
( 2.5Ω ) R − t ⎞ VS ⎛ (10.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ iL ( t ) = ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ = ⎟ R⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(553)
iL (1.0sec ) = 3.980 j Amps
(554)
William Alek
Page 89
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5Ω ) ⎞ 2 R − t ⎞ V2⎛ (10.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ ⎜1 − e PR ( t ) = S ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 2
(555)
PR (1.0sec ) = −39.609 Watts
(556)
The instantaneous power PL stored in the inductor L at t = 0.130sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2( 2.5 Ω ) ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 2R ⎞ − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − R t (10.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t − ( 470 mH ) t ⎟ L L ⎜e −e PL ( t ) = ⎜e − e ⎟= ⎟ R ⎝ ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(557)
PL ( 0.130sec ) = −10.0 Watts PL (1.0sec ) = −0.195Watts
(558) (559)
The energy EL stored in the inductor L from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) 2 R − t ⎞ LVS 2 ⎛ ( 470 mH )(10.0 jVolts ) ⎛ − ( 470 mH ) t ⎞ L ⎜1 − e ⎟ EL ( t ) = ⎜1 − e ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 R2 ⎝ 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(560)
EL (1.0sec ) = −3.723 Joules
(561)
iL
S t ≥ 0sec
+
vR R
+
vL L

FIGURE 39. The complete complex demagnetizing inductor.
Given energy EL stored in inductor L with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iL flows through resistor R . The inductor L demagnetizes into the resistor. A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R . The resulting instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ Time t Initial current through inductor I Inductor L Resistor R
William Alek
Page 90
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The complex current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e jθ = I cos θ + j I sin θ
(562)
At t = 0sec , the voltage V0 across the resistor R is,
V0 = I 0 R
(563)
The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is,
vR ( t ) = R iL ( t )
(564)
The complex voltage vL across the inductor L is,
vL ( t ) = − L diL dt
(565)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L is,
vR ( t ) = vL ( t ) iL ( t ) R = − L iL ( t ) = − diL dt
(566)
(567)
L diL R dt
(568)
1 R diL = − dt iL ( t ) L
(569)
∫
i(t )
I0
1 R t diL = − ∫ dt iL ( t ) L t0
iL ( t ) I0
(570)
ln ( iL ( t ) )
=−
R t L
t t0
(571)
⎛ i (t ) ⎞ R ln ( iL ( t ) ) − ln ( I 0 ) = ln ⎜ L ⎟ = − ( t − t0 ) L ⎝ I0 ⎠ iL ( t ) I0 =e
− R ( t − t0 ) L
(572)
(573)
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R − t L
(574)
William Alek
Page 91
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iL ( t ) = R iL 2 ( t ) = R I 0 2 e
−
2R t L
(575)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
ER ( t ) = ∫ PR dt = R I 0 2 ∫ e
t t t0 t0 − 2R t L
dt
(576)
2R 2R 2R − t⎤ L I 2 ⎡ − 2 R t0 ⎛ −L ⎞ − L t ⎛ − L ⎞ − L t0 − R I02 ⎜ == 0 ⎢ e L − e L ⎥ ER ( t ) = R I 0 2 ⎜ e e ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎣ ⎝ 2R ⎠ ⎝ 2R ⎠ ⎦ 2R − t⎤ ⎡ L ⎢1 − e ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(577)
ER ( t ) =
L I02 2
(578)
Example 21. Given a timeforward voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeforward current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 0° = 4.0 Amps
(579)
The timeforward current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R − t L
= ( 4.0 Amps ) e
−
( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(580) (581) (582)
iL ( 0.0sec ) = 4.0 Amps iL (1.0sec ) = 0.020 Amps
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 − 2R t L
= ( 2.5 Ω )( 4.0 Amps ) e
2
−
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(583) (584) (585)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 40.0Watts PR (1.0sec ) = 9.592 × 10−4 Watts
William Alek
Page 92
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
The energy ER dissipated by the resistor R at t = 1.0sec is,
2R − t⎤ LI 2 ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 4.0 Amps ) ER ( t ) = 0 ⎢1 − e L ⎥ = 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(586)
ER (1.0sec ) = 3.760 Joules
(587)
Example 22. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timeadvanced current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 45° = 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps
(588)
The timeadvanced current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R − t L
= ( 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps ) e
−
( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(589) (590) (591)
iL ( 0.0sec ) = 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps iL (1.0sec ) = 0.014 + 0.014 j Amps
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 − 2R t L
= ( 2.5 Ω )( 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps ) e
2
−
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(592) (593) (594)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 40.0 jWatts PR (1.0sec ) = 9.592 j × 10−4 Watts
The energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2R − t⎤ LI 2 ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 2.828 + 2.828 j Amps ) ER ( t ) = 0 ⎢1 − e L ⎥ = 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 2 2 ( 2.5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(595)
ER (1.0sec ) = 3.760 j Joules
(596)
William Alek
Page 93
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Example 23. Given a timefuture voltage V across inductor L , a known resistor value R and inductor value L , compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial current through inductor I = 4.0 Amps Inductor L = 470 mH Resistor R = 2.5 Ω The timefuture current I 0 through the inductor L is,
I 0 = I e jθ = ( 4.0 Amps ) e j 90° = 4.0 j Amps
(597)
The timefuture current iL flowing through the resistor R and the inductor L at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
iL ( t ) = I 0 e
R − t L
= ( 4.0 j Amps ) e
−
( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(598) (599) (600)
iL ( 0.0sec ) = 4.0 j Amps iL (1.0sec ) = 0.020 j Amps
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) = R I 0 e
2 − 2R t L
= ( 2.5 Ω )( 4.0 j Amps ) e
2
−
2 ( 2.5 Ω ) t ( 470 mH )
(601) (602) (603)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = −40.0 Watts PR (1.0sec ) = −9.592 × 10−4 Watts
The energy ER absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
ER ( t ) = L I02 2
2R − t⎤ ⎡ ( 470 mH )( 4.0 j Amps ) 1− e L ⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2 2( 2.5 Ω ) ⎛ t ⎞ − ⎜ 1 − e ( 470 mH ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(604)
ER (1.0sec ) = −3.760 Joules
(605)
William Alek
Page 94
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
COMPLEX CAPACITOR
iC
S t ≥ 0sec
+
vR R
+
Ve jθ

C vC
+
FIGURE 40. The complete complex charging capacitor.
Given a complex voltage source VS with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current flows through resistor R and charges capacitor
C . A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor and a complex voltage vC appears across capacitor C . The
resulting power PR is dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor and the energy EC is stored in the capacitor. So, given, Direction of time θ Time t Voltage supply V Capacitor C Resistor R The complex voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = V cos θ + jV sin θ
(606)
The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is,
vR ( t ) = iC ( t ) R
(607)
The complex current iC through a capacitor C is,
iC ( t ) = C dvC dt
(608)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex voltage vC across the capacitor C is,
VS = vR ( t ) + vC ( t ) = iC ( t ) R + vC ( t )
(609)
vC ( t ) = VS − R C
1
dvC dt
1 dt RC
(610)
vC ( t ) − VS
dvC = −
(611)
William Alek
Page 95
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
∫
vC ( t )
0
vC ( t ) − VS
1
dvC = −
vC ( t ) 0
1 t dt R C ∫t0
(612)
ln ( vC ( t ) − VS )
=−
1 t RC
t t0
(613)
⎛ v ( t ) − VS ⎞ 1 ln ( vC ( t ) − VS ) − ln ( −VS ) = ln ⎜ C ( t − t0 ) ⎟=− RC ⎝ −VS ⎠ vC ( t ) − VS −VS =e
− 1 ( t − t0 ) RC
(614)
=e
−
1 t RC
(615)
vC ( t ) = VS − VS e
−
1 t RC
1 − t ⎞ ⎛ = VS ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(616)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iC ( t ) = vR 2 ( t ) R
(V =
S
− vC ( t ) ) R
2
=
2 VS 2 − RC t e R
(617)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C is,
PC ( t ) = vC ( t ) iC ( t ) = C vC VS 2 R
2 2 dvC (VS vC ( t ) − vC ( t ) ) = dt R
(618)
PC ( t ) =
1 1 1 1 2 − t ⎞ − t ⎞ − t ⎞⎛ − t ⎞⎞ − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ V2⎛ −1t 1 − e RC ⎟ − S ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ = S ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎟ = S ⎜ e RC − e RC ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ R R ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(619)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy EC stored in the capacitor C is,
EL ( t ) = ∫ PL dt = C ∫ vC
t t t0 t0 v (t ) 2 2 dvC 1 dt = C ∫ vC dvC = C ⎡ ⎡ vC ( t ) ⎤ − ⎡ vC ( t0 ) ⎤ ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ v ( t0 ) ⎣⎣ dt 2
(620)
2 1 1 ⎡ ⎛ − t ⎞⎤ − t 1 ⎡⎡ ⎛ ⎢ ⎢VS ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎥ − ⎢VS ⎜1 − e RC 0 EC ( t ) = C 2 ⎢⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎣
⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎥ ⎦
2
⎤ CV 2 S ⎥= 2 ⎥ ⎦
2
2 2 1 1 ⎡⎛ − t ⎞ − t0 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ RC RC ⎢⎜ 1 − e ⎟ − ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(621)
EC ( t ) =
C VS 2 2
1 − t ⎞ ⎛ 1 − e RC ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠
(622)
Example 24. Given a timeforward voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeforward current and power dissipated by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 0°
William Alek
Page 96
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timeforward voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0Volts
(623)
The timeforward voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1.0sec is,
1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) RC ⎟ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e ⎟ = (10.0 Volts ) ⎜ 1 − e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(624)
vC (1.0sec ) = 8.809 Volts
(625)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PR ( t ) =
2 VS 2 − RC t (10.0 Volts ) − (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t e e = R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(626)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0.10 Watts PR (1.0sec ) = 1.419 × 10−3 Watts
(627) (628)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 − t ⎞ V2⎛ −1t (10.0Volts ) PC ( t ) = S ⎜ e RC − e RC ⎟ = R ⎝ (1.0 k Ω ) ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t ⎜e − e (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(629)
PC ( 0.33sec ) = 0.0245Watts PC (1.0sec ) = 0.0105Watts
(630) (631)
The energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
C VS 2 EC ( t ) = 2
1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.0Volts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 − e (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(632)
EC ( t ) = 0.0182 Joules
(633)
Example 25. Given a timeadvanced voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeadvanced current and power dissipated and absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
So, given,
William Alek
Page 97
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timeadvanced voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(634)
The timeadvanced voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1.0sec is,
1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) RC ⎜ ⎟ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e ⎟ = ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎜ 1 − e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(635)
vC (1.0sec ) = 6.229 + 6.229 jVolts
(636)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 VS 2 − RC t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t e e = R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(637)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0.10 jWatts PR (1.0sec ) = 1.419 j × 10−3 Watts
(638) (639)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
PC ( t ) =
1 2 − t ⎞ VS 2 ⎛ − RC t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) − e RC ⎟ = ⎜e R ⎝ (1.0 k Ω ) ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t ⎜e − e (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(640)
PC ( 0.33sec ) = 0.0245 jWatts PC (1.0sec ) = 0.0105Watts
(641) (642)
The energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
C VS 2 EC ( t ) = 2
1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ( 470 µ F )( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ⎜ 1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(643)
EC ( t ) = 0.0182 j Joules
(644)
Example 26. Given a timefuture voltage source VS , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timefuture current and power absorbed by the resistor, and the energy stored in the inductor.
William Alek
Page 98
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Voltage supply V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timefuture voltage supply VS is,
VS = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0 jVolts
(645)
The timefuture voltage vC across the capacitor C at t = 1.0sec is,
1 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) RC ⎟ vC ( t ) = VS ⎜1 − e ⎟ = (10.0 jVolts ) ⎜ 1 − e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(646)
vC (1.0sec ) = 8.809 jVolts
(647)
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 VS 2 − RC t (10.0 jVolts ) − (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t = e e R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(648)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = −0.10 Watts PR (1.0sec ) = −1.419 × 10−3 Watts
(649) (650)
The instantaneous power PC stored in the capacitor C at t = 0.33sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 − t ⎞ V2⎛ −1t (10.0 jVolts ) PC ( t ) = S ⎜ e RC − e RC ⎟ = R ⎝ (1.0 k Ω ) ⎠ 2 1 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) t (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎜e ⎟ −e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(651)
PC ( 0.33sec ) = −0.0245Watts PC (1.0sec ) = −0.0105Watts
(652) (653)
The energy EC stored in the capacitor C from t0 = 0.0sec to t = 1.0sec is,
C VS 2 EC ( t ) = 2
1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.0 jVolts ) 1 − e RC ⎟ = ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 − e (1.0 k Ω)( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2
(654)
EC ( t ) = −0.0182 Joules
(655)
William Alek
Page 99
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
iC
S t ≥ 0sec
+
vR R
+
vC C

FIGURE 41. The complete complex discharging capacitor.
Given energy EC stored in capacitor C with a temporal rotation operator e jθ , where 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° is acting upon the voltage, when switch S closes at t = 0sec , a complex direct current iC flows through resistor R . The capacitor C discharges into the resistor. A complex voltage vR appears across the resistor R . The resulting instantaneous power PR and energy ER are dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor. So, given, Direction of time θ Time t Initial voltage across capacitor V Capacitor C Resistor R At t = 0sec , the voltage V0 across the resistor R is,
V0 = I 0 R
(656)
The complex voltage vR across the resistor R is,
vR ( t ) = R iC ( t )
(657)
The complex current iC through a capacitor C is,
iC ( t ) = −C dvC dt
(658)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the complex voltage vC across the capacitor C is,
vC ( t ) = vR ( t ) = R iC ( t ) = − R C
1 1 dvC = − dt vC ( t ) RC
dvC dt
(659)
(660)
∫
vC ( t )
V0
vC ( t )
1
dvC = −
1 t dt R C ∫t0
(661)
William Alek
Page 100
8/12/2005
Gravitational Mass Fluctuations
INTALEK, INC.
Rev 3.6
ln ( vC ( t ) )
vC ( t ) V0
=−
1 t RC
t t0
(662)
⎛ v (t ) ⎞ 1 ln ( vC ( t ) ) − ln (V0 ) = ln ⎜ C ( t − t0 ) ⎟=− RC ⎝ V0 ⎠
(663)
vC ( t ) V0
=e
−
1 ( t − t0 ) RC
=e
1 t RC
−
1 t RC
(664)
vC ( t ) = V0 e
−
(665)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
PR ( t ) = vR ( t ) iC ( t ) = vR 2 ( t ) R
=
V0 2 − R C t e R
2
(666)
Letting t0 = 0sec , the energy ER dissipated and/or absorbed by the resistor R is,
ER ( t ) = ∫ PR dt =
t t0
V0 2 R
∫
t
−
t0
e
2 t RC
dt
(667)
2 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ − R2C t0 V0 2 ⎛ − R C ⎞ − R C t V0 2 ⎛ − R C ⎞ − R C t0 1 2 RC − = C V0 ⎜ e −e ER ( t ) = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟e ⎜ ⎟e ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ 2 ⎠ R ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ 1 ER ( t ) = C V0 2 ⎜ 1 − e R C ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠
(668)
(669)
Example 27. Given a timeforward voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeforward current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 0° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timeforward voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 0° = 10.0Volts
(670)
The timeforward voltage vC across the capacitor C is,
vC ( t ) = V0 e
−
1 t RC
= (10.0 Volts ) e
−
(1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F )
1
t
(671)
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vC ( 0.0sec ) = 10.0 Volts vC (1.0sec ) = 1.191Volts
(672) (673)
The instantaneous power PR dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 V0 2 − RC t (10.0 Volts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t e e = R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(674)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0.10 Watts PR (1.0sec ) = 1.419 × 10−3 Watts
(675) (676)
The energy ER dissipated by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
ER ( t ) =
2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.0Volts ) ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
2
2 − t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(677)
ER (1.0sec ) = 0.023 Joules
(678)
Example 28. Given a timeadvanced voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timeadvanced current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy dissipated and absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 45° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timeadvanced voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e jθ = (10.0Volts ) e j 45° = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts
(679)
The timeadvanced voltage vC across the capacitor C is,
vC ( t ) = V0 e
−
1 t RC
= ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) e
−
(1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F )
1
t
(680) (681) (682)
vC ( 0.0sec ) = 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts vC (1.0sec ) = 0.842 + 0.842 jVolts
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The instantaneous power PR dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 V0 2 − RC t ( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t e = e R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(683)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = 0.10 jWatts PR (1.0sec ) = 1.419 j × 10−3 Watts
(684) (685)
The energy ER dissipated and absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )( 7.071 + 7.071 jVolts ) ER ( t ) = ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(686)
ER (1.0sec ) = 0.023 j Joules
(687)
Example 29. Given a timefuture voltage V across capacitor C , a known resistor value R and capacitor value C , compute the timefuture current flowing through the resistor, and the power and energy absorbed by the resistor.
So, given, Direction of time θ = 90° Time 0.0sec ≤ t ≤ 1.0sec Initial voltage across capacitor V = 10.0Volts Capacitor C = 470 µ F Resistor R = 1.0 k Ω The timefuture voltage V0 across the capacitor C is,
V0 = V e jθ = (10.0 Volts ) e j 90° = 10.0 jVolts
(688)
The timefuture voltage vC across the capacitor C is,
vC ( t ) = V0 e
−
1 t RC
= (10.0 jVolts ) e
−
(1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F )
1
t
(689) (690) (691)
vC ( 0.0sec ) = 10.0 jVolts vC (1.0sec ) = 1.191 jVolts
The instantaneous power PR absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is, PR ( t ) =
2 V0 2 − RC t (10.0 jVolts ) − (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) t e e = R (1.0 k Ω ) 2 2
(692)
PR ( 0.0sec ) = −0.10 Watts
(693)
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PR (1.0sec ) = −1.419 × 10−3 Watts
(694)
The energy ER absorbed by the resistor R at t = 0.0sec and at t = 1.0sec is,
2 − t ⎞ CV0 2 ⎛ ( 470 µ F )(10.0 jVolts ) ER ( t ) = ⎜1 − e RC ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 2 − t ⎞ ⎛ (1.0 k Ω )( 470 µ F ) ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(695)
ER (1.0sec ) = −0.023 Joules
(696)
COMPLEX FIELD MASS FLUCTUATION TECHNOLOGIES
Since a theoretical link was established between gravity and electromagnetism, two mass fluctuation technologies are presently under investigation. Both technologies are electrical devices with the first being inductivebased, and the second being capacitivebased. Shown below is a simplified schematic diagram that highlights their operation.
COMPLEX TIMEFUTURE AMPERIAN CURRENTS INDUCTOR L DECREASED MASS −∆M L COMPLEX TIMEFUTURE AMPERIAN CURRENTS CAPACITOR C DECREASED MASS −∆M C
+
vL iL

jvL
+
jiL iC
+
vC

+
jvC

jiC COP > 1.0
COP > 1.0 D1 RLOAD D1 RLOAD RLOAD
S1
S1
RLOAD
vLOAD S1 S1
+
RS RS
+
vLOAD

+ VS MAGNETIZATION PHASE
+ VS DEMAGNETIZATION PHASE
+ VS CHARGE PHASE
+ VS DISCHARGE PHASE
INDUCTIVE MAGNETIZATION / DEMAGNETIZATION CYCLE
CAPACITIVE CHARGE / DISCHARGE CYCLE
FIGURE 43. Two types of complex field mass fluctuating systems.
These systems are cyclic, and alter the local gravity well. The mass of these systems is converted to excess field energy during the magnetizing/charging phase. During the demagnetizing/discharging phase, excess electrical energy is collected, and mass is restored after this phase. Then, the cycle begins again. As a consequence, clocks runs faster due to broken symmetry of massenergy conservation in the proximity of these devices because mass is converted to NEGATIVE energy.
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AN INDICATOR OF EXCESS FREE ENERGY
IMPULSE DUE TO EXCESS FLUX IN CORE (NEGATIVE ENERGY)
CURRENT (AMPS) i
MAGNETIZING CURRENT (POSITIVE ENERGY)
0
TIME (SEC) t
FIGURE 44. Excess free energy is harvested as NEGATIVE energy.
The diagram above shows that an impulse function occurs when excess residual magnetic flux is found in the core of a coil being magnetized at the start of the next cycle, t = 0sec . If harvested, the energy of this function manifests as NEGATIVE energy and couples to POSITIVE energy forming a complex direct current. This current consists of both real and imaginary components where the real current i is timeforward and the imaginary current j i is timefuture. The real current component is considered to be classic HOT CURRENT and the imaginary current component is considered to be COLD CURRENT. Depending upon how much residual flux is available in the core, the energy in this impulse function could be quite substantial.
FIGURE 45. Excess energy found in N. Zaev’s device.
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FOUR TERMINAL DEVICE
i1 e jθ ,θ = 0°
TIME t1
i2 e jθ ,θ ≥ 0°
TIME t 2
+ EIN
SOURCE DIPOLE
1 COMPLEX FIELD GENERATOR
3 LOAD DIPOLE 4 TEMPORARY MASS REDUCTION
−∆E = −∆M c 2
2
+ EOUT
−E
TWO TERMINAL DEVICE
i1 e jθ ,θ = 0° + EIN
SOURCE/ LOAD DIPOLE
TIME t1
1 COMPLEX FIELD GENERATOR
−∆E = −∆M c 2
2
+ EOUT
−E
TIME t 2
i2 e jθ ,θ ≥ 0°
ETOT = EIN − EOUT + E ≤ 0 Joules COP = EOUT + E ≥ 1.00 EIN
(
)
TEMPORARY MASS REDUCTION
DENOTES HOT TIMEFORWARD ENERGY FLOW DENOTES COLD TIMEFUTURE ENERGY FLOW DENOTES HOT/COLD TIMEADVANCED ENERGY FLOW
SWITCHED OPERATION:
t1 t2
Time − Forward Current i1
ON OFF ON OFF
Time − Advanced Current i2
NOTE: ASSUME IDEAL SYSTEM
FIGURE 46. Two terminal / four terminal complex field mass fluctuating systems.
The diagram above shows a typical configuration of four terminal and two terminal complex field mass fluctuating systems. In the four terminal systems, energy from the source dipole (i.e., a battery) enters through terminals 1 and 2. Excess energy leaves through terminals 3 and 4 and charges the load dipole. In the two terminal systems, the source dipole also acts as the load dipole. Energy leaves the source dipole through terminals 1 and 2 and excess energy leaves through the same terminals at Time t2 later.
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FIGURE 47. The SmartPAK/ZPOD 1210 Workstation.
FIGURE 48. The ZPOD in operation.
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EIN
EOUT TYPICAL TRANSFORMER ACTION EOUT ≈ EIN
THE ZPOD: INDUCTIVE MASS FLUCTUATOR P13
PRIMARY SIDE (67mH)
0
t
EIN
EOUT
THE ZPOD
P11 T116 P12
SECONDARY SIDE (16.6H)
EOUT 0
EIN
t
P14
µo(H + M)
16 COIL/CORE ASSEMBLIES
EXCESS ENERGY
0
t
FIGURE 49. The excess energy of the ZPOD.
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FIGURE 50. The eBike using SmartPAK technology.
FIGURE 51. The eBike using a SmartPAK 361030.
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TESLA’S COMPLEX FIELD GENERATOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
PWR
+ VS 
A”
+
N
iG
G
S S
A”
+
N

M
−∆E = −∆M Fe c 2
M

S
BG
µ0 H M
N
+
iM e jθ , θ > 0°
M Fe + ( −∆M Fe )
F
t ≥ 0sec
+ 
H
iK e jθ , θ > 0°
H L
+
+
K
L’

vK e , θ > 0° R
+
jθ
L’
iR e jθ , θ > 0°
vR e , θ > 0°
FIGURE 52. Nikola Tesla’s US patent 568,176.
jθ
Nikola Tesla was the first to develop the phenomenon of complex fields back in the 1880's. He devised a series of machines patented in the 1890's that greatly amplify this phenomenon, which he later called RADIANT ENERGY. As shown above, the pivoting magnetic domains created by Amperian Currents of the ferromagnetic material are ordered in the direction of field BG by magnetizing coil G . Magnetizing the high inductance coils M create an opposing field µ0 H M that acts upon the ordered domains of the material, thus canceling or partially canceling the
real magnetic field created by the Amperian Currents. An imaginary magnetic field j BM emerges due to this
cancellation and couples back into the magnetizing direct current as iM e jθ , where θ > 0° . Therefore, the magnetizing direct current becomes complex because the circulating motions of the electrons are rotating into the imaginary axis.
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As shown above, before switch F is closed, the capacitors H are charged with a complex direct current iM e jθ produced by an opposing flux from coils M . The complex field energy is stored in capacitors H . At the moment of switch F closure t = 0sec , the complex direct current flows through coil K , rapidly discharging capacitors H . A very large complex electric potential vL e jθ is observed across the secondary coil L .
SOURCE DIPOLE
+ EIN iG e jθ ,θ = 0°
TIME t1
1
INPUT
2
TESLA’S COMPLEX FIELD GENERATOR
−∆E = −∆M c 2
3
OUTPUT
4
iK e jθ ,θ ≥ 0°
TIME t2
−E
+ EOUT
K
L
DENOTES HOT TIMEFORWARD ENERGY FLOW DENOTES COLD TIMEFUTURE ENERGY FLOW DENOTES NEUTRAL TIMEADVANCED ENERGY FLOW
NOTE: ASSUME IDEAL SYSTEM
FIGURE 53. Tesla’s four terminal complex field generator.
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THE HUTCHISON EFFECT EXPLAINED
FIGURE 54. Metal samples from John Hutchison’s lab.
As shown above, John Hutchison successfully applied the Tesla complex field to metal samples with amazing results. These bulk metal samples were melted at room temperature without any application of heat. The complex fields induced cold eddy currents within the metal, which in turn, caused the metal to cold melt. As the metal softened, John inserted bits of other metals and organic material as shown. With the field turned off, the metal resolidified trapping these materials within the metal lattice structure.
FIGURE 55. John Hutchison in his lab.
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j iK = iK e jθ ,θ = 90°
K COMPLEX CURRENT
+
L


jvK jvL
+
j iL
NEGATIVE FIELD ENERGY X
REGION OF COLD MELTING
j iL
NEGATIVE FIELD ENERGY Y
N
S
N
S
j BX
+
j BX jvX
COMPLEX FIELD METAL SAMPLE
j BY
+
j BY jvY
COLD EDDY CURRENTS INDUCED IN METAL
FIGURE 56. Cold eddy currents being induced in a metal sample.
As shown above, cold eddy currents are induced in the metal block with the application of complex magnetic fields. A complex current flowing through the coils produces these magnetic fields. The magnetic field energy surrounding these coils is NEGATIVE, and the metal sample in the presence of this field will cold melt due to induction.
FIGURE 57. Another cold melted metal sample.
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A CONCEPT VEHICLE THAT UTILIZES GMF
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + FLUCTUATING MASS + ++ M ++ + INSULATING ++ + + LAYER + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + RL + +
TEMPORAL ENERGY
+ + + + + + + + + + + + jV + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + FLUCTUATING + MASS ++ + M ++ + + + ++ CLOCKS RUN FASTER + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
TEMPORAL ENERGY
FIGURE 58. A cutaway view of a capacitivebased mass fluctuating concept vehicle.
Shown above is a concept vehicle for tunneling through vast distances of space. The first step concerning this antigravitational system is the disassociation of tungsten metal with the application of a complex voltage jV . This metal is used as a fuel source of gravitational energy bound as mass within the element. As the metal disassociates, it radiates away this gravitational energy in the form of a temporal field within the vehicle. This causes clocks to speedup and the mass of the vehicle to decrease. The second step begins by switching off the disassociating process, thereby turning off the temporal field. Mass converted to electrical energy is amplified as field energy in the outer hull, which can be stored, radiated away, or used to power the vehicle. The vehicle seeks a new equipotential surface of gravity that corresponds to its’ new mass, thus producing lift. Then, the cycle begins again.
ENERGIZING THE GRAVITATIONAL PROPULSION UNIT (GPU)
y
22,500.0
TUNGSTEN
DECREASED GRAVITY
19,920
1kg VEHICLE (AFTER) y1
RADIUS
g yn = G
ME yn 2
VEHICLE UNDERGOES A RELATIVISTIC MASS REDUCTION
∆y = y0 − y1
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE
7,529 6,378.1 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5
1kg VEHICLE (BEFORE) y0
10.0
g yn
g y1 = 1.0
g y0 = 7.0
g 0 = 9.8
ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY m sec 2
FIGURE 59. Vehicle is undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation above the Earth.
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The diagram above shows a 1 kg vehicle undergoing a negative gravitational mass fluctuation in a given an equipotential surface of gravity reference. A typical gravity profile of the Earth shown above is based on Newton’s gravity. This system decreases the relativistic mass of the vehicle such that it displaces or vectors in height to a new equipotential surface of gravity above the Earth. Deactivating this system causes the same vehicle to naturally fall based on universal mass attraction.
Example 30. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a vehicle of mass 1 kg positioned at an initial radius y0 as shown in the diagram above, compute the new gravitational mass M y1 of
the vehicle displaced ∆y away from the Earth. So, given, Mass of vehicle M y0 = 1.0 kg Vehicle at initial radius y0 = 7.529 × 106 m Displacement of vehicle ∆y = y0 − y1 = −12.391× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The final radius y1 of the vehicle above the Earth is,
y1 = y0 − ∆y = ( 7.529 × 106 m ) − ( −12.391× 106 m ) = 19.920 × 106 m
(697)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y0 = 7.529 × 106 m above the Earth is,
g y0 =
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 7.038 m sec 2 2 6 y0 2 ( 7.529 ×10 m )
(698)
The acceleration due to gravity at altitude y1 = 19.920 × 106 m above the Earth is,
g y1 =
−11 2 2 24 G M E ( 6.67260 × 10 N m kg )( 5.9787 × 10 kg ) = = 1.005 m sec 2 2 6 y12 (19.920 ×10 m )
(699)
Given the exponential solution of the natural relativistic mass model, the new gravitational mass is,
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 6 2 6 ⎜ 1.005 m sec 19.920×10 m − 7.038 m sec 7.529×10 m ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2.99792458×108 m sec ⎝
(
)(
)(
)(
)⎞ ⎟
M y1 = M y0 e
= (1.0 kg ) e
(
)
⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(700) (701)
M y1 = 0.9999999996333 kg
The gravitational mass was reduced by,
M y1 − M y0 = ( 0.9999999996333 kg ) − (1.0 kg ) = −3.667 × 10−10 kg
(702)
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CLOSEDLOOP GRAVITATIONAL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
DECREASED GRAVITY
y1
VECTOR VEHICLE TO NEW POSITION IN GRAVITY WELL x0
+∆x '
θ
−∆y '
−∆y
y0
+∆x
GRAVITATIONAL REFERENCE x1
ALTIMETER ACQUIRE HEIGHT h MICROWAVES KNOWN SURFACE GRAVITY g0
INERTIAL REFERENCE
SURFACE OF EARTH
FIGURE 60. Acquire position information, then energize the GPU and vectored to new position.
The first step for a Gravitational Flight Control System, or GFCS, is to acquire vehicle height h information above a known surface gravity g 0 . Once this height information is acquired, the second step involves calculating the current mass fluctuation M cur . The third step requires the pilot to determine what the next desired position will be, so, predicted mass fluctuation M pre is calculated and transmitted to a Gravitational Propulsion Unit, or GPU. The GPU is energized causing the mass of the vehicle to fluctuate, and in turn, vectors to the desired position. This system can run “closedloop” by implementing a software algorithm called a highspeed ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control loop. It acquires new height information and computes the error difference between current and desired position. The PID calculates and transmits in realtime an error value to the GPU. The error value sent to the GPU determines the rate of mass fluctuation. This rate may exceed the speed of light because the vehicle isn’t traversing space by an inertial means, but by a gravitational means. Therefore, warp factor equation shown by Whitfield (1968) could be used. The warp factor W equation is,
v =W3 c
∆y T c
(703)
W=
3
v c
=
3
(704)
Where, W is the warp factor, c is the speed of light, and v is the velocity.
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1000
800
TIMES THE SPEED OF LIGHT
600
400
3
v c
200
0
2
6 4 WARP FACTOR W
8
10
FIGURE 61. The warp factor vs. the speed of light.
Example 31. Assuming there are no other gravitational influences besides the Earth and given a GPU with a NEGATIVE mass fluctuation rate ∆M RATE ( t ) operating for a period of time T , compute the displacement ∆y of a
vehicle leaving from the surface of the Earth at warp factor W with a vehicle mass of 1.0 kg . So, given, Initial mass of vehicle M y0 = 1.0 kg Mass fluctuation rate ∆M RATE ( t ) = −1.0 × 10−4 gm sec Operating time T = 1.0 × 10−3 s ec Vehicle located at initial radius Y0 = 6.3781× 106 m Speed of light c = 2.99792458 × 108 m sec Gravitational constant G = 6.67260 × 10−11 N m 2 kg 2 Mass of the Earth M E = 5.9787 × 1024 kg The new gravitational mass of the vehicle M y1 operating a GPU for a period of time T is,
M y1 = M y0 + ( ∆M RATE ( t ) × T ) = (1.0 kg ) + ⎡( −1.0 × 10−4 gm sec )(1.0 × 10−3 sec ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
M y1 = 0.9999999999000 kg
(705) (706)
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Given the exponential form of the natural relativistic mass M ∆y model, compute the new radius y1 within a given gravity well g y is,
⎛ G ME G ME − ⎜ y0 ⎜ y1 ⎜ c2 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
M y1 = M y0 e
⎛ g y1 y1 − g y0 y0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ c2 ⎝ ⎠
= M y0 e
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(707)
M y1 M y0 ⎛ M y1 c 2 ln ⎜ ⎜M ⎝ y0
=e
⎛ G ME G ME − ⎜ y0 ⎜ y1 ⎜ c2 ⎜ ⎝
(708)
⎞ G ME G ME − ⎟ = ⎟ y1 y0 ⎠
(709)
y1 =
y0 ⎛ My y c 1+ 0 ln ⎜ 1 G M E ⎜ M y0 ⎝
2
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
(710)
y1 =
( 6.3781×10 m ) ( 6.3781×10 m )( 2.99792458 ×10 m sec ) ln ⎛ 0.9999999999000 kg ⎞ 1+ ⎟ 1.0 kg ( 6.67260 ×10 N m kg )( 5.9787 ×10 kg ) ⎜ ⎝ ⎠
6 6 8 2 −11 2 2 24
(711)
y1 = 7.4484 × 106 m ∆y = y0 − y1 = ( 6.3781× 106 m ) − ( 7.4484 × 106 m ) ∆y = −1.0703 × 106 m
(712) (713) (714)
The warp factor W is,
∆y T = c
W=
3
v c
=
3
3
( 2.99792458 ×10
( −1.0703 ×10 m ) (1.0 ×10 sec )
6 −3 8
m sec )
==
−1.0703 × 109 m sec
3
( 2.99792458 ×10
8
m sec )
(715)
W = 1.5284
(716)
Leaving from the surface of the Earth, the vehicle is displaced over 665 miles above the Earth within 1 millisecond.
CONCLUSION
The parameters of space and time identified as mass, volume, frequency, time, temperature, and energy are functions of gravity. Therefore, controlling the mass of a space vehicle, for example, controls gravity, but more precisely, controls its’ current position within a given gravity well. The control of how fast mass fluctuates controls the speed of the vehicle through this well. Whether the vehicle implementing GMF is above the surface of the Earth or
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traveling at warp factor 1.53 through deep space, the physical constants where shown in previous sections to remain invariant within the vehicle. The vehicles’ Gravitational Propulsion Unit, or GPU, using one of the two devices that are under investigation control mass by an electrical means, thus utilizing the theoretical link between gravity and electromagnetism presented in this paper. Either device can change its’ own mass by converting it to excess electrical energy, and as a consequence, the broken symmetry of massenergy conservation causes the gravitational energy equivalent of mass to be radiated away as a temporal field. A force is created and acts antigravitationally on the device. This changes the frequency of clocks within the vehicle relative to clocks outside of the vehicle. The vehicle will require a Gravitational Flight Control System, or GFCS, capable of controlling the GPU. This control system acts as an interface between man and the GPU. The development of this system can be directly implemented from the mathematical formulations in this paper. An additional requirement is the development of realtime navigation software programs that maps the gravity of the entire Sol System, and includes the nearby stars.
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