Excel

Function
Dictionary
v2.0
Copyright © 1998 - 2007
Peter Noneley
www.xlfdic.com
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Documentation
Page 2 of 205
What Is In The Dictionary ?
This workbook contains 157 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of
particular Excel functions.
There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common
applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations.
Formatting
Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry.
North Text headings are shown in grey.
100
100 Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background.
100
300 The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow.
=SUM(C13:C15) The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.
The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly
with any installation of Windows.
Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to
accomplish the desrired result.
Printing
Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait.
The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which
will assist with the reading of the formula.
The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi.
If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing,
as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings).
Protection
Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment
with the calculations.
Macros
There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to
naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt
to change your current Toolbars and Menus.
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Instructions
Page 3 of 205
What Do The Buttons Do ?
View
View
This button will display the
worksheet containing the function
example.
1. Click on the function name, then
2. Click on the View button.
Sort
This button sorts the list of functions
into alphabetical order.
Sort
Category
This describes the category the
function is a member of.
Click this button to sort alphabetically.
Category
Location
This shows where the function is
stored in Excel.
Built-in indicates that the function
is part of Excel itself.
Analysis ToolPak indicates the
function is stored in the Analysis
ToolPak add-in.
Click this button to sort alphabetically.
Location
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Analysis ToolPak
Page 4 of 205
Analysis ToolPak
What Is The Analysis ToolPak ?
The Analysis ToolPak is an add-in file containing
extra functions which are not built in to Excel.
The functions cover areas such as Date and
Mathematical operations.
The Analysis ToolPak must be added-in to Excel before
these functions will be available.
Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.
Check For Analysis ToolPak
Analysis ToolPak
Load the Analysis ToolPak
UnLoad the Analysis ToolPak
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
FunctionList
Page 5 of 205
EDATE Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date
EOMONTH Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months
NETWORKDAYS Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates
WORKDAY Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays
YEARFRAC Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date
BIN2DEC Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a binary number to decimal
CONVERT Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a number from one measurement system to another
DEC2BIN Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a decimal number to binary
DEC2HEX Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal
DELTA Engineering Analysis ToolPak Tests whether two values are equal
GESTEP Engineering Analysis ToolPak Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value
HEX2DEC Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal
ISEVEN Information Analysis ToolPak Returns TRUE if the number is even
ISODD Information Analysis ToolPak Returns TRUE if the number is odd
GCD Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the greatest common divisor
LCM Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the least common multiple
MROUND Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple
QUOTIENT Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the integer portion of a division
RANDBETWEEN Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns a random number between the numbers you specify
DAVERAGE Database Built-in Returns the average of selected database entries
DCOUNT Database Built-in Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database
DCOUNTA Database Built-in Counts nonblank cells in a database
DGET Database Built-in Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria
DMAX Database Built-in Returns the maximum value from selected database entries
DMIN Database Built-in Returns the minimum value from selected database entries
DSUM Database Built-in Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria
DATE Date Built-in Returns the serial number of a particular date
DATEDIF Date Built-in Calculates the difference between two dates. Undocumented in v5/7/97
DATEVALUE Date Built-in Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number
DAY Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a day of the month
DAYS360 Date Built-in Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year
HOUR Date Built-in Converts a serial number to an hour
MINUTE Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a minute
MONTH Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a month
NOW Date Built-in Returns the serial number of the current date and time
SECOND Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a second
TIME Date Built-in Returns the serial number of a particular time
TIMEVALUE Date Built-in Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number
TODAY Date Built-in Returns the serial number of today's date
WEEKDAY Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a day of the week
YEAR Date Built-in Converts a serial number to a year
DB Financial Built-in Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method
SLN Financial Built-in Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period
SYD Financial Built-in Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period
CELL Information Built-in Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell
COUNTBLANK Information Built-in Counts the number of blank cells within a range
ERROR.TYPE Information Built-in Returns a number corresponding to an error type
INFO Information Built-in Returns information about the current operating environment
ISBLANK Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is blank
ISERR Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A
ISERROR Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is any error value
ISLOGICAL Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value
ISNA Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value
ISNONTEXT Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is not text
ISNUMBER Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is a number
ISREF Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is a reference
ISTEXT Information Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is text
N Information Built-in Returns a value converted to a number
NA Information Built-in Returns the error value #N/A
TYPE Information Built-in Returns a number indicating the data type of a value
AND Logical Built-in Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE
IF Logical Built-in Specifies a logical test to perform
NOT Logical Built-in Reverses the logic of its argument
OR Logical Built-in Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
CHOOSE Lookup Built-in Chooses a value from a list of values
HLOOKUP Lookup Built-in Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell
INDEX Lookup Built-in Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array
INDIRECT Lookup Built-in Returns a reference indicated by a text value
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
FunctionList
Page 6 of 205
LOOKUP (vector) Lookup Built-in Looks up values in a vector or array
MATCH Lookup Built-in Looks up values in a reference or array
SUM_with_OFFSET Lookup Built-in Sample
TRANSPOSE Lookup Built-in Returns the transpose of an array
VLOOKUP Lookup Built-in Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell
ABS Mathematical Built-in Returns the absolute value of a number
CEILING Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
COMBIN Mathematical Built-in Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
COUNTIF Mathematical Built-in Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria
EVEN Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer
FACT Mathematical Built-in Returns the factorial of a number
FLOOR Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number down, toward zero
INT Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
MINVERSE Mathematical Built-in Returns the matrix inverse of an array
MMULT Mathematical Built-in Returns the matrix product of two arrays
MOD Mathematical Built-in Returns the remainder from division
ODD Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer
PI Mathematical Built-in Returns the value of Pi
POWER Mathematical Built-in Returns the result of a number raised to a power
PRODUCT Mathematical Built-in Multiplies its arguments
RAND Mathematical Built-in Returns a random number between 0 and 1
ROMAN Mathematical Built-in Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text
ROUND Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
ROUNDDOWN Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number down, toward zero
ROUNDUP Mathematical Built-in Rounds a number up, away from zero
SIGN Mathematical Built-in Returns the sign of a number
SUBTOTAL Mathematical Built-in Returns a subtotal in a list or database
SUM Mathematical Built-in Adds its arguments
SUM_as_Running_Total Mathematical Built-in Sample
SUMIF Mathematical Built-in Adds the cells specified by a given criteria
SUMPRODUCT Mathematical Built-in Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components
TRUNC Mathematical Built-in Truncates a number to an integer
AVERAGE Statistical Built-in Returns the average of its arguments
CORREL Statistical Built-in Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets
COUNT Statistical Built-in Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments
COUNTA Statistical Built-in Counts how many values are in the list of arguments
FORECAST Statistical Built-in Returns a value along a linear trend
FREQUENCY Statistical Built-in Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array
GROWTH Statistical Built-in Returns values along an exponential trend
LARGE Statistical Built-in Returns the k-th largest value in a data set
MAX Statistical Built-in Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments
MEDIAN Statistical Built-in Returns the median of the given numbers
MIN Statistical Built-in Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments
MODE Statistical Built-in Returns the most common value in a data set
PERMUT Statistical Built-in Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects
QUARTILE Statistical Built-in Returns the quartile of a data set
RANK Statistical Built-in Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
SMALL Statistical Built-in Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set
STDEV Statistical Built-in Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEVP Statistical Built-in Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
TREND Statistical Built-in Returns values along a linear trend
VAR Statistical Built-in Estimates variance based on a sample
VARP Statistical Built-in Calculates variance based on the entire population
CHAR Text Built-in Returns the character specified by the code number
CLEAN Text Built-in Removes all nonprintable characters from text
CODE Text Built-in Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string
CONCATENATE Text Built-in Joins several text items into one text item
DOLLAR Text Built-in Converts a number to text, using currency format
EXACT Text Built-in Checks to see if two text values are identical
FIND Text Built-in Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive)
FIXED Text Built-in Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals
LEFT Text Built-in Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
LEN Text Built-in Returns the number of characters in a text string
LOWER Text Built-in Converts text to lowercase
MID Text Built-in Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify
PROPER Text Built-in Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value
REPLACE Text Built-in Replaces characters within text
REPT Text Built-in Repeats text a given number of times
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
FunctionList
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RIGHT Text Built-in Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
SUBSTITUTE Text Built-in Substitutes new text for old text in a text string
T Text Built-in Converts its arguments to text
TEXT Text Built-in Formats a number and converts it to text
TRIM Text Built-in Removes spaces from text
UPPER Text Built-in Converts text to uppercase
VALUE Text Built-in Converts a text argument to a number
Age Calculation Sample Sample
AutoSum shortcut key Sample Sample
Brackets in formula Sample Sample Sample
FileName formula Sample Sample
Instant Charts Sample Sample
Ordering Stock Sample Sample Stock Ordering
Percentages Sample Sample How to calculate various percentages
Project Dates Sample Sample Example using date calculation.
Show all formula Sample Sample
Split ForenameSurname Sample Sample
Time Calculation Sample Sample How to calculate time.
TimeSheet For Flexi Sample Sample Example flexi time sheet.
SUM_using_names Sample Sample
-Timesheet Sample Sample Sample
Using DATEDIF()
Using Alt and =
Using MID() CELL() and FIND()
Using F11
Using Ctrl and `
Using LEFT() RIGHT() FIND() SUBSTITUTE()
Using SUM(jan)
Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Time Calculation
Page 8 of 205
Time Calculation
Excel can work with time very easily.
Time can be entered in various different formats and calculations performed.
There are one or two oddities, but nothing which should put you off working with it.
Typing time
When time is entered into worksheet it should be entered with a colon between
1:30 12:30 20:15 22:45
Excel can cope with either the 24hour system or the am/pm system.
You must leave a space between the number and the text.
1:30 AM 1:30 PM 10:15 AM 10:15 PM
Finding the difference between two times
You can subtract two time values to find the length of time between.
Start End Duration
1:30 2:30 1:00 =D24-C24
8:00 17:00 9:00 =D25-C25
8:00 AM 5:00 PM 9:00 AM If the result is not shown correctly,
You may need to reformat the answer.
Look at the section about formatting
further in this worksheet.
Adding time
You can add time to find a total time.
This works well until the total time goes above 24 hours.
For totals greater than 24 hours you may need to apply some special formatting.
Start End Duration
1:30 2:30 1:00
8:00 17:00 9:00
7:30 AM 5:45 PM 10:15
20:15
Formatting time
When time is added together the result may go beyond 24 hours.
Usually this gives an incorrect result, as in the example below.
To correct this error, the result needs to be formatted with a Custom format.
Example 1 : Incorrect formatting
Start End Duration
7:00 18:30 11:30
8:00 17:00 9:00
7:30 17:45 10:15
Total 6:45 =SUM(E49:E51)
Example 2 : Correct formatting
Start End Duration
7:00 18:30 11:30
8:00 17:00 9:00
7:30 17:45 10:15
Total 30:45 =SUM(E56:E58)
How To Apply Custom Formatting
The custom format for time use a pair of square brackets [hh] on either side
of the hours indicators.
1. Click on the cell which needs the format.
See the TimeSheet example for an example.
the hour and the minutes, such as 12:30, rather than 12.30
To use the am/pm system you must enter the am or pm after the time.
2. Choose the Format menu.
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Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Time Calculation
Page 9 of 205
3. Choose Cells.
4. Click the Number tag at the top right.
5. Choose Custom.
6. Click inside the Type: box.
7. Type [hh]:mm as the format.
8. Click OK to confirm.
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TimeSheet For Flexi
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TimeSheet for Flexi
Week beginning Mon 05-Jan-98 Normal Hours 37:30
Day Arrive Lunch Out Lunch In Depart Total
Mon 05 8:00 13:00 14:00 17:00 8:00 =(F6-C6)-(E6-D6)
Tue 06 8:45 12:30 13:30 17:00 7:15
Wed 07 9:00 13:00 14:00 18:00 8:00
Thu 08 8:30 13:00 14:00 17:00 7:30
Fri 09 8:00 12:00 13:00 17:00 8:00
Total Hours 38:45 =SUM(G6:G10)
Under worked by - =IF(G3-G11>0,G3-G11, "-")
Over worked by 1:15 =IF(G3-G11<0,ABS(G3-G11),"-")
This is simple example of a timesheet.
Instructions :
Type the week start date in cell C3, the Week beginning.
Use the format dd/mm/yy, the name of the day will appear automatically.
The date is then passed down to the Day column.
Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3, the Normal Hours.
This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours.
Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns.
Use the format of hh:mm.
Note
The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [hh]:mm.
This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours.
If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : 14:45
If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box
on your computer, it can be created using Format, Cells, Number, Custom.
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Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Split ForenameSurname
Page 11 of 205
Split Forename and Surname
The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs
to be split up.
One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname
are entered in full into a cell.
The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task.
Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split.
Finding the First Name
Full Name First Name
Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C14,FIND(" ",C14,1))
Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C15,FIND(" ",C15,1))
Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C16,FIND(" ",C16,1))
Finding the Last Name
Full Name Last Name
Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C22,LEN(C22)-FIND(" ",C22))
Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C23,LEN(C23)-FIND(" ",C23))
Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24))
Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present
The formula above cannot handle any more than two names.
If there is also a middle name, the last name formula will be incorrect.
To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation.
Full Name Last Name
Alan David Jones Jones
Bob John Smith Smith
Carol Susan Williams Williams
=RIGHT(C37,LEN(C37)-FIND("#",SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","#",LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","")))))
Finding the Middle name
Full Name Middle Name
Alan David Jones David
Bob John Smith John
Carol Susan Williams Susan
=LEFT(RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),FIND(" ",RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),1))
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Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
Percentages
Page 12 of 205
Percentages
There are no specific functions for calculating percentages.
You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school!
Finding a percentage of a value
Initial value 120
% to find 25%
Percentage value 30 =D8*D9
Example 1
A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.
The wages department need to calculate the increases.
Staff on different grades get different pay rises.
Grade % Rise
A 10%
B 15%
C 20%
Name Grade Old Salary Increase
Alan A £10,000 £1,000 =E23*LOOKUP(D23,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
Bob B £20,000 £3,000 =E24*LOOKUP(D24,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
Carol C £30,000 £6,000 =E25*LOOKUP(D25,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
David B £25,000 £3,750 =E26*LOOKUP(D26,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
Elaine C £32,000 £6,400 =E27*LOOKUP(D27,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
Frank A £12,000 £1,200 =E28*LOOKUP(D28,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)
Finding a percentage increase
Initial value 120
% increase 25%
Increased value 150 =D33*D34+D33
Example 2
A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.
The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase.
Staff on different grades get different pay rises.
Grade % Rise
A 10%
B 15%
C 20%
Name Grade Old Salary Increase
Alan A £10,000 £11,000 =E48*LOOKUP(D48,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E48
Bob B £20,000 £23,000 =E49*LOOKUP(D49,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E49
Carol C £30,000 £36,000 =E50*LOOKUP(D50,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E50
David B £25,000 £28,750 =E51*LOOKUP(D51,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E51
Elaine C £32,000 £38,400 =E52*LOOKUP(D52,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E52
Frank A £12,000 £13,200 =E53*LOOKUP(D53,$C$18:$C$20,$D$18:$D$20)+E53
Finding one value as percentage of another
Value A 120
Value B 60
A as % of B 50% =D59/D58
You will need to format the result as % by using the % button
on the toolbar.
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Percentages
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Example 3
An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year.
The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.
The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year.
By analysing the past years spending, the manager hopes to predict
what will need to be spent in the next year.
Last years figures
Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 9,000 2,000 9,000 7,000
South 7,000 4,000 9,000 5,000
East 2,000 8,000 7,000 3,000
West 8,000 9,000 6,000 5,000 Total
Total 26,000 23,000 31,000 20,000 100,000
Last years Quarters as % of last years Total
Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 9% 2% 9% 7% =G74/$H$78
South 7% 4% 9% 5% =G75/$H$78
East 2% 8% 7% 3% =G76/$H$78
West 8% 9% 6% 5% =G77/$H$78
Total 26% 23% 31% 20% =G78/$H$78
Next years budget 150,000
Next years estimated budget requirements
Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 13,500 3,000 13,500 10,500 =G82*$E$88
South 10,500 6,000 13,500 7,500 =G83*$E$88
East 3,000 12,000 10,500 4,500 =G84*$E$88
West 12,000 13,500 9,000 7,500 Total
Total 39,000 34,500 46,500 30,000 150,000
Finding an original value after an increase has been applied
Increased value 150
% increase 25%
Original value 120 =D100/(100%+D101)
Example 4
An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.
The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.
Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.
The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.
VAT rate 17.50%
Receipt Total Actual Value Vat Value
Petrol £10.00 £8.51 £1.49 =D113-D113/(100%+$D$110)
Hotel £235.00 £200.00 £35.00
Petrol £117.50 £100.00 £17.50
=D115/(100%+$D$110)
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Show all formula
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Show all formula
Press the same combination to see the original view.
10 20 30
30 40 70
50 60 60
70 80 30
You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `.
The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1.
Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below. (The screen may look a bit odd.)
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Excel Function Dictionary
© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
SUM_using_names
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SUM using names
You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations
simply by typing the name into the formula.
Try this example:
The result will show.
Jan Feb Mar
North 45 50 50
South 30 25 35
East 35 10 50
West 20 50 5
Total
If it does not work !
The feature may have been switched off on your computer.
Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan)
This formula can be copied to D16 and E16, and the names change to Feb and Mar.
You can switch it on by using Tools, Options, Calculation, Accept Labels in Formula.
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Instant Charts
Page 16 of 205
Instant Charts
You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on
Jan Feb Mar
North 45 50 50
South 30 25 35
East 35 10 50
West 20 50 5
Click anywhere inside the table above.
the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data.
Then press F11.
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Filename formula
Page 17 of 205
Filename formula
There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook
or worksheet in to a cell.
This can be done by using the CELL() function, shown below.
'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2615/58077291.xls'#$ Filename formula
=CELL("filename")
The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.
To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.
To pick the Path.
#VALUE!
=MID(CELL("filename"),1,FIND("[",CELL("filename"))-1)
To pick the Workbook name.
#VALUE!
=MID(CELL("filename"),FIND("[",CELL("filename"))+1,FIND("]",CELL("filename"))-FIND("[",CELL("filename"))-1)
To pick the Worksheet name.
#VALUE!
=MID(CELL("filename"),FIND("]",CELL("filename"))+1,255)
A B C D E F G H
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Brackets in formula
Page 18 of 205
Brackets in formula
Sometimes you will need to use brackets, (also known as 'braces'), in formula.
This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need.
Example 1 : The wrong answer !
10
20
2
50 =C12+C13*C14
You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30
And then 30 * 2 would equal 60
But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the
calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40
And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50
Example 2 : The correct answer.
10
20
2
60 =(C27+C28)*C29
By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this
part of the calulation first, resulting in 30
Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60
The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.
Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and - .
The * and / operations will be calculated before + and - .
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Age Calculation
Page 19 of 205
Age Calculation
You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date.
The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5, 7 or 97, but it is in 2000.
(Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!)
Birth date : 1-Jan-60
Years lived : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")
and the months : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")
and the days : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")
You can put this all together in one calculation, which creates a text version.
#NAME?
="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")&" Years, "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")&" Days"
Another way to calculate age
This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months.
If the age is 20.5, the .5 represents 6 months.
Birth date : 1-Jan-60
Age is : 51.36 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.25
The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function.
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AutoSum Shortcut Key
Page 20 of 205
AutoSum Shortcut Key
Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar,
Try it here :
or
Jan Feb Mar Total
North 10 50 90
South 20 60 100
East 30 70 200
West 40 80 300
Total
you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result.
Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column, then press Alt and =.
Select a row, column or all cells and then press Alt and =.
A B C D E F G H I
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ABS
Page 21 of 205
ABS
Number Absolute Value
10 10 =ABS(C4)
-10 10 =ABS(C5)
1.25 1.25 =ABS(C6)
-1.25 1.25 =ABS(C7)
What Does it Do ?
This function calculates the value of a number, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative.
Syntax
=ABS(CellAddress or Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number, no special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.
The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length.
Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured.
In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does
not matter if the wood was cut too long or short, the measurement needs to be expressed as
an absolute value.
Table 1 shows the original calculations.
The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative, which has a knock on effect
when the Error Percentage is calculated.
Whether the wood was too long or short, the percentage should still be expressed
as an absolute value.
Table 1
Difference
Test 1 120 120 0 0%
Test 2 120 90 30 25%
Test 3 120 150 -30 -25%
=D36-E36
Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations.
Table 2
Difference
Test 1 120 120 0 0%
Test 2 120 90 30 25%
Test 3 120 150 30 25%
=ABS(D45-E45)
Test
Cut
Required
Length
Actual
Length
Error
Percentage
Test
Cut
Required
Length
Actual
Length
Error
Percentage
A B C D E F G H I
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ADDRESS
Page 22 of 205
ADDRESS
Type a column number : 2
Type a row number : 3
Type a sheet name : Hello
$B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE)
B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE)
$B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE)
B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE)
R3C2 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,FALSE)
R3C[2] =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,FALSE)
R[3]C2 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,FALSE)
R[3]C[2] =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,FALSE)
Hello.$B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE,F5)
Hello.B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE,F5)
Hello.$B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE,F5)
Hello.B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE,F5)
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text, based on a row and column
numbers given by the user.
This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.
Syntax
=ADDRESS(RowNumber,ColNumber,Absolute,A1orR1C1,SheetName)
The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384.
The ColNumber is from 1 to 256, cols A to IV.
The Absolute can be 1,2,3 or 4.
When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1, column and row absolute.
When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1, only the row absolute.
When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1, only the column absolute.
When 4 the reference will be in the form A1, neither col or row absolute.
The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.
When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1, the normal style for cell addresses.
When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1, the alternative style of cell address.
The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.
The SheetName does not actually have to exist.
A B C D E F G H I
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AND
Page 23 of 205
AND
Items To Test Result
500 800 TRUE =AND(C4>=100,D4>=100)
500 25 FALSE =AND(C5>=100,D5>=100)
25 500 FALSE =AND(C6>=100,D6>=100)
12 TRUE =AND(D7>=1,D7<=52)
What Does It Do?
This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.
It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.
It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.
Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().
Syntax
=AND(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.
Formatting
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.
Example 1
The following example shows a list of examination results.
The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams.
The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.
The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.
Name Maths English Physics Passed
Alan 80 75 85 TRUE
Bob 50 30 40 FALSE
Carol 60 70 50 FALSE
David 90 85 95 TRUE
Eric 20 30 Absent FALSE
Fred 40 60 80 FALSE
Gail 10 90 80 FALSE
Harry 80 70 60 TRUE
Ian 30 10 20 FALSE
Janice 10 20 30 FALSE
=AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38),D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38),E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38))
Averages 47 54 60
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AREAS
Page 24 of 205
AREAS
Pink Name Age Err:504 =AREAS(PeopleLists)
Alan 18
Bob 17
Carol 20
Green Name Age
David 20
Eric 16
Fred 19
What Does It Do?
This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data, or whether
it is a multiple selection.
If it is a single block the result will be 1.
If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected.
The function is designed to be used in macros.
Syntax
=AREAS(RangeToTest)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Example
The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green.
These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists.
The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate
selections which form the PeopleLists range.
Note
To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used.
In the above example the pink range was selected as normal, then the Ctrl key
was held down before selecting the green range.
When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range.
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AVERAGE
Page 25 of 205
AVERAGE
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 31 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4)
Rain 0 0 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8)
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12)
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.
If the cell is blank or contains text, the cell will not be used in the average calculation.
If the cell contains zero 0, the cell will be included in the average calculation.
Syntax
=AVERAGE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and
then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.57 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31)
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35)
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36)
Further Usage
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N
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BIN2DEC
Page 26 of 205
BIN2DEC
Binary Number Decimal Equivalent
0 0 =BIN2DEC(C4)
1 1 =BIN2DEC(C5)
10 2 =BIN2DEC(C6)
11 3 =BIN2DEC(C7)
111111111 511 =BIN2DEC(C8)
1111111111 -1 =BIN2DEC(C9)
1111111110 -2 =BIN2DEC(C10)
1111111101 -3 =BIN2DEC(C11)
1000000000 -512 =BIN2DEC(C12)
11111111111 Err:502 =BIN2DEC(C13)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a binary number to decimal.
Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation.
Syntax
=BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber)
The binary number has a limit of ten characters.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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CEILING
Page 27 of 205
CEILING
Number Raised Up
2.1 3 =CEILING(C4,1)
1.5 2 =CEILING(C5,1)
1.9 2 =CEILING(C6,1)
20 30 =CEILING(C7,30)
25 30 =CEILING(C8,30)
40 60 =CEILING(C9,30)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=CEILING(ValueToRound,MultipleToRoundUpTo)
The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.
The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis.
When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING()
function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.
Days Required
Customer 1 3 7 =CEILING(D28,7)
Customer 2 4 7 =CEILING(D29,7)
Customer 3 10 14 =CEILING(D30,7)
Example 2
The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.
The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.
Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity.
Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by
the Capacity of the truck.
This results of the division are not whole numbers, and the builder cannot hire just part
of a truck.
Table 1
Item
Bricks 1000 300 3.33 =D45/E45
Wood 5000 600 8.33 =D46/E46
Cement 2000 350 5.71 =D47/E47
Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of
the division to a whole number, and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.
Table 2
Days To
Be Billed
Units To
Be Moved
Truck
Capacity
Trucks
Needed
A B C D E F G H
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CEILING
Page 28 of 205
Item
Bricks 1000 300 4 =CEILING(D54/E54,1)
Wood 5000 600 9 =CEILING(D55/E55,1)
Cement 2000 350 6 =CEILING(D56/E56,1)
Example 3
The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.
The shopkeeper buys products by the box.
The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.
The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.
Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.
Table 1
Item Box Qnty Box Cost Cost Per Item
Plugs 11 £20 1.81818 =D69/C69
Sockets 7 £18.25 2.60714 =D70/C70
Junctions 5 £28.10 5.62000 =D71/C71
Adapters 16 £28 1.75000 =D72/C72
Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to
always end in 99 pence.
Table 2
Item In Box Box Cost Cost Per Item Raised Cost
Plugs 11 £20 1.81818 1.99
Sockets 7 £18.25 2.60714 2.99
Junctions 5 £28.10 5.62000 5.99
Adapters 16 £28 1.75000 1.99
=INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83,1),0.99)
Explanation
=INT(E83) Calculates the integer part of the price.
=MOD(E83,1) Calculates the decimal part of the price.
=CEILING(MOD(E83),0.99) Raises the decimal to 0.99
Units To
Be Moved
Truck
Capacity
Trucks
Needed
A B C D E F G H
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
CELL
Page 29 of 205
CELL
This is the cell and contents to test. 17.50%
The cell address. $D$3 =CELL("address",D3)
The column number. 4 =CELL("col",D3)
The row number. 3 =CELL("row",D3)
The actual contents of the cell. 0.18 =CELL("contents",D3)
v =CELL("type",D3)
=CELL("prefix",D3)
The width of the cell. 12 =CELL("width",D3)
P2 =CELL("format",D3)
0 =CELL("parentheses",D3)
0 =CELL("color",D3)
1 =CELL("protect",D3)
The filename containing the cell. 'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2615/58077291.xls'#$CELL
=CELL("filename",D3)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents, position and formatting.
Syntax
=CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired",CellToTest)
The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.
Numeric Format Code
General G
0 F0
#,##0 ,0
0.00 F2
#,##0.00 ,2
$#,##0_);($#,##0) C0
$#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0) C0-
$#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00) C2
$#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00) C2-
0% P0
0.00% P2
0.00E+00 S2
# ?/? or # ??/?? G
m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. D4
d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy D1
d-mmm or dd-mmm D2
mmm-yy D3
mm/dd D5
h:mm AM/PM D7
h:mm:ss AM/PM D6
h:mm D9
h:mm:ss D8
Example
The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.
The name of the current file is : #VALUE!
=MID(CELL("filename"),FIND("[",CELL("filename"))+1,FIND("]",CELL("filename"))-FIND("[",CELL("filename"))-1)
The type of entry in the cell.
Shown as b for blank, l for text, v for value.
The alignment of the cell.
Shown as ' for left, ^ for centre, " for right.
Nothing is shown for numeric entries.
The number format fo the cell.
(See the table shown below)
Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.
1 for yes, 0 for no.
Formatted for coloured negatives.
1 for yes, 0 for no.
The type of cell protection.
1 for a locked, 0 for unlocked.
A B C D E F G H I
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CHAR
Page 30 of 205
CHAR
ANSI Number Character
65 A =CHAR(G4)
66 B =CHAR(G5)
169 © =CHAR(G6)
What Does It Do?
This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI
character set used by Windows.
Syntax
=CHAR(Number)
The Number must be between 1 and 255.
Formatting
The result will be a character with no special formatting.
Example
The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent.
Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters,
these will be displayed as a small box.
1
1
26
2
51 3 76 L 101 e 126 ~ 151 ¯ 176 ° 201 É 226 â 251 û
2
2
27
2
52 4 77 M 102 f 127  152 ¯ 177 ± 202 Ê 227 ã 252 ü
3
3
28
2
53 5 78 N 103 g 128 € 153 a 178 ² 203 Ë 228 ä 253 ý
4
4
29
2
54 6 79 O 104 h 129  154 q 179 ³ 204 Ì 229 å 254 þ
5
5
30
3
55 7 80 P 105 i 130 Q 155 a 180 ´ 205 Í 230 æ 255 ÿ
6
6
31
3
56 8 81 Q 106 j 131 q 156 q 181 µ 206 Î 231 ç
7
7
32 57 9 82 R 107 k 132 o 157  182 ¶ 207 Ï 232 è
8
8
33 ! 58 : 83 S 108 l 133 m 158 ž 183 · 208 Ð 233 é
9
9
34 " 59 ; 84 T 109 m 134 o 159 s 184 ¸ 209 Ñ 234 ê
10 35 # 60 < 85 U 110 n 135 æ 160 185 ¹ 210 Ò 235 ë
11
1
36 $ 61 = 86 V 111 o 136 q 161 ¡ 186 º 211 Ó 236 ì
12
1
37 % 62 > 87 W 112 p 137 o 162 ¢ 187 » 212 Ô 237 í
13
1
38 & 63 ? 88 X 113 q 138 d 163 £ 188 ¼ 213 Õ 238 î
14
1
39 ' 64 @ 89 Y 114 r 139 o 164 ¤ 189 ½ 214 Ö 239 ï
15
1
40 ( 65 A 90 Z 115 s 140 æ 165 ¥ 190 ¾ 215 × 240 ð
16
1
41 ) 66 B 91 [ 116 t 141  166 ¦ 191 ¿ 216 Ø 241 ñ
17
1
42 * 67 C 92 \ 117 u 142 Ž 167 § 192 À 217 Ù 242 ò
18
1
43 + 68 D 93 ] 118 v 143  168 ¨ 193 Á 218 Ú 243 ó
19
1
44 , 69 E 94 ^ 119 w 144  169 © 194  219 Û 244 ô
20
2
45 - 70 F 95 _ 120 x 145 ‘ 170 ª 195 à 220 Ü 245 õ
21
2
46 . 71 G 96 ` 121 y 146 ‘ 171 « 196 Ä 221 Ý 246 ö
22
2
47 / 72 H 97 a 122 z 147 ‘ 172 ¬ 197 Å 222 Þ 247 ÷
23
2
48 0 73 I 98 b 123 { 148 ‘ 173 198 Æ 223 ß 248 ø
24
2
49 1 74 J 99 c 124 | 149 ¯ 174 ® 199 Ç 224 à 249 ù
25
2
50 2 75 K 100 d 125 } 150 ¯ 175 ¯ 200 È 225 á 250 ú
Note
Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
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CHOOSE
Page 31 of 205
CHOOSE
Result
1 Alan =CHOOSE(C4,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 Carol =CHOOSE(C5,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
2 Bob =CHOOSE(C6,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 18% =CHOOSE(C7,10%,15%,18%)
1 10% =CHOOSE(C8,10%,15%,18%)
2 15% =CHOOSE(C9,10%,15%,18%)
What Does It Do?
This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.
Syntax
=CHOOSE(UserValue, Item1, Item2, Item3 through to Item29)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race.
The Time for each athlete is entered.
The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete.
The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal.
The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3, as this would cause
the error of #VALUE to appear, due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.
Name Time Position Medal
Alan 1:30 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3,CHOOSE(D30,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Bob 1:15 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3,CHOOSE(D31,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Carol 2:45 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3,CHOOSE(D32,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
David 1:05 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3,CHOOSE(D33,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Eric 1:20 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3,CHOOSE(D34,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=RANK(C34,C30:C34)
Index
Value
A B C D E F G H I J
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CLEAN
Page 32 of 205
CLEAN
Dirty Text Clean Text
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C4)
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C5)
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function removes any nonprintable characters from text.
These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported
from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.
Syntax
=CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed. The result will show as normal text.
A B C D E F G H I
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CODE
Page 33 of 205
CODE
Letter ANSI Code
A 65 =CODE(C4)
B 66 =CODE(C5)
C 67 =CODE(C6)
a 97 =CODE(C7)
b 98 =CODE(C8)
c 99 =CODE(C9)
Alan 65 =CODE(C10)
Bob 66 =CODE(C11)
Carol 67 =CODE(C12)
What Does It Do?
This function shows the ANSI value of a single character, or the first character in a piece
of text.
The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using
a unique number.
There are 255 characters in the ANSI set.
Syntax
=CODE(Text)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.
Example
See the example for FREQUENCY.
1
1
26
2
51 3 76 L 101 e 126 ~ 151 — 176 ° 201 É 226 â 251 û
2
2
27
2
52 4 77 M 102 f 127  152 ˜ 177 ± 202 Ê 227 ã 252 ü
3
3
28
2
53 5 78 N 103 g 128 € 153 ™ 178 ² 203 Ë 228 ä 253 ý
4
4
29
2
54 6 79 O 104 h 129  154 š 179 ³ 204 Ì 229 å 254 þ
5
5
30
3
55 7 80 P 105 i 130 ‚ 155 › 180 ´ 205 Í 230 æ 255 ÿ
6
6
31
3
56 8 81 Q 106 j 131 ƒ 156 œ 181 µ 206 Î 231 ç
7
7
32 57 9 82 R 107 k 132 „ 157  182 ¶ 207 Ï 232 è
8
8
33 ! 58 : 83 S 108 l 133 … 158 ž 183 · 208 Ð 233 é
9
9
34 " 59 ; 84 T 109 m 134 † 159 Ÿ 184 ¸ 209 Ñ 234 ê
10
1
35 # 60 < 85 U 110 n 135 ‡ 160 185 ¹ 210 Ò 235 ë
11
1
36 $ 61 = 86 V 111 o 136 ˆ 161 ¡ 186 º 211 Ó 236 ì
12
1
37 % 62 > 87 W 112 p 137 ‰ 162 ¢ 187 » 212 Ô 237 í
13
1
38 & 63 ? 88 X 113 q 138 Š 163 £ 188 ¼ 213 Õ 238 î
14
1
39 ' 64 @ 89 Y 114 r 139 ‹ 164 ¤ 189 ½ 214 Ö 239 ï
15
1
40 ( 65 A 90 Z 115 s 140 Œ 165 ¥ 190 ¾ 215 × 240 ð
16
1
41 ) 66 B 91 [ 116 t 141  166 ¦ 191 ¿ 216 Ø 241 ñ
17
1
42 * 67 C 92 \ 117 u 142 Ž 167 § 192 À 217 Ù 242 ò
18
1
43 + 68 D 93 ] 118 v 143  168 ¨ 193 Á 218 Ú 243 ó
19
1
44 , 69 E 94 ^ 119 w 144  169 © 194  219 Û 244 ô
20
2
45 - 70 F 95 _ 120 x 145 ‘ 170 ª 195 Ã 220 Ü 245 õ
21
2
46 . 71 G 96 ` 121 y 146 ’ 171 « 196 Ä 221 Ý 246 ö
22
2
47 / 72 H 97 a 122 z 147 “ 172 ¬ 197 Å 222 Þ 247 ÷
23
2
48 0 73 I 98 b 123 { 148 ” 173 - 198 Æ 223 ß 248 ø
24
2
49 1 74 J 99 c 124 | 149 • 174 ® 199 Ç 224 à 249 ù
25
2
50 2 75 K 100 d 125 } 150 – 175 ¯ 200 È 225 á 250 ú
A B C D E F G H I J K
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COMBIN
Page 34 of 205
COMBIN
Pool Of Items Items In A Group Possible Groups
4 2 6 =COMBIN(C4,D4)
4 3 4 =COMBIN(C5,D5)
26 2 325 =COMBIN(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon
a fixed number of items.
The internal order of the combination does not matter, so AB is the same as BA.
Syntax
=COMBIN(HowManyItems,GroupSize)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example 1
This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available
from the four characters ABCD.
Total Characters Group Size Combinations
4 2 6 =COMBIN(C25,D25)
The proof ! The four letters : ABCD
Pair 1 AB
Pair 2 AC
Pair 3 AD
Pair 4 BC
Pair 5 BD
Pair 6 CD
Example 2
A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.
The decorator is given five colours to work with, but can only use three in any scheme.
How many colours schemes can be created ?
Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes
5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41,D41)
The colours
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Black
Scheme 1 Scheme 2 Scheme 3 Scheme 4 Scheme 5
Red Red Red Red Red
Green Green Green Blue Blue
Blue Yellow Black Yellow Black
Scheme 6 Scheme 7 Scheme 8 Scheme 9 Scheme 10
Green Green Green Blue ??????
A B C D E F G
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COMBIN
Page 35 of 205
Blue Blue Yellow Yellow
Yellow Black Black Black
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CONCATENATE
Page 36 of 205
CONCATENATE
Name 1 Name 2 Concatenated Text
Alan Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4)
Bob Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5)
Carol Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6)
Alan Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7)
Bob Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8)
Carol Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)
What Does It Do?
This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.
Syntax
=CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30)
Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text.
Note
Name 1 Name 2 Concatenated Text
Alan Jones AlanJones =C25&D25
Bob Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26
Carol Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27
Alan Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28
Bob Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29
Carol Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30
You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.
A B C D E F G H I
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CONVERT
Page 37 of 205
CONVERT
1 in cm 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4)
1 ft m 0.3 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5)
1 yd m 0.91 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6)
1 yr day 365.25 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8)
1 day hr 24 =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9)
1.5 hr mn 90 =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10)
0.5 mn sec 30 =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed
in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres.
Syntax
=CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight
and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system.
Pounds Ounces Kilograms
Weight 5 3 2.35
=CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg")
Feet Inches Metres
Height 12 6 3.81
Length 8 3 2.51
Width 5 2 1.57
=CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")
Abbreviations
This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.
Weight & Mass Distance
Gram g Meter m
Kilogram kg Statute mile mi
Slug sg Nautical mile Nmi
Pound mass lbm Inch in
U (atomic mass) u Foot ft
Ounce mass ozm Yard yd
Angstrom ang
Time Pica (1/72 in.) Pica
Year yr
Day day Pressure
Hour hr Pascal Pa
Minute mn Atmosphere atm
Second sec mm of Mercury mmHg
Amount
To Convert
Converting
From
Converting
To
Converted
Amount
A B C D E F G H
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CONVERT
Page 38 of 205
Temperature Liquid
Degree Celsius C Teaspoon tsp
Degree Fahrenheit F Tablespoon tbs
Degree Kelvin K Fluid ounce oz
Cup cup
Force Pint pt
Newton N Quart qt
Dyne dyn Gallon gal
Pound force lbf Liter l
Energy Power
Joule J Horsepower HP
Erg e Watt W
c
IT calorie cal Magnetism
Electron volt eV Tesla T
Horsepower-hour HPh Gauss ga
Watt-hour Wh
Foot-pound flb
BTU BTU
These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.
Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation
exa 1.00E+18 E deci 1.00E-01 d
peta 1.00E+15 P centi 1.00E-02 c
tera 1.00E+12 T milli 1.00E-03 m
giga 1.00E+09 G micro 1.00E-06 u
mega 1.00E+06 M nano 1.00E-09 n
kilo 1.00E+03 k pico 1.00E-12 p
hecto 1.00E+02 h femto 1.00E-15 f
dekao 1.00E+01 e atto 1.00E-18 a
Thermodynamic
calorie
Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.
A B C D E F G H
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CORREL
Page 39 of 205
CORREL
Table 1 Table 2
Month Avg Temp Sales
Jan 20 100 £2,000 £20,000
Feb 30 200 £1,000 £30,000
Mar 30 300 £5,000 £20,000
Apr 40 200 £1,000 £40,000
May 50 400 £8,000 £40,000
Jun 50 400 £1,000 £20,000
Correlation 0.864 Correlation 28%
=CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10) =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship
between the two sets.
The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.
The larger the result, the greater the correlation.
In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.
The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data.
In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.
It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result.
The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data.
Syntax
=CORREL(Range1,Range2)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown in decimal format.
Air Cond
Sales
Advertising
Costs
A B C D E F G H I J
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COUNT
Page 40 of 205
COUNT
Entries To Be Counted Count
10 20 30 3 =COUNT(C4:E4)
10 0 30 3 =COUNT(C5:E5)
10 -20 30 3 =COUNT(C6:E6)
10 1-Jan-88 30 3 =COUNT(C7:E7)
10 21:30 30 3 =COUNT(C8:E8)
10 0.59 30 3 =COUNT(C9:E9)
10 30 2 =COUNT(C10:E10)
10 Hello 30 2 =COUNT(C11:E11)
10 #DIV/0! 30 2 =COUNT(C12:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.
It will ignore blanks, text and errors.
Syntax
=COUNT(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales
for various products in each month.
Item Jan Feb Mar
Bricks £1,000
Wood £5,000
Glass £2,000 £1,000
Metal £1,000
Count 3 2 0
=COUNT(D29:D32)
A B C D E F G H I J
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COUNTA
Page 41 of 205
COUNTA
Entries To Be Counted Count
10 20 30 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4)
10 0 30 3 =COUNTA(C5:E5)
10 -20 30 3 =COUNTA(C6:E6)
10 1-Jan-88 30 3 =COUNTA(C7:E7)
10 21:30 30 3 =COUNTA(C8:E8)
10 0.98 30 3 =COUNTA(C9:E9)
10 30 2 =COUNTA(C10:E10)
10 Hello 30 3 =COUNTA(C11:E11)
10 #DIV/0! 30 3 =COUNTA(C12:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.
It will ignore blanks.
Syntax
=COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.
Each exam passed was graded as 1, 2 or 3.
A failure was entered as Fail.
The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.
The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.
The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries.
Maths English Art History
Alan Fail 1 2
Bob 2 1 3 3
Carol 1 1 1 3
David Fail Fail 2
Elaine 1 3 2 Fail 4
=COUNTA(D39:G39)
How many pupils sat each Exam.
Maths English Art History
4 3 5 2
=COUNTA(D35:D39)
Exams Taken
By Each Pupil
A B C D E F G H I J
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COUNTBLANK
Page 42 of 205
COUNTBLANK
Range To Test Blanks
1 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11)
Hello
3
0
1-Jan-98
5
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of blank cells in a range.
Syntax
=COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether
the company should have a no smoking policy.
Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned.
The response to the question could be Y or N.
As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table.
The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which
have no yet registered a vote.
Admin Accounts Production Personnel
Factory 1 Y N
Factory 2 Y Y N
Factory 3
Factory 4 N N N
Factory 5 Y Y
Factory 6 Y Y Y N
Factory 7 N Y
Factory 8 N N Y Y
Factory 9 Y
Factory 10 Y N Y
Votes not vet registered : 16 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41)
Votes for Yes : 14 =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"Y")
Votes for No : 10 =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"N")
A B C D E F G H I
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COUNTIF
Page 43 of 205
COUNTIF
Item Date Cost
Brakes 1-Jan-98 80
Tyres 10-May-98 25
Brakes 1-Feb-98 80
Service 1-Mar-98 150
Service 5-Jan-98 300
Window 1-Jun-98 50
Tyres 1-Apr-98 200
Tyres 1-Mar-98 100
Clutch 1-May-98 250
How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Brakes")
How many Tyres have been bought. 3 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Tyres")
How many items cost £100 or above. 5 =COUNTIF(E4:E12,">=100")
Type the name of the item to count. service 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,E18)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.
Syntax
=COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted,CriteriaToBeMatched)
The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
To match a specific number type the number, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,100)
To match a piece of text type the text in quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,"Hello")
To match using operators surround the expression with quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,">100")
A B C D E F G
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DATE
Page 44 of 205
DATE
Day Month Year Date
25 12 99 12/25/99 =DATE(E4,D4,C4)
25 12 99 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5,D5,C5)
33 12 99 January 2, 2000 =DATE(E6,D6,C6)
What Does It Do?
This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.
Syntax
=DATE(year,month,day)
Formatting
The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.
By using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command the format can be changed.
A B C D E F G H I J
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DATEDIF
Page 45 of 205
DATEDIF
FirstDate SecondDate Interval Difference
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 days #NAME? =DATEDIF(C4,D4,"d")
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 months #NAME? =DATEDIF(C5,D5,"m")
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 years #NAME? =DATEDIF(C6,D6,"y")
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 yeardays #NAME? =DATEDIF(C7,D7,"yd")
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 yearmonths #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,D8,"ym")
1-Jan-60 10-May-70 monthdays #NAME? =DATEDIF(C9,D9,"md")
What Does It Do?
This function calculates the difference between two dates.
It can show the result in weeks, months or years.
Syntax
=DATEDIF(FirstDate,SecondDate,"Interval")
FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates.
SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates.
"Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate.
These are the available intervals.
"d" Days between the two dates.
"m" Months between the two dates.
"y" Years between the two dates.
"yd" Days between the dates, as if the dates were in the same year.
"ym" Months between the dates, as if the dates were in the same year.
"md" Days between the two dates, as if the dates were in the same month and year.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Birth date : 1-Jan-60
Years lived : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")
and the months : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")
and the days : #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")
You can put this all together in one calculation, which creates a text version.
#NAME?
="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")&" Years, "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")&" Days"
A B C D E F G H I J K
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DATEVALUE
Page 46 of 205
DATEVALUE
Date Date Value
25-dec-99 36519 =DATEVALUE(C4)
25/12/99 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C5)
25-dec-99 36519 =DATEVALUE(C6)
25/12/99 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C7)
What Does It Do?
The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.
Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs, such as
exports from mainframe computers.
Syntax
=DATEVALUE(text)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. This number can
be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format,Cells,Number,Date.
Example
The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of
days remaining on a property lease.
The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as
a piece of text, probably after being imported from an external program.
Property Ref. Expiry Date
BC100 25-dec-99 -4156
FG700 10-july/99 Err:502
TD200 13-sep-98 -4624
HJ900 30/5/2000 Err:502
=DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY()
Days Until
Expiry
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DAVERAGE
Page 47 of 205
DAVERAGE
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : sunbeam
The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces and average.
Syntax
=DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb Horizon
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be averaged, such as "Unit Cost" or F3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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Excel Function Dictionary
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DAVERAGE
Page 48 of 205
The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.
£1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E49:F50)
The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.53 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E60:F61)
The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.17 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E67:F68)
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DAY
Page 49 of 205
DAY
Full Date The Day
25-Dec-98 25 =DAY(C4)
12-May-11 Thu 11 =DAY(C5)
12-May-11 12 =DAY(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.
Syntax
=DAY(value)
Formatting
Normally the result will be a number, but this can be formatted to show the actual
day of the week by using Format,Cells,Number,Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.
Example
The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.
Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : 3/25/1962
You were born on : Wednesday 24 =DAY(F21)
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DAYS360
Page 50 of 205
DAYS360
StartDate EndDate Days Between * See the Note below.
1-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 4 =DAYS360(C4,D4,TRUE)
1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 30 =DAYS360(C5,D5,TRUE)
1-Jan-98 31-Mar-98 89 =DAYS360(C6,D6,TRUE)
1-Jan-98 31-Dec-98 359 =DAYS360(C7,D7,TRUE)
What Does It Do?
Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months).
Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.
Syntax
=DAYS360(StartDate,EndDate,TRUE of FALSE)
TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.
FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Note
The calculation does not include the last day. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will
give a result of 4. To correct this add 1 to the result. =DAYS360(Start,End,TRUE)+1
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DB
Page 51 of 205
DB
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : 5
Salvage value : £200
Year Deprecation
1 £2,375.00 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D8)
2 £1,246.88 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9)
3 £654.61 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10)
4 £343.67 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11)
5 £180.43 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)
Total Depreciation : £4,800.58 * See example 4 below.
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage.
The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage.
The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less
the first years depreciation.
Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less
the depreciation of the previous years.
The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates
the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.
An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was
originally purchased.
If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation
will be based on the remaining part of the year.
Syntax
=DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth)
The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the
first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as
the value.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation.
Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.
Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.
Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation.
The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Salvage value : £1,000
Life in Years : 5
Year Deprecation % Deprc
1 £1,375.00 27.50%
2 £996.88 27.50%
3 £722.73 27.50%
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DB
Page 52 of 205
4 £523.98 27.50%
5 £379.89 27.50%
=DB(E47,E48,E49,D56)
Total Depreciation : £3,998.48
Example 2
This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated
on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : £5
Salvage value : 100
Month Deprecation
56 £8.79
57 £8.24
58 £7.72
59 £7.23
60 £6.78
=DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)
Example 3
This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : 5
Salvage value : £1,000
First Year Ownership In Months : 6
Year Deprecation % Deprc
1 £687.50 13.75%
2 £1,185.94 27.50%
3 £859.80 27.50%
4 £623.36 27.50%
5 £451.93 27.50%
=DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77)
Total Depreciation : £3,808.54
Why Is The Answer Wrong ?
In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.
This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated
by the =DB() fumction.
The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).
The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places.
Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied
to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as
approximate values for the the depreceation.
Example 4
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DB
Page 53 of 205
This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real'
percentage calculated manually.
The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function.
The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.
This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034%
=1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118))
Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1 - ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).
Salvage value : £1,000
Life in Years : 5
Year
1 £1,375.0000 £1,376.1017 27.500%
2 £996.8750 £997.3705 27.500%
3 £722.7344 £722.8739 27.500%
4 £523.9824 £523.9243 27.500%
5 £379.8873 £379.7297 27.500%
Total Depreciation : £3,998.48 £4,000.00
Error difference : £1.52
Excel
Deprecation
Real
Depreciation
Excel
% Deprc
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
DCOUNT
Page 54 of 205
DCOUNT
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The COUNT value of Horizon is : 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,D3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.
It can only count values, the text items and blank cells are ignored.
Syntax
=DCOUNT(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The count of a particular product, with a specific number of boxes in stock.
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
DCOUNT
Page 55 of 205
Product
Bulb 5
The number of products is : 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address.
3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)
The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The count is : 2 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)
The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values.
Product Wattage Wattage
Bulb >=80 <=100
The count is : 4 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)
Boxes In
Stock
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DCOUNTA
Page 56 of 205
DCOUNTA
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
Count the number of products of a particular Brand.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The COUNT value of Horizon is : 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,E3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.
It counts values and text items, but blank cells are ignored.
Syntax
=DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
DCOUNTA
Page 57 of 205
Product Life Hours
Bulb unknown
The number of products is : 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,D3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address.
1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Life Hours",E50:F51)
The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand.
Product Brand
Bulb Horizon
The count is : 5 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E61:F62)
The count of particular products from specific brands.
Product Brand
Spot Horizon
Neon Sunbeam
The count is : 3 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E68:F70)
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DEC2BIN
Page 58 of 205
DEC2BIN
Decimal Number Binary Equivalent
0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4)
1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5)
2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6)
3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7)
511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8)
512 Err:502 =DEC2BIN(C9)
-1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10)
-2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11)
-3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12)
-511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13)
-512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14)
Decimal Number Places To Pad Binary Equivalent
1 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C17,D17)
1 2 01 =DEC2BIN(C18,D18)
1 3 001 =DEC2BIN(C19,D19)
1 9 000000001 =DEC2BIN(C20,D20)
-1 1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C21,D21)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.
It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.
The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives.
Syntax
=DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad)
The PlacesToPad is optional.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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DEC2HEX
Page 59 of 205
DEC2HEX
Decimal Number Hexadecimal
0 0 =DEC2HEX(C4)
1 1 =DEC2HEX(C5)
2 2 =DEC2HEX(C6)
3 3 =DEC2HEX(C7)
25 19 =DEC2HEX(C8)
26 1A =DEC2HEX(C9)
27 1B =DEC2HEX(C10)
28 1C =DEC2HEX(C11)
-1 FFFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C12)
-2 FFFFFFFFFE =DEC2HEX(C13)
-3 FFFFFFFFFD =DEC2HEX(C14)
-2 FFFFFFFFFE =DEC2HEX(C15)
-1 FFFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C16)
549,755,813,887 7FFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C17)
-549,755,813,888 8000000000 =DEC2HEX(C18)
549,755,813,888 8000000000 =DEC2HEX(C19)
-549,755,813,889 7FFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C20)
Decimal Number Places To Pad Hexadecimal
1 1 1 =DEC2HEX(C23,D23)
1 2 01 =DEC2HEX(C24,D24)
26 3 01A =DEC2HEX(C25,D25)
26 9 00000001A =DEC2HEX(C26,D26)
-26 1 FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C27,D27)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.
It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549,755,813,888 to 549,755,813,887.
The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives.
Syntax
=DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad)
The PlacesToPad is optional.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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DELTA
Page 60 of 205
DELTA
Number1 Number2 Delta
10 20 0 =DELTA(C4,D4)
50 50 1 =DELTA(C5,D5)
17.5 17.5 1 =DELTA(C6,D6)
17.5 18 1 =DELTA(C7,D7)
17.50% 0.18 1 =DELTA(C8,D8)
Hello Hello Err:502 =DELTA(C9,D9)
1 =DELTA(C10,D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.
If the numbers are the same the result will be 1, otherwise the result is 0.
It only works with numbers, text values produce a result of #VALUE.
The formatting of the number is not significant, so numbers which appear rounded due
to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.
Syntax
=DELTA(FirstNumber,SecondNumber)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.
The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.
Number1 Number2 Delta
10 20 0 =DELTA(C30,D30)
50 50 1 =DELTA(C31,D31)
30 30 1 =DELTA(C32,D32)
17.5 18 1 =DELTA(C33,D33)
12 8 0 =DELTA(C34,D34)
100 100 1 =DELTA(C35,D35)
150 125 0 =DELTA(C36,D36)
Total Pairs 4 =SUM(E30:E36)
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
DGET
Page 61 of 205
DGET
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100 Horizon
The number in stock is : 5 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C23:F24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces one result.
If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown.
If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.
Syntax
=DGET(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example extracts information from just one record.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
Life
Hours
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Get, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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DGET
Page 62 of 205
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100 Horizon
The number in stock is : 5 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C51:F52)
Example 2
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100
The number in stock is : Err:502 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C63:F64)
Example 3
This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 9999
The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C64:F65)
Example 4
This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 9999
The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C85:F86)
Err:502
=IF(ISERR(F88),CHOOSE(ERROR.TYPE(F88)/3,"No such product.","Duplicates products found."),"One product found.")
Life
Hours
This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.
Life
Hours
Life
Hours
Life
Hours
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DMAX
Page 63 of 205
DMAX
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The MAX value of Horizon is : £60.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.
Syntax
=DMAX(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
The largest value is : £30.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£30.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name or cell, of the values to pick the Max from, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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DMAX
Page 64 of 205
The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:F68)
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DMIN
Page 65 of 205
DMIN
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The MIN value of Horizon is : £10.00 =DMIN(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.
Syntax
=DMIN(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
The lowest value is : £3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to pick the Min from, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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DMIN
Page 66 of 205
The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.50 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.
Product Wattage Wattage
Bulb >=80 <=100
The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:G68)
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DOLLAR
Page 67 of 205
DOLLAR
10 $10.00 =DOLLAR(C4)
10 $10 =DOLLAR(C5,0)
10 $10.0 =DOLLAR(C6,1)
10 $10.00 =DOLLAR(C7,2)
10.25 $10.25 =DOLLAR(C8)
10.25 $10 =DOLLAR(C9,0)
10.25 $10.3 =DOLLAR(C10,1)
10.25 $10.25 =DOLLAR(C11,2)
What Does It Do?
This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.
Syntax
=DOLLAR(Number,DecimalPlaces)
Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.
DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
The result will be shown as a text entry.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
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DSUM
Page 68 of 205
DSUM
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The stock value of Horizon is : £248.00 =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces the total.
Syntax
=DSUM(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be totalled, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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DSUM
Page 69 of 205
Total stock value is : £54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
Total Value Of Stock is : £52.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
Total Value Of Stock is : £56.00 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:F68)
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EAST
Page 70 of 205
Eastern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 1000 2000 3000 6000
Bob 4000 5000 6000 15000
Carol 7000 8000 9000 24000
Total 12000 15000 18000 45000
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EDATE
Page 71 of 205
EDATE
Start Date Plus Months End Date
1-Jan-98 3 1-Apr-98 =EDATE(C4,D4)
2-Jan-98 3 2-Apr-98 =EDATE(C5,D5)
2-Jan-98 -3 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or
in the future.
Syntax
=EDATE(StartDate,Months)
Formatting
The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent
a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command.
Example
This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.
The company needed to know the end date of the employment.
The Start date is entered.
The contract Duration is entered as months.
The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.
Start Duration End
Tue 06-Jan-98 3 Mon 06-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27,D27)
Mon 12-Jan-98 3 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C28,D28)
Fri 09-Jan-98 4 Sat 09-May-98 =EDATE(C29,D29)
Fri 09-Jan-98 3 Thu 09-Apr-98 =EDATE(C30,D30)
Mon 19-Jan-98 3 Sun 19-Apr-98 =EDATE(C31,D31)
Mon 26-Jan-98 3 Sun 26-Apr-98 =EDATE(C32,D32)
Mon 12-Jan-98 3 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C33,D33)
The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.
The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.
If the week day number is 6 or 7, (Sat or Sun), then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to
ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.
Start Duration End
Tue 06-Jan-98 3 Mon 06-Apr-98
Mon 12-Jan-98 3 Fri 10-Apr-98
Fri 09-Jan-98 4 Fri 08-May-98
Fri 09-Jan-98 3 Thu 09-Apr-98
Mon 19-Jan-98 3 Fri 17-Apr-98
Mon 26-Jan-98 3 Fri 24-Apr-98
Mon 12-Jan-98 3 Fri 10-Apr-98
=EDATE(C48,D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)>5,WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)-5,0)
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EOMONTH
Page 72 of 205
EOMONTH
StartDate Plus Months End Of Month
5-Jan-98 2 35885 =EOMONTH(C4,D4)
5-Jan-98 2 31-Mar-98 =EOMONTH(C5,D5)
5-Jan-98 -2 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months
before or after a given date.
Syntax
=EOMONTH(StartDate,Months)
Formatting
The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent
a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command.
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ERROR.TYPE
Page 73 of 205
ERROR.TYPE
Data The Error Error Type
10 0 #DIV/0! 532 =ERROR.TYPE(E4)
10 3 Err:508 508 =ERROR.TYPE(E5)
10 3 #VALUE! 519 =ERROR.TYPE(E6)
10:00 13:00 21:00 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E7)
What Does It Do?
This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.
Syntax
=ERROR.TYPE(Error)
Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.
Formatting
The result will be formatted as a normal number.
Example
See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.
A B C D E F G H
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EVEN
Page 74 of 205
EVEN
Original Value Evenly Rounded
1 2 =EVEN(C4)
1.2 2 =EVEN(C5)
2.3 4 =EVEN(C6)
25 26 =EVEN(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.
Syntax
=EVEN(Number)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.
The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures.
Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.
Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car
and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.
Table 1
Car Wipers To Order Pairs to Order
Vauxhall 5 3 =EVEN(D28)/2
Ford 9 5 =EVEN(D29)/2
Peugeot 7 4 =EVEN(D30)/2
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EXACT
Page 75 of 205
EXACT
Text1 Text2 Result
Hello Hello TRUE =EXACT(C4,D4)
Hello hello FALSE =EXACT(C5,D5)
Hello Goodbye FALSE =EXACT(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same.
The case of the characters is taken into account, only words which are spelt the same and
which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal.
Syntax
=EXACT(Text1,Text2)
Only two items of text can be compared.
Formatting
If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown.
If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.
Example
Here is a simple password checking formula.
You need to guess the correct password.
The password is the name of a colour, either red blue or green.
The case of the password is important.
The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.
Guess the password : red
Is it correct : No
(To stop you from cheating, the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR()
functions, which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!)
Its still very easy though.
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FACT
Page 76 of 205
FACT
Number Factorial
3 6 =FACT(C4)
3.5 6 =FACT(C5)
5 120 =FACT(C6)
10 3,628,800 =FACT(C7)
20 2,432,902,008,176,640,000 =FACT(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the factorial of a number.
The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4..etc.
The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5, which results in 120.
Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.
Syntax
=FACT(Number)
Formatting.
No special formatting is needed.
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FIND
Page 77 of 205
FIND
Text Letter To Find Position Of Letter
Hello e 2 =FIND(D4,C4)
Hello H 1 =FIND(D5,C5)
Hello o 5 =FIND(D6,C6)
Alan Williams a 3 =FIND(D7,C7)
Alan Williams a 11 =FIND(D8,C8,6)
Alan Williams T #VALUE! =FIND(D9,C9)
What Does It Do?
This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text.
When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.
If the text contains more than one reference to the letter, the first occurrence is used.
An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text, thus
enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.
If the letter is not found in the text, the result #VALUE is shown.
Syntax
=FIND(LetterToLookFor,TextToLookInside,StartPosition)
LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.
TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.
StartPosition : This is optional, it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as a number.
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FIXED
Page 78 of 205
FIXED
10 10.00 =FIXED(C4)
10 10 =FIXED(C5,0)
10 10.0 =FIXED(C6,1)
10 10.00 =FIXED(C7,2)
10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C8)
10.25 10 =FIXED(C9,0)
10.25 10.3 =FIXED(C10,1)
10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C11,2)
1000 1,000.00 =FIXED(C12)
1000.23 1,000 =FIXED(C13,0)
1000.23 1000 =FIXED(C14,0,TRUE)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a numeric value to text.
During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places,
and commas can be inserted at the 1,000's.
Syntax
=FIXED(NumberToConvert,DecimalPlaces,Commas)
If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.
The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.
If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note that any further formatting with the Format, Cells, Number command will not have any effect.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
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FLOOR
Page 79 of 205
FLOOR
Number Rounded Down
1.5 1 =FLOOR(C4,1)
2.3 2 =FLOOR(C5,1)
2.9 2 =FLOOR(C6,1)
123 100 =FLOOR(C7,50)
145 100 =FLOOR(C8,50)
175 150 =FLOOR(C9,50)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=FLOOR(NumberToRound,SignificantValue)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.
Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.
The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the
nearest 1000, which is then used as the basis for Commission.
Name Actual Sales Relevant Sales Commission
Alan £23,500 £23,000 £230
Bob £56,890 £56,000 £560
Carol £18,125 £18,000 £180
=FLOOR(D29,1000)
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FORECAST
Page 80 of 205
FORECAST
Month Sales
1 £1,000
2 £2,000
3 £2,500
4 £3,500
5 £3,800
6 £4,000
Type the month number to predict : 12
The Forecast sales figure is : £7,997 =FORECAST(E11,F4:F9,E4:E9)
What Does It Do ?
This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.
The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.
If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6, (Jan to Jun), you can use the function
to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month.
The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.
Syntax
=FORECAST(ItemToForeCast,RangeY,RangeX)
ItemToForecast is the point in the future, (or past), for which you need the forecast.
RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis
of the forecast, such as Sales figures.
RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data, such as Month number.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team.
The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.
The size of the New Sales team is entered.
The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales
team based upon a linear trend.
Year
1996 10 £5,000
1997 20 £8,000
1998 30 £8,500
Size Of The New Sales Team : 40
Estimated Forecast Of Performance : £10,667 =FORECAST(E43,E39:E41,D39:D41)
Size Of
Sales Team
Known
Performance
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FREQUENCY
Page 81 of 205
FREQUENCY
Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Sales £4,000 and below. £4,000 4 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
Sales above £4,000 up to £6,000 £6,000 5 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
Sales above £6,000 £999,999 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
What Does It Do ?
This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.
The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.
The function is entered in the cells as an array, that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.
Syntax
=FREQUENCY(RangeOfData,ListOfIntervals)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.
The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose
weights fell between specified intervals.
Weight Kg Number Of Children:
Child 1 20.47 Between 0 - 15 Kg 2
Child 2 22.83 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4
Child 3 15.74 Above 20 Kg 3
Child 4 10.80 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 5 8.28 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 6 20.66 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 7 17.36
Child 8 16.67
Child 9 18.01
Kg Weight Intervals
15
20
100
Example 2
This example uses characters instead of values.
A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.
The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter, E, V, A, P or D.
The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.
Unfortunately, the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries, so how can the frequency
of text be calculated?
The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.
A B C D E F G H I
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FREQUENCY
Page 82 of 205
The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.
The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.
As this code is a numeric value, the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used!
Rating Frequency
Excellent E 6 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Very Good V 8 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Average A 9 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Poor P 8 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Disgusting D 9 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Customer Ratings
V D V A p A D D
V P a D A P V d
A V E P p E D A
A E d V D P a E
V e P P A V E D
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FREQUENCY 2
Page 83 of 205
FREQUENCY 2
This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate
how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results.
Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks.
Table 1
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
1st Number 3 36 5 3 2 41 45
2nd Number 6 3 19 37 23 15 4
3rd Number 15 44 35 20 47 29 44
4th Number 32 15 32 46 6 45 23
5th Number 37 31 13 22 49 13 43
6th Number 5 22 30 8 49 11 46
Bonus Ball 17 13 15 25 18 17 1
Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49, and how many appearances
each number has made during the past seven weeks.
Table 2
1 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
2 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
3 3 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
4 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
5 2
6 2
7 0
8 1
9 0 Special tip!
10 0 To count how many unique numbers in a range
11 1 use the following formula. It has to be entered,
12 0 as an array, so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than,
13 3 just Enter alone.
14 0
15 4 Unique values. 31
16 0
17 2 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16,C10:I16))
18 1
19 1
20 1
21 0
22 2
23 2
24 0
25 1
26 0
27 0
28 0
29 1
Lottery
Number
How Many
Appearances
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FREQUENCY 2
Page 84 of 205
30 1
31 1
32 2
33 0
34 0
35 1
36 1
37 2
38 0
39 0
40 0
41 1
42 0
43 1
44 2
45 2
46 2
47 1
48 0
49 2
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GCD
Page 85 of 205
GCD
Numbers
6 15 3 =GCD(C4,D4)
28 49 7 =GCD(C5,D5)
5 99 1 =GCD(C6,D6)
Numbers
18 72 96 6 =GCD(C9,D9,E9)
300 500 200 100 =GCD(C10,D10,E10)
2.5 4 6 0.5 =GCD(C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the
values specified.
The result is always a whole number.
Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.
Decimal fractions are ignored.
Syntax
=GCD(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number29)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Greatest
Divisor
Greatest
Divisor
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GESTEP
Page 86 of 205
GESTEP
Number1 Number2 GESTEP
10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4,D4)
50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5,D5)
99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6,D6)
100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7,D7)
101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8,D8)
2 1 =GESTEP(C9,D9)
2 0 =GESTEP(C10,D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.
If the number is greater than or equal, the result of 1 will be shown, otherwise 0 is shown.
Syntax
=GESTEP(NumberToTest,NumberToTestAgainst)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.
The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target, and the results are totalled.
Name Sales Target GESTEP
Alan £3,000 £4,000 0 =GESTEP(D27,E27)
Bob £5,000 £4,000 1 =GESTEP(D28,E28)
Carol £1,000 £2,000 0 =GESTEP(D29,E29)
David £2,000 £2,000 1 =GESTEP(D30,E30)
Eric £8,000 £7,000 1 =GESTEP(D31,E31)
Targets Achieved 3 =SUM(F27:F31)
A B C D E F G H I J
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HEX2DEC
Page 87 of 205
HEX2DEC
Hexadecimal Decimal Number
0 0 =HEX2DEC(C4)
1 1 =HEX2DEC(C5)
2 2 =HEX2DEC(C6)
3 3 =HEX2DEC(C7)
1A 26 =HEX2DEC(C8)
1B 27 =HEX2DEC(C9)
7FFFFFFFFF 549,755,813,887 =HEX2DEC(C10)
8000000000 -549,755,813,888 =HEX2DEC(C11)
FFFFFFFFFF -1 =HEX2DEC(C12)
FFFFFFFFFE -2 =HEX2DEC(C13)
FFFFFFFFFD -3 =HEX2DEC(C14)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.
Syntax
=HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.
Hexadecimal
Value 1 F
Value 2 1A
Result 29 =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30))
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HLOOKUP
Page 88 of 205
HLOOKUP
Jan Feb Mar row 1 The row numbers are not needed.
10 80 97 row 2 they are part of the illustration.
20 90 69 row 3
30 100 45 row 4
40 110 51 row 5
50 120 77 row 6
Type a month to look for : Feb
Which row needs to be picked out : 4
The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F10,D3:F10,F11,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item.
When the item is found, it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.
Syntax
=HLOOKUP(ItemToFind,RangeToLookIn,RowToPickFrom,SortedOrUnsorted)
The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.
The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.
The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.
The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. TRUE for yes, FALSE for no.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name.
The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month.
The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name.
To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.
The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. It then calculates
the position of the name in the list. Unfortunately, because the list of names is not as deep
as the lookup range, the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require, so and extra 1 is
added to compensate.
The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and
picks out the correct cell entry.
The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the
column headings are not sorted, even though to us the order of Jan,Feb,Mar is correct.
Jan Feb Mar
Bob 10 80 97
Eric 20 90 69
Alan 30 100 45
Carol 40 110 51
David 50 120 77
Type a month to look for : feb
If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb,Jan,Mar.
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HLOOKUP
Page 89 of 205
Type a name to look for : alan
The result is : 100
=HLOOKUP(F54,D47:F54,MATCH(F55,C48:C52,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 2
This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for
different makes of cars.
The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.
When the make is found, the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified
by the =MATCH() function, which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.
The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $. This ensures that
when the formula is copied to more cells, the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do
not change.
Maker Spare Cost
Vauxhall Ignition £50 Vauxhall Ford VW
VW GearBox £600 GearBox 500 450 600
Ford Engine £1,200 Engine 1000 1200 800
VW Steering £275 Steering 250 350 275
Ford Ignition £70 Ignition 50 70 45
Ford CYHead £290 CYHead 300 290 310
Vauxhall GearBox £500
Ford Engine £1,200
=HLOOKUP(B79,G72:I77,MATCH(C79,F73:F77,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 3
In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.
The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick, Wood and Glass.
The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.
The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.
All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.
The name of the Item is typed in column C.
The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.
The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product
names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.
Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. If a match is
not found, the function will produce an error.
=HLOOKUP(C127,E111:G112,2,FALSE)
The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table
If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will
look down the column to find the correct discount.
The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values
across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.
Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. If the Quantity Ordered does
not match a value at the top of the Discount Table, the next lowest value is used.
Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100, and the discount from
the 100 column is used.
=HLOOKUP(D127,E115:G118,MATCH(C127,D116:D118,0)+1,TRUE)
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HLOOKUP
Page 90 of 205
Unit Cost Table
Brick Wood Glass
£2 £1 £3
Discount Table
1 100 300
Brick 0% 6% 8%
Wood 0% 3% 5%
Glass 0% 12% 15%
Orders Table
Item Units Unit Cost Discount Total
Brick 100 £2 6% £188
Wood 200 £1 3% £194
Glass 150 £3 12% £396
Brick 225 £2 6% £423
Wood 50 £1 0% £50
Glass 500 £3 15% £1,275
Unit Cost =HLOOKUP(C127,E111:G112,2,FALSE)
Discount =HLOOKUP(D127,E115:G118,MATCH(C127,D116:D118,0)+1,TRUE)
A B C D E F G H I J
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HOUR
Page 91 of 205
HOUR
Number Hour
21:15 21 =HOUR(C4)
0.25 6 =HOUR(C5)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.
Syntax
=HOUR(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.
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IF
Page 92 of 205
IF
Name Sales Target Result
Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C5>=D5,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
What Does It Do?
This function tests a condition.
If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.
If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.
Depending upon the result, one of two actions will be carried out.
Syntax
=IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse)
The Condition is usually a test of two cells, such as A1=A2.
The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers, text or calculations.
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example 1
The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.
Each has their own target which they must reach.
The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.
If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.
Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".
Name Sales Target Result
Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C32>=D32,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Example 2
The following table is similar to that in Example 1.
This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target, the Commission is 10% of Sales.
If the Sales do not reach Target, the Commission is only 5% of Sales.
Name Sales Target Commission
Alan 1000 5000 50 =IF(C43>=D43,C43*10%,C43*5%)
Bob 6000 5000 600 =IF(C44>=D44,C44*10%,C44*5%)
Carol 2000 4000 100 =IF(C45>=D45,C45*10%,C45*5%)
Example 3
This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function.
A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines.
The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer, when the Order Value
is £1000 or above.
the value of the order is above £1000.
Special Order
Product Offer Value Discount Total
Wood Yes £2,000 £200 £1,800
The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that
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IF
Page 93 of 205
Glass No £2,000 £- £2,000
Cement Yes £500 £- £500
Turf Yes £3,000 £300 £2,700
=IF(AND(C61="Yes",D61>=1000),D61*10%,0)
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INDEX
Page 94 of 205
INDEX
Holiday booking price list.
People
Weeks 1 2 3 4
1 £500 £300 £250 £200
2 £600 £400 £300 £250
3 £700 £500 £350 £300
How many weeks required : 2
How many people in the party : 4
Cost per person is : 250 =INDEX(D7:G9,G11,G12)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number
of rows and then across a specified number of columns.
It can be used with a single block of data, or non-continuos blocks.
Syntax
There are various forms of syntax for this function.
Syntax 1
=INDEX(RangeToLookIn,Coordinate)
This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.
The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.
Both of the examples below use the same syntax, but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when
the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.
Colours
Red
Green
Blue Size Large Medium Small
Type either 1, 2 or 3 : 2 Type either 1, 2 or 3 : 2
The colour is : Green The size is : Medium
=INDEX(D32:D34,D36) =INDEX(G34:I34,H36)
Syntax 2
=INDEX(RangeToLookIn,RowCoordinate,ColumnColumnCordinate)
This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns.
Country Currency Population Capitol
England Sterling 50 M London
France Franc 40 M Paris
Germany DM 60 M Bonn
Spain Peseta 30 M Barcelona
Type 1,2,3 or 4 for the country : 2
Type 1,2 or 3 for statistics : 3
The result is : Paris =INDEX(D45:F48,F50,F51)
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© 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley
INDEX
Page 95 of 205
Syntax 3
=INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn,RowCoordinate,ColumnColumnCordinate,AreaToPickFrom)
Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.
The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.
The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.
In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one
range called NorthAndSouth.
NORTH Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,000 £2,000 £3,000 £4,000
Wood £5,000 £6,000 £7,000 £8,000
Glass £9,000 £10,000 £11,000 £12,000
SOUTH Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,500 £2,500 £3,500 £4,500
Wood £5,500 £6,500 £7,500 £8,500
Glass £9,500 £10,500 £11,500 £12,500
Type 1, 2 or 3 for the product : 1
Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 for the Qtr : 3
Type 1 for North or 2 for South : 2
The result is : Err:504 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth,F76,F77,F78)
Example
This is an extended version of the previous example.
It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.
The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.
These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.
EAST Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,000 £2,000 £3,000 £4,000
Wood £5,000 £6,000 £7,000 £8,000
Glass £9,000 £10,000 £11,000 £12,000
WEST Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,500 £2,500 £3,500 £4,500
Wood £5,500 £6,500 £7,500 £8,500
Glass £9,500 £10,500 £11,500 £12,500
Type 1, 2 or 3 for the product : wood
Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 for the Qtr : qtr2
Type 1 for North or 2 for South : west
The result is : Err:504
=INDEX(EastAndWest,MATCH(F100,C91:C93,0),MATCH(F101,D90:G90,0),IF(F102=C90,1,IF(F102=C95,2)))
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INDIRECT
Page 96 of 205
INDIRECT
Jan Feb Mar
North 10 20 30
South 40 50 60
East 70 80 90
West 100 110 120
Type address of any of the cells in the above table, such as G6 : G6
The value in the cell you typed is : 80 =INDIRECT(H9)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable
cell reference.
The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet.
Syntax
=INDIRECT(Text)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using
the worksheet name and a cell address.
The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH, SOUTH and EAST.
The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet.
When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed
between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation.
North
C8
The contents of the cell C8 on North is : 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34)
The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8
Example 2
This example uses the same data as above, but this time the =SUM() function is
used to calculate a total from a range of cells.
South
C5
C7
The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200
=SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46))
The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7)
Type the name of the sheet, such as North :
Type the cell to pick data from, such as C8 :
Type the name of the sheet, such as South :
Type the start cell of the range, such as C5 :
Type the end cell of the range, such as C7 :
A B C D E F G H I J
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INFO
Page 97 of 205
INFO
System Information
Current directory Err:502 =INFO("directory")
Available bytes of memory Err:502 =INFO("memavail")
Memory in use Err:502 =INFO("memused")
Total bytes of memory Err:502 =INFO("totmem")
Number of active worksheets 1 =INFO("numfile")
Cell currently in the top left of the window Err:502 =INFO("origin")
Operating system Windows (32-bit) NT 5.01 =INFO("osversion")
Recalculation mode Automatic =INFO("recalc")
Excel version 310m19(Build:9420) =INFO("release")
Name of system. (PC or Mac) LINUX =INFO("system")
What Does It Do?
This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.
Syntax
=INFO(text)
text : This is the name of the item you require information about.
Formatting
The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.
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INT
Page 98 of 205
INT
Number Integer
1.5 1 =INT(C4)
2.3 2 =INT(C5)
10.75 10 =INT(C6)
-1.48 -2 =INT(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.
Syntax
=INT(Number)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the
school year started.
A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.
The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.
Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places
Table 1
Birth Date Term Start Age
1-Jan-80 1-Sep-88 8.67 =(D27-C27)/365.25
5-Feb-81 1-Sep-88 7.57
20-Oct-79 1-Sep-88 8.87
1-Mar-81 1-Sep-88 7.5
Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.
This has the effect of increasing the child age.
Table 2
Birth Date Term Start Age
1-Jan-80 1-Sep-88 9 =(D38-C38)/365.25
5-Feb-81 1-Sep-88 8
20-Oct-79 1-Sep-88 9
1-Mar-81 1-Sep-88 8
Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to
remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.
Table 3
Birth Date Term Start Age
1-Jan-80 1-Sep-88 8 =INT((D49-C49)/365.25)
5-Feb-81 1-Sep-88 7
20-Oct-79 1-Sep-88 8
1-Mar-81 1-Sep-88 7
Note
The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the
age of the child in days.
The number of days is then divided by 365.25
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INT
Page 99 of 205
The reason for using 365.25 is to take account of the leap years.
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ISBLANK
Page 100 of 205
ISBLANK
Data Is The Cell Blank
1 FALSE =ISBLANK(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISBLANK(C5)
TRUE =ISBLANK(C6)
25-Dec-98 FALSE =ISBLANK(C7)
What Does It Do?
This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell.
It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors, but which
will be filled later as the data is received by the user.
Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result
of the =ISBLANK()
Syntax
=ISBLANK(CellToTest)
Formatting
Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE.
Example
The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.
When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.
Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank.
While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.
When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked.
The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.
Cheques Received Date Date
Num From Received Amount Cleared Banked Outstanding
chq1 ABC Ltd 1-Jan-98 £100 2-Jan-98 100 0
chq2 CJ Design 1-Jan-98 £200 7-Jan-98 200 0
chq3 J Smith 2-Jan-98 £50 0 50
chq4 Travel Co. 3-Jan-98 £1,000 0 1000
chq5 J Smith 4-Jan-98 £250 6-Jan-98 250 0
=IF(ISBLANK(F36),0,E36)
=IF(ISBLANK(F36),E36,0)
Totals 550 1050
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ISERR
Page 101 of 205
ISERR
Cell to test Result
3 FALSE =ISERR(D4)
#DIV/0! TRUE =ISERR(D5)
Err:508 TRUE =ISERR(D6)
#VALUE! TRUE =ISERR(D7)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERR(D8)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERR(D9)
#N/A FALSE =ISERR(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell.
It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error, or if the error
is the #NA message.
Syntax
=ISERR(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle
of champagne, by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate.
Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.
The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0, which Excel does not do.
Table 1
Cost Of Crate : £24
Bottles In Crate : 0
Cost of single bottle : #DIV/0! =E32/E33
Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function.
Table 2
Cost Of Crate : £24
Bottles In Crate : 0
Cost of single bottle : Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41),"Try again!",E40/E41)
A B C D E F G H I
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ISERROR
Page 102 of 205
ISERROR
Cell to test Result
3 FALSE =ISERROR(D4)
#DIV/0! TRUE =ISERROR(D5)
Err:508 TRUE =ISERROR(D6)
#VALUE! TRUE =ISERROR(D7)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERROR(D8)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERROR(D9)
#N/A TRUE =ISERROR(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated.
It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found.
Syntax
=ISERROR(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.
Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate
date format.
Table 1
Start date : Jan 01 98
End date : 5-Jan-98
Difference : 3-Jan-00 =D31-D30
Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the
user that there has been an error in the data entry.
Table 2
Start date : Jan 01 98
End date : 5-Jan-98
Difference : 3-Jan-00
=IF(ISERROR(D40-D39),"Error in data entry",D40-D39)
A B C D E F G H
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ISEVEN
Page 103 of 205
ISEVEN
Number Is it Even
1 0 =ISEVEN(C4)
2 1 =ISEVEN(C5)
2.5 1 =ISEVEN(C6)
2.6 1 =ISEVEN(C7)
3.5 0 =ISEVEN(C8)
3.6 0 =ISEVEN(C9)
Hello 1 =ISEVEN(C10)
1-Feb-98 0 =ISEVEN(C11)
1-Feb-96 1 =ISEVEN(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.
An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.
Note that decimal fractions are ignored.
Note that dates can be even or odd.
Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.
Syntax
=ISEVEN(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
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ISLOGICAL
Page 104 of 205
ISLOGICAL
Cell To Test Result
FALSE TRUE =ISLOGICAL(D4)
TRUE TRUE =ISLOGICAL(D5)
FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D6)
20 FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D7)
1-Jan-98 FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D8)
Hello FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D9)
#DIV/0! FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.
The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE.
If the cell does contain a logical value, the result TRUE is shown.
If the cell does not contain a logical value, the result FALSE is shown.
Syntax
=ISLOGICAL(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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ISNA
Page 105 of 205
ISNA
Number Result
1 FALSE =ISNA(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISNA(C5)
FALSE =ISNA(C6)
1-Jan-98 FALSE =ISNA(C7)
#N/A TRUE =ISNA(C8)
What Does It Do?
This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.
The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data.
The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty,
but will be used for data entry in the future.
The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.
Syntax
=ISNA(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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ISNONTEXT
Page 106 of 205
ISNONTEXT
Item To Test Is It A Number?
10 TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C5)
TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C6)
1-Jan-98 TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C7)
1OO FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C8)
What Does It Do?
This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number, rather than text.
It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations, rather
than text which looks like a number, such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0.
The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function.
Syntax
=ISNONTEXT(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting.
Examples
The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price
of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up.
Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number, 300, is entered
using the letter O instead of the zero 0.
Table 1
Item Buying Price Mark-up Profit
Radio 400 150% 600
TV 800 200% 1600
Video 3OO 150% #VALUE! =D32*E32
Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and
the =IF() function in the calculation.
Table 2
Item Buying Price Mark-up Profit
Radio 400 150% 600
TV 800 200% 1600
Video 3OO 150% Retype the Price
=IF(ISNONTEXT(D40),D40*E40,"Retype the Price")
A B C D E F G H
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ISNUMBER
Page 107 of 205
ISNUMBER
Cell Entry Result
1 TRUE =ISNUMBER(D4)
1-Jan-98 TRUE =ISNUMBER(D5)
FALSE =ISNUMBER(D6)
#DIV/0! FALSE =ISNUMBER(D7)
Hello FALSE =ISNUMBER(D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.
If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.
If the cell or calculation is not numeric, or is blank, the result FALSE is shown.
Syntax
=ISNUMBER(CellToTest)
The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.
The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.
The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made, and then
the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.
ID No. Name Salary
1 Alan £10,000
2 Eric £12,000
3 Carol £8,000
4 Bob £15,000
5 David £12,000
Type Employee Name or ID : eric
The Salary is : £12,000
=IF(ISNUMBER(E35),VLOOKUP(E35,C29:E33,3,FALSE),VLOOKUP(E35,D29:E33,2,FALSE))
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ISODD
Page 108 of 205
ISODD
Number Is it Odd
1 1 =ISODD(C4)
2 0 =ISODD(C5)
2.5 0 =ISODD(C6)
2.6 0 =ISODD(C7)
3.5 1 =ISODD(C8)
3.6 1 =ISODD(C9)
Hello 0 =ISODD(C10)
1-Feb-98 1 =ISODD(C11)
1-Feb-96 0 =ISODD(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.
An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.
Note that decimal fractions are ignored.
Note that dates can be odd or even.
Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.
Syntax
=ISODD(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
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ISREF
Page 109 of 205
ISREF
TRUE =ISREF(A1)
FALSE =ISREF(B99)
Err:508 =ISREF(Hello)
FALSE =ISREF(10)
FALSE =ISREF(NOW())
FALSE =ISREF("A1")
Err:508 =ISREF(XX99)
What Does It Do ?
This function shows TRUE if given a cell address, or FALSE for any other type of value.
Its a bit of an odd one, and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet.
Syntax
=ISREF(ValueToTest)
The ValueToTest can be any type of data, but when used on the worksheet, it cannot be a
reference to the contents of another cell, as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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ISTEXT
Page 110 of 205
ISTEXT
Cell To Test Result
Hello TRUE =ISTEXT(D4)
1 FALSE =ISTEXT(D5)
25-Dec-98 FALSE =ISTEXT(D6)
FALSE =ISTEXT(D7)
What Does It Do ?
This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.
If the entry is text is shows TRUE.
If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.
Syntax
=ISTEXT(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.
The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.
The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made, and then
the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.
ID No. Name Salary
1 Alan £10,000
2 Eric £12,000
3 Carol £8,000
4 Bob £15,000
5 David £12,000
Type Employee Name or ID : 3
The Salary is : £8,000
=IF(ISTEXT(E33),VLOOKUP(E33,D27:E31,2,FALSE),VLOOKUP(E33,C27:E31,3,FALSE))
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LARGE
Page 111 of 205
LARGE
Values Highest Value 800 =LARGE(C4:C8,1)
120 2nd Highest Value 250 =LARGE(C4:C8,2)
800 3rd Highest Value 120 =LARGE(C4:C8,3)
100 4th Highest Value 120 =LARGE(C4:C8,4)
120 5th Highest Value 100 =LARGE(C4:C8,5)
250
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position
in the list.
Syntax
=LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine,PositionToPickFrom)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan, Feb and Mar.
Sales Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Highest Value £12,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,1)
2nd Highest Value £10,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,2)
3rd Highest Value £7,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,3)
Note
Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use
the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.
Highest £12,000 =MAX(D24:F27)
Lowest £2,000 =MIN(D24:F27)
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LCM
Page 112 of 205
LCM
Numbers
6 20 60 =LCM(C4,D4)
12 18 36 =LCM(C5,D5)
34 96 1632 =LCM(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculate the Least Common Multiple, which is the smallest number
that can be divided by each of the given numbers.
Syntax
=LCM(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number29)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Least
Common
Multiple
A B C D E F G H I J
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LEFT
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LEFT
Text Left String
Alan Jones 1 A =LEFT(C4,D4)
Alan Jones 2 Al =LEFT(C5,D5)
Alan Jones 3 Ala =LEFT(C6,D6)
Cardiff 6 Cardif =LEFT(C7,D7)
ABC123 4 ABC1 =LEFT(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a
piece of text.
Syntax
=LEFT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.
The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.
The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.
The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.
Full Name First Name
Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C27,FIND(" ",C27)-1)
Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C28,FIND(" ",C28)-1)
Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C29,FIND(" ",C29)-1)
Number Of
Characters
Required
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LEN
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LEN
Text Length
Alan Jones 10 =LEN(C4)
Bob Smith 9 =LEN(C5)
Carol Williams 14 =LEN(C6)
Cardiff 7 =LEN(C7)
ABC123 6 =LEN(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of characters, including spaces and numbers, in a piece of text.
Syntax
=LEN(Text)
Formatting
No Special formatting is needed.
Example
This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the
second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.
Original Text
Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ",C24)
This is the position of the space.
Carol Williams 8 =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24)
This is the length of the second name.
Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete
name and subtracting the position of the space.
=RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24))
This is just the second name.
Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract
the rightmost characters up to the length of
the second name.
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LOOKUP (Array)
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LOOKUP (Array)
Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97
Bob 20 90 69
Carol 30 100 45
David 40 110 51
Eric 50 120 77
Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73
Type a Name in this cell : Eric
77 =LOOKUP(F12,D4:G10)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for a piece of information in a list, and then picks an item from the
last cell in the adjacent row or column.
It always picks the data from the end of the row or column, so it is no good if you need
to pick data from part way across a list, (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP).
The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based
on the size of the table.
trying to find a match for the piece of information
you asked it to look for.
When a match is found, the function will look
across to the right most column to pick the
last entry on the row.
work in just the same way as if the table had more
rows than columns, as in the description above.
to find a match for the piece of information you
have asked it to look for.
When a match is found, the function will then look
down to the bottom cell of the column to pick
the last entry of the column.
Syntax
=LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor,RangeToLookIn)
The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.
The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.
Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors.
Example 1 Example 2
In this table there are more In this table there are more columns than rows, so
rows than columns, so the the row heading of Jan is not included in the
The March value for this person is :
If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column
If the table has the same amount of rows and columns :
the function will look down the left most column and
If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying
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LOOKUP (Array)
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column heading of Jan is lookup range.
not included in the lookup
range. Alan Bob Carol David
Jan Jan 100 100 100 100
Alan 100
Bob 100
Carol 100
David 100
Eric 100
Fred 100
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Problems
The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order, otherwise errors
will occur, either as #N/A or incorrect results.
Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically, the results of using =LOOKUP() will
be correct.
Table 2 shows the same data, but not sorted. Sometimes the results will be correct, but other
times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure.
Table 1 Table 2
Name Jan Feb Mar Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97 David 40 110 51
Bob 20 90 69 Eric 50 120 77
Carol 30 100 45 Alan 10 80 97
David 40 110 51 Bob 20 90 69
Eric 50 120 77 Carol 30 100 45
Francis 60 130 28 Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73 Gail 70 140 73
Name : Eric Name : Eric
Value : 77 Value : 77
=LOOKUP(C88,B80:E86) =LOOKUP(H88,G80:J86)
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LOOKUP (Vector)
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LOOKUP (Vector)
Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97
Bob 20 90 69
Carol 30 100 45
David 40 110 51
Eric 50 120 77
Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73
Type a Name in this cell : Eric
120 =LOOKUP(F12,D4:G10,F4:F10)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for a piece of information in a list, and then picks an item from
a second range of cells.
Syntax
=LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor,RangeToLookIn,RangeToPickFrom)
The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.
The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.
The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.
Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed
in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then
picks from the second range E38:J38.
If the name Carol is used, the match is made in the third cell of the list of names, and then
the function picks the third cell from the list of values.
RangeToLookIn RangeToPickFrom
Alan 5 10 15 20 25 30
Bob
Carol
David Type a name : Carol
Eric Value : 15
Fred =LOOKUP(G41,C38:C43,E38:J38)
Problems
The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order, otherwise errors
will occur, either as #N/A or incorrect results.
The Feb value for this person is :
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LOWER
Page 118 of 205
LOWER
Upper Case Text Lower Case
ALAN JONES alan jones =LOWER(C4)
BOB SMITH bob smith =LOWER(C5)
CAROL WILLIAMS carol williams =LOWER(C6)
CARDIFF cardiff =LOWER(C7)
ABC123 abc123 =LOWER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.
Syntax
=LOWER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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MATCH
Page 119 of 205
MATCH
Names Values
Bob 250
Alan 600
David 1000
Carol 4000
Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : 1000
The position of Alan is : 2 Value position : 3
=MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position.
It can be used with text and numbers.
It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.
Syntax
=MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch)
The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or -1.
Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown.
Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists.
If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown.
The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly.
Using -1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists.
If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.
The list must be sorted for this to work properly.
Examples 1
Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match.
Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 10
20 30 20
30 20 30
40 10 40
20 20 25
2 3 #N/A
=MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0)
Example 2
Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.
The Ascending list gives the exact match.
The Descending list gives the exact match.
The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown.
The Ascending list gives the exact match.
The Descending list gives the #NA error.
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MATCH
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Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 10
20 30 20
30 20 30
40 10 40
20 20 25
2 #N/A 2
=MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)
Example 3
Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match.
Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 40
20 30 30
30 20 20
40 10 10
20 20 25
2 3 2
=MATCH(G79,G74:G77,-1)
Example 4
The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours.
They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers.
The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list.
The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.
The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.
If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked.
After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used
to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.
Bus Size Passengers on the tour : 23
Bus 1 54 Bus size needed : 50
Bus 2 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,-1),0)
Bus 3 22
Bus 4 15
Bus 5 6
Example 5
The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils.
The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list.
The pupils scores were entered in another list.
The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.
The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number..
The Ascending list gives the #NA error.
The Descending list gives the exact match.
The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number.
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MATCH
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If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used.
The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade.
Exam Score Grade Pupil Score Grade
0 Fail Alan 60 Pass
50 Pass Bob 6 Fail
90 Merit Carol 97 Distinction
95 Distinction David 89 Pass
=INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)
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MAX
Page 122 of 205
MAX
Values Maximum
120 800 100 120 250 800 =MAX(C4:G4)
Dates Maximum
1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 4-Jul-98 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks the highest value from a list of data.
Syntax
=MAX(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for
each region, month and overall.
Sales Jan Feb Mar Region Max
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500 £6,000 =MAX(C23:E23)
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000 £7,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000 £12,000
Month Max £12,000 £7,000 £10,000
=MAX(E23:E26)
Overall Max £12,000
=MAX(C23:E26)
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MEDIAN
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MEDIAN
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Value5 Median
20 50 10 30 40 30 =MEDIAN(C4:G4)
2000 1000 10 20 8000 1000 =MEDIAN(C6:G6)
10 20 40 40 40 40 =MEDIAN(C8:G8)
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Median
20 40 30 10 25 =MEDIAN(C11:F11)
20 20 40 20 20 =MEDIAN(C13:F13)
What Does It Do ?
This function finds the median value of a group of values.
The median is not the average, it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are
larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.
If there is no exact median number in the group, the two nearest the half way point are
added and their average is used as the median.
Syntax
=MEDIAN(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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MID
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MID
Text Mid String
ABCDEDF 1 3 ABC =MID(C4,D4,E4)
ABCDEDF 2 3 BCD =MID(C5,D5,E5)
ABCDEDF 5 2 ED =MID(C6,D6,E6)
ABC-100-DEF 100 =MID(C8,5,3)
ABC-200-DEF 200 =MID(C9,5,3)
ABC-300-DEF 300 =MID(C10,5,3)
Item Size: Large Large =MID(C12,12,99)
Item Size: Medium Medium =MID(C13,12,99)
Item Size: Small Small =MID(C14,12,99)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.
The function needs to know at what point it should start, and how many characters to pick.
If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available, only the available characters
will be picked.
Syntax
=MID(OriginalText,PositionToStartPicking,NumberOfCharactersToPick)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used
by a company.
It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the
postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.
Branch ID Postal Region
DRS-CF-476 CF =MID(C35,5,2)
DRS-WA-842 WA =MID(C36,5,2)
HLT-NP-190 NP =MID(C37,5,2)
Example 2
This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length, which is inside
a piece of text which has no standard format, other than the required text is always
between two slash / symbols.
Full Branch Code Postal Region
DRS/STC/872 STC
HDRS/FC/111 FC
S/NORTH/874 NORTH
HQ/K/875 K
SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR
Start
Position
How Many
Characters
=MID(C50,FIND("/",C50)+1,FIND("/",C50,FIND("/",C50)+1)-FIND("/",C50)-1)
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MID
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Find the first /, plus 1 for the Start of the code.
Find the second /, occurring after the first /
Calculate the length of the text to extract, by subtracting the position
of the first / from the position of the second /
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MIN
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MIN
Values Minimum
120 800 100 120 250 100 =MIN(C4:G4)
Dates Maximum
1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 4-Jul-98 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C7:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.
Syntax
=MIN(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for
each region, month and overall.
Sales Jan Feb Mar Region Min
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500 £4,500 =MIN(C23:E23)
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000 £2,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000 £4,000
Month MIN £3,500 £2,000 £3,000
=MIN(E23:E26)
Overall MIN £2,000
=MIN(C23:E26)
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MINUTE
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MINUTE
Number Minute
5/12/2011 0:23 23 =MINUTE(D4)
9:15:00 PM 15 =MINUTE(D5)
0.02 28 =MINUTE(D6)
0.52 28 =MINUTE(D7)
1.52 28 =MINUTE(D8)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.
Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.
Syntax
=MINUTE(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.
Example
The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.
The time functions of =HOUR(), =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction
with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.
To update the clock press the function key F9.
Clock
Hour 00
Minute |||||||||||||||||||| 20
Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 37
=REPT("|",HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("|",MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("|",SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()),"00")
Related Information
To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.
Enter a time in hh:mm format : 2:45
The same time converted to a decimal : 2.75 =F38*24
To extract the hours as a decimal : 2 =INT(F38*24)
To extract the minutes as a decimal : 0.75 =MOD(F38*24,1)
To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.
Enter a time in decimal format : 3.75
The same time converted to hh:mm format is : 3:45 =F49/24
To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3:00 =INT(F49)/24
To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : 0:45 =MOD(F49,1)/24
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MINUTE
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The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using
the Format, Cells, Number, Time command.
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MMULT
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MMULT
What Does It Do ?
This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values.
The ranges do not have to be of equal size.
The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges.
It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination.
Syntax
=MMULT(Range1,Range2)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates.
The types of chocolate produced were Milk, Dark and White.
The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk, Dark and White.
In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.
The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce.
The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.
The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.
Chocolates in the box
Size Milk Dark White
Giant 50 50 50
Standard 30 20 10
Economy 20 5 5
Customers Orders
Giant Standard Economy
300 400 500
Quantity To Produce
Milk Dark White
37,000 25,500 21,500
{=MMULT(C32:E32,C26:E28)}
In all three cells
How It Was Done
Cells C36 to E36 were selected.
The formula =MMULT(C32:E32,C26:E28) was typed, (but not yet entered).
The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.
The formula then showed the correct result.
Getting The Dimensions Correct
The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges.
The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1.
The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2.
Example 2
The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of
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ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate.
The company has four factories, each of which has to order enough Butter, Eggs and Sugar
to ensure they can meet production targets.
Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory.
Range 2 contains the amount Butter, Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain.
The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to
meet the production target.
Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1, and the width of
the Result is the same as the width of Range 2.
Range 1 Range 2
Production Milk Dark Ingredients Butter Eggs Sugar
Factory 1 20 0 Milk 1 3 10
Factory 2 20 1 Dark 2 2 5
Factory 3 10 5
Factory 4 20 10
Result
Ingredients To Order Butter Eggs Sugar
Factory 1 20 60 200
Factory 2 22 62 205
Factory 3 20 40 125
Factory 4 40 80 250
{=MMULT(C69:D72,G69:I70)}
In all cells
Hint
To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates, set all values in Range1 and Range2
to zero 0, then change a single value in each.
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MOD
Page 131 of 205
MOD
Number Divisor Remainder
12 5 2 =MOD(C4,D4)
20 7 6 =MOD(C5,D5)
18 3 0 =MOD(C6,D6)
9 2 1 =MOD(C7,D7)
24 7 3 =MOD(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.
Syntax
=MOD(Number,Divisor)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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MODE
Page 132 of 205
MODE
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Value5 Mode
20 50 10 10 40 10 =MODE(C4:G4)
40 20 40 10 40 40 =MODE(C6:G6)
10 10 99 20 20 10 =MODE(C8:G8)
20 20 99 10 10 10 =MODE(C9:G9)
10 20 20 99 10 10 =MODE(C10:G10)
10 20 30 40 50 #VALUE! =MODE(C12:G12)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.
For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.
If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A.
When there is more than one set of duplicates, the number closest to the beginning
of the group will be used. (Which is not really an accurate answer!)
Syntax
=MODE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop.
The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.
The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this.
Order Garmet Size
001 Blouse 10 Most frequently ordered size : 10
002 Skirt 10 =MODE(D33:D52)
003 Shirt 8
004 Blouse 10
005 Skirt 12 Count of size 8 : 6
006 Dress 8 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"8")
007 Shirt 10
008 Blouse 10 Count of size 10 : 11
009 Dress 8 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"10")
010 Shirt 10
011 Dress 12 Count of size 12 : 3
012 Skirt 12 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"12")
013 Skirt 10
014 Shirt 10
015 Dress 8
016 Shirt 10
017 Blouse 10
018 Blouse 8
019 Dress 10
020 Skirt 8
Note
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MODE
Page 133 of 205
If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : 9.7
This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size!
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MONTH
Page 134 of 205
MONTH
Original Date Month
1-Jan-98 1 =MONTH(C4)
1-Jan-98 December =MONTH(C5)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the month from a complete date.
Syntax
=MONTH(Date)
Formatting
Normally the result will be a number, but this can be formatted to show the actual
month by using Format,Cells,Number,Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.
Example
The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.
Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy 3/25/1962
You were born in January =MONTH(F20)
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MROUND
Page 135 of 205
MROUND
Number Multiple
110 50 100 =MROUND(C4,D4)
120 50 100 =MROUND(C5,D5)
150 50 150 =MROUND(C6,D6)
160 50 150 =MROUND(C7,D7)
170 50 150 =MROUND(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=MROUND(NumberToRound,MultipleToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Rounded
Value
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N
Page 136 of 205
N
Original Converted
1 1 =N(C4)
3 1/2 3.5 =N(C5)
3.5 3.5 =N(C6)
3.50% 0.04 =N(C7)
25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8)
TRUE 1 =N(C9)
FALSE 0 =N(C10)
Hello 0 =N(C11)
0 =N(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.
Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.
Excel does not really need this function, due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way
naturally. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.
Syntax
=N(NumericEntry)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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NA
Page 137 of 205
NA
#N/A =NA()
Value Test
10 11 =IF(ISBLANK(C6),NA(),C6+1)
#N/A =IF(ISBLANK(C7),NA(),C7+1)
30 31 =IF(ISBLANK(C8),NA(),C8+1)
Sales
North 100
South #N/A =NA()
East #N/A =NA()
West 200
Total #N/A =SUM(D11:D14)
What Does It Do ?
This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available.
It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.
When the =NA() is used, any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.
It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.
Syntax
=NA()
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example
The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.
The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.
The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.
Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered, the Wage is still calculated.
On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid.
Table 1
Salary Tax % Pay
Alan 1000 25% 750 =C39-C39*D39
Bob 1000 1000 =C40-C40*D40
Carol 1000 20% 800 =C41-C41*D41
Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a
reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.
Table 2
Salary Tax % Pay
Alan 1000 25% 750 =C49-C49*D49
Bob 1000 #N/A #N/A =C50-C50*D50
Carol 1000 20% 800 =C51-C51*D51
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NETWORKDAYS
Page 138 of 205
NETWORKDAYS
Start Date End Date Work Days
1-Mar-98 7-Mar-98 5 =NETWORKDAYS(C4,D4)
25-Apr-98 30-Jul-98 69 =NETWORKDAYS(C5,D5)
24-Dec-98 5-Jan-99 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.
It will exclude weekends and any holidays.
Syntax
=NETWORKDAYS(StartDate,EndDate,Holidays)
Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation, such as Xmas
and Bank holidays.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Note
The calculation does not include the last day. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will
give a result of 4. To correct this add 1 to the result. =NETWORKDAYS(Start,End,Holidays)+1
Example
The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.
Start Date End Date Work Days
Mon 02-Mar-98 Fri 06-Mar-98 5 =NETWORKDAYS(B28,C28,C33:C37)
Mon 02-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 10 =NETWORKDAYS(B29,C29,C33:C37)
Mon 27-Apr-98 Fri 01-May-98 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B30,C30,C33:C37)
Holidays
Bank Holiday 1-May-98
Xmas 25-Dec-98
New Year 1-Jan-97
New Year 1-Jan-98
New Year 1-Jan-99
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NORTH
Page 139 of 205
Northern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Alan
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 10 20 30 60
Bob 40 50 60 150
Carol 70 80 90 240
Total 120 150 180 450
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NOT
Page 140 of 205
NOT
Cells To Test Result
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C4>D4)
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C5=D5)
10 20 FALSE =NOT(C6<D6)
1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 TRUE =NOT(C7>D7)
Hello Goodbye TRUE =NOT(C8=D8)
Hello Hello FALSE =NOT(C9=D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function performs a test to see if the test fails. (A type of reverse logic).
If the test fails, the result is TRUE.
If the test is met, then the result is FALSE.
Syntax
=NOT(TestToPerform)
The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed.
The date the book was Taken out is entered.
The period of the Loan is entered.
The date the book was returned is entered.
The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within
the correct time, by adding the Loan value to the Taken date.
If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown, otherwise OK is shown.
Taken Loan Returned Status
1-Jan-98 14 5-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33),"Overdue","OK")
1-Jan-98 14 15-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34),"Overdue","OK")
1-Jan-98 14 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35),"Overdue","OK")
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NOW
Page 141 of 205
NOW
The current Date and Time
5/12/2011 0:24 =NOW()
05/12/11 12:24 AM =NOW()
What Does It Do?
This function shows the current date and time. The result will be updated each time the
worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet.
Syntax
=NOW()
Formatting
The result will be shown as a date and time. If it is formatted to show as a number
the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.
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ODD
Page 142 of 205
ODD
Number
2 3 =ODD(C4)
2.4 3 =ODD(C5)
2.9 3 =ODD(C6)
3 3 =ODD(C7)
3.4 5 =ODD(C8)
3.9 5 =ODD(C9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.
Syntax
=ODD(NumberToBeRounded)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Rounded To
Next Odd
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OR
Page 143 of 205
OR
Order No. Cost
AB001 1000 Cash £- =IF(OR(E4="Visa",E4="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa £5 =IF(OR(E5="Visa",E5="Delta"),5,0)
AB003 2000 Cheque £- =IF(OR(E6="Visa",E6="Delta"),5,0)
AB004 5000 Delta £5 =IF(OR(E7="Visa",E7="Delta"),5,0)
What Does It Do?
This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.
It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.
Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().
Syntax
=OR(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.
Formatting
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.
Example
The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.
A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.
The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.
Order No. Cost
AB001 1000 Cash £- =IF(OR(E27="Visa",E27="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa £5
AB003 2000 Cheque £-
AB004 5000 Delta £5
Payment
Type
Handling
Charge
Payment
Type
Handling
Charge
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Ordering Stock
Page 144 of 205
Ordering Stock
This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.
Scenario
A garage fits exhaust systems.
The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.
Each time an order is made for new stock, there is a fixed administrative cost.
The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.
Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.
The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.
Objective
Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.
Input Data
Cost of a single Exhaust system : £75
Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock. (As a % of the stock value) : 12%
Quantity of Exhausts used per day : 10
Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : £25
Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : 0.5
Ordering Intervals to evaluate. (Expressed in Days) : 2
Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : 200 1%
Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : 750 5%
Output
1 10 £750 £- 365 £9,125 £45 £9,170 -
2 20 £1,500 £- 183 £4,575 £90 £4,665 -
4 40 £3,000 £- 92 £2,300 £180 £2,480 -
6 60 £4,500 £- 61 £1,525 £270 £1,795 -
8 80 £6,000 £- 46 £1,150 £360 £1,510 -
10 100 £7,500 £- 37 £925 £450 £1,375 -
12 120 £9,000 £- 31 £775 £540 £1,315 -
14 140 £10,500 £- 27 £675 £630 £1,305 -
16 160 £12,000 £- 23 £575 £720 £1,295 -
18 180 £13,500 £- 21 £525 £810 £1,335 -
20 200 £15,000 £150 19 £475 £900 £1,225 Best
22 220 £16,500 £165 17 £425 £990 £1,250 -
24 240 £18,000 £180 16 £400 £1,080 £1,300 -
26 260 £19,500 £195 15 £375 £1,170 £1,350 -
28 280 £21,000 £210 14 £350 £1,260 £1,400 -
30 300 £22,500 £225 13 £325 £1,350 £1,450 -
32 320 £24,000 £240 12 £300 £1,440 £1,500 -
34 340 £25,500 £255 11 £275 £1,530 £1,550 -
36 360 £27,000 £270 11 £275 £1,620 £1,625 -
38 380 £28,500 £285 10 £250 £1,710 £1,675 -
40 400 £30,000 £300 10 £250 £1,800 £1,750 -
42 420 £31,500 £315 9 £225 £1,890 £1,800 -
44 440 £33,000 £330 9 £225 £1,980 £1,875 -
Ordering
Interval
In Days
Quantity
Per Order
Order
Value
Order
Discount
Orders
Per Year
Annual
Admin
Cost
Annual
Ware
house
Costs
Annual
Total
The Best
Ordering
Interval
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Ordering Stock
Page 145 of 205
46 460 £34,500 £345 8 £200 £2,070 £1,925 -
48 480 £36,000 £360 8 £200 £2,160 £2,000 -
50 500 £37,500 £375 8 £200 £2,250 £2,075 -
52 520 £39,000 £390 8 £200 £2,340 £2,150 -
54 540 £40,500 £405 7 £175 £2,430 £2,200 -
56 560 £42,000 £420 7 £175 £2,520 £2,275 -
58 580 £43,500 £435 7 £175 £2,610 £2,350 -
60 600 £45,000 £450 7 £175 £2,700 £2,425 -
Things To Try
Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.
Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.
Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.
Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.
Explanation
Column A Ordering Interval In Days
The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.
This is the smallest ordering period, which would require stock to be ordered every day.
The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.
The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create
a list of values of the same interval.
Column B Quantity Per Order
This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.
Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay
Column C Order Value
This is the value of the Order before any discount.
Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust
Column D Order Discount
The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.
The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the
Price Break values set by the supplier.
Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount
The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.
If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break, but below
the second Price Break, then the first Price Break discount is used.
If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break,
the second Price Break discount is used.
If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount, zero discount is used.
Column E Orders Per Year
This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval.
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
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Ordering Stock
Page 146 of 205
With an interval of 1, there will have to be 365 orders.
Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval
This calculation may give results which are decimal, such as 2.3
This decimal will cause problems, due to the fact that the number of
orders must always be a whole number.
The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to
the next highest whole number.
=CEILING(365/A29,1)
Column F Annual Admin Costs
This is the administration costs involved in making the orders.
Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost
=E29*$G$20
Column G Annual Warehouse Costs
This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse.
It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the
quantity ordered.
Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost
=(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18
Column H Annual Total
This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts, based upon how frequently the
orders are made.
It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts, as the manager only
wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and
storing the exhaust systems.
However, the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some
of the overheads.
Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts - OrderDiscount
=F29+G29-D29
Column I The Best Ordering Interval
This shows the Best ordering interval, giving the lowest annual overheads.
It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H.
If the two values match the word Best is shown, otherwise a dash is shown.
=IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59),"Best","-")
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PACKERS
Page 147 of 205
Box size Sample Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4
Small 1 10 10 10 10
Medium 1 20 20 20 21
Large 1 30 28 35 30
Small 2 11 9 10 10
Medium 2 21 20 0 20
Large 2 31 28 30 30
Small 3 8 10 12 10
Medium 3 22 20 20 19
Large 3 32 28 30 30
Box size Sample Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4
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PERMUT
Page 148 of 205
PERMUT
Pool Of Items Items In A Group Permutations
4 2 12 =PERMUT(C4,D4)
4 3 24 =PERMUT(C5,D5)
10 4 5040 =PERMUT(C6,D6)
26 6 165,765,600 =PERMUT(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items.
The internal order is significant, so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.
It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.
Syntax
=PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom,ItemsInAGroup)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can
be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.
Letter In Alphabet 26
Password Size 8
Permutations 62,990,928,000
In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A, B, C and D, the following
twelve permutations would be possible.
ABCD
Password 1 AB Password 7 BA
Password 2 AC Password 8 CA
Password 3 AD Password 9 DA
Password 4 BC Password 10 CB
Password 5 BD Password 11 DB
Password 6 CD Password 12 DC
A B C D E F G H
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PI
Page 149 of 205
PI
π
3.14159265358979 =PI()
What Does It Do ?
This function is equal to the value of Pi.
It is correct to 15 decimal places.
It does not need any input, it is a self contained function.
Syntax
=PI()
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
To calculate the area of a circle.
Radius Area
5 78.54 =PI()*(C21^2)
25 1963.50
A B C D E F G H I
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POWER
Page 150 of 205
POWER
Number Power Result
3 2 9 =POWER(C4,D4)
3 4 81 =POWER(C5,D5)
5 2 25 =POWER(C6,D6)
5 4 625 =POWER(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function raises a number to a user specified power.
It is the same as using the ^ operator, such as 3^4, which result is 81.
Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.
Syntax
=POWER(NumberToBeRaised,Power)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
To calculate the area of a circle.
Radius Area
5 78.54 =PI()*POWER(C22,2)
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PRODUCT
Page 151 of 205
PRODUCT
Numbers Product
2 3 6 =PRODUCT(C4,D4)
5 10 50 =PRODUCT(C5:D5)
3 7 210 =PRODUCT(C6:D6,10)
6300 =PRODUCT(C4:D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function multiples a group of numbers together.
It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7, which results in 6300.
Syntax
=PRODUCT(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number30)
or
=PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers)
or
=PRODUCT(Number1,Range,Number2...)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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PROPER
Page 152 of 205
PROPER
Original Text Proper
alan jones Alan Jones =PROPER(C4)
bob smith Bob Smith =PROPER(C5)
caRol wILLIAMS Carol Williams =PROPER(C6)
cardiff Cardiff =PROPER(C7)
ABC123 Abc123 =PROPER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase, and all subsequent letters
are converted to lower case.
Syntax
=PROPER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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QUARTILE
Page 153 of 205
QUARTILE
Values Quarter No. Quartile
1 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E4)
25 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E5)
50 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E6)
75 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E7)
100 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E8)
Values Quarter No. Quartile
817 104 640 767 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H12)
748 756 369 703 1 285.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H13)
372 993 294 261 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H14)
487 384 185 491 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H15)
140 607 894 182 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H16)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the
upper limits of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.
The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value, which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.
The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value, which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.
Syntax
=QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined,QuartileValue)
The QuartileValue can only be 0,1,2,3 or 4.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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QUOTIENT
Page 154 of 205
QUOTIENT
Number Divisor Result
12 5 2 =QUOTIENT(C4,D4)
20 3 6 =QUOTIENT(C5,D5)
46 15 3 =QUOTIENT(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number.
It ignores any remainder, only showing the whole number.
Syntax
=QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided,Divisor)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of
crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.
The merchant can only sell full crates.
Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. This however shows
decimal fractions which are not needed.
Table 1
Item Crates Needed
Wine 126 12 10.5 =D28/E28
Champagne 200 8 25
Rum 15 4 3.75
Beer 250 20 12.5
Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to
give the correct result.
Table 2
Item Crates Needed
Wine 126 12 10 =QUOTIENT(D39,E39)
Champagne 200 8 25
Rum 15 6 2
Beer 250 20 12
Bottles
To Pack
Bottles
Per Crate
Bottles
To Pack
Bottles
Per Crate
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RAND
Page 155 of 205
RAND
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.
0.5 =RAND()
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10
8.81 =RAND()*10
Random between 5 and 10.
6.69 =RAND()*(10-5)+5
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.
The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates, or when F9 is pressed.
Syntax
=RAND()
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly
sort list of information.
A list of cards has been entered in column C, and =RAND() in column D.
By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data, Sort or the Sort button
the cards will be shuffled.
The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.
Card Random Lottery Random
Clubs 8 0.01 29 0.33
Clubs 6 0.71 34 0.97
Diamond 9 0.41 30 0.07
Spades 13 0.01 41 0.87
Clubs 9 0.52 40 0.67
Diamond 7 0.93 37 0.15
Diamond 4 0.09 26 0.54
Clubs 10 0.52 32 0.33
Spades 3 0.52 21 0.11
Hearts 6 0.07 19 0.38
Hearts 4 0.51 7 0.23
Diamond 8 0.51 10 0.77
Hearts 11 0.91 16 0.35
Clubs 3 0.55 8 0.65
Clubs 13 0.79 48 0.64
Spades 5 0.28 43 0.77
Diamond 3 0.79 44 0.89
Spades 2 0.88 4 0.41
Diamond 6 0.5 3 0.4
Clubs 5 0.35 45 0.03
Spades 1 0.18 47 0.37
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RAND
Page 156 of 205
Clubs 12 0.81 49 0.11
Hearts 10 0.99 35 0.42
Hearts 13 0.02 27 0.5
Spades 7 0.87 1 0.98
Spades 6 0.36 13 0.44
Diamond 12 0.19 31 0.09
Hearts 3 0.55 5 0.2
Hearts 5 0.87 18 0.08
Hearts 8 0.07 39 0.89
Hearts 1 0.89 23 0.98
Diamond 13 0.88 12 0.41
Hearts 9 0.78 11 0.86
Clubs 4 0.3 20 0.05
Diamond 5 0.88 33 0.28
Spades 4 0.29 42 0.53
Clubs 1 0.22 24 0.2
Spades 8 0.98 2 0.82
Hearts 7 0.81 14 0.86
Diamond 1 0.74 25 0.32
Clubs 2 0.05 9 0.2
Hearts 2 0.32 38 0.09
Diamond 11 0.25 15 0.08
Clubs 7 0.96 28 0.55
Spades 12 0.87 17 0.74
Spades 10 0.04 6 0.73
Clubs 11 0.23 22 0.32
Diamond 2 0.66 46 0.63
Diamond 10 0.93 36 0.13
Spades 9 0.72
Spades 11 0.66
Hearts 12 0.5
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RANDBETWEEN
Page 157 of 205
RANDBETWEEN
Low High Random
5 10 9 =RANDBETWEEN(C4,D4)
1 49 1 =RANDBETWEEN(C5,D5)
What Does It Do ?
This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.
The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed.
Syntax
=RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit,HighLimit)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six
numbers to use for the National Lottery.
Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique, the same number
could be generated twice or more.
Lottery Numbers
1 49 41 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 1
4 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 2
Press function Key 1 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 3
F9 to recalculate. 40 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 4
26 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 5
5 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 6
1 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Bonus ball
Duplicates! Spin again
{=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30,E24:E30))<>7,"Duplicates! Spin again","All OK")}
This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.
It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
The Winning
Ticket!
A B C D E F G H I
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RANK
Page 158 of 205
RANK
Values
7 4 =RANK(C4,C4:C8)
4 5 =RANK(C5,C4:C8)
25 1 =RANK(C6,C4:C8)
8 3 =RANK(C7,C4:C8)
16 2 =RANK(C8,C4:C8)
Values
7 2 =RANK(C11,C11:C15,1)
4 1 =RANK(C12,C11:C15,1)
25 5 =RANK(C13,C11:C15,1)
8 3 =RANK(C14,C11:C15,1)
16 4 =RANK(C15,C11:C15,1)
Values
10 5 =RANK(C18,C18:C22)
30 2 =RANK(C19,C18:C22)
20 4 =RANK(C20,C18:C22)
30 2 =RANK(C21,C18:C22)
40 1 =RANK(C22,C18:C22)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.
A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.
The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.
If there are duplicate values in the list, they will be assigned the same rank. Subsequent ranks
would not follow on sequentially, but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.
If the numbers 30, 20, 20 and 10 were ranked, 30 is ranked as 1, both 20's are ranked as 2, and
the 10 would be ranked as 4.
Value Rank
30 1 =RANK(B34,B34:B37)
20 2 =RANK(B35,B34:B37)
20 2 =RANK(B36,B34:B37)
10 4 =RANK(B37,B34:B37)
Syntax
=RANK(NumberToRank,ListOfNumbers,RankOrder)
The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.
Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. (This is optional, leaving it out has the same effect).
Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
Ranking Position
High to Low
Ranking Position
Low to High
Ranking Position
High to Low
A B C D E F G H I
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RANK
Page 159 of 205
The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.
The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.
Athlete Time Race Position
John 1:30 4 =RANK(C53,C53:C58,1)
Alan 1:45 6 =RANK(C54,C53:C58,1)
David 1:02 1 =RANK(C55,C53:C58,1)
Brian 1:36 5 =RANK(C56,C53:C58,1)
Sue 1:27 3 =RANK(C57,C53:C58,1)
Alex 1:03 2 =RANK(C58,C53:C58,1)
A B C D E F G H I
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REPLACE
Page 160 of 205
REPLACE
Original Text
ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4,D4,E4,F4)
ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5,D5,E5,F5)
ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6,D6,E6,F6)
ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7,D7,E7,F7)
What Does It Do ?
This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.
You need to specify where the replacement should start, how many characters to
remove and what the new replacement text should be.
Syntax
=REPLACE(OriginalText,StartPosition,NumberOfCharactersToReplace,NewText)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Start
Position
Characters
To Replace
New
Character
Modified
Text
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REPT
Page 161 of 205
REPT
A 3 AAA =REPT(C4,D4)
AB 3 ABABAB =REPT(C5,D5)
- 10 ---------- =REPT(C6,D6)
| 10 |||||||||| =REPT(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.
You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it.
Syntax
=REPT(TextToRepeat,Repetitions)
The maximum number of repetitions is 200.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.
The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales, but this is divided by 100 to scale down the
number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.
Month Sales
Jan £1,000 ||||||||||||||||||||
Feb £5,000 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
Mar £3,000 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
Apr £2,000 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
=REPT("||",D29/100)
Example 2
The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.
The time functions of =HOUR(), =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction
with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.
To update the clock press the function key F9.
Clock
Hour 00
Minute |||||||||||||||||||| 20
Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 54
=REPT("|",HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("|",MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("|",SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()),"00")
Text To
Repeat
Number Of
Repeats
Repeated
Text
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RIGHT
Page 162 of 205
RIGHT
Alan Jones 1 s =RIGHT(C4,D4)
Alan Jones 2 es =RIGHT(C5,D5)
Alan Jones 3 nes =RIGHT(C6,D6)
Cardiff 6 ardiff =RIGHT(C7,D7)
ABC123 4 C123 =RIGHT(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a
piece of text.
Syntax
=RIGHT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.
The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.
The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from
the overall length of the full name.
The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.
Full Name Second Name
Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28,LEN(C28)-FIND(" ",C28))
Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29,LEN(C29)-FIND(" ",C29))
Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30,LEN(C30)-FIND(" ",C30))
Original
Text
Number Of
Characters
Required
Right
String
A B C D E F G H I
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ROMAN
Page 163 of 205
ROMAN
Number Roman
1 I =ROMAN(C4)
2 II =ROMAN(C5)
3 III =ROMAN(C6)
5 V =ROMAN(C7)
10 X =ROMAN(C8)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C9)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C10,0)
1998 MLMVLIII =ROMAN(C11,1)
1998 MXMVIII =ROMAN(C12,2)
1998 MVMIII =ROMAN(C13,3)
1998 MVMIII =ROMAN(C14,4)
1998 MLMVLIII =ROMAN(C15,TRUE)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C16,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.
Syntax
=ROMAN(NormalNumber,RomanNumberFormat)
The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.
0 is Classic. This is used if no format is specified.
1 is more Concise.
2 is even more Concise.
3 is even more Concise still.
4 is Simplified.
TRUE is Classic
FALSE is Simplified
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.
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ROUND
Page 164 of 205
ROUND
Number
1.48 0 1 =ROUND(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.5 =ROUND(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.48 =ROUND(C6,D6)
13643.48 -1 13640 =ROUND(C7,D7)
13643.48 -2 13600 =ROUND(C8,D8)
13643.48 -3 14000 =ROUND(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUND(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Number
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ROUNDDOWN
Page 165 of 205
ROUNDDOWN
Number
1.48 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6,D6)
13643.48 -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7,D7)
13643.48 -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8,D8)
13643.48 -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Down
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ROUNDUP
Page 166 of 205
ROUNDUP
Number
1.48 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.5 =ROUNDUP(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6,D6)
13643.48 -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7,D7)
13643.48 -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8,D8)
13643.48 -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUNDUPNumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Up
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SECOND
Page 167 of 205
SECOND
Number Second
12/May/11 00:24:44 44 =SECOND(C4)
12:00:00 PM 0 =SECOND(C5)
0.50 0 =SECOND(C6)
0.51 24 =SECOND(C7)
1.51 24 =SECOND(C8)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.
Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.
Syntax
=SECOND(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.
Example
The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.
The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.
The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.
The Duration of the call is entered.
The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes.
The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.
The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5.
The Cost of the call is then calculated.
Cost Per Second : £0.01
Billed Duration
Duration Minutes Seconds Cost
0:01:08 1 10 £0.70
0:02:03 2 5 £1.25
0:01:47 1 50 £1.10
=CEILING(SECOND(C36),5)
A B C D E F G H
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SIGN
Page 168 of 205
SIGN
Value
10 1 =SIGN(C4)
20 1 =SIGN(C5)
0 0 =SIGN(C6)
-10 -1 =SIGN(C7)
-20 -1 =SIGN(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative.
If the value is positive the result is 1.
If the value is negative the result is -1.
If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.
Syntax
=SIGN(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Positive or
Negative
A B C D E F G H I J
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SLN
Page 169 of 205
SLN
Cost £12,000
Salvage £2,000
Life 4
Straight Line Depreciation £2,500 =SLN(F3,F4,F5)
Purchase Value Of A New Car £20,000
Second Hand Value £8,000
Number Of Years Ownership 6
Annual Straight Line Depreciation £2,000 =SLN(F9,F10,F11)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item.
(Also known as Fixed Instalment method).
The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific
period of time. The result is a uniform depreciation value.
An example would be if you bought a new car for £20,000, then kept it for 6 years.
At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8,000.
The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20,000 - £8,000 which is £12,000.
Because you owned the car for 6 years, the SLN is calculated as £12,000 / 6 which is £2,000.
Syntax
=SLN(OriginalCost,SellingPrice,LengthOfOwnership)
The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period, days, months or years.
However, the SLN which is calculated will, be for that time, specifying 2 years ownership
as 24 months will give an SLN per month.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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SMALL
Page 170 of 205
SMALL
Values Lowest Value 100 =SMALL(C4:C8,1)
120 2nd Lowest Value 120 =SMALL(C4:C8,2)
800 3rd Lowest Value 120 =SMALL(C4:C8,3)
100 4th Lowest Value 250 =SMALL(C4:C8,4)
120 5th Lowest Value 800 =SMALL(C4:C8,5)
250
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position
in the list.
Syntax
=SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine,PositionToPickFrom)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan, Feb and Mar.
Sales Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Lowest Value £2,000 =SMALL(D24:F27,1)
2nd Lowest Value £3,000 =SMALL(D24:F27,2)
3rd Lowest Value £3,500 =SMALL(D24:F27,3)
Note
Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use
the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.
Highest £12,000 =MAX(D24:F27)
Lowest £2,000 =MIN(D24:F27)
A B C D E F G H I J
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SOUTH
Page 171 of 205
Southern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 100 200 300 600
Bob 400 500 600 1500
Carol 700 800 900 2400
Total 1200 1500 1800 4500
A B C D E F G H I J
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STDEV
Page 172 of 205
STDEV
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.5 0.5 1.29
=STDEV(C4:C7) =STDEV(E4:E7) =STDEV(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.
A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.
Syntax
=STDEV(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.
At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production
of each machine.
The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented
a sample of the complete days production.
The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0816 =STDEV(D34:G34)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0500 =STDEV(D35:G35)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.1291 =STDEV(D36:G36)
The smallest deviation is : 0.0500 =MIN(H34:H36)
The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =MIN(H34:H36)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
find the machine name.
A B C D E F G H I J K
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STDEVP
Page 173 of 205
STDEVP
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.43 0.43 1.12
=STDEVP(C4:C7) =STDEVP(E4:E7) =STDEVP(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.
The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.
Syntax
=STDEVP(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.
The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes
represented the entire test run.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. ????????????????????
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0707 =STDEVP(D32:G32)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0433 =STDEVP(D33:G33)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.1118 =STDEVP(D34:G34)
The smallest variance is : 0.0433 =MIN(H32:H34)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =(MIN(H32:H34)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
find the machine name.
A B C D E F G H I J K
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SUBSTITUTE
Page 174 of 205
SUBSTITUTE
Original Text Updated Text
ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4,C4,D4)
ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5,C5,D5)
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6,C6,D6)
Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7,C7,D7)
Original Text Updated Text
ABCABCABC ABC hello 3 ABCABChello
Sand and Cement and & 2 Sand & Cement
=SUBSTITUTE(B10,C10,D10,E10)
=SUBSTITUTE(B11,C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text.
It can either replace all occurrences of the text, or a specific instance.
The function is case sensitive.
Syntax
=SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText,TextToRemove,TextToInsert,InstanceToUse)
The InstanceToUse is optional, if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions
such as =UPPER(), =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.
Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.
Table 1
Original Text Updated Text
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area
Region Area Northern region
Northern Region region Area Northern Region
Northern Region Region area Northern area
Northern Region region area Northern Region
=SUBSTITUTE(B39,C39,D39)
Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.
Table 2
Original Text Updated Text
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area
Region Area Northern Area
Northern Region region Area Northern Area
Northern Region Region area Northern Area
Northern Region region area Northern Area
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Instance To
Be Replaced
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Northern region
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Northern region
A B C D E F G H
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SUBSTITUTE
Page 175 of 205
=SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50),PROPER(C50),PROPER(D50))
A B C D E F G H
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SUM
Page 176 of 205
SUM
Horizontal
100 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4)
Vertical
100
200
300
600 =SUM(C7:C9)
Single Cells
100 300 600 =SUM(C13,D14,E13)
200
Multiple Ranges
100 400
200 500
3000 600
4800 =SUM(C17:C19,E17:E19)
Functions
100 400
200 500
300 600
800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25),MAX(E23:E25))
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a total from a list of numbers.
It can be used either horizontally or vertically.
The numbers can be in single cells, ranges are from other functions.
Syntax
=SUM(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30).
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.
This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols.
The formula is actually doing more work than needed.
It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).
100
200
300
600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) Wrong!
=SUM(C48:C50) Correct
=C48+C49+C50 Correct
A B C D E F G H I J
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SUM_as_Running_Total
Page 177 of 205
SUM (Running Total)
Using =SUM() For A Running Total
Month Sales
Jan 10 10 =SUM($D$7:D7)
Feb 50 60 =SUM($D$7:D8)
Mar 30 90 =SUM($D$7:D9)
Apr 20 110 =SUM($D$7:D10)
May 110 =SUM($D$7:D11)
Jun 110 =SUM($D$7:D12)
Jul 110 =SUM($D$7:D13)
Aug 110 =SUM($D$7:D14)
Sep 110 =SUM($D$7:D15)
Oct 110 =SUM($D$7:D16)
Nov 110 =SUM($D$7:D17)
Dec 110 =SUM($D$7:D18)
Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.
It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static
as the formula is copied down. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all
the numbers from the first cell down.
The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value
by using the =IF() function.
Month Sales
Jan 10 10 =SUM(IF(D7,$D$7:D7,0))
Feb 50 60 =SUM(IF(D8,$D$7:D8,0))
Mar 30 90 =SUM(IF(D9,$D$7:D9,0))
Apr 20 110 =SUM(IF(D10,$D$7:D10,0))
May 0 =SUM(IF(D11,$D$7:D11,0))
Jun 0 =SUM(IF(D12,$D$7:D12,0))
Jul 0 The =SUM() only takes place when
Aug 0 there is data in column D.
Sep 0 Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.
Oct 0
Nov 0
Dec 0
Running
Total
Running
Total
A B C D E F G H I J
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SUM_with_OFFSET
Page 178 of 205
SUM and the =OFFSET function
Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.
An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year, such as
the last 3 months in relation to the current date.
One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered, but this
would be time consuming and open to human error.
A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by
using the =OFFSET() function.
The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.
By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to
be totalled, we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET()
will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled.
The =OFFSET() needs to know three things;
1. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.
2. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.
3. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
10 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which
results in the range being summed as E24:E24.
410 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out
cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.
910 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out
cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.
Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula
The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range
which needs to be totalled.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
400 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has
been offset by just 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the
range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.
900 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 2 columns. The result is the range F51:G51 which
=SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24,0,0))
=SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29,0,1))
=SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34,0,2))
=SUM(OFFSET(E45,0,1):OFFSET(E45,0,1))
=SUM(OFFSET(E51,0,1):OFFSET(E51,0,2))
A B C D E F G H I J
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SUM_with_OFFSET
Page 179 of 205
is then totalled.
1500 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 3 columns. The result is the range F57:H57 which
is then totalled.
Example
The following table shows five months of data.
To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.
The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce
a range which can be totalled.
Type in the Start month. Feb-98
Type in the End month. Mar-98
Total Jan-98 Feb-98 Mar-98 Apr-98 May-98
900 10 400 500 600 700
1020 15 20 1000 2000 3000
13 5 3 10 800 900
=SUM(OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)))
Explanation
The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.
The formula displayed below are only dummies, but they will update as you enter
dates into cells F71 and F72.
Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)) )
This is the actual formula entered by the user.
Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(3)) )
This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.
In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.
These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.
Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,2) : OFFSET(D79,0,3) )
This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.
Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 )
This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses
to be used as a range for the =SUM function.
=SUM(OFFSET(E57,0,1):OFFSET(E57,0,3))
A B C D E F G H I J
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SUMIF
Page 180 of 205
SUMIF
Item Date Cost
Brakes 1-Jan-98 80
Tyres 10-May-98 25
Brakes 1-Feb-98 80
Service 1-Mar-98 150
Service 5-Jan-98 300
Window 1-Jun-98 50
Tyres 1-Apr-98 200
Tyres 1-Mar-98 100
Clutch 1-May-98 250
Total cost of all Brakes bought. 160 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12)
Total cost of all Tyres bought. 325 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Tyres",E4:E12)
Total of items costing £100 or above. 1000 =SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100")
Total of item typed in following cell. service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12,E18,E4:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.
Syntax
=SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,CriteriaToBeMatched,RangeOfValuesToTotal)
=SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.
It then identifies the entries for Brakes.
It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12
=SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12.
If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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SUMPRODUCT
Page 181 of 205
SUMPRODUCT
Item Sold price
Tyres 5 100
Filters 2 10
Bulbs 3 2
Total Sales Value : 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6,E4:E6)
What Does It Do ?
This function uses at least two columns of values.
The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.
The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.
Syntax
=SUMPRODUCT(Range1, Range, Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.
The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock, and the potential
value of the stock when it is sold, takinging into account the markup percentage.
The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to
calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.
The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with
the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price, to calculate the potential value of the
stock if it is all sold.
Product Markup
Red Wine 10 £120 10 £12.00 25% £15.00
White Wine 8 £130 10 £13.00 25% £16.25
Champagne 5 £200 6 £33.33 80% £60.00
Beer 50 £24 12 £2.00 20% £2.40
Lager 100 £30 12 £2.50 25% £3.13
=D39/E39 =F39+F39*G39
Total Value Of Stock : £7,440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,D35:D39)
Total Selling Price Of Stock : £9,790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,E35:E39,H35:H39)
Profit : £2,350 =E44-E43
Cases In
Stock
Case
Price
Bottles
In Case
Bottle
Cost
Bottle Selling
Price
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SYD
Page 182 of 205
SYD
Purchase Value Of A New Car £20,000
Second Hand Value £8,000
Number Of Years Ownership 6
Deprecation in year 1 £3,429 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,1)
Deprecation in year 2 £2,857 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,2)
Deprecation in year 3 £2,286 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,3)
Deprecation in year 4 £1,714 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,4)
Deprecation in year 5 £1,143 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,5)
Deprecation in year 6 £571 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,6)
Total Depreciation : £12,000 =SUM(F7:F12)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life, using the sum of the
years digits.
The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.
What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ?
The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.
A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.
Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.
Year 3 is 50% of 6, year 2 is 33% of 6, year 1 is 17% 6.
The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages.
A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500, 33% being £3000, 17% being £1500.
£9,000
1 17% £1,500
2 33% £3,000
3 50% £4,500
As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are
inverted, year 1 is $4500, year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.
Example 1
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years : 3
As % Of Total Depreciation
Depreciation in Year 1 : £4,500 ===> 0.5
Depreciation in Year 2 : £3,000 ===> 0.33
Depreciation in Year 3 : £1,500 ===> 0.17
=SYD(E39,E40,E41,3)
1. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits, 1+2+3=6.
2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation, £10000-£1000=£9000.
3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits, £9000/6=£1500.
4. Invert the year digits, 1,2,3 becomes 3,2,1.
5. Multiply 3,2,1 by £1500 to get £4500, £3000, £1500, these values are the depreciation
values for each of the three years in the life of the item.
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SYD
Page 183 of 205
Example 2
The same example using 4 years.
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years : 4
As % Of Total Depriciation
Depreciation in Year 1 : £3,600 0.4
Depreciation in Year 2 : £2,700 0.3
Depreciation in Year 3 : £1,800 0.2
Depreciation in Year 4 : £900 0.1
Total Depreciation : £9,000 100%
Example 3
This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : 7
As % Of Total Depriciation
Year 1 £2,250 25%
Year 2 £1,929 21%
Year 3 £1,607 18%
Year 4 £1,286 14%
Year 5 £964 11%
Year 6 £643 7%
Year 7 £321 4%
Year
Year
Year
£9,000 100%
Syntax
=SYD(OriginalCost,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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T
Page 184 of 205
T
Cell To Test Result
Hello Hello =T(D4)
10 =T(D5)
1-Jan-98 =T(D6)
=T(D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not.
If the value is text, then the text is the result of the function
If the value is not text, the result is a blank.
The function is not specifically needed by Excel, but is included for compatibility with
other spreadsheet programs.
Syntax
=T(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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TEXT
Page 185 of 205
TEXT
10 10.00 =TEXT(C4,"0.00")
10 £10.00 =TEXT(C5,"£0.00")
10 10 =TEXT(C6,"0")
10 £10 =TEXT(C7,"£0")
10.25 10.3 =TEXT(C8,"0.0")
10.25 £10.3 =TEXT(C9,"£0.0")
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a number to a piece of text.
The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.
Syntax
=TEXT(NumberToConvert,FormatForConversion)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
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TIME
Page 186 of 205
TIME
Hour Minute Second Time
14 30 59 14:30:59 =TIME(C4,D4,E4)
14 30 59 2:30:59 PM =TIME(C5,D5,E5)
14 30 59 0.60485 =TIME(C6,D6,E6)
What Does It Do?
This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.
Syntax
=TIME(Hour,Minute,Second)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.
If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the
time as a fraction of the day.
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TIMEVALUE
Page 187 of 205
TIMEVALUE
Text Time
14:30:59 0.6 =TIMEVALUE(C4)
14:30:59 14:30:59 =TIMEVALUE(C5)
14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks
like a time. It is useful when data is imported from other applications, such as
from mainframe computers, which convert all values to text.
Syntax
=TIMEVALUE(Text)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.
Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system.
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TODAY
Page 188 of 205
TODAY
Today Is
12-May-11 =TODAY()
What Does It Do?
Use this to show the current date.
Syntax
=TODAY()
Formatting
The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format.
Example
The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number
of days since a particular day.
Date Days Since
1-Jan-97 05/10/14 =TODAY()-C20
10-Aug-97 10/01/13 =TODAY()-C21
Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. To calculate
a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.
Date Days Since
1-Jan-97 5245 =TODAY()-C28+1
10-Aug-97 5024 =TODAY()-C29+1
Example
The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.
Year 2000 Days Until
01-Jan-2000 08/20/88 =C36-TODAY()
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TRANSPOSE
Page 189 of 205
TRANSPOSE
Jan Feb
Alan 10 30
Bob 40 50
Carol 70 80
Total 120 160
Alan Bob Carol Total
Jan 10 40 70 120
Feb 30 50 80 160
{=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)}
As an array formula in all these cells
What Does It Do ?
This function copies data from a range, and places in it in a new range, turning it so
that the data originally in columns is now in rows, and the data originally in rows
is in columns.
The transpose range must be the same size as the original range.
The function needs to be entered as an array formula.
To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required.
Next type the formula, such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5).
Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it.
If changes need to be made to the formula, the entire array has to be highlighted, the edits
can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it.
Syntax
=TRANSPOSE(Range)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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TREND
Page 190 of 205
TREND WHAT IS CONST b ?
Historical Data Predicted Values
Month Sales Month Sales
1 £1,000 7 £4,940 {=TREND(C8:C13,B8:B13,E8:E13)}
2 £2,000 8 £5,551 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
3 £2,500 9 £6,163 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
4 £3,500 10 £6,774 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
5 £3,800 11 £7,386 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
6 £4,000 12 £7,997 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
What Does It Do ?
This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values.
The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.
The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
Syntax
=TREND(KnownYs,KnownXs,RequiredXs,Constant)
The KnownYs is the range of values, such as Sales Figures.
The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data, such as Months.
The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction, such as Months.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to
make a profit.
Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the
end of the next year, the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.
To prove to the bank that, based upon the past years performance, the company would
start to make a profit at the end of the next year, the =TREND() function was used.
The historical data for the past year was entered, months 1 to 12.
The months to predict were entered, 13 to 24.
The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.
Historical Data Predicted Values
Month Profit Month Profit
1 -£5,000 13 -£2,226 {=TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52)}
2 -£4,800 14 -£1,968 The
3 -£4,600 15 -£1,709 same
4 -£4,750 16 -£1,451 function
5 -£4,800 17 -£1,193 used
6 -£4,500 18 -£935 in
7 -£4,000 19 -£676 all
8 -£3,800 20 -£418 cells
9 -£3,300 21 -£160 as
10 -£2,000 22 £98 an
11 -£2,500 23 £356 array
12 -£2,800 24 £615 formula
How To Enter An Array Formula
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TREND
Page 191 of 205
Select all the cells where the array is required, such as F41 to F52.
Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52), but do not press Enter.
Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down.
Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.
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TRIM
Page 192 of 205
TRIM
Original Text Trimmed Text
ABCD ABCD =TRIM(C4)
A B C D A B C D =TRIM(C5)
Alan Jones Alan Jones =TRIM(C6)
ABCD ABCD =TRIM(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text.
The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.
Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space
Syntax
=TRIM(TextToTrim)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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TRUNC
Page 193 of 205
TRUNC
Number
1.48 0 1 =TRUNC(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.4 =TRUNC(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.47 =TRUNC(C6,D6)
-1.48 1 -1.4 =TRUNC(C7,D7)
-1.48 2 -1.47 =TRUNC(C8,D8)
13643.48 -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9,D9)
13643.48 -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10,D10)
13643.48 -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11,D11)
What Does It Do ?
This function removes the decimal part of a number, it does not actually round the number.
Syntax
=TRUNC(NumberToTuncate,Precision)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Precision
For
Truncation
Truncated
Number
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UPPER
Page 194 of 205
UPPER
Original Text Upper Case
alan jones ALAN JONES =UPPER(C4)
bob smith BOB SMITH =UPPER(C5)
carOl wiLLiamS CAROL WILLIAMS =UPPER(C6)
cardiff CARDIFF =UPPER(C7)
abc123 ABC123 =UPPER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.
Syntax
=UPPER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
See the example for FREQUENCY.
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VALUE
Page 195 of 205
VALUE
Text Containing A Number Value
Annual turnover was £5000 Err:502 =VALUE(MID(C4,SEARCH("£",C4),99))
There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
A 100% increase was achieved. #VALUE!
Only a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
Approx 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 100% increase in sales. #VALUE! * See explanation below.
The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C14,SEARCH("??:??",C14),5))
The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C15,SEARCH("??:??",C15),5))
The winning time was 10:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C16,SEARCH("??:??",C16),5))
The winning time was 0:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C17,SEARCH("??:??",C17),5))
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value.
If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other
text functions such as =SEARCH(), =MID(), =FIND(), =SUBSTITUTE, =LEFT() or =RIGHT().
Syntax
=VALUE(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
The result will be shown as a value, based upon the original text.
If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.
If the % sign is included in the text, the result will be a decimal fraction which can then
be formatted as a percentage.
If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time.
The same will be true for other recognised formats.
Explanation of formula shown above.
To extract the values from the following text is complicated!
The actual percentage value is of variable length, it can be either one, two or three digits long.
The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.
There is no way to identify the beginning of the value, other than it is preceded by a space.
The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.
If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign, errors will occur
when the percentage is only one digit long, as alphabetic characters will be included.
To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the
spaces in the text.
Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are
ignored by the =VALUE() function.
There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 100% increase in sales. #VALUE!
=VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52," "," "),SEARCH("???%",SUBSTITUTE(C52," "," ")),4))
=VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11," "," "),SEARCH("???%",SUBSTITUTE(C11," "," ")),4))
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VAR
Page 196 of 205
VAR
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.25 0.25 1.67
=VAR(C4:C7) =VAR(E4:E7) =VAR(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.
A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.
Syntax
=VAR(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.
At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production
of each machine.
The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented
a sample of the complete days production.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0067 =VAR(D34:G34)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0025 =VAR(D35:G35)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.0167 =VAR(D36:G36)
The smallest variance is : 0.0025 =MIN(H34:H36)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =MIN(H34:H36)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
find the machine name.
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VARP
Page 197 of 205
VARP
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.19 0.19 1.25
=VARP(C4:C7) =VARP(E4:E7) =VARP(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the variance of a list of values.
The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.
Syntax
=VARP(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.
The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes
represented the entire test run.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0050 =VARP(D32:G32)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0019 =VARP(D33:G33)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.0125 =VARP(D34:G34)
The smallest variance is : 0.0019 =MIN(H32:H34)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =(MIN(H32:H34)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
find the machine name.
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VLOOKUP
Page 198 of 205
VLOOKUP
The column numbers are not needed.
they are part of the illustration.
col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6
Jan 10 20 30 40 50
Feb 80 90 100 110 120
Mar 97 69 45 51 77
Type a month to look for : Feb
Which column needs to be picked out : 4
The result is : 100
=VLOOKUP(G11,C6:H8,G12,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item.
When the item is found, it then scans across to pick a cell entry.
Syntax
=VLOOKUP(ItemToFind,RangeToLookIn,ColumnToPickFrom,SortedOrUnsorted)
The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.
The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side.
The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from.
The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. TRUE for yes, FALSE for no.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month.
The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name.
The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.
To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.
The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. It then calculates
the position of the month in the list. Unfortunately, because the list of months is not as wide
as the lookup range, the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require, so and extra 1 is
added to compensate.
The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and
picks out the correct cell entry.
The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the
row headings are not sorted.
Jan Feb Mar
Bob 10 80 97
Eric 20 90 69
Alan 30 100 45
Carol 40 110 51
David 50 120 77
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VLOOKUP
Page 199 of 205
Type a name to look for : eric
Type a month to look for : mar
The result is : 69
=VLOOKUP(F56,C50:F54,MATCH(F57,D49:F49,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 2
This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for
different makes of cars.
The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.
When the make is found, the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price, using the
result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car.
The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol . This ensures that
when the formula is copied to more cells, the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do
not change.
Maker Spare Cost Lookup Table
Vauxhall Ignition £50 Vauxhall Ford VW
VW GearBox £600 GearBox 500 450 600
Ford Engine £1,200 Engine 1000 1200 800
VW Steering £275 Steering 250 350 275
Ford Ignition £70 Ignition 50 70 45
Ford CYHead £290 CYHead 300 290 310
Vauxhall GearBox £500
Ford Engine £1,200
=VLOOKUP(C81,F75:I79,MATCH(B81,G74:I74,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 3
In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.
The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick, Wood and Glass.
The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.
The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.
All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.
The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.
The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.
The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product
names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.
Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. If a match is
not found, the function will produce an error.
=VLOOKUP(C126,C114:D116,2,FALSE)
The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table
If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will
look across to find the correct discount.
The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values
down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.
Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. If the Quantity Ordered does
not match a value at the side of the Discount Table, the next lowest value is used.
Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100, and the discount from
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VLOOKUP
Page 200 of 205
the 100 row is used.
=VLOOKUP(D126,F114:I116,MATCH(C126,G113:I113,0)+1,TRUE)
Discount Table
Unit Cost Table Brick Wood Glass
Brick £2 1 0% 0% 0%
Wood £1 100 6% 3% 12%
Glass £3 300 8% 5% 15%
Orders Table
Item Units Unit Cost Discount Total
Brick 100 £2 6% £188
Wood 200 £1 3% £194
Glass 150 £3 12% £396
Brick 225 £2 6% £423
Wood 50 £1 0% £50
Glass 500 £3 15% £1,275
Formula for :
Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126,C114:D116,2,FALSE)
Discount =VLOOKUP(D126,F114:I116,MATCH(C126,G113:I113,0)+1,TRUE)
Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126)
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WEEKDAY
Page 201 of 205
WEEKDAY
Date Weekday
Thu 01-Jan-98 5 =WEEKDAY(C4)
Thu 01-Jan-98 5 =WEEKDAY(C5)
Thu 01-Jan-98 5 =WEEKDAY(C6,1)
Thu 01-Jan-98 4 =WEEKDAY(C7,2)
Thu 01-Jan-98 3 =WEEKDAY(C8,3)
What Does It Do?
This function shows the day of the week from a date.
Syntax
=WEEKDAY(Date,Type)
Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system.
1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7
2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7.
3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.
If no number is specified, Excel will use 1.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number.
Example
The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room.
The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for.
The Booking Date is entered.
The Actual Day is calculated.
The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function.
Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost
7-Jan-98 Wednesday £30.00
=LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34),C39:D45)
Booking Rates
Day Of Week Cost
1 £50
2 £25
3 £25
4 £30
5 £40
6 £50
7 £100
To show the result as the name of the day, use Format, Cells, Custom and set
the Type to ddd or dddd.
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WORKDAY
Page 202 of 205
WORKDAY
StartDate Days Result
1-Jan-98 28 35836 =WORKDAY(D4,E4)
1-Jan-98 28 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D5,E5)
What Does It Do?
Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a
specified number of days. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can
therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.
Syntax
=WORKDAY(StartDate,Days,Holidays)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a
normal date by using Format,Cells,Number,Date.
Example
The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates
based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.
Order Date Delivery Days Delivery Date
Mon 02-Feb-98 2 Wed 04-Feb-98
Tue 15-Dec-98 28 Tue 26-Jan-99
=WORKDAY(D25,E25,D28:D32)
Holidays
Bank Holiday Fri 01-May-98
Xmas Fri 25-Dec-98
New Year Wed 01-Jan-97
New Year Thu 01-Jan-98
New Year Fri 01-Jan-99
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YEAR
Page 203 of 205
YEAR
Date Year
25-Dec-98 1998 =YEAR(C4)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the year number from a date.
Syntax
=YEAR(Date)
Formatting
The result is shown as a number.
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YEARFRAC
Page 204 of 205
YEARFRAC
Start Date End Date Fraction
1-Jan-98 1-Apr-98 0.25 =YEARFRAC(C4,D4)
1-Jan-98 31-Dec-98 1 =YEARFRAC(C5,D5)
1-Jan-98 1-Apr-98 25% =YEARFRAC(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result
as a decimal fraction.
Syntax
=YEARFRAC(StartDate,EndData,Basis)
Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.
0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360.
1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.
2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.
3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.
4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a decimal fraction, but can be formatted as a percent.
Example
The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts
for a part of the year.
The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered.
The Start and End dates of the contract are entered.
The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.
Start End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary
1-Jan-98 31-Dec-98 £12,000 £12,000 =YEARFRAC(B32,C32+1,4)*D32
1-Jan-98 31-Mar-98 £12,000 £3,000 =YEARFRAC(B33,C33+1,4)*D33
1-Jan-98 30-Jun-98 £12,000 £6,000 =YEARFRAC(B34,C34+1,4)*D34
Note
The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC()
function calculates from the Start date up to, but not including, the End date.
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Project Dates
Page 205 of 205
Project Dates House Building
Target Delivery Tue 27-Jan-98 Target Budget £12,000
Job Stage Start Date End Date Daily Cost Total
Survey Mon 05-Jan-98 5 Fri 09-Jan-98 £200 £1,000
Foundation Mon 12-Jan-98 4 Thu 15-Jan-98 £1,000 £4,000
Walls Fri 16-Jan-98 3 Tue 20-Jan-98 £800 £2,400
Roof Wed 21-Jan-98 6 Wed 28-Jan-98 £400 £2,400
Electrics Thu 29-Jan-98 4 Tue 03-Feb-98 £300 £1,200
Actual Delivery Tue 03-Feb-98 Total Cost £11,000
Against Target 5 days behind Budget % 92%
Total Days 22
Days
Required
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Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Documentation Page 2 of 205

What Is In The Dictionary ? This workbook contains 157 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of particular Excel functions. There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations. Formatting Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry. North 100 100 100 300 =SUM(C13:C15) Text headings are shown in grey. Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background. The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow. The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.

The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly with any installation of Windows. Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to accomplish the desrired result. Printing Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait. The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which will assist with the reading of the formula. The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi. If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing, as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings). Protection Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment with the calculations. Macros There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt to change your current Toolbars and Menus.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Instructions Page 3 of 205

What Do The Buttons Do ?
View View Sort Sort

This button will display the worksheet containing the function example. 1. Click on the function name, then 2. Click on the View button.

This button sorts the list of functions into alphabetical order.

Category Category

Location Location

This describes the category the function is a member of. Click this button to sort alphabetically.

This shows where the function is stored in Excel. Built-in indicates that the function is part of Excel itself. Analysis ToolPak indicates the function is stored in the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Click this button to sort alphabetically.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Analysis ToolPak Page 4 of 205

Analysis ToolPak
What Is The Analysis ToolPak ? The Analysis ToolPak is an add-in file containing extra functions which are not built in to Excel. The functions cover areas such as Date and Mathematical operations. The Analysis ToolPak must be added-in to Excel before these functions will be available.

Analysis ToolPak Check For Analysis ToolPak Load the Analysis ToolPak UnLoad the Analysis ToolPak

Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.

TYPE INFO ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISREF ISTEXT N NA TYPE AND IF NOT OR CHOOSE HLOOKUP INDEX INDIRECT Date Date Date Date Date Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Information Information Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Database Database Database Database Database Database Database Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Date Financial Financial Financial Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Logical Logical Logical Logical Lookup Lookup Lookup Lookup Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after t Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of m Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end Converts a binary number to decimal Converts a number from one measurement system to another Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Tests whether two values are equal Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if the number is odd Returns the greatest common divisor Returns the least common multiple Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns the integer portion of a division Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Returns the average of selected database entries Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Returns the serial number of a particular date Calculates the difference between two dates.2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 5 of 205 EDATE EOMONTH NETWORKDAYS WORKDAY YEARFRAC BIN2DEC CONVERT DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA GESTEP HEX2DEC ISEVEN ISODD GCD LCM MROUND QUOTIENT RANDBETWEEN DAVERAGE DCOUNT DCOUNTA DGET DMAX DMIN DSUM DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAY DAYS360 HOUR MINUTE MONTH NOW SECOND TIME TIMEVALUE TODAY WEEKDAY YEAR DB SLN SYD CELL COUNTBLANK ERROR. location. Undocumented in v5/7/97 Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Converts a serial number to a day of the month Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Converts a serial number to an hour Converts a serial number to a minute Converts a serial number to a month Returns the serial number of the current date and time Converts a serial number to a second Returns the serial number of a particular time Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Converts a serial number to a day of the week Converts a serial number to a year Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance m Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Returns information about the formatting. or contents of a cell Counts the number of blank cells within a range Returns a number corresponding to an error type Returns information about the current operating environment Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE Specifies a logical test to perform Reverses the logic of its argument Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Chooses a value from a list of values Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

toward zero Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns the value of Pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Converts an arabic numeral to roman. as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down.2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 6 of 205 LOOKUP (vector) MATCH SUM_with_OFFSET TRANSPOSE VLOOKUP ABS CEILING COMBIN COUNTIF EVEN FACT FLOOR INT MINVERSE MMULT MOD ODD PI POWER PRODUCT RAND ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SIGN SUBTOTAL SUM SUM_as_Running_Total SUMIF SUMPRODUCT TRUNC AVERAGE CORREL COUNT COUNTA FORECAST FREQUENCY GROWTH LARGE MAX MEDIAN MIN MODE PERMUT QUARTILE RANK SMALL STDEV STDEVP TREND VAR VARP CHAR CLEAN CODE CONCATENATE DOLLAR EXACT FIND FIXED LEFT LEN LOWER MID PROPER REPLACE REPT Lookup Lookup Lookup Lookup Lookup Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Looks up values in a vector or array Looks up values in a reference or array Sample Returns the transpose of an array Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Returns the absolute value of a number Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Returns the factorial of a number Rounds a number down. toward zero Rounds a number up. away from zero Returns the sign of a number Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Sample Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Truncates a number to an integer Returns the average of its arguments Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Returns a value along a linear trend Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns values along an exponential trend Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the median of the given numbers Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Returns the most common value in a data set Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Returns values along a linear trend Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Returns the character specified by the code number Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number to text. using currency format Checks to see if two text values are identical Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Converts text to lowercase Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Using Ctrl and ` Using LEFT() RIGHT() FIND() SUBSTITUTE() How to calculate time. Example flexi time sheet. Using SUM(jan) Sample .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 7 of 205 RIGHT SUBSTITUTE T TEXT TRIM UPPER VALUE Age Calculation AutoSum shortcut key Brackets in formula FileName formula Instant Charts Ordering Stock Percentages Project Dates Show all formula Split ForenameSurname Time Calculation TimeSheet For Flexi SUM_using_names -Timesheet Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Removes spaces from text Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number Using DATEDIF() Using Alt and = Sample Using MID() CELL() and FIND() Using F11 Stock Ordering How to calculate various percentages Example using date calculation.

To correct this error.30 1:30 12:30 20:15 22:45 Excel can cope with either the 24hour system or the am/pm system.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 B C D E F G H I Time Calculation Page 8 of 205 J Time Calculation Excel can work with time very easily. This works well until the total time goes above 24 hours. Choose the Format menu. rather than 12. 1:30 AM 1:30 PM 10:15 AM 10:15 PM Finding the difference between two times You can subtract two time values to find the length of time between. See the TimeSheet example for an example. but nothing which should put you off working with it. Look at the section about formatting further in this worksheet. Start 1:30 8:00 8:00 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:00 PM Duration 1:00 =D24-C24 9:00 =D25-C25 9:00 AM If the result is not shown correctly. To use the am/pm system you must enter the am or pm after the time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Adding time You can add time to find a total time. Example 1 : Incorrect formatting Start End Duration 7:00 18:30 11:30 8:00 17:00 9:00 7:30 17:45 10:15 Total 6:45 =SUM(E49:E51) Example 2 : Correct formatting Start End Duration 7:00 18:30 11:30 8:00 17:00 9:00 7:30 17:45 10:15 Total 30:45 =SUM(E56:E58) How To Apply Custom Formatting The custom format for time use a pair of square brackets [hh] on either side of the hours indicators. as in the example below. 2. the result needs to be formatted with a Custom format. Start 1:30 8:00 7:30 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:45 PM Duration 1:00 9:00 10:15 20:15 Formatting time When time is added together the result may go beyond 24 hours. There are one or two oddities. such as 12:30. You may need to reformat the answer. Typing time When time is entered into worksheet it should be entered with a colon between the hour and the minutes. Usually this gives an incorrect result. . 1. Click on the cell which needs the format. Time can be entered in various different formats and calculations performed. You must leave a space between the number and the text. For totals greater than 24 hours you may need to apply some special formatting.

Choose Custom. Click OK to confirm. Click the Number tag at the top right. Click inside the Type: box. 6. Choose Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 B C D E 3. 7. Type [hh]:mm as the format. F G H I Time Calculation Page 9 of 205 J . 8. 5. 4.

Cells. If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box on your computer. This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours. 14:45 . Instructions : Type the week start date in cell C3. Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3.G3-G11. Use the format dd/mm/yy. the Week beginning. the Normal Hours. Use the format of hh:mm.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TimeSheet For Flexi Page 10 of 205 J K TimeSheet for Flexi Week beginning Mon 05-Jan-98 Day Mon 05 Tue 06 Wed 07 Thu 08 Fri 09 Arrive 8:00 8:45 9:00 8:30 8:00 Lunch Out Lunch In 13:00 14:00 12:30 13:30 13:00 14:00 13:00 14:00 12:00 13:00 Normal Hours Depart 17:00 17:00 18:00 17:00 17:00 Total Hours 37:30 Total 8:00 7:15 8:00 7:30 8:00 38:45 1:15 =(F6-C6)-(E6-D6) =SUM(G6:G10) =IF(G3-G11>0. it can be created using Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The date is then passed down to the Day column. This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours. Note The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [hh]:mm. Number.ABS(G3-G11)."-") Under worked by Over worked by This is simple example of a timesheet. Custom. the name of the day will appear automatically. Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns. "-") =IF(G3-G11<0.

1)). To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation.LEN(C37)-FIND("#".FIND(" ".FIND(" ".LEN(C45)-FIND(" ".LEN(C22)-FIND(" ".1)).1)) =LEFT(C16. the last name formula will be incorrect.1)) ."#"." ".C14.C23)) =RIGHT(C24.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H Split ForenameSurname Page 11 of 205 I J Split Forename and Surname The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be split up.LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37.C22)) =RIGHT(C23.1)) Finding the Last Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C22.LEN(C45)-FIND(" ".""))))) Finding the Middle name Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Middle Name David John Susan =LEFT(RIGHT(C45. Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C37. The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task." ".FIND(" ".C16.FIND(" ". Finding the First Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name Alan Bob Carol =LEFT(C14.C24)) Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present The formula above cannot handle any more than two names.C45.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1)) =LEFT(C15.RIGHT(C45. One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are entered in full into a cell. If there is also a middle name.C15.LEN(C23)-FIND(" ".SUBSTITUTE(C37. Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split.C45.

$D$18:$D$20) =E27*LOOKUP(D27.$D$18:$D$20)+E52 =E53*LOOKUP(D53.$D$18:$D$20)+E49 =E50*LOOKUP(D50.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20) Finding a percentage increase Initial value % increase Increased value 120 25% 150 =D33*D34+D33 Example 2 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.000 £30.200 =E23*LOOKUP(D23.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £10.000 £3.000 £6.750 £32. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £10.000 £11.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20)+E53 Finding one value as percentage of another Value A Value B A as % of B 120 60 50% =D59/D58 You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar.$D$18:$D$20) =E26*LOOKUP(D26.000 £20.000 £23. You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school! Finding a percentage of a value Initial value % to find Percentage value 120 25% 30 =D8*D9 Example 1 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.$D$18:$D$20) =E24*LOOKUP(D24.$D$18:$D$20)+E51 =E52*LOOKUP(D52. The wages department need to calculate the increases.$C$18:$C$20. Staff on different grades get different pay rises.000 £6.$C$18:$C$20.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 C D E F G H I J Percentages Page 12 of 205 K Percentages There are no specific functions for calculating percentages.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .$C$18:$C$20.000 £25.$D$18:$D$20)+E50 =E51*LOOKUP(D51.000 £1.000 £30.000 £25.$D$18:$D$20)+E48 =E49*LOOKUP(D49.000 £36.400 £12.750 £32.$C$18:$C$20.400 £12.000 £13.$D$18:$D$20) =E28*LOOKUP(D28.$D$18:$D$20) =E25*LOOKUP(D25.000 £28.000 £38.$C$18:$C$20.000 £20.200 =E48*LOOKUP(D48. Staff on different grades get different pay rises. .000 £1. The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase.000 £3.$C$18:$C$20.

50 =D115/(100%+$D$110) .51 £1. Last years figures Region Q1 Q2 North 9.500 Q4 10.000 Finding an original value after an increase has been applied Increased value % increase Original value 150 25% 120 =D100/(100%+D101) Example 4 An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 £100.000 5.500 =G83*$E$88 4.000 Total 26.000 8. By analysing the past years spending. Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.000 Q3 2.49 =D113-D113/(100%+$D$110) £235.500 Total 30.000 7.00 £8.500 Total 39.000 5.000 31. VAT rate Receipt Petrol Hotel Petrol 17.000 Total 100.500 =G82*$E$88 7. The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.000 Q4 7.2000 Peter Noneley A B 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 C D E F G H I J Percentages Page 13 of 205 K Example 3 An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year.00 £117.00 £17.500 13.000 East 3.000 20. the manager hopes to predict what will need to be spent in the next year.000 Next years estimated budget requirements Region Q1 Q2 North 13.000 13.000 9.000 9.000 150.500 3.000 9.000 4.000 West 8.000 Last years Quarters as % of last years Total Region Q1 Q2 North 9% 2% South 7% 4% East 2% 8% West 8% 9% Total 26% 23% Next years budget 150.00 £35.000 23.500 =G84*$E$88 7. The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.500 10.000 46. The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year.500 Q3 9% 9% 7% 6% 31% Q4 7% 5% 3% 5% 20% =G74/$H$78 =G75/$H$78 =G76/$H$78 =G77/$H$78 =G78/$H$78 Q3 13.000 3.500 6.000 South 7.500 9.000 12.50% Total Actual Value Vat Value £10.000 East 2.000 6. The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.000 34.000 West 12.00 £200.000 South 10.

Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below. The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1. 10 30 50 70 20 40 60 80 30 70 60 30 .) Press the same combination to see the original view. (The screen may look a bit odd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B C D E F G H Show all formula Page 14 of 205 I Show all formula You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. . This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. Calculation. Accept Labels in Formula. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You can switch it on by using Tools.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 15 of 205 H I SUM using names You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Options. and the names change to Feb and Mar.

. Then press F11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 16 of 205 I Instant Charts You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data.

xls'#$ Filename formula =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders.CELL("filename"))+1. #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("[".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G Filename formula Page 17 of 205 H Filename formula There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell. #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[". This can be done by using the CELL() function.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.255) .FIND("]".CELL("filename"))+1.1. 'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2615/58077291.FIND("[". To pick the Path. shown below. #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("]".

(also known as 'braces').. resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 . The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . in formula. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G Brackets in formula Page 18 of 205 H I Brackets in formula Sometimes you will need to use brackets. The * and / operations will be calculated before + and Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 -. Example 2 : The correct answer. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and . 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first.

5 represents 6 months.TODAY(). which creates a text version.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the .25 . 7 or 97. If the age is 20. "&DATEDIF(C8.5. #NAME? ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). Birth date : Age is : 1-Jan-60 51. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8."y") =DATEDIF(C8."md") You can put this all together in one calculation. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G H Age Calculation Page 19 of 205 I Age Calculation You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date."y")&" Years.TODAY(). The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function. but it is in 2000.TODAY()."ym") =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().36 =(TODAY()-C23)/365."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months.TODAY().

Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G AutoSum Shortcut Key Page 20 of 205 H I AutoSum Shortcut Key Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. or Select a row. column or all cells and then press Alt and =. Jan 10 20 30 40 Feb 50 60 70 80 Mar 90 100 200 300 Total North South East West Total . then press Alt and =. you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result.

no special formatting is needed. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated.25 1. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45-E45) Difference .25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. Table 1 shows the original calculations.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H ABS Page 21 of 205 I ABS Number 10 -10 1. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative.25 -1. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. Whether the wood was too long or short.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% -25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations.

FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4.F3. the normal style for cell addresses. cols A to IV.F5) =ADDRESS(F4. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber.2.B$3 Hello.TRUE.F5) =ADDRESS(F4. based on a row and column numbers given by the user.F3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.$B$3 Hello.F3.F3.4.1.3 or 4. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256.1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H ADDRESS Page 22 of 205 I ADDRESS Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello.3.TRUE.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.TRUE. The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.1. . only the column absolute. column and row absolute.2. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.4.F3.F3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the alternative style of cell address. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.A1orR1C1.3.2. The SheetName does not actually have to exist. The Absolute can be 1.F3.2. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1.F3.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1.F3.ColNumber.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.Absolute.TRUE. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1.$B3 Hello.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.4.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.F3.F3. only the row absolute.3.F3. neither col or row absolute.

It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38)) Averages 47 54 60 .D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38). Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100.D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38).Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =AND(Test1. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F G H AND Page 23 of 205 I AND Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100.

Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. If it is a single block the result will be 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . or whether it is a multiple selection. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. The function is designed to be used in macros. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G AREAS Page 24 of 205 H AREAS Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 Err:504 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data.

Range3.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2. the cell will not be used in the average calculation.Range2. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA()..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .57 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G H I J K L M AVERAGE Page 25 of 205 N AVERAGE Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28. If the cell is blank or contains text.67 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2. If the cell contains zero 0. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed..33 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Temp Rain Further Usage . the cell will be included in the average calculation.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G BIN2DEC Page 26 of 205 H I BIN2DEC Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 Err:502 =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. . Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 B C D E F G CEILING Page 27 of 205 H CEILING Number 2.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4. Table 2 .7) =CEILING(D30. Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 1. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck.1) =CEILING(C5.30) =CEILING(C8. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck.1 1.7) =CEILING(D29.30) =CEILING(C9.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.33 5.1) =CEILING(C7. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.33 8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.1) =CEILING(C6. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3. This results of the division are not whole numbers.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity.MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.

Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.62000 1.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.0.60714 5.81818 1.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.62000 5. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.99 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C Item Bricks Wood Cement D Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 E Truck Capacity 300 600 350 F Trucks Needed 4 9 6 G CEILING Page 28 of 205 H =CEILING(D54/E54.81818 2.1).1) =CEILING(MOD(E83).1) =CEILING(D56/E56.1) =CEILING(D55/E55. Calculates the decimal part of the price.99 5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.99 . The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.25 £28.75000 1.25 £28. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.99 2.1) Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.99) Calculates the integer part of the price. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.0.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.60714 2. Raises the decimal to 0.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.

FIND("]". The alignment of the cell. The filename containing the cell.D3) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 .##0) $#.50% $D$3 4 3 0. 0 for unlocked. l for text.##0 0.##0.00) 0% 0.[Red]($#. The type of entry in the cell. Formatted for coloured negatives.xls'#$CELL =CELL("filename".[Red]($#.D3) 12 P2 =CELL("width".00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. The type of cell protection.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents.D3) =CELL("format". Codes used to show the formatting of the cell. The cell address.00_). (See the table shown below) 17. The width of the cell.D3) 1 for a locked.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B C D E F G H CELL Page 29 of 205 I CELL This is the cell and contents to test. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired". The name of the current file is : #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename"). Numeric Format General 0 #.##0_).D3) 0 =CELL("parentheses". Shown as ' for left.##0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.($#.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ". 1 =CELL("protect".D3) =CELL("contents".2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename. 0 for no.FIND("[". 'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch2615/58077291.D3) =CELL("col".D3) 1 for yes.($#.00_). The row number. " for right.D3) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 =CELL("prefix". v for value.##0.00 $#.##0) $#. position and formatting.00 #.##0_). 0 =CELL("color". Shown as b for blank. The column number.CELL("filename"))-1) . 0 for no. The actual contents of the cell. 1 for yes.CELL("filename"))+1.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[". ^ for centre. Nothing is shown for numeric entries. The number format fo the cell.D3) =CELL("type".0 F2 .##0.00% 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .18 v =CELL("address".00) $#.##0.D3) =CELL("row".

Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. these will be displayed as a small box.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting. Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. 47 / 48 0 49 1 50 2 51 3 52 4 53 5 54 6 55 7 56 8 57 9 58 : 59 . 60 < 61 = 62 > 63 ? 64 @ 65 A 66 B 67 C 68 D 69 E 70 F 71 G 72 H 73 I 74 J 75 K 76 L 77 M 78 N 79 O 80 P 81 Q 82 R 83 S 84 T 85 U 86 V 87 W 88 X 89 Y 90 Z 91 [ 92 \ 93 ] 94 ^ 95 _ 96 ` 97 a 98 b 99 c 100 d 101 e 102 f 103 g 104 h 105 i 106 j 107 k 108 l 109 m 110 n 111 o 112 p 113 q 114 r 115 s 116 t 117 u 118 v 119 w 120 x 121 y 122 z 123 { 124 | 125 } 126 ~ 127  128 € 129  130 ‚ 131 ƒ 132 „ 133 … 134 † 135 ‡ 136 ˆ 137 ‰ 138 Š 139 ‹ 140 Œ 141  142 Ž 143  144  145 ‘ 146 ‘ 147 ‘ 148 ‘ 149 — 150 — 151 — 152 — 153 ™ 154 š 155 › 156 œ 157  158 ž 159 Ÿ 160 161 ¡ 162 ¢ 163 £ 164 ¤ 165 ¥ 166 ¦ 167 § 168 ¨ 169 © 170 ª 171 « 172 ¬ 173 174 ® 175 ¯ 176 ° 177 ± 178 ² 179 ³ 180 ´ 181 µ 182 ¶ 183 · 184 ¸ 185 ¹ 186 º 187 » 188 ¼ 189 ½ 190 ¾ 191 ¿ 192 À 193 Á 194  195 à 196 Ä 197 Å 198 Æ 199 Ç 200 È 201 É 202 Ê 203 Ë 204 Ì 205 Í 206 Î 207 Ï 208 Ð 209 Ñ 210 Ò 211 Ó 212 Ô 213 Õ 214 Ö 215 × 216 Ø 217 Ù 218 Ú 219 Û 220 Ü 221 Ý 222 Þ 223 ß 224 à 225 á 226 â 227 ã 228 ä 229 å 230 æ 231 ç 232 è 233 é 234 ê 235 ë 236 ì 237 í 238 î 239 ï 240 ð 241 ñ 242 ò 243 ó 244 ô 245 õ 246 ö 247 ÷ 248 ø 249 ù 250 ú 251 û 252 ü 253 ý 254 þ 255 ÿ Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 ! 34 " 35 # 36 $ 37 % 38 & 39 ' 40 ( 41 ) 42 * 43 + 44 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 30 of 205 V W X CHAR ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. 45 46 .

"Bronze")."Bob"."Gold"."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3.10%."Gold".18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user."Alan".18%) =CHOOSE(C9."Bob"."Bronze"). Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3."Bronze"). The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."Alan".15%.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 31 of 205 J CHOOSE =CHOOSE(C4. Item2.15%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."unplaced") =RANK(C34."Silver".CHOOSE(D31."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3."Silver".CHOOSE(D33.15%."Bob"."Silver".C30:C34) ."Gold"."Bronze")."Alan". due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it."Silver". Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.CHOOSE(D32.10%."Gold". The Time for each athlete is entered.CHOOSE(D34. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Bronze"). Item1.18%) =CHOOSE(C8."Gold".10%. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3."Silver"."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3.CHOOSE(D30.

. Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result will show as normal text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H CLEAN Page 32 of 205 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello Hello Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

< = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~  €  ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ  Ž   ‘ ’ “ ” • – 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 — ˜ ™ š › œ  ž Ÿ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 ¡ 186 ¢ 187 £ 188 ¤ 189 ¥ 190 ¦ 191 § 192 ¨ 193 © 194 ª 195 « 196 ¬ 197 . Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed.70 .198 ® 199 ¯ 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 69 . There are 255 characters in the ANSI set.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 33 of 205 K CODE Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. or the first character in a piece of text. the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.

Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.D5) =COMBIN(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F COMBIN Page 34 of 205 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.D25) The four letters : ABCD Pair 1 AB Pair 2 AC Pair 3 AD Pair 4 BC Pair 5 BD Pair 6 CD Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.D4) =COMBIN(C5. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. The internal order of the combination does not matter. The decorator is given five colours to work with. so AB is the same as BA. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 Combinations 6 =COMBIN(C25. but can only use three in any scheme.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 B Blue Yellow C Blue Black D Yellow Black E Yellow Black F COMBIN Page 35 of 205 G .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =CONCATENATE(C5. ".". Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.D7) =CONCATENATE(D8.D5) =CONCATENATE(C6. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams.".Text2. "&C30 .C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.Text3. Bob Davies." ". the result will be shown as normal text. Formatting No special formatting is needed. ".Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined.D6) =CONCATENATE(C7.. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1. Bob Davies.. Carol =C25&D25 =C26&D26 =C27&D27 =C28&" "&D28 =D29&".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H CONCATENATE Page 36 of 205 I CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. Carol =CONCATENATE(C4.C8) =CONCATENATE(D9. "&C29 =D30&".

3 =CONVERT(C5.E8) =CONVERT(C9.UnitToConvertFrom."kg")+CONVERT(E28.D11.D4."ozm". Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.D9.D10.UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E10) =CONVERT(C11.) Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr day hr mn sec Pa atm mmHg .54 =CONVERT(C4.57 =CONVERT(D34.E9) =CONVERT(C10.E6) 365.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.81 3 2.D8.35 =CONVERT(D28.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec B C D E F G CONVERT Page 37 of 205 H CONVERT Converted Amount 2."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.5 0. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Minute Second Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in."in"."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.E5) 0."lbm".E4) 0.51 2 1."ft"."m")+CONVERT(E34.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.91 =CONVERT(C6.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system.D6.D5. to the same value expressed in a different type of unit. such as Inches to Centimetres.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

00E+06 M 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a .00E-03 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00E+12 T 1.00E-15 1.00E-01 1.00E+09 G 1.00E-12 1.00E-09 1.00E-06 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+02 h 1. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.00E+15 P 1.00E+03 k 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU C D E Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F G CONVERT Page 38 of 205 H C F K N dyn lbf tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E-02 1.

In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.000 £40.000 £8. The larger the result.000 £20.000 £1.864 =CORREL(D5:D10.E5:E10) Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10.000 £5.000 £1.Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 Correlation 0.000 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 B C D E F G H CORREL Page 39 of 205 I J CORREL Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £30. The correlation shows that there is an 0.000 Sales £20.864 realtionship between the data. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. .000 £20.H5:H10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1. the greater the correlation. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result.000 £40. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. Syntax =CORREL(Range1.

000 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I COUNT Page 40 of 205 J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.000 Wood £5. Syntax =COUNT(Range1. text and errors.000 Glass £2.Range2. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.59 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 . It will ignore blanks... through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Metal £1.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Alan Bob Carol David Elaine B C D E F G H I

COUNTA Page 41 of 205 J

COUNTA
Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.98 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12)

What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. Each exam passed was graded as 1, 2 or 3. A failure was entered as Fail. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Maths Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39)

1 Fail

How many pupils sat each Exam. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H

COUNTBLANK Page 42 of 205 I

COUNTBLANK
Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. The response to the question could be Y or N. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11)

Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10

N Y Y N Y

Y N N N

Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No :

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G

COUNTIF Page 43 of 205

COUNTIF
Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12,">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12,E18)

How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. How many Tyres have been bought. How many items cost £100 or above. Type the name of the item to count. service

What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted,CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. To match a specific number type the number, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,"Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H I

DATE Page 44 of 205 J

DATE
Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4,D4,C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5,D5,C5) January 2, 2000 =DATE(E6,D6,C6)

What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells. Syntax =DATE(year,month,day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format. By using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command the format can be changed.

TODAY()."m") =DATEDIF(C6."ym") #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). as if the dates were in the same year. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates. Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate."y") #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8.D8.D9. Formatting No special formatting is needed."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates."md") You can put this all together in one calculation."ym") =DATEDIF(C9. "y" Years between the two dates.D6.TODAY()."y") =DATEDIF(C7. These are the available intervals. "m" Months between the two dates.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .SecondDate."y")&" Years.TODAY().D5."md")&" Days" ."d") =DATEDIF(C5. months or years.D4.TODAY(). as if the dates were in the same month and year.TODAY()."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. "&DATEDIF(C8. as if the dates were in the same year. #NAME? ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates."yd") =DATEDIF(C8. "d" Days between the two dates.D7. "ym" Months between the dates. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8. It can show the result in weeks. which creates a text version. "yd" Days between the dates.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H I J DATEDIF Page 45 of 205 K DATEDIF FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? =DATEDIF(C4. "md" Days between the two dates.

Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 . such as exports from mainframe computers. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text.Date. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format. probably after being imported from an external program. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4156 10-july/99 Err:502 13-sep-98 -4624 30/5/2000 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref.Number. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F DATEVALUE Page 46 of 205 G DATEVALUE Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 Err:502 36519 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.

FieldName.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DAVERAGE Page 47 of 205 J DAVERAGE This is the Database range.F3.00 £0.00 £1.50 4 3 £54. of the values to be averaged.10 20 5 £10.50 10 3 £15.25 10 4 £50.00 £1. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.80 10 5 £40.50 £0.00 15 2 £60. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.15 25 0 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 15 0 £0.00 £0. The FieldName is the name.00 £0.00 £0.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.00 £2. or records. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.25 10 5 £12.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.20 40 3 £24.80 25 6 £120. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1. which are to be selected. or cell.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.00 £5.00 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.20 25 2 £10. or 100 as the wattage.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. or names. The second set of information is the actual record.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.80 20 5 £180. The first set of information is the name.00 £2. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Product Bulb Brand Horizon .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.

Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0."Unit Cost"."Unit Cost".E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E67:F68) .53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.16 F G H I DAVERAGE Page 48 of 205 J The average of Horizon Bulb is : =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. £1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Unit Cost".F3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.Cells.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G DAY Page 49 of 205 H DAY Full Date 25-Dec-98 12-May-11 12-May-11 The Day 25 Thu 11 12 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date. Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday. Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 24 =DAY(F21) . but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.

TRUE) =DAYS360(C6.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). Formatting The result will be shown as a number.D4. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems. =DAYS360(Start. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.TRUE) =DAYS360(C7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F DAYS360 Page 50 of 205 DAYS360 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.D7. =DAYS360(C4. To correct this add 1 to the result.D5.D6.End.TRUE)+1 .EndDate. Note The calculation does not include the last day.

FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G DB Page 51 of 205 H I DB Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : £5. Any subsequent years use the same percentage. if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value.375.D11) =DB(E3.88 £722.58 * See example 4 below.E4.PeriodToCalculate.000 5 £200 Deprecation £2.D9) =DB(E3.67 £180. What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage.73 % Deprc 27.E5.800. This is an optional value. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.E5. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased. using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. Purchase Price : Salvage value : Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 £5.E5.88 £654. the function calculates the necessary percentage. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice.00 £1.E4.D8) =DB(E3.D12) £4.SalvageValue. The second year uses the same percentage. the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year.50% 27.D10) =DB(E3. which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.E4. but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Life.E5.000 £1.375.61 £343. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation.00 £996. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.50% 27.50% . The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage.E4. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E5.246.E4.000 5 Deprecation £1. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used.43 =DB(E3.

Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5.E68.E67*12.24 £7.50% Total Depreciation : Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value. The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places.50 £1.23 £6.79 £8.998.E49. with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 .E48.000 5 £1.54 % Deprc 13.D84.94 £859. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.50% 27.89 =DB(E47.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).36 £451.80 £623.D56) £3.808.50% 27.185.000 £5 100 Deprecation £8. when applied to large values.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .72 £7. the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5.E76.000 6 Deprecation £687.50% DB Page 52 of 205 H I Total Depreciation : Example 2 This example is similar to the previous. Example 4 .E77) £3.93 =DB(E74.98 £379. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate.E75.50% 27.78 =DB(E66.48 G 27.D75) Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.75% 27.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 B C D 4 5 E F £523.50% 27.

8739 £523.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : Error difference : .2000 Peter Noneley A 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 DB Page 53 of 205 H I B C D E F G This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually.998.9824 £379.500% 27.375. Salvage value : £1.000 = 1 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .9243 £379.000.00 £1. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function.7297 £4.3705 £722. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.0000 £996.1017 £997.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5.500% 27.376.48 Real Depreciation £1. calculated manually : 27.500% 27.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).8750 £722. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage.500% 27.8873 £3.000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1.7344 £523.

15 25 1 £3. the text items and blank cells are ignored. Examples The count of a particular product.00 £0.D3.FieldName.00 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.80 25 6 £120.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. of the values to Count. or records.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DCOUNT Page 54 of 205 J DCOUNT This is the Database range.50 4 3 £54.50 10 3 £15.00 £5.50 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.50 £0.10 20 5 £10. . or 100 as the wattage.20 40 3 £24. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 15 2 £60. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.80 20 5 £180.20 25 2 £10.00 3 2 £30.00 £2. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £1. The first set of information is the name.20 30 2 £12.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £1. or names. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.25 10 5 £12. or cell.00 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating.25 10 4 £50. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. The FieldName is the name.75 £0.50 15 1 £37. with a specific number of boxes in stock. which are to be selected.00 £2. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange. It can only count values.80 10 5 £40.

"Boxes In Stock".E68:G69) ."Boxes In Stock"."Boxes In Stock". Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E61:F62) The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values.H3. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E Product Bulb The number of products is : 3 F Boxes In Stock 5 G H I DCOUNT Page 55 of 205 J =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E50:F51) This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address.E50:F51) The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage.

Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. including the field names at the top of the columns. or cell. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 15 2 £60. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. or 100 as the wattage.50 4 3 £54. The first set of information is the name.25 10 5 £12.00 £2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DCOUNTA Page 56 of 205 J DCOUNTA This is the Database range.E3.25 10 4 £50.80 20 5 £180. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.20 30 2 £12.80 25 6 £120.00 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £0.00 £1.00 £0.50 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £1. or records.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.50 15 1 £37. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.15 25 1 £3. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand. but blank cells are ignored.75 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.20 40 3 £24. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.00 3 2 £30. of the values to Count.00 £0. which are to be selected. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £0. The FieldName is the name.00 £5. It counts values and text items. .20 25 2 £10. or names.00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 £0.FieldName.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange.

"Life Hours".D3. Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E68:F70) . Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E F G H I DCOUNTA Page 57 of 205 J Product Life Hours Bulb unknown The number of products is : 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.E50:F51) This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address."Product". 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19."Product".E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand.

The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G DEC2BIN Page 58 of 205 H DEC2BIN Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 Err:502 =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber.D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D20) =DEC2BIN(C21. although this is ignored for negatives. .D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.

888 549.755. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.813.888 to 549. Formatting No special formatting is needed.755.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.887 -549.813.755.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.755.813.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G DEC2HEX Page 59 of 205 H DEC2HEX Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549.755.813.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent. . It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.755.888 -549. although this is ignored for negatives.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 8000000000 7FFFFFFFFF Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.813.887.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.

Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.5 17.D30) =DELTA(C31. The formatting of the number is not significant.D34) =DELTA(C35. otherwise the result is 0.D35) =DELTA(C36.D6) =DELTA(C7.D9) =DELTA(C10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .18 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 Err:502 1 =DELTA(C4.5 17.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber. text values produce a result of #VALUE.D8) =DELTA(C9.D32) =DELTA(C33.D4) =DELTA(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I DELTA Page 60 of 205 J DELTA Number1 10 50 17.D31) =DELTA(C32. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.D5) =DELTA(C6. It only works with numbers.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 18 0. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D7) =DELTA(C8.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same. Number1 10 50 30 17. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.D33) =DELTA(C34.

00 15 2 £60. or names.00 £0.00 3 2 £30.80 10 5 £40. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £0. or cell.00 £5. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange.H3. The first set of information is the name.20 40 3 £24. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.15 25 1 £3. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.00 £2.50 £0.80 25 6 £120.20 25 2 £10. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.25 10 5 £12. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.50 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? .20 30 2 £12.25 10 4 £50.00 £0.00 £0.00 £1.50 4 3 £54.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 15 1 £37.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.10 20 5 £10.50 10 3 £15.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DGET Page 61 of 205 J DGET This is the Database range. of the values to Get. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as Horizon as a brand name. The FieldName is the name.00 £0.80 20 5 £180.75 £0.00 £2.00 £0.00 £1. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.FieldName. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Product Bulb Wattage 100 Life Hours Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19."One product found."Duplicates products found.C85:F86) Err:502 =IF(ISERR(F88).H3.").") .TYPE(F88)/3.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19."."No such product. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : Err:502 =DGET(B3:I19.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.CHOOSE(ERROR.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.C51:F52) B C D E F G H I DGET Page 62 of 205 J The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.H3.

such as Horizon as a brand name.25 10 4 £50.00 £0. or records.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.50 15 0 £0. The FieldName is the name or cell.00 £0.I3.00 £1.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. which are to be selected.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.00 £0.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage.15 25 0 £0.80 20 5 £180.FieldName.00 15 2 £60.20 30 2 £12.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.10 20 5 £10.00 £2. The first set of information is the name.00 £0.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.50 10 3 £15. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0. Horizon £60. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.25 10 5 £12. The second set of information is the actual record."Value Of Stock". or names.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I J DMAX Page 63 of 205 K DMAX This is the Database range.E49:F50) . The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0.00 £0.00 £5.50 4 3 £54. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30. of the values to pick the Max from. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.I3. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £1.80 25 6 £120.20 25 2 £10.50 £0. £30. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 3 2 £30.00 £2. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 10 5 £40.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.

00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E60:F61) B C D E F G H I J DMAX Page 64 of 205 K The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E67:F68) . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".

00 £5. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.75 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.E49:F50) .E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 65 of 205 K DMIN This is the Database range. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £1.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.75 £0. The second set of information is the actual record. of the values to pick the Min from. including the field names at the top of the columns. Formatting No special formatting is needed.80 20 5 £180. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.50 £0. or cell.20 25 2 £10.00 3 2 £30.25 10 5 £12. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.00 £0.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.00 15 2 £60.00 £2.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £2.80 25 6 £120. £3.50 £0. The FieldName is the name. or records. Horizon £10. which are to be selected.10 20 5 £10.80 10 5 £40.20 40 3 £24. Product Bulb The lowest value is : £3.FieldName.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. The first set of information is the name.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.00 £0.75 Brand sunbeam =DMIN(B3:I19. such as the category Brand or Wattage. or names.50 4 3 £54.00 £1.I3.I3. or 100 as the wattage.50 15 1 £37. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".

"Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock".E60:F61) B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 66 of 205 K The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19.E67:G68) .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.

DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.25 $10 $10.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.00 $10.25 10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.0) =DOLLAR(C6.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.0 $10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10.1) =DOLLAR(C11.3 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C7.0) =DOLLAR(C10.25 B C D E F G H I DOLLAR Page 67 of 205 J DOLLAR =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.25 10. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.00 $10 $10. The result will be shown as a text entry. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.25 Converted To Text $10.

or records.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.15 25 0 £0.00 £2. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £1.00 15 2 £60. The second set of information is the actual record.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 20 5 £180.00 £0. which are to be selected.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Product Bulb Brand sunbeam . or cell.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : £248.00 £5.I3.00 £0.00 £2.20 25 2 £10. The FieldName is the name. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.50 15 0 £0.FieldName. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.50 £0.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £1. Horizon =DSUM(B3:I19.25 10 5 £12. of the values to be totalled.50 10 3 £15. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £0. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00 What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total. or names. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.00 3 2 £30. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DSUM Page 68 of 205 J DSUM This is the Database range.80 25 6 £120.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The first set of information is the name. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange. including the field names at the top of the columns.

I3."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. £54.2000 Peter Noneley A 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E £54."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E67:F68) .50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.50 =DSUM(B3:I19.50 F G H I DSUM Page 69 of 205 J Total stock value is : =DSUM(B3:I19.

Jan 1000 4000 7000 12000 Feb 2000 5000 8000 15000 Mar 3000 6000 9000 18000 F G H I EAST Page 70 of 205 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Alan Bob Carol Total Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 . Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Eastern data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F

EDATE Page 71 of 205 G

EDATE
Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4,D4) =EDATE(C5,D5) =EDATE(C6,D6)

What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate,Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff. The company needed to know the end date of the employment. The Start date is entered. The contract Duration is entered as months. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98

=EDATE(C27,D27) =EDATE(C28,D28) =EDATE(C29,D29) =EDATE(C30,D30) =EDATE(C31,D31) =EDATE(C32,D32) =EDATE(C33,D33)

The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date. If the week day number is 6 or 7, (Sat or Sun), then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98

=EDATE(C48,D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)>5,WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)-5,0)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F

EOMONTH Page 72 of 205 G

EOMONTH
StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4,D4) =EOMONTH(C5,D5) =EOMONTH(C6,D6)

What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate,Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G

ERROR.TYPE Page 73 of 205 H

ERROR.TYPE
Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! 21:00 Error Type 532 508 519 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.TYPE(E7)

What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Syntax =ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H

EVEN Page 74 of 205 I

EVEN
Original Value 1 1.2 2.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7)

What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs. Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot

Wipers To Order 5 9 7

Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2

either red blue or green. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. The case of the password is important. The password is the name of a colour.Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. Example Here is a simple password checking formula. The case of the characters is taken into account.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. You need to guess the correct password.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I EXACT Page 75 of 205 J EXACT Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.D4) =EXACT(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =EXACT(Text1.D5) =EXACT(C6. . which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating.

000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.5 6 5 120 10 3. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.etc.902.628. No special formatting is needed. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.432. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G FACT Page 76 of 205 H FACT Number Factorial 3 6 3..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which results in 120. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.176.800 20 2.008.640.

. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. the result #VALUE is shown. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.C5) =FIND(D6. the result will be shown as a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F FIND Page 77 of 205 G FIND Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor.6) =FIND(D9. the first occurrence is used.C4) =FIND(D5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . StartPosition : This is optional. If the letter is not found in the text.TextToLookInside.C7) =FIND(D8. thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.C8.C6) =FIND(D7.

0) 10 10.0) 10.000's.25 =FIXED(C11.25 10. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.2) 10. . Number command will not have any effect.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.23 1. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places.2) 1000 1.000 =FIXED(C13.DecimalPlaces. Note that any further formatting with the Format. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.0.3 =FIXED(C10.1) 10 10.Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.25 10.0 =FIXED(C6.TRUE) B C D E F G H I FIXED Page 78 of 205 J FIXED What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.0) 1000.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.1) 10.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.00 =FIXED(C7.25 10 =FIXED(C9.000. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. Cells.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000. and commas can be inserted at the 1.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5.25 10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.

500 £56.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.1) =FLOOR(C6.5 1 2.1) =FLOOR(C7.1) =FLOOR(C5.1000) .9 2 123 100 145 100 175 150 =FLOOR(C4. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G FLOOR Page 79 of 205 H FLOOR Number Rounded Down 1. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.000 £230 £56.890 £18.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed. which is then used as the basis for Commission.000 £560 £18.3 2 2.50) =FLOOR(C8.50) =FLOOR(C9.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.

for which you need the forecast.000 £2. such as Sales figures.500 £3.000 =FORECAST(E11.000 20 £8.D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 B C D E F G H FORECAST Page 80 of 205 I FORECAST Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. The size of the New Sales team is entered.000 30 £8.500 40 £10. such as Month number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.800 £4. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. (or past).E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future.667 =FORECAST(E43. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend.RangeY.500 £3. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast.997 Sales £1. Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5.E39:E41.F4:F9. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.000 £2. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data. (Jan to Jun). The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.

000 £4. Unfortunately.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.E9:E11)} Sales £4.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. The function is entered in the cells as an array. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.500 £12.74 10.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.83 15. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions. P or D.800 £3.000 £6. E. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.500 £3.000 £5.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 81 of 205 I FREQUENCY North South East West Jan £5. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.000 up to £6. £4.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 .47 22. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.000 £7.66 17. .000 Feb £6. Weight Kg 20.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.000 Sales above £6.67 18.36 16.000 £999.000 and below.28 20.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.000 Sales above £4.000 Mar £4. V.000 £6.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.80 8. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.000 £2. A.000 £10. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . As this code is a numeric value.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character. the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting Rating E V A P D D P V E e Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 V a E d P FREQUENCY Page 82 of 205 I {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.

Unique values.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.C10:I16)) .B24:B72)} Special tip! To count how many unique numbers in a range use the following formula. and how many appearances each number has made during the past seven weeks. Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks. It has to be entered.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY 2 Page 83 of 205 I FREQUENCY 2 This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results. Table 1 Week 1 1st Number 2nd Number 3rd Number 4th Number 5th Number 6th Number Bonus Ball 3 6 15 32 37 5 17 Week 2 36 3 44 15 31 22 13 Week 3 5 19 35 32 13 30 15 Week 4 3 37 20 46 22 8 25 Week 5 2 23 47 6 49 49 18 Week 6 41 15 29 45 13 11 17 Week 7 45 4 44 23 43 46 1 Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49. so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than. 31 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16. as an array. Table 2 Lottery Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 How Many Appearances 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 4 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. just Enter alone.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 FREQUENCY 2 Page 84 of 205 C 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 1 0 2 D E F G H I .

D11. Syntax =GCD(Number1. Decimal fractions are ignored.5 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 B C D E F G H I GCD Page 85 of 205 J GCD =GCD(C4.Number2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 300 2.E11) Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified.E10) 0. The result is always a whole number.Number3.E9) 100 =GCD(C10.D9.D10.D5) =GCD(C6.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 =GCD(C9.D4) =GCD(C5.. .5 =GCD(C11.. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.000 £4.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.000 £5.000 £8.000 £2.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6. and the results are totalled.000 Target £4.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I GESTEP Page 86 of 205 J GESTEP Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4. otherwise 0 is shown. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.000 £2. If the number is greater than or equal.E30) =GESTEP(D31.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.E27) =GESTEP(D28. the result of 1 will be shown.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.000 £2.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.E28) =GESTEP(D29. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.000 £7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £1.E29) =GESTEP(D30.

Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.887 -549.755.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F HEX2DEC Page 87 of 205 G HEX2DEC Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549. Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .813.813.

FALSE for no.RowToPickFrom. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.RangeToLookIn.Feb. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.Jan. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. It then calculates the position of the name in the list. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 feb Bob Eric Alan Carol David Type a month to look for : . because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. even though to us the order of Jan. Unfortunately. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. TRUE for yes. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry.Mar is correct. they are part of the illustration. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb.F11.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. When the item is found.D3:F10. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 88 of 205 J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10.Mar. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.200 =HLOOKUP(B79.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 B C D E Type a name to look for : F alan G H I HLOOKUP Page 89 of 205 J The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. The name of the Item is typed in column C. Wood and Glass.MATCH(C79. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. When the make is found. the next lowest value is used.0)+1. =HLOOKUP(C127.0)+1. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function.2.C48:C52. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.MATCH(F55.E115:G118. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.0)+1. =HLOOKUP(D127. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.TRUE) .D47:F54.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.E111:G112. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1.MATCH(C127. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.F73:F77. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.G72:I77. the function will produce an error.D116:D118. and the discount from the 100 column is used. If a match is not found.

275 =HLOOKUP(C127.TRUE) .FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.E111:G112.2000 Peter Noneley A 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 90 of 205 J Brick £2 Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.MATCH(C127.D116:D118.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)+1.2.E115:G118.

.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D E F G H HOUR Page 91 of 205 I HOUR Number 21:15 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.

800 . the Commission is only 5% of Sales."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. when the Order Value is £1000 or above. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function."Achieved". This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated."Achieved". the Commission is 10% of Sales."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6.000 Product Wood Discount £200 Total £1. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target."Achieved".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I IF Page 92 of 205 J IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. If the Sales do not reach Target. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. Special Offer Yes Order Value £2.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. Depending upon the result. The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer. Each has their own target which they must reach. such as A1=A2.ActionIfTrue."Achieved"."Achieved". Formatting No special formatting is required. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . text or calculations. Syntax =IF(Condition."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32."Achieved". Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33. one of two actions will be carried out.C43*10%.C45*10%.C44*10%. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.

700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".D61>=1000).000 E F G H ££2.000 £500 £3.2000 Peter Noneley A 59 60 61 62 B Glass Cement Turf C No Yes Yes D £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 ££500 £300 £2.0) I IF Page 93 of 205 J .D61*10%.

Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.G11.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns.F50.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Paris =INDEX(D45:F48.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 94 of 205 I INDEX Holiday booking price list. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.F51) Type 1.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : . 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. It can be used with a single block of data.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.RowCoordinate. The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal. or non-continuos blocks.2. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1.

3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.500 £6.000 Qtr1 £1.500 £9.500 £11. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.000 £11.500 £7. 2.F78) Qtr4 £4.2))) .000 £10.500 Type 1.000 £9.000 Qtr2 £2.500 £10.500 £6.500 £9.000 Qtr4 £4.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £12. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 £12.500 £7.0). In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.500 £12. 2.000 £11.000 £6.500 Qtr3 £3.500 Type 1.000 £10.500 wood qtr2 west Err:504 Qtr4 £4. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.000 Qtr1 £1.IF(F102=C90.IF(F102=C95.000 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 95 of 205 I Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.1.000 Qtr3 £3.500 1 3 2 Err:504 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.C91:C93.MATCH(F100.000 Qtr2 £2. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.0). These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.500 £8.000 £6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £7.500 £5.500 £11.000 £8.MATCH(F101.000 £5. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.500 £12.F76.000 Qtr4 £4.500 £5.ColumnColumnCordinate.500 Qtr2 £2. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 Qtr3 £3.D90:G90.000 £9.RowCoordinate.F77.000 £8.000 £7.500 £8.500 £10.500 Qtr3 £3.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 96 of 205 J INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as C5 : C7 Type the end cell of the range. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. South Type the name of the sheet. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. Type the name of the sheet. SOUTH and EAST. such as C7 : The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) . Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. such as South : C5 Type the start cell of the range. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells.

01 Automatic 310m19(Build:9420) LINUX =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E INFO Page 97 of 205 F INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system. (PC or Mac) System Information Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 1 Err:502 Windows (32-bit) NT 5.

25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. The number of days is then divided by 365.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G H I INT Page 98 of 205 J INT Number 1. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.67 7.5 =(D27-C27)/365.3 10. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.75 -1. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 7 =INT((D49-C49)/365.5 2.25 .57 8. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.25) Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days. This has the effect of increasing the child age.25 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.87 7. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.

25 is to take account of the leap years. G H I INT Page 99 of 205 J .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 59 B C D E F The reason for using 365.

0. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 100 of 205 I ISBLANK Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25-Dec-98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not. chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36).E36.0) Totals 550 1050 .E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36).

"Try again!". Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. which Excel does not do.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H ISERR Page 101 of 205 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! Err:502 Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. Formatting No special formatting is needed. by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate.E40/E41) . It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. Table 2 Cost Of Crate : £24 Bottles In Crate : 0 Cost of single bottle : Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or if the error is the #NA message.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : 3-Jan-00 =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.D40-D39) ."Error in data entry".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G ISERROR Page 102 of 205 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! Err:502 Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : 3-Jan-00 =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format. It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.6 3.5 3. Note that decimal fractions are ignored. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.5 2. Note that dates can be even or odd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 103 of 205 I ISEVEN Number 1 2 2.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. the result TRUE is shown. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the cell does contain a logical value. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H ISLOGICAL Page 104 of 205 I J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical. the result FALSE is shown.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the cell does not contain a logical value.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H I ISNA Page 105 of 205 J ISNA Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A. but will be used for data entry in the future. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. . Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . rather than text. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 106 of 205 H ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up.D40*E40. is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. rather than text which looks like a number. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0. 300. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting."Retype the Price") .

If the cell or calculation is not numeric.2.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £12. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).000 £12. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.VLOOKUP(E35.000 £15. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation. ID No.VLOOKUP(E35.3.FALSE).C29:E33.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H ISNUMBER Page 107 of 205 I J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.000 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.FALSE)) . or is blank.D29:E33. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. the result FALSE is shown. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.

6 3.5 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.5 3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I ISODD Page 108 of 205 J ISODD Number 1 2 2. . Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE. Note that dates can be odd or even. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.

Its a bit of an odd one.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. . but when used on the worksheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ISREF Page 109 of 205 H I ISREF TRUE =ISREF(A1) FALSE =ISREF(B99) Err:508 =ISREF(Hello) FALSE =ISREF(10) FALSE =ISREF(NOW()) FALSE =ISREF("A1") Err:508 =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. or FALSE for any other type of value.

000 £15. If the entry is text is shows TRUE. ID No.VLOOKUP(E33.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H ISTEXT Page 110 of 205 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33). 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 £12. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.FALSE).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.C27:E31. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.D27:E31. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.FALSE)) . Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.VLOOKUP(E33.000 £8.000 £12.2.3.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £8.

Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £10.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.2) =LARGE(C4:C8. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £7.000 £2.000 £5.000 £12.800 £3.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £4.000 £6.500 £3. Feb and Mar.000 £10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 Mar £4.000 Feb £6.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Highest Lowest £12.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £7.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 111 of 205 J LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.500 £12. Sales North South East West Jan £5.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 B C D E F G H I LCM Page 112 of 205 J LCM =LCM(C4. Syntax =LCM(Number1. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers. .Number2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Number3. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed..D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple..D5) =LCM(C6.D4) =LCM(C5.

D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.D6) =LEFT(C7.D4) =LEFT(C5.C27)-1) Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C28. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 113 of 205 I LEFT =LEFT(C4.C29)-1) . The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.FIND(" ".D5) =LEFT(C6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FIND(" ". Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.D7) =LEFT(C8. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.C28)-1) Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C29.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C27.FIND(" ".

Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. including spaces and numbers. =RIGHT(C24.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24)) This is just the second name. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space.C24) This is the length of the second name. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.C24) This is the position of the space. in a piece of text. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ". =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H LEN Page 114 of 205 I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. Carol Williams 8 . Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.

as in the description above. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the . (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. When a match is found. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 115 of 205 J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns.D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. When a match is found. so the Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns.

B80:E86) 77 =LOOKUP(H88. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Table 2 shows the same data.G80:J86) . otherwise errors will occur. Alan 100 H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 116 of 205 J Jan Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. Jan Alan 100 Bob 100 Carol 100 David 100 Eric 100 Fred 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. E F G lookup range. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. but not sorted. Sometimes the results will be correct. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure.

RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. otherwise errors will occur.C38:C43. and then picks an item from a second range of cells. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. If the name Carol is used. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38.D4:G10. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. either as #N/A or incorrect results. . and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting No special formatting is needed.RangeToLookIn.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H LOOKUP (Vector) Page 117 of 205 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G LOWER Page 118 of 205 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . . Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The Ascending list gives the exact match. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match. 1 or -1. or the next highest number if no exact match exists. The Descending list gives the #NA error. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H MATCH Page 119 of 205 I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9. It can be used with text and numbers. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists. so the #NA is shown. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor. The Descending list gives the exact match. Using 1 will look for an exact match.E4:E7. Using -1 will look for an exact match. . If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. The Ascending list gives the exact match.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.WhereToLook. Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G40:G43.I4:I7.

If the number of passengers is not an exact match.G57:G60. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99.MATCH(H94. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. the next biggest bus will be picked. the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.D95:D99. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list.G74:G77. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number. The Ascending list gives the #NA error.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The Descending list gives the exact match.-1)..1) Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79.-1) Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. . The pupils scores were entered in another list. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A G H MATCH Page 120 of 205 I Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62.

1).2000 Peter Noneley A 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 B C D E F G If an exact match is not found.C111:C114. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade.0) . the next lowest breakpoint is used.MATCH(G114. Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction H MATCH Page 121 of 205 I Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5.500 £3.000 Overall Max £12..000 £12.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MAX Page 122 of 205 I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.800 £3.000 £4.000 £10.500 £12. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £12.000 =MAX(C23:E26) . Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 £6.000 £10.000 £2.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.000 Feb £6.000 £7.000 £7.000 £5.Range3.000 £10. month and overall.. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2.000 Mar £4.

The median is not the average..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. If there is no exact median number in the group.Range3.Range2. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I MEDIAN Page 123 of 205 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values.

Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.C50)+1)-FIND("/".5.5.C50.12.PositionToStartPicking. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.FIND("/".2) NP =MID(C37.99) =MID(C14.D6. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.3) =MID(C10.D5.D4.C50)-1) .FIND("/".2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.12.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6.5.3) =MID(C12.5. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2) WA =MID(C36. only the available characters will be picked.E6) =MID(C8.3) =MID(C9.5.12.5.99) =MID(C13. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company. The function needs to know at what point it should start.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.FIND("/". It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. and how many characters to pick.C50)+1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small B C D E F G MID Page 124 of 205 H MID How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.

by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / G MID Page 125 of 205 H . plus 1 for the Start of the code.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 B C D E F Find the first /. Find the second /. occurring after the first / Calculate the length of the text to extract.

000 £4.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.000 £5.000 Mar £4. month and overall.000 £2.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 Feb £6.000 £4.000 £3.Range3.000 Overall MIN £2.000 £2..500 £3.000 £2.500 £12.000 £7. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.000 £6.000 £3.000 £10.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .Range2. Syntax =MIN(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MIN Page 126 of 205 I MIN Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.800 £3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.

=MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.52 1.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24."00") =REPT("|".75 2 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G MINUTE Page 127 of 205 H I MINUTE Number 5/12/2011 0:23 9:15:00 PM 0. The time functions of =HOUR(). Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2. Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW())."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.75 3:45 3:00 0:45 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 =MOD(F49."00") =REPT("|". Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). To update the clock press the function key F9. Clock Hour 00 Minute |||||||||||||||||||| 20 Second ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 37 =REPT("|".1)/24 .52 Minute 23 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .02 0. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : 3.

Time command. MINUTE Page 128 of 205 H I . Number. Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 B C D E F G The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format.

500 21.C26:E28) was typed. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 129 of 205 I J MMULT What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. Dark and White. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. Dark and White. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.000 25. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. Example 2 The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of Size Giant Standard Economy .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. The formula then showed the correct result. (but not yet entered). In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.

each of which has to order enough Butter. then change a single value in each. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. Range 2 contains the amount Butter. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. . Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. G H MMULT Page 130 of 205 I J The company has four factories. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory.

D7) =MOD(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H MOD Page 131 of 205 I MOD Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4. .Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =MOD(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.D5) =MOD(C6. Syntax =MOD(Number.D6) =MOD(C7.

Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Note Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range3.. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size. When there is more than one set of duplicates. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : . The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range2. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I MODE Page 132 of 205 J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 10 10 =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) #VALUE! =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.

7 This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 MODE Page 133 of 205 J B C D E F G H I If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : 9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F MONTH Page 134 of 205 G MONTH Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 December =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Cells.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format.

D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 B C D E F G H I MROUND Page 135 of 205 J MROUND =MROUND(C4. .MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) =MROUND(C6.D4) =MROUND(C5.D7) =MROUND(C8.D6) =MROUND(C7.

Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H N Page 136 of 205 I J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. Excel does not really need this function.50% 0. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. .04 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.5 =N(C5) 3.5 =N(C6) 3. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.5 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H NA Page 137 of 205 I NA #N/A =NA() Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =IF(ISBLANK(C6). When the =NA() is used. the Wage is still calculated. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.NA(). It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation. Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7). Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 . It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8).NA().NA(). On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E NETWORKDAYS Page 138 of 205 F NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation. Note The calculation does not include the last day.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29. Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C28.C29.C30.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. To correct this add 1 to the result. It will exclude weekends and any holidays.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.EndDate.End.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Northern data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. Alan Jan Feb Mar Alan 10 20 30 Bob 40 50 60 Carol 70 80 90 Total 120 150 180 F G H I NORTH Page 139 of 205 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total 60 150 240 450 .

If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed."OK") 15-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34)."Overdue"."Overdue". then the result is FALSE. If the test fails. The period of the Loan is entered. (A type of reverse logic). The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time. Formatting No special formatting is needed."OK") 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). The date the book was Taken out is entered. otherwise OK is shown. by adding the Loan value to the Taken date."Overdue". If the test is met. the result is TRUE."OK") . Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. The date the book was returned is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H NOT Page 140 of 205 I J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

. The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H NOW Page 141 of 205 I NOW The current Date and Time 5/12/2011 0:24 =NOW() 05/12/11 12:24 AM =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.

.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .9 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 B C D E F G H ODD Page 142 of 205 I ODD =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.4 3. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.9 3 3.4 2.

Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £=IF(OR(E27="Visa".5.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa". Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.E5="Delta").5. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.E27="Delta").E6="Delta"). Syntax =OR(Test1. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.5.E7="Delta").0) £5 ££5 Order No.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No.5. A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa".5. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge ££5 ££5 B C D E F G H I OR Page 143 of 205 J OR =IF(OR(E4="Visa". The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.E4="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".

000 £330 9 . (As a % of the stock value) : Quantity of Exhausts used per day : Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : Ordering Intervals to evaluate.170 £4.350 £1.890 £1.225 Best £1.000 £210 14 £22.500 £255 11 £27.500 £285 10 £30.000 £46 £7.000 £300 10 £31.675 £1. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.125 £4.500 £165 17 £18.400 £1.800 £1.375 £1.500 £183 £3.000 £270 11 £28.500 £21 £15.620 £1. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.000 £150 19 £16.000 £240 12 £25.000 £92 £4.335 £1.665 £2.875 £75 12% 10 £25 0.500 £1.150 £925 £775 £675 £575 £525 £475 £425 £400 £375 £350 £325 £300 £275 £275 £250 £250 £225 £225 Annual Ware house Costs £45 £90 £180 £270 £360 £450 £540 £630 £720 £810 £900 £990 £1.295 £1.625 £1. Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.510 £1.000 £23 £13.080 £1.530 £1.575 £2.350 £1. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems.300 £1.300 £1.800 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . (Expressed in Days) : Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : Output Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 Annual Admin Cost £9.480 £1.315 £1.500 £27 £12.500 £315 9 £33. The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.440 £1.500 £61 £6.980 The Best Annual Ordering Total Interval £9.550 £1. there is a fixed administrative cost.260 £1.525 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H Ordering Stock Page 144 of 205 I Ordering Stock This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.500 £195 15 £21.170 £1. Each time an order is made for new stock.795 £1.000 £180 16 £19.250 £1.500 £225 13 £24.500 £37 £9.000 £31 £10.710 £1.305 £1.5 2 200 750 1% 5% Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 Order Order Orders Value Discount Per Year £750 £365 £1. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.750 £1.450 £1.

Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break.$H$25.425 I - 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.200 £2. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.$H$24.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.500 £42.610 £2.000 £2.500 £45. .$H$25.000 £37. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.500 £39.B29<$G$25).000 £43.160 £2. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value. Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.070 £2. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. then the first Price Break discount is used.IF(B29>=$G$25.000 D £345 £360 £375 £390 £405 £420 £435 £450 E 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 F £200 £200 £200 £200 £175 £175 £175 £175 G £2. Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive. which would require stock to be ordered every day.250 £2.075 £2.B29<$G$25). =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.IF(B29>=$G$25.B29<$G$25).430 £2. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.$H$24.350 £2. This is the smallest ordering period.2000 Peter Noneley A 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 B 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 C £34. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier. Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.$H$25.0)) Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval.$H$24.000 £40. the second Price Break discount is used.275 £2.340 £2. zero discount is used.500 £36. but below the second Price Break.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .925 £2. Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.150 £2.700 Ordering Stock Page 145 of 205 H £1. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.IF(B29>=$G$25.520 £2.

2000 Peter Noneley A 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 B C D E F With an interval of 1. =CEILING(365/A29. However.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . G H Ordering Stock Page 146 of 205 I Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts ."Best". It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads. otherwise a dash is shown. based upon how frequently the orders are made. If the two values match the word Best is shown.3 This decimal will cause problems. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts.1) Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. there will have to be 365 orders. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered. such as 2. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number. giving the lowest annual overheads. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts."-") .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B Box size Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Box size C Sample 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sample D E F G H I PACKERS Page 147 of 205 J Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 21 30 28 35 30 11 9 10 10 21 20 0 20 31 28 30 30 8 10 12 10 22 20 20 19 32 28 30 30 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet. C and D.990. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9. B.D5) =PERMUT(C6. the following twelve permutations would be possible. The internal order is significant.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC .928.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G PERMUT Page 148 of 205 H PERMUT Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.765.600 =PERMUT(C4.D6) =PERMUT(C7.D4) =PERMUT(C5. Letter In Alphabet Password Size Permutations 26 8 62.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi. It does not need any input. It is correct to 15 decimal places. Example To calculate the area of a circle. Radius 5 25 Area 78.54 1963.50 =PI()*(C21^2) . Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed. it is a self contained function.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G PI Page 149 of 205 H I PI π 3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =POWER(C5. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Radius 5 25 Area 78. which result is 81.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G POWER Page 150 of 205 H I POWER Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4. such as 3^4.54 1963.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power.D6) =POWER(C7. Example To calculate the area of a circle.2) .D5) =POWER(C6. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised. It is the same as using the ^ operator.

through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G PRODUCT Page 151 of 205 H I PRODUCT Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4.Number2.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together... It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7.) Formatting No special formatting is needed..Number3.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6. which results in 6300.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1..Number2. .

and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G PROPER Page 152 of 205 H I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I J

QUARTILE Page 153 of 205 K

QUARTILE
Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E8)

Values 817 748 372 487 140

104 756 993 384 607

640 369 294 185 894

767 703 261 491 182

Quarter No. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H12) 1 285.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H16)

What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters of the data. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value, which can be obtained using the =MIN() function. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value, which can be obtained using the =MAX() function. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined,QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0,1,2,3 or 4. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G

QUOTIENT Page 154 of 205 H

QUOTIENT
Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4,D4) =QUOTIENT(C5,D5) =QUOTIENT(C6,D6)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. It ignores any remainder, only showing the whole number. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided,Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock. The merchant can only sell full crates. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed. Table 1 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10.5 25 3.75 12.5

=D28/E28

Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result. Table 2 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12

=QUOTIENT(D39,E39)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H

RAND Page 155 of 205 I

RAND
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1. 0.5 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 8.81 Random between 5 and 10. 6.69 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 =RAND()*10 =RAND()

What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates, or when F9 is pressed. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information. A list of cards has been entered in column C, and =RAND() in column D. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data, Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Random 0.01 0.71 0.41 0.01 0.52 0.93 0.09 0.52 0.52 0.07 0.51 0.51 0.91 0.55 0.79 0.28 0.79 0.88 0.5 0.35 0.18 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 45 47 Random 0.33 0.97 0.07 0.87 0.67 0.15 0.54 0.33 0.11 0.38 0.23 0.77 0.35 0.65 0.64 0.77 0.89 0.41 0.4 0.03 0.37

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.81 0.99 0.02 0.87 0.36 0.19 0.55 0.87 0.07 0.89 0.88 0.78 0.3 0.88 0.29 0.22 0.98 0.81 0.74 0.05 0.32 0.25 0.96 0.87 0.04 0.23 0.66 0.93 0.72 0.66 0.5 E F 49 35 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.11 0.42 0.5 0.98 0.44 0.09 0.2 0.08 0.89 0.98 0.41 0.86 0.05 0.28 0.53 0.2 0.82 0.86 0.32 0.2 0.09 0.08 0.55 0.74 0.73 0.32 0.63 0.13 H

RAND Page 156 of 205 I

"All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit."Duplicates! Spin again". Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique.E24:E30))<>7.D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H RANDBETWEEN Page 157 of 205 I RANDBETWEEN Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 9 1 =RANDBETWEEN(C4.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball Duplicates! Spin again {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. the same number could be generated twice or more. The Winning Ticket! 41 4 1 40 26 5 1 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. .$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.

and the 10 would be ranked as 4. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.C11:C15.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.C18:C22) =RANK(C19.C11:C15.C11:C15. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates. they will be assigned the same rank. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.C11:C15. 20.ListOfNumbers.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Values 10 30 20 30 40 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 B C D E F G H RANK Page 158 of 205 I RANK =RANK(C4. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially.1) =RANK(C14.C4:C8) =RANK(C8. both 20's are ranked as 2.C4:C8) =RANK(C5.C4:C8) Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 =RANK(C11.B34:B37) =RANK(B36. leaving it out has the same effect). If the numbers 30. (This is optional.B34:B37) =RANK(B37. If there are duplicate values in the list.B34:B37) =RANK(B35.1) =RANK(C13.1) Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C18. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.C4:C8) =RANK(C6.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.1) =RANK(C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example .1) =RANK(C12. 30 is ranked as 1.C11:C15. 20 and 10 were ranked.

1) =RANK(C56.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.C53:C58.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C55.2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 RANK Page 159 of 205 B C D E F G H I The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.C53:C58.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =RANK(C57.1) =RANK(C54.C53:C58. Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 =RANK(C53.1) . The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.

F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.E6.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6.E5. .D5.StartPosition.F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.E4. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.E7. You need to specify where the replacement should start.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H REPLACE Page 160 of 205 I REPLACE Start Characters New Modified Original Text Position To Replace Character Text ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.D6.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.D7. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.

"00") =REPT("|".MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).D6) =REPT(C7.000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||". Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Repeat A AB | Number Of Repeats 3 3 10 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| B C D E F G H REPT Page 161 of 205 I REPT =REPT(C4. but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.000 £2. To update the clock press the function key F9.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).000 £3. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. Clock Hour 00 Minute |||||||||||||||||||| 20 Second |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 54 =REPT("|". Formatting No special formatting is needed. The time functions of =HOUR().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."00") =REPT("|". Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales.D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.000 £5.D4) =REPT(C5.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.D5) =REPT(C6.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW())."00") .

Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 B C D E F G H RIGHT Page 162 of 205 I RIGHT =RIGHT(C4.D5) =RIGHT(C6. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name.D6) =RIGHT(C7.D7) =RIGHT(C8. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.C30)) .D4) =RIGHT(C5.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ". The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.

TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal. . Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber.3) =ROMAN(C14. 4 is Simplified. 2 is even more Concise.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 0 is Classic.1) =ROMAN(C12.0) =ROMAN(C11.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H ROMAN Page 163 of 205 I ROMAN Number Roman 1 I 2 II 3 III 5 V 10 X 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MXMVIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10. 1 is more Concise. 3 is even more Concise still. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed.4) =ROMAN(C15. This is used if no format is specified.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.2) =ROMAN(C13.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.

D9) B C D E F G H ROUND Page 164 of 205 I ROUND What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.48 1.48 13643. .DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 =ROUND(C5. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7.48 =ROUND(C6. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D4) 1 1.48 13643.48 1.48 13643.D5) 2 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 Number 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.48 13643.48 13643.48 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D5) 2 1.D4) 1 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9.48 1. .D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.48 13643.D9) B C D E F G H I ROUNDDOWN Page 165 of 205 J ROUNDDOWN What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.

48 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.48 13643.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 1.48 13643. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.48 13643. .D9) B C D E F G H I ROUNDUP Page 166 of 205 J ROUNDUP What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.D5) 2 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.5 =ROUNDUP(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) 1 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.

25 1 50 £1. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. The Duration of the call is entered.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. The Cost of the call is then calculated. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G SECOND Page 167 of 205 H SECOND Number 12/May/11 00:24:44 12:00:00 PM 0.51 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.51 Second 44 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.50 0.70 2 5 £1.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36). Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. Cost Per Second : £0.5) .

If the value is positive the result is 1. . Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1 B C D E F G H SIGN Page 168 of 205 I J SIGN =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is negative the result is -1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Because you owned the car for 6 years.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period. days.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 6 £2. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.£8. the SLN is calculated as £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 =SLN(F9.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. . An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.000.F10. be for that time.SellingPrice.000 £2. months or years. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. then kept it for 6 years.000 . However. The result is a uniform depreciation value.000 which is £12. the SLN which is calculated will. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month.000.000 £8.000.F4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G H SLN Page 169 of 205 I SLN Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000 / 6 which is £2.000.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20.500 =SLN(F3.000 4 £2. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method).

000 £5.500 £12.000 £2.800 £3.000 £10.000 £7. Feb and Mar.1) =SMALL(D24:F27. Highest Lowest £12.000 £3.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 Feb £6.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .2) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £2.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 =SMALL(D24:F27. Sales North South East West Jan £5. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £3.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 Mar £4.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £4.000 £6. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H I SMALL Page 170 of 205 J SMALL Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.500 £3.1) =SMALL(C4:C8.

Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. Jan 100 400 700 1200 Feb 200 500 800 1500 Mar 300 600 900 1800 F G H I SOUTH Page 171 of 205 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Alan Bob Carol Total Total 600 1500 2400 4500 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Southern data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.4 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.4 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H I STDEV Page 172 of 205 J K STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 0.Range2.0816 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.5 0. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population. . Syntax =STDEV(Range1.5 1.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.0)) find the machine name.0500 1.5 1.5 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.29 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.6 1.H34:H36. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.5 1.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.H34:H36.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.8 0.6 1.H34:H36.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.7 1.

4 1.5 1.H32:H34.7 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.6 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.12 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).43 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.5 0. .Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0)) find the machine name. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.5 1.Range2.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.H32:H34.0707 1. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0433 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I STDEVP Page 173 of 205 J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0.43 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1.5 0.H32:H34.4 1.8 0. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.

Table 2 Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert Northern Region Region Area Region Area Northern region Northern Region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern Region region area Updated Text Northern Area Northern Area Northern Area Northern Area Northern Area . Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. The function is case sensitive. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11.C39.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.C4.C7.C6.C11.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or a specific instance.D11. Table 1 Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Northern Region Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region Northern region Northern Region region Area Northern Region Northern Region Region area Northern area Northern Region region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.D7) Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F SUBSTITUTE Page 174 of 205 G H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4.C5. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It can either replace all occurrences of the text.TextToInsert.D10.TextToRemove.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7.C10.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .PROPER(C50).PROPER(D50)) H .2000 Peter Noneley A 51 B SUBSTITUTE Page 175 of 205 C D E F G =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).

Range2. Syntax =SUM(Range1. 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 Wrong! Correct Correct .D14. ranges are from other functions..MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H SUM Page 176 of 205 I J SUM Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. The numbers can be in single cells.. The formula is actually doing more work than needed.Range3. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50). Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25). through to Range30).E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H SUM_as_Running_Total Page 177 of 205 I J SUM (Running Total) Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D.0)) =SUM(IF(D12.$D$7:D8. .$D$7:D9.$D$7:D12.$D$7:D11.$D$7:D10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)) =SUM(IF(D8. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.0)) =SUM(IF(D11. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down.$D$7:D7.

An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled.1):OFFSET(E45.0. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. the first offset is offset by 1 column. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34.0. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the second by 2 columns.0. The result is the range F51:G51 which . The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.0. 1. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. 2.0.0.0. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I SUM_with_OFFSET Page 178 of 205 J SUM and the =OFFSET function Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.1):OFFSET(E51. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. 3.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45.

MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.1):OFFSET(E57. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.0. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled. the second by 3 columns.0. Example The following table shows five months of data.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function. the first offset is offset by 1 column.0. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.0.2) : OFFSET(D79. E F G H I SUM_with_OFFSET Page 179 of 205 J 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79.0. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72. Mar-98 Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0.0.0. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. Type in the Start month.0. Feb-98 Type in the End month. .0. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. The formula displayed below are only dummies.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D is then totalled.

Total of item typed in following cell.CriteriaToBeMatched.RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12.">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12."Brakes". If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought."Brakes". What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Total cost of all Tyres bought.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H SUMIF Page 180 of 205 I SUMIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12. It then identifies the entries for Brakes."Tyres". Total of items costing £100 or above. . Formatting No special formatting is needed.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined.E18.

33 80% £2.00 25% £33.25 £60.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.00 £2. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Markup Cost £12.00 £16. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.00 20% £2. takinging into account the markup percentage.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.E35:E39.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H SUMPRODUCT Page 181 of 205 I SUMPRODUCT Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6.350 =E44-E43 .H35:H39) £2. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. Range. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.40 £3. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1.D35:D39) £9.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.00 25% £13.

F5. Invert the year digits.714 £1.143 £571 =SYD(F3.1) =SYD(F3. 3. £9.F4. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500.F5. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.5) =SYD(F3.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.000 £1.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.000 ===> £1. £9000/6=£1500. 2.F4.429 £2.1.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life.3) =SYD(F3.17 1. 17% being £1500.000 £1.000 £4. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages. 1+2+3=6. year 1 is $4500.2.5 0.2.F5.E40.000 3 £4.000 £8.F5. £1500.1 by £1500 to get £4500. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.2) =SYD(F3.000 6 £3. 4. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits. Year 3 is 50% of 6.500 ===> £3.F4.E41.286 £1. 5. year 1 is 17% 6. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.6) £12. Multiply 3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits. 33% being £3000. £3000.F4.857 £2. using the sum of the years digits. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.500 ===> =SYD(E39.2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation. £10000-£1000=£9000.3 becomes 3.F4.F5.F5. 1.F4. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10. year 2 is 33% of 6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H SYD Page 182 of 205 I SYD Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.500 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . these values are the depreciation values for each of the three years in the life of the item.33 0. .4) =SYD(F3.

SalvageValue. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.000 7 £2. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : E F G H SYD Page 183 of 205 I £10.000 £1.929 £1.700 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D Example 2 The same example using 4 years.000 £1.250 £1. 100% .3 0.607 £1.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.600 £2.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4 0.Life.2 0.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.800 £900 £9.1 100% Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.000 4 £3.

. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the result is a blank. If the value is text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. The function is not specifically needed by Excel.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H T Page 184 of 205 I J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not.

"0.0") =TEXT(C9."£0.3 B C D E F G H TEXT Page 185 of 205 I J TEXT =TEXT(C4. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert.00 10 £10 10.00") =TEXT(C5.25 Converted To Text 10.00") =TEXT(C6.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.3 £10."0.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function. ."£0."0") =TEXT(C7.00 £10.25 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10."£0") =TEXT(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

E4) =TIME(C5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.D6.D4.E5) =TIME(C6. Syntax =TIME(Hour.Minute. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H TIME Page 186 of 205 I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.D5.60485 =TIME(C4.

. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day. which convert all values to text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F TIMEVALUE Page 187 of 205 G H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. It is useful when data is imported from other applications.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. such as from mainframe computers.

Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 05/10/14 10/01/13 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G TODAY Page 188 of 205 H TODAY Today Is 12-May-11 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5245 5024 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format. Year 2000 01-Jan-2000 Days Until 08/20/88 =C36-TODAY() .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I

TRANSPOSE Page 189 of 205 J

TRANSPOSE
Alan Bob Carol Total Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160

Jan Feb

{=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)}

As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range, and places in it in a new range, turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows, and the data originally in rows is in columns. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. The function needs to be entered as an array formula. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. Next type the formula, such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. If changes need to be made to the formula, the entire array has to be highlighted, the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I

TREND Page 190 of 205 J

TREND

WHAT IS CONST b ?
Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4,940 8 £5,551 9 £6,163 10 £6,774 11 £7,386 12 £7,997

Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1,000 2 £2,000 3 £2,500 4 £3,500 5 £3,800 6 £4,000

{=TREND(C8:C13,B8:B13,E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}

What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs,KnownXs,RequiredXs,Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values, such as Sales Figures. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data, such as Months. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction, such as Months.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year, the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility. To prove to the bank that, based upon the past years performance, the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year, the =TREND() function was used. The historical data for the past year was entered, months 1 to 12. The months to predict were entered, 13 to 24. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.

Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5,000 2 -£4,800 3 -£4,600 4 -£4,750 5 -£4,800 6 -£4,500 7 -£4,000 8 -£3,800 9 -£3,300 10 -£2,000 11 -£2,500 12 -£2,800 How To Enter An Array Formula

Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2,226 14 -£1,968 15 -£1,709 16 -£1,451 17 -£1,193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615

{=TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58

TREND Page 191 of 205 J

B C D E F G H I Select all the cells where the array is required, such as F41 to F52. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52), but do not press Enter. Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G

TRIM Page 192 of 205 H I

TRIM
Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7)

What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

48 1.48 Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1. it does not actually round the number.D6) 1 -1.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.48 -1.4 =TRUNC(C5.48 13643.D4) 1 1.48 13643.4 =TRUNC(C7. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.48 13643.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.D5) 2 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D11) B C D E F G H I TRUNC Page 193 of 205 J TRUNC What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D7) 2 -1. .47 =TRUNC(C6.48 1.47 =TRUNC(C8.48 -1.

Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G UPPER Page 194 of 205 H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. . Example See the example for FREQUENCY.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. #VALUE! * See explanation below. The winning time was 10:30 seconds. #VALUE! There was a 50% increase in sales. based upon the original text.SEARCH("£".SEARCH("??:??".4)) . =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. The winning time was 0:30 seconds. =MID().SEARCH("??:??".2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 C D E F G VALUE Page 195 of 205 H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value Err:502 =VALUE(MID(C4. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract. as alphabetic characters will be included.99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE! A 100% increase was achieved.C4). #VALUE! Approx 50% increase in sales.SUBSTITUTE(C11. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14.SEARCH("???%". #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! ")).SUBSTITUTE(C52." ")).5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52. If the % sign is included in the text.C17). If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored. =SUBSTITUTE.SEARCH("??:??". The result will be shown as a value. The same will be true for other recognised formats." ". =LEFT() or =RIGHT(). Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The winning time was 1:30 seconds. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function. There was a 100% increase in sales. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. two or three digits long. =FIND().C14). Explanation of formula shown above. There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE! Only a 2% increase in sales.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. #VALUE! There was a 100% increase in sales. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ." ". other than it is preceded by a space.C16).C15)." The winning time was 1:30 seconds." ").5)) =VALUE(MID(C17.5)) =VALUE(MID(C16." ". There was a 2% increase in sales. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH(). it can be either one.SEARCH("??:??". There is no way to identify the beginning of the value." "." #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! ").SEARCH("???%". the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.

6 1.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. .5 1.5 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.H34:H36.8 0.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.0)) find the machine name.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 0. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0067 1. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.H34:H36.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.0025 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H VAR Page 196 of 205 I J VAR Values 10 10 9 10 0. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 1.4 1.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 1. Syntax =VAR(Range1.5 0.7 1.4 1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.Range2.67 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.

=MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).19 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H VARP Page 197 of 205 I J VARP Values 10 10 9 10 0. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.5 1.7 1. Syntax =VARP(Range1.H32:H34. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. .H32:H34.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).Range2. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.8 0.5 1.4 1.6 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0050 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 0.5 1.6 1.4 1.0019 1.H32:H34.0125 The smallest variance is : 0.5 0.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.0)) find the machine name.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values.19 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.

The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. Bob Eric Alan Carol David Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 . The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.RangeToLookIn. TRUE for yes. FALSE for no. It then calculates the position of the month in the list. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. Unfortunately.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I VLOOKUP Page 198 of 205 J VLOOKUP The column numbers are not needed. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. When the item is found. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.ColumnToPickFrom. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.G12. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. it then scans across to pick a cell entry.C6:H8. they are part of the illustration.

Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. When the make is found.C114:D116. Wood and Glass. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the side of the Discount Table. the next lowest value is used.D49:F49.F75:I79. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol . The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount. and the discount from . the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells.0)+1.MATCH(B81. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.2. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.G74:I74. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. If a match is not found. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C. the function will produce an error.200 =VLOOKUP(C81. =VLOOKUP(C126.2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 B C D E F eric mar G H I VLOOKUP Page 199 of 205 J Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)+1.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.MATCH(F57.C50:F54.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.

F114:I116.275 .F114:I116.G113:I113.0)+1.MATCH(C126.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) B C D E F G the 100 row is used.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2.C114:D116.TRUE) H I VLOOKUP Page 200 of 205 J Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Discount Table Brick Wood Glass 1 0% 0% 0% 100 6% 3% 12% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.MATCH(C126.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126. =VLOOKUP(D126.0)+1.G113:I113.2000 Peter Noneley A 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.

The Booking Date is entered. use Format.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Excel will use 1. Booking Date Actual Day 7-Jan-98 Wednesday Booking Cost £30.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34). If no number is specified. Cells. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.1) =WEEKDAY(C7. To show the result as the name of the day.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G WEEKDAY Page 201 of 205 H WEEKDAY Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6.3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date. The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for. Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7. The Actual Day is calculated.

Cells.E25. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G WORKDAY Page 202 of 205 H WORKDAY StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4. Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25. Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.E4) =WORKDAY(D5.Date.Days.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.Number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G H I YEAR Page 203 of 205 J YEAR Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date. .

000 £12. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.000 =YEARFRAC(B33.C34+1.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.000 =YEARFRAC(B32.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G YEARFRAC Page 204 of 205 H YEARFRAC Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction. Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12.000 =YEARFRAC(B34.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.000 £6. . but can be formatted as a percent.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to. the End date. but not including.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12.EndData. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.C32+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £3. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.C33+1.

400 £2.000 £800 £400 £300 Total Cost Budget % Total £1.200 £11.000 92% .000 £4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G Project Dates Page 205 of 205 H I Project Dates Target Delivery Tue 27-Jan-98 House Building Target Budget Days Required 5 4 3 6 4 £12.000 £2.000 Job Stage Survey Foundation Walls Roof Electrics Actual Delivery Against Target Total Days Start Date Mon 05-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 16-Jan-98 Wed 21-Jan-98 Thu 29-Jan-98 Tue 03-Feb-98 5 days behind 22 End Date Fri 09-Jan-98 Thu 15-Jan-98 Tue 20-Jan-98 Wed 28-Jan-98 Tue 03-Feb-98 Daily Cost £200 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .400 £1.