TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3030

May 1998
Computer Programs for
Assessment of Long-
Wavelength Radio
Communications,
Version 2.0
User's Guide and
Source Files
J. A. Ferguson
Approved for public release;
distribution is unlimited.
It,
It,
Systems Center
San Diego
DTIC QUALITY n ~ S P E C T E D 1
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center
San Diego, CA 92152-5001
SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER
San Diego, California 92152-5001
H. A. Williams, CAPT, USN
Commanding Officer
ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
R. C. Kolb
Executive Director
The work detailed in this document was performed under project MP99 for the Space and Naval
Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Command by the Ionospheric Branch within the Propagation Division
of SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego.
Released by
J. A. Ferguson, Head
Ionospheric Branch
Under authority of
J. H. Richter, Head
Propagation Division
JA
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS 2
PROPAGATION MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
GEOPHYSICAL MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
THE IONOSPHERE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
PATH SEGMENTATION 6
ATMOSPHERIC NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
RECEIVER MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
DRIVER PROGRAM 9
CONTROL STRINGS..................................................... 10
FILE SPECIFICATION 12
COVERAGE SPECiFiCATION............................................. 12
IONOSPHERIC SPECiFiCATION........................................... 17
TABULAR PROFILES .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
OVERRIDING THE SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE DEPENDENCE.................. 22
OPTIONAL OUTPUTS 22
PLOTTING THE RESULTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
PREVIEW PLOTS........................................................ 24
FIELD STRENGTH PLOTS................................................ 29
COVERAGE PLOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
FILE SUMMARIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
SAMPLE CASES 34
PRVWPLOT 36
LWPM................................................................... 37
GRDPLOT 38
BEARINGS 40
LWFPLOT 41
LWPC DATA FILES 42
LWPC DATA LOCATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
GEOPHYSICAL DATA 42
TRANSMITTER AND MAP SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
GRAPHICS INITIALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
OUTPUT DATA FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
OPERATING SYSTEM AND COMPILER 47
REFERENCES 48
iii
Figures
1. Illustration of automatic path selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Illustration of the day/night transition 5
3. Illustration of the polar cap transition 5
4. Illustration of the transpolar transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Flow diagram for path segmentation 7
6. Comparison between PSR and MITRE receiver models 9
7. Sample transmitter specification file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Sample operating-area file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Sample of user-specified path segmentation 16
10. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"file for RANGE EXPONENTIAL option. . . . . . . . . . 18
11. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEOOO.PRF"file " 20
12. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRF"file 21
13. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"file for RANGE TABLE option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
14. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"for CHI EXPONENTIAL model 22
15. Azimuthal equidistant projection 26
16. Gnomonic projection 26
17. Orthographic projection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
18. Stereographic projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
19. Sample map-area file 28
20. Sample case for multiple jammers in GRDPLOT . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. .. 33
21. Example of ''file id" records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
22. Input data file for sample case PRVWPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
23. Graphical output for sample case PRVWPLOT 36
24. Input file for sample case LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
25. Input file for sample case GRDPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
26. Plotted output from sample case GRDPLOT 39
27. Input file for sample case BEARINGS 40
28. Plotted output from sample case LWFPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
29. Sample graphics initialization file 43
30. Order of data parameters in "MDS" files 45
31. Order of data parameters in "LWF" files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
32. Order of data parameters in "GRD" files 46
iv
Tables
1. Transition parameters 6
2. Basic control strings for LWPM 11
3. Default ground-conductivity indices for the LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Default ionospheric-profile indices for the LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. Control strings for tabular profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. Controls strings used by PRVWPLOT 24
7. Controls strings used by LWFPLOT 29
8. Control strings used by GRDPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9. Sample cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
v
INTRODUCTION
This document describes a revision of the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability
(LWPC) developed by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. Ferguson and
Snyder (1989a,b; 1990) and Ferguson (1990; 1993) documented previous versions of this capability.
This document describes a revision of the LWPC, designated version 2.0 (LWPC-2.0), that includes
improvements to the graphics routines, increased flexibility in specification of alternative iono-
spheric models, and an option to execute a full-wave mode-conversion model for the signal-strength
calculations. This version is principally composed of FORTRAN subroutines with a few additional
routines written in C to implement the graphics capabilities under the Windows 95/NT operating
systems. The LWPC is a collection of separate programs that perform unique actions. For example,
the program that implements the propagation model and associated calculations is named the Long-
Wave Propagation Model (LWPM), and the program that generates geographical displays of the
signal strength is named GRDPLOT. These individual programs are described below.
The LWPC is typically used to generate geographical maps of signal availability for coverage
analysis. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required
steps. The user specifies the transmitter location and frequency, the orientation of the transmitting
and receiving antennae, and the boundaries of the operating area. The program automatically selects
paths along geographic bearing angles to ensure that the operating area is fully covered. The diurnal
conditions and other relevant geophysical parameters are then determined along each path. After the
mode parameters along each path are determined, the signal strength along each path is computed.
The signal strength along the paths is then interpolated onto a grid overlying the operating area. The
final grid of signal strength values is used to display the signal-strength in a geographic display.
The LWPC uses character strings to control programs and to specify options. The control strings
have the same meaning and use among all the programs. On input, most control strings may be
abbreviated. For example, the string TX-DATA can be entered in upper or lower case and can be
shortened to TX-D. If a control string is shortened too much, it will not be recognized and execution
will stop. To make it easier to read control strings composed of more than one word, dashes or
underscores are used to connect the separate words, as in the above example. A blank in the first col-
umn of a line of data causes the string to be treated as a comment line, allowing the user to annotate
run streams for documentation and to provide prompts for editing. This feature also makes it con-
venient to switch various program options on and off.
This document is primarily a description of a computer program. It is difficult to distinguish the
names of programs, variables, file names, etc., from each other. In this document, such difficulties
are compounded by the use of control strings that are strings of characters used to organize the many
different kinds of input to the program and to direct the order and types of calculations to be per-
formed. Furthermore, some of the input parameters represent strings of characters while others
represent numerical values. The following conventions will be used in this document:
Names of programs
Names of files
Control strings
Character strings
Numerical inputs
DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1
Uppercase, i.e., LWPM
Uppercase in double quotes, i.e., "SAMPLE.MDS"
Uppercase, bold, i.e., TX-DATA
Uppercase, italics, i.e., TX-IDENTIFICATION
Italics, i.e., frequency
SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS
New control string handlers have been written that allow parameter lists for control strings to be
truncated. New graphics routines were written to enhance the graphical interface and to use operating-
system printer drivers. A new graphics initialization file was added to enable user-specified color and
fill schemes. Filled contour plotting was implemented. The option of exporting the graphical output
to PowerPoint was added. High-resolution maps of landmasses and coastal outlines were developed.
Orthographic and stereographic map displays were added. The variability of the signal as stored in
the "GRD" files was modified to use separate values for day, night, and transition. The handling of
atmospheric noise statistics was modified to include the noise variability parameters, D
u
and au,
making the coverage predictions consistent with CCIR (1963) recommendations. Two models of
receiver performance with respect to atmospheric noise were added. These changes also make the
predictions more conservative. An option for user-specified path segmentation was added.
PROPAGATION MODEL
The propagation model implemented in the LWPC treats the space between the earth's surface
and the lower ionosphere as a waveguide. The upper boundary of this waveguide is the earth's iono-
sphere that is characterized by a conductivity that may be specified by the user. A number of possible
specifications of the ionosphere are provided in the LWPM ranging from a simple, horizontally
homogeneous exponential conductivity profile to complicated spatially varying distributions of
electron and charged-ion densities. It should be noted that many of the parameters that describe the
boundaries of the earth-ionosphere waveguide are not known with great accuracy over all regions
and times.
The default model of the ionosphere used in the LWPM employs a conductivity that increases
exponentially with height. A log-linear slope and a reference height define this exponential model.
The default model defmes an average value of the slope and reference height that depends on fre-
quency and diurnal condition. Furthermore, the height of the nighttime ionosphere over the polar
caps is lower than it is at middle and equatorial latitudes. This model was derived from extensive
analysis of available measurements as described by Ferguson (1980, 1992) and Morfitt (1977). The
default model of the lower boundary of the waveguide is based on the Westinghouse Geophysics
Laboratory conductivity map (Morgan, 1968).
Propagation paths are broken into a series of horizontally homogeneous segments. The distribution
and the parameters of the segments are determined by changes in the ionosphere, ground conductiv-
ity, and the geomagnetic field. The LWPM uses two procedures to calculate the mode solutions for
each horizontally homogeneous segment. Segments with a common ground conductivity and iono-
sphere are grouped together and processed in order of increasing distance from the transmitter. At the
beginning of each of these groups, a mode-searching algorithm is used to obtain starting solutions.
This algorithm is essentially that of Morfitt and Shellman (1979). The mode solutions in the remain-
ing segments of a particular group are obtained by extrapolating up to three sets of existing solutions
by using distance from the transmitter as the extrapolation variable. The extrapolated solutions are
adjusted for the effects of the geomagnetic field by using a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. If
the distance over which the extrapolation is performed is too large, or the extrapolation or the itera-
tion gives invalid modes, the modes of the segment are found by using the mode-searching algo-
rithm. The extrapolation and iteration procedure is then restarted. This combination of rigorous mode
2
searching and extrapolation followed by iterative correction gives the most efficient generation of the
required mode parameters along the propagation path.
The LWPC uses a mode-conversion model (Ferguson and Snyder, 1980) to connect the series of
horizontally homogenous segments along every propagation path. The most accurate implementation
of the mode-conversion model integrates the radio fields vertically over the boundary between seg-
ments. This integration can be quite time consuming. A reasonably accurate and much faster running
implementation replaces the full-wave integration with an approximation based on the notion that
most of the interaction of the radio wave takes place within the reflection height of the ionosphere.
The default implementation of the mode-conversion model is the approximate one. In rare cases, the
full-wave model must be employed to ensure accuracy. Unfortunately, there is no test that can be per-
formed ahead of time to ensure that this option is necessary. The user must review the output of the
program, particularly graphs of the signal strength versus distance, to ensure that they make sense.
Generally, the need to use the full-wave model is readily apparent in these graphs.
The LWPC is typically used to generate geographical maps of signal availability for coverage
analysis. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required
steps. The program automatically selects paths along geographic bearing angles at a coarse resolution
of 15° to ensure that the operating area is fully covered. More paths are added as necessary, at a finer
resolution of 3°, to ensure that all significant low-conductivity areas of the ground are included in
the coverage analysis. Figure 1 illustrates this automatic path selection for a transmitter located in
North Dakota and an operating area that encloses the Mediterranean Sea. In the color rendition of
this map, the areas shown in yellow, black, red, and purple are regions of low ground conductivity. In
this figure, these areas are found in eastern Canada and Greenland. The figure shows the boundary of
the operations area and all of the propagation paths automatically selected by the LWPM. Three of
the paths are shown as solid lines. These are the ones from the pass using coarse resolution (30° ,
45°, and 60°). The dashed lines show the paths selected during the second pass. These are required
to ensure that the low-conductivity areas are included in the coverage.
3
60N
30N
ON
100W lOW 40W 10W 20E 40E
Figure 1. Illustration of automatic path selection.
GEOPHYSICAL MODEL
As already noted, a waveguide model is used for propagation in the LWPM. The boundaries of this
waveguide are the earth's surface and the ionosphere. The lower boundary is considered to be a set
of semi-infinite regions of fixed conductivity extending downward from the surface. The parameters
of the upper boundary vary depending primarily on solar radiation. The electron density and the
earth's geomagnetic field control the interaction of the radio waves with the ionosphere. The effect of
the geomagnetic field is small in the daytime and significant in the nighttime.
THE IONOSPHERE
There are two major transitions in the ionosphere. One of these transitions is between daytime and
nighttime. The other transition occurs in the nighttime between middle geomagnetic latitudes and
polar latitudes. The nighttime ionosphere in the polar latitudes is strongly influenced by injections of
solar particles guided there by the earth's geomagnetic field. In the simple model of the ionosphere
used in the LWPM, the effect of these particles is to lower the effective height of the ionosphere. The
solar zenith angle is the key parameter used to determine the ionospheric profile at each point along
the path. The daytime ionosphere is specified for solar zenith angles less than 90° and the nighttime
ionosphere for solar zenith angles greater than 99° . For nighttime paths, the geomagnetic dip angle
determines thegeomagnetic latitude. The nighttime latitudinal transition from middle to polar lati-
tudes takes place between geomagnetic dip angles of 70° and 740.
The model of the ionosphere used in the LWPM produces an exponential increase in conductivity
with height specified by a slope, ~ , in Ian-I and a reference height, h', in Ian. Values for ~ and h' are
4
specified by the program for both daytime and nighttime at each of two reference frequencies. Given
the frequency specified by the user, values of Pand h' for day and for night are obtained by linear
interpolation in frequency. Between the daytime and nighttime values of Pand h', five additional
values of Pand h' are calculated at equal intervals. Figure 2 illustrates how these five intervals define
the basic dawn/dusk transition.
DAY NIGHT
90 91.8 93.6 95.4 97.2 99
SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE (deg)
Figure 2. Illustration of the day/night transition.
When the path is fully night, h' also depends on the geomagnetic dip angle. This dependence is
chosen so that the h' for the polar nighttime ionosphere is the midpoint of the intervals between day
and night. Thus, the last four segments of the day-to-night transition are used to make the transition
from middle latitudes to polar latitudes when the propagation path is in night. However, the magnetic
dip angle, rather than the solar zenith angle, controls the ionosphere. Figure 3 illustrates this transi-
tion. This simple model is used to provide a reasonable set of ionospheric profiles to handle all the
transitions in the ionosphere. A more sophisticated model is not warranted because of a lack of data.
MID-LATITUDES POLAR CAP
70 72 74
GEOMAGNETIC DIP ANGLE (deg)
Figure 3. Illustration of the polar cap transition.
The numerical specification of the model of the ionosphere used in this program is derived from
Morfitt (1977) and Ferguson (1980) and is the same as in previous versions of the LWPC (Ferguson
and Snyder, 1989b). This model sets the value of pand h' for the daytime and nighttime ionosphere
separately. The daytime ionosphere has a constant value of pequal to 0.3 km-
I
and a constant value
of h' equal to 74 km. The nighttime ionosphere is more complicated in that pvaries with frequency
while h' is constant at 87 km. The variation with frequency has pvarying from 0.3 km-
I
at 10 kHz to
0.8 km-
I
at 60 kHz. Table 1 shows the values of the ionospheric parameters at 30 kHz. Figure 4
illustrates the two transitions, as they would be defined along a hypothetical path that traverses the
pole from day to night using the parameters in this table.
5
Table 1. Transition parameters.
Solar Zenith Angle (X)
(deg)
x < 90
90 < X < 91.8
91 .8 < X < 93.6
93.6 < X < 95.4
95.4 < X < 97.2
97.2 < X < 99
99 < X
Day
Night
b
(km-
1
)
0.30
0.33
0.37
0.40
0.43
0.47
0.50
h'
(km)
74.0
76.2
78.3
80.5
82.7
84.8
87.0
Geomagnetic Dip (D)
(deg)
D < 70
70 < D < 72
72 < D < 74
74 < D < 90 Pole
72 < D < 74
70 < D < 72
D < 70
Although not shown in table 1 and figures 2 through 4, the LWPM uses solar zenith angles in a
way that indicates whether the direction of propagation is from midnight toward noon or vice versa.
Thus, for every set of ranges on the left side of table 1, there is a mirrored set of negative values of
solar zenith angles. The current implementation of the LWPM treats the transition from midnight to
noon the same as that from noon to midnight.
DAY
POLAR CAP NIGHT
h'=74
90
76.2
91.8
78.3
93.6
80.5
74
82.7
72
84.8
70
87
SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE CONTROL DIP-ANGLE CONTROL
Figure 4. Illustration of the transpolar transition.
PATH SEGMENTATION
Geometrically, a propagation path is a great circle from the transmitter. The LWPM models the
variation of the geophysical parameters along the path as a series of horizontally homogeneous seg-
ments. To do this, the program determines the ground conductivity, dielectric constant, orientation of
the geomagnetic field with respect to the path and the solar zenith angle at small fixed-distance inter-
vals along each path. At each of the small intervals, these parameters are examined to determine if a
new segment of the earth-ionosphere waveguide needs to be set. The goal of this process is to
include important features of the propagation path while keeping the number of segments to a com-
putationally manageable level. An additional consideration is the balancing of the completeness of
the mode-searching algorithm with the speed of the extrapolation and iteration algorithm as it pro-
cesses many segments. Figure 5 illustrates the decision-making process. It accounts in large part for
the differences in how the waveguide-mode solutions vary under differing ionospheric conditions
and from one geomagnetic condition to another. For example, propagation anisotropy is considerably
6
diminished under day conditions as compared to nighttime conditions. Therefore, the variation of the
geomagnetic parameters between points on the path is allowed to be larger in daytime than at night.
In figure 5, the appearance of "SAVE" indicates that a horizontally homogenous path segment will
be defined and mode parameters will be computed for that segment. It should be noted that the mini-
mum length of a segment is 100 km.
If ( R = 0 ) then SAVE
If ( 0 or h' changed and bR > 100 km ) then SAVE
If ( IDI > 80 ) then NEXT R
If ( h' > h' polar) then
Day-like
If (bD > 15 ) then SAVE
If ( 70 < 101 < 80 and A >45 ) then SAVE
If ( 30 < 101 < 70 and A > 30 ) then SAVE
If( 0 < 101 <30 and A > 15) then SAVE
I
Next R
Night-like
If (bD > 10 ) then SAVE
If ( 70 < IDI < 80 and A > 20 ) then SAVE
If ( 30 < IDI < 70 and A > 15 ) then SAVE
If ( 0 < IDI < 30 ) then -
I
Next R
I
Trans-Equatorial
If (170 < A < 210 and bD > 3) then SAVE
If ( 350 < A < 30 and bD > 3 ) then SAVE
If (bA > 15 ) then SAVE
I
Next R
Legend
R Distance from the transmitter
oR Change in R since the last SAVE
D Geomagnetic dip angle
oD Change in D since the last SAVE
A Geomagnetic azimuth angle
oA Change in A since the last SAVE
h' Reference height of the ionosphere
o Ground conductivity
Figure 5. Flow diagram for path segmentation.
7
ATMOSPHERIC NOISE
The LWPC allows for three models of atmospheric noise. The model named ITSN is the imple-
mentation of CCIR 322 (CCIR, 1963), which maps the basic noise map parameter, Faro, in Universal
time. The model named NTIA is the new noise model developed by using additional measurements
and has since become the new CCIR model described in CCIR Report 322-3 (CCIR, 1986). These
two models are based on surface mappings of measurements at a limited number of sites. The model
named LNP is a lightning-based model developed by Pacific Sierra Research for the Office of Naval
Research and the Defense Nuclear Agency (Warber and Shearer, 1994). This model calculates atmos-
pheric noise by summing the contributions from lightning all over the world after calculating the
effects of propagation from the lightning to the receiver. Thus, it is computationally quite compli-
cated and slow running.
The nature of atmospheric noise can have a dramatic effect on the performance of radio receivers.
Receivers are designed with algorithms designed to minimize the most important detrimental effects
of atmospheric noise. However, the key to understanding how the receivers will perform in different
locations and times is proper modeling of the critical parameters of atmospheric noise. Typically,
these parameters are the mean value, the standard deviation of the variation, and the impulsiveness of
the noise. The latter is described by the ratio of the rms to the average of the noise expressed in dB,
which is called the Vd. The variation of these parameters of atmospheric noise over time and position
is quite different among these models, so the coverage assessments produced simply by changing the
model of atmospheric noise can be spectacular.
RECEIVER MODEL
Two models of receiver performance have been incorporated into the LWPC. One of these is
described by Buckner and Daghestani (1993) and designated as PSR, and the other is described by
Smith et al. (1997) and designated as MITRE. The curves in figure 6 illustrate the relative gain in the
noise-reduction circuit (NRC) as a function of the noise parameter, Vd. The PSR model (dashed line)
shows significant gains for Vd greater than 12 dB but equally significant reductions in performance
when Vd is less than 7 dB. On the other hand, the MITRE model (solid line) produces a much more
conservative picture of receiver performance with regard to the impulsiveness of the atmospheric
noise.
8
10
8
6
CD
4
~
z
«
C)
2
()
a:
z
w 0
>
,
~
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 )' 10
....I
w -2
/
a:
-4
/
/
--6 /
1------
/
-8
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1819 20
Figure 6. Comparison between PSR and MITRE receiver models.
DRIVER PROGRAM
The program named LWPM sets up propagation paths and organizes the calculation of solutions to
the earth-ionosphere waveguide (mode parameters). Basic input to the program consists of a root file
name (used to define the names of output files), transmitter parameters, and the diurnal condition.
The basic transmitter parameters consist of its location and frequency. The diurnal condition may be
specified as all day, all night, or as a specific date and time. The propagation paths can be defined by
specifying geographical bearing angles, receiver locations, or an operating area. These control strings
are placed in files with the extension "INP" (for Inputs).
After the necessary control strings and their associated data are specified, a specific control string
is used to initiate the calculations. As the calculation of mode parameters along each path is com-
pleted, the parameters are written to a file named with the extension "MDS" (for Modes). Calcula-
tions for successive paths continue automatically. If the generation of the data aborts for some rea-
son, the user needs to correct the error (if any) and restart the program. If it exists, the LWPM reads
the "MDS" file to find the last complete path and continues execution with the next one in sequence.
Because of this restart capability, if for some reason, a case is being repeated using a previously used
root file name, then the "MDS" file for the previous run must be deleted or moved to another direc-
tory before the new run is started. When all paths have been processed, the program calculates the
field strength along each path using the parameters specified for the transmitting antenna and the
receiver. These data are written to a file named with the extension "LWF" (for Long-Wave Fields).
If the propagation paths are set up automatically by user specification of an operating area, the
program uses the data in the "LWF" file to generate a file named with the extension "GRD" (for
Grid). The "GRD" file contains values of the signal strength and its standard deviation in a grid of
latitude versus longitude that covers the user-specified operating area. At the same time, a corre-
sponding grid file is written for the atmospheric noise. If the noise values are calculated for the NTIA
9
model, then the file is named with the extension "NT!", if for the ITSN model, it is named with the
extension "ITS", and if for the Long-Wave Noise Program, it is named with the extension "LNP".
These noise models will be described in detail later in this document. Even though the noise files
have extensions other than "GRD", they have the same format and use as the "GRD" files containing
signal strength data. These "GRD" files may now be used in GRDPLOT to obtain geographical dis-
plays of the signal levels, noise levels, signal-to-noise levels, or, together with "GRD" files for other
transmitters, signal-to-jammer levels. The operating-area grids are set up to give the finest resolution
permitted within the dimensions of the program. In LWPC-2.0, the grid has 145 points in longitude
and 73 points in latitude. The program forces the spacing in the longitude and latitude to be a multi-
ple of 2 V20, which is also the minimum spacing allowed. The program also ensures that the grids
align along 50 boundaries.
CONTROL STRINGS
The input and execution of this program are directed by the use of control strings, summarized in
table 2. The use of control strings is illustrated by the sample cases. Each of the possible control
strings and their associated data are described below. Lines in the input file with a blank in column 1
are treated as comments. This feature allows for convenient switching on and off of various program
options and enables annotation of the input files.
10
A blank
FILE-MDS
FILE-LWF
FILE-GRD
FILE-PRF
FILE-NDX
CASE-ID
TX-NTR
JX-NJR
TX-DATA
TX-DATA
JX-DATA
JX-DATA
OP-AREA
OP-AREA
BEARINGS
+BEARINGS
RECEIVERS
+RECEIVERS
RANGE-MAX
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
A-NOISE
RX-DATA
RX-DATA
LWF-VS-DIST
MC-OPTIONS
PRINT-SWG
PRINT-MDS
PRINT-MC
PRINT-LWF
PRINT-WF
GCPATH
LWFLDS
OPA-GRID
PRESEG
START
QUIT
Table 2. Basic control strings for LWPM.
in column 1 is for comments
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-MDS-DATA-FILES
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-LWF-DATA-FILES
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-GRD-DATA-FILES
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-PRF-DATA-FILES
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-NDX-DATA-FILES
CASE-IDENTIFICATION
ROOT-FILE-NAME-FOR-TRANSMITTER-NUMBER-NTR
ROOT-FILE-NAME-FOR-JAMMER-NUMBER-NJR
TX-ID freq lat lon power inclination heading altitude
TX-ID TX-SPECIFICATION-FILE
JX-ID freq lat lon power inclination heading altitude
JX-ID JX-SPECIFICATION-FILE
AREA-ID op-latl op-lonl op-lat2 op-lon2
AREA-ID OP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE
bearing-l bearing-2 .
bearing-n bearing-m .
rx-lat-l rx-lon-l rx-lat-2 rx-lon-2 .
rx-lat-n rx-lon-n rx-lat-m rx-lon-m .
range-max-of-paths-defined-with-BEARINGS-and-RECEIVERS
LWPM DAY
LWPM NIGHT
LWPM MONTH/day/year hour:minute
HOMOGENEOUS EXPONENTIAL beta hprime
HOMOGENEOUS TABLE PROFILE-NAME
CHI EXPONENTIAL PROFILE-NAME
CHI TABLE PROFILE-NAME
RANGE EXPONENTIAL PROFILE-NAME
RANGE TABLE PROFILE-NAME
GRID TABLE PROFILE-NAME
NOISE-MODEL-NAME MONTH/day/year hour:minute band-width
VERTICAL altitude
HORIZONTAL altitude
lwf-dist-max lwf-dist-inc
MC-STEP me-test wf-iterate
print-swg
print-mds
print-me
print-lwf
print-wf
11
FILE SPECIFICATION
FILE-MDS sets the directory path for the mode parameter data files. If not specified, the program
uses the directory in which it is being run.
FILE-LWF sets the directory path for the files containing signal strength and phase versus dis-
tance (also called mode sums). If not specified, the program uses the directory in which it is being
run.
FILE-GRD sets the directory path for the coverage grid data files. If not specified, the program
uses the directory in which it is being run.
FILE-PRF sets the directory path for the profile specification files. If not specified, the program
uses the directory in which it is being run.
FILE-NDX sets the directory path for the profile specification index files. If not specified, the
program uses the directory in which it is being run.
TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to define the root file name for the output files. The root file name
is a character string with no embedded blanks. The NTR and NJR are optional numbers designating
the corresponding transmitter and jammer number, respectively. The content and usage of these files
are indicated by the extension appended to the root file name. For example, if ROOT-FILE-NAME is
Cutler, then the program will generate files named "Cutler.MDS" and "Cutler.LWF".
COVERAGE SPECIFICATION
CASE-ID allows the user to introduce an arbitrary string of up to 80 characters into the data files.
The programs that do graphical displays place this string in their output. Its purpose is to supplement
the often purely numerical parameters that are also displayed.
TX-DATA and JX-DATA are used to specify the parameters of transmitters. The first parameter
in the data string must always be the transmitter or jammer identifier, TX-ID or JX-ID, respectively.
This identification can be up to 20 characters. The other parameters of the transmitter are its fre-
quency in kHz, latitude in degrees north, longitude in degrees west, radiated power in kW, inclination
in degrees from the vertical, geographical heading in degrees east of north, and altitude in km of the
short dipole antenna. The initial value of all these parameters is zero, except for power, which has the
initial value 1. The sign convention is that latitude south and longitudes east are negative. A vertical
antenna is defined by an inclination of zero. There are two methods for defining these transmitter
parameters. In the first method, the parameters are simply encoded in the data string. In the second,
the parameters are read from a file named "XMTR.LIS". This file must be located in the directory
containing the LWPC data files. This directory will be described later. The transmitter or jammer
identification encoded in the control string is used to select the correct parameters from the file by
matching the user-specified transmitter identification with one of those found in the file. If the trans-
mitter parameters are encoded in the data string and they match those of a record in the transmitter
list, then the user-specified transmitter identification string is changed to the one found in the file. If
the parameters encoded in the data string are unique, then they are automatically added to the file.
This frees the user from having to remember and repeat the parameters of the transmitters and
enforces a consistent naming convention among multiple users of the program.
Figure 7 illustrates a transmitter specification file. Each record in the file must contain the identifi-
cation, frequency, location, power, antenna orientation, and antenna altitude. The last record must
12
Tx-id freq lat Ion pwr incl headng alt note
OMEGA-A 10.2 66.42 -13.137 10 0 0 0 Norway
OMEGA-B 10.2 10.702 61.639 10 0 0 0 Trinidad
OMEGA-C 10.2 21.405 157.831 10 0 0 0 Haiku
OMEGA-D 10.2 46.366 98.336 10 0 0 0 La Moure
OMEGA-E 10.2 -20.974 -55.29 10 0 0 0 La Reunion
OMEGA-F 10.2 -43.053 65.191 10 0 0 0 Argentina
OMEGA-G 10.2 -38.481 -146.935 10 0 0 0 Australia
OMEGA-H 10.2 34.615 -129.453 10 0 0 0 Japan
GBR 16.0 52.37 1.187 60 0 0 0 Rugby
NDT 17.4 34.967 -137.017 40 0 0 0 Yosami
Anthorn 19.0 54.915 3.273 1 0 0 0 Anthorn
NSS 21. 4 39.0 76.5 250 0 0 0 Annapolis
NWC 22.3 -21. 8 -114.15 1000 0 0 0 H.E.Holt
NPM 23.4 21.417 158.15 630 0 0 0 Lualualei
NAA 24.0 44.633 67.283 1000 0 0 0 Cutler
NLK 24.8 48.2 21.917 130 0 0 0 Jim Creek
end
Figure 7. Sample transmitter specification file.
contain the string END as shown in the figure. The first record may be an optional header that con-
tains no numerical data. This works because the program does not attempt to decode the data string
until it finds a match between the user-specified TX-ID and an entry in the data file. The identifica-
tion string supplied in the data string and the identification strings in the specification file are con-
verted to uppercase characters before they are compared with each other. Thus, Anthorn is treated
the same as ANTHORN. Blanks or commas separate the parameters in both the data string and the
records of the specification file. The order of the values is important but not the format of the input
(as long as it is compatible with the type ofthe variable). Thus, the careful alignment of columns
shown in the figure is not necessary. Since the program does not process values beyond the antenna
altitude, additional information may be included in the records following the antenna altitude, as
illustrated.
OP-AREA is used to define a set of paths that span an operating area. These paths will be used to
produce coverage maps. The control string defines the boundaries of the operating area. In a manner
similar to that used for TX-DATA and JX-DATA, these boundaries can be specified in one of two
ways. The first parameter in the data string must always be the area identification, AREA-ID, con-
taining up to 20 characters. This identification may be followed by the latitude and the longitude of
the lower left-hand corner and the upper right-hand corner of the area in order of its southern lati-
tude, western longitude, northern latitude, and eastern longitude. Alternatively, if just the area
identification is specified, the boundaries of the operating area are to be found in a file named
"AREA.LIS" located in the directory that contains the LWPC data files. If A R E A ~ I D is followed by a
single parameter or string, then that parameter or string is assumed to be the name of an alternate file
containing area specification data. In either of these latter two cases, the AREA-ID is used to select
the parameters of the op area from the file.
Figure 8 illustrates an operating-area specification file. The file may begin with a header to iden-
tify the parameters to follow in a manner similar to that used in the transmitter specification file. The
last record must contain the termination string END. As with the transmitter specification, the area
identification is always converted to uppercase before testing for a match between that specified by
13
the user and that found in the file. If the operating-area parameters are encoded in the control string
and they match those of a record in the LWPC data file named "AREA.LIS", then the user-specified
area identification string is changed to the one found in the list. If the parameters encoded in the data
string are unique, then they are automatically added to the file. This frees the user from having to
remember and repeat the parameters of operating areas in the files.
area-id
Atlantic
Pacific
Arctic
Polar
world
test
end
lat1
10
5
40
40
-90
5
lon1
100
-120
-80
-80
180
-170
lat2
75
70
90
90
90
30
lon2
-40
100
-80
-80
180
150
Figure 8. Sample operating-area file.
When the OP-AREA control string is used, the bearing angles of the paths are selected automa-
tically. In the first pass, a coarse selection is made at 15° intervals. A second pass adds paths at a
bearing-angle resolution of 3°, chosen to ensure that significant low-conductivity areas that might be
encountered by the paths are included. Furthermore, the lengths of the paths are truncated to conform
to the dimensions of the operating area. In other words, each path is only as long as it needs to be to
cover the operating area. This option is used to create a "GRD" file. The name of this file will be
formed by concatenating the root file name defined by TX-NTR or JX-NJR and AREA-ID. For
example, if ROOT-FILE-NAME is Cutler and AREA-ID is Atlantic, then the program will generate a
grid file named "CutlerAtlantic.GRD".
BEARINGS, RECEIVERS, and RANGE-MAX provide an alternative method for specifying
paths. The data provided by the control strings BEARINGS and RECEIVERS define the direction
of the paths. The control string RANGE-MAX provides a single value used to define the length of
all paths specified with these options. The initial value of range_max is 20,000 kIn. The control
string BEARINGS is followed by a list of geographical bearing angles measured in degrees east of
north. In the event that all bearing angles are not specified in one control string, additional values of
bearings may be supplied by using the control string +BEARINGS. The maximum number of bear-
ing angles that may be defined using one BEARINGS, together with additional +BEARINGS, is
120. Similarly, RECEIVERS is used to set up paths using a set of geographical positions. In this
case, the data string is a list of pairs of coordinates in order of latitude and longitude. Additional pairs
of coordinates may be supplied by using the control string +RECEIVERS. Only pairs of coordinates
are allowed so that use of +RECEIVERS requires that the first value in the data string be latitude.
The maximum number of receivers is 60. If the paths are defmed by using RECEIVERS, then an
extra value of signal strength is computed by the LWPM at the distance defined by the receiver coor-
dinates. This extra value is found at the end of print outs of the "LWF" files (to be discussed later).
A-NOISE is used to specify the parameters of the atmospheric noise to be computed over the
operating-area grid. This calculation is performed only when using OP-AREA to set up the paths.
The first parameter in the data string is the name of one of the noise models currently available. ITSN
names the ITS noise model of Zacharisen and Jones (1970), NTIA names the noise model of Spauld-
ing and Washburn (1985), and LNP names the noise model ofWarber and Shearer (1994). The data
files for the ITSN and NT/A models are calculated by the program. A separate program, which is not
14
part of the LWPC, must provide the data files for the LNP model. The date and time for which the
noise is to be computed are specified by the date and time encoded in the data string. A string of the
form MONTH/day/year specifies the date where MONTH is the name of the month. A string of the
form hour:minute specifies the time. The last parameter in the data string is the bandwidth in Hz for
the noise computation. The initial value of the noise model is NTIA and of the bandwidth is 1000 Hz.
The initial value of the day, year, and time is zero. There is no initial value for the month.
PRESEG is used to provide user-specified path segmentation data overriding the LWPM's auto-
matic segmentation. This control string is followed by a series of records that list distances from the
transmitter and associated path parameters. The path parameters are distance in km, geomagnetic azi-
muth in degrees east of north, geomagnetic dip in degrees from the horizontal, strength of the geo-
magnetic field in Webers/m
2
, ground conductivity index, ground conductivity in Seimens, ratio of
the dielectric constant of the ground to that of free space, ionospheric profile index, the slope of an
exponential ionosphere ( ~ ) in km-
I
, and its reference height (h') in km. The first record must be for
zero distance. The records are read by using a list-directed format in which each one must contain
either a value or a placeholder for missing parameters (indicated by consecutive commas). The dis-
tance from the transmitter must be given, but the remaining parameters are optional. If a placeholder
is used for any of the geomagnetic parameters, then the LWPM calculates the relevant value. The
user may elect to use the LWPM's ground-conductivity values by setting the ground-conductivity
index instead of directly setting the conductivity and the ratio of the dielectric constant relative to
free space of the ground. Table 3 shows the ground-conductivity indices for the ground conductivity
used in the LWPM. Thus, the user may vary the actual ground-conductivity parameters or override
the built-in map by controlling the ordering of the default values. If placeholders fill all of the fields
for the ground conductivity, the LWPM will provide values by using the default model. Similarly, the
user may use the profile index either to override the order of the built-in ionospheric parameters or to
specify arbitrary values. Consistent with table 1. the values in table 4 show the ranges of the solar
zenith angle, the associated ionospheric profile parameters used in the LWPM, and their associated
profile indices. Alternatively, the profile indices may refer to a set of user-specified ionospheric pro-
files. This feature is described in detail in the section on ionospheric specification. Figure 9 shows a
simple example of user-specified segmentation of a path.
Table 3. Default ground-conductivity indices for the LWPM.
Index 0'
flEQ
1 1 X 10-
5
5
2 3 X 10-
5
5
3 1 X 10-4 10
4 3 X 10-4 10
5 1 X 10-
3
15
6 3 x 10-
3
15
7 1 x 10-
2
15
8 3 x 10-
2
15
9 1 x 10-
1
15
10 4 81
15
Table 4. Default ionospheric-profile indices for the LWPM.
Index Solar Zenith Angle (X)
~
h'
(deg) (km-
1
) (km)
-180.0
<
X
<
-99.0 0.30 87.0
2 -99.0
<
X
<
-97.2 0.30 84.8
3 -97.2
<
X
<
-95.4 0.30 82.7
4 -95.4
<
X
<
-93.6 0.30 80.5
5 -93.6
<
X
<
-91.8 0.30 78.3
6 -91.8
<
X
<
-90.0 0.30 76.2
7 -90.0
<
X
<
90.0 0.30 74.0
8 90.0
<
X
<
91.8 0.30 76.2
9 91.8
<
X
<
93.6 0.30 78.3
10 93.6
<
X
<
95.4 0.30 80.5
11 95.4
<
X
<
97.2 0.30 82.7
12 97.2
<
X
<
99.0 0.30 84.8
13 99.0
<
X
<
180.0 0.30 87.0
tx
ionosphere
preseg
decOO
lwpm Dec/15/1996 00
0" " 5",12",
1340""10",13,,,
4020""6",13,,,
4920"" 6", 9",
5200""6",8,,,
6000""6",7,,,
40000
start
Figure 9. Sample of user-specified path segmentation.
START indicates that all user-specified input is complete and that execution is to begin. This con-
trol string is required to obtain any output from the program.
QUIT terminates the current run.
16
IONOSPHERIC SPECIFICATION
IONOSPHERE is used to specify the diurnal condition over all the propagation paths of a specific
run. The first parameter in the data string defines the ionospheric model. Five models are recognized:
LWPM, HOMOGENEOUS, CHI, RANGE, and GRID. The fIrst of these models is the default for the
LWPM program. This model is described elsewhere in this document. The HOMOGENE-OUS, CHI,
RANGE, and GRID models allow the user to override the default model. The HOMOGENEOUS
model is used to specify a uniform ionosphere over all propagation paths. The RANGE model is used
to examine a single propagation path. In this model, the user specifIes a range-dependent ionospheric
variation. The GRID model is intended for problems in which the ionosphere varies over a user-
specified geographic grid. The CHI model allows the user to specify profIles that depend on the
solar zenith angle, basically overriding the default model.
If LWPMis specifIed, substrings specifying the diurnal condition to be applied follow. If the sub-
string is DAY, then the diurnal condition over the whole path is daylight. If the substring is NIGHT,
then the diurnal condition over the whole path is night. The defInition of the nighttime ionosphere
includes the lower effective height of the ionosphere at polar latitudes. Although physically unrealis-
tic, these two conditions are useful for some kinds of analyses. Finally, a specifIc date and time may
be specifIed by using two substrings. The date substring contains the name of the month, the day of
the month, and the year in the form MONTH/day/year. The date substring is followed by the time
substring, which contains the Universal time (UT) in the form hour:minute. The date and time are
used to fInd the location of the day-night transition from which an appropriate variation of the
parameters of the ionospheric profIle is defIned along the path. The date substring must contain at
least the name of the month. To set just the month and day, /year may be dropped. The calculations
of the LWPC depend on the year only in so far as the position of the sun as seen on the earth shifts
slightly from year to year. Similarly, just the month may be specifIed by dropping /day/year. The
time substring must contain at least the hour. To set just the hour, :minute may be deleted. The initial
value for this string is LWPMDAY.
Two sets of substrings may follow the HORIZONTAL model name. The fIrst set is indicated by
EXPONENTIAL, which is followed by the numerical values of the slope and reference height of the
profIle: beta and hprime. The second substring is TABLE. This substring is followed by the root
name of a fIle named "PROFILE-NAME" used to specify the names of fIles required for tabular
input. A number of options are available for setting up tabular profIles. These options will be dis-
cussed below.
If the ionospheric model is RANGE EXPONENTIAL, the specification of the ionosphere along the
path is done in a fIle with a name of the form "PROFILE-NAME.NDX'. This fIle contains a list of
records, each containing the range and its associated slope and reference height ([3, h'), with optional
comments (records with a semicolon in column 1) as illustrated in fIgure 10.
17
;Date and time
; Apr /15 22: 00
;Bearing angle at 24
rho beta
o 0.30
420 0.30
1020 0.30
1140 0.30
1340 0.30
2400 0.30
2520 0.30
2760 0.30
3000 0.30
3720 0.30
4640 0.30
4740 0.30
4880 0.30
5120 0.30
hprime
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
74.0
76.2
76.2
78.3
80.5
Figure 10. Sample "PROFILE-NAME.NDX'
file for RANGE EXPONENTIAL option.
TABULAR PROFILES
Setting up tabular profiles is relatively straightforward although it can be somewhat tedious. Two
basic files should be supplied. For range-dependent cases (to be discussed below) a third (index) file
is needed to set the profile to be used at each distance. The first of these basic files must be named
with the form "PROFILE-NAMEOOO.PRF' where the "000" are all zeroes. This file is an initializa-
tion file that sets up the number of species of charged particles in the ionosphere (up to 3), the colli-
sion frequency, etc., as shown in table 5 and discussed below. If this file is not found, then default
values are used. The second type of file, with a name of the form "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRF',
specifies the charge densities as a function of height. The parameter "nnn" is the profile index that
is defined by the user. If the ionospheric model is HOMOGENEOUS TABLE, then "nnn" is not
required. Note that the extension in all cases is "PRF". The index file (if needed) must have a name
of the form "PROFlLE-NAME.NDX".
Table 5. Control strings for tabular profiles.
FORMATTED
UNFORMATTED
MODEL-NAME
; comment
SPECIES number-of-species
CHARGE charge-e charge-i 1
MASS-RATIO ratio-e ratio-il
COEFF-NU nuO-e nuO-il
EXP-NU exp-e exp-il
COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE
DENSITY-TABLE
MODEL-PRF
MODEL-PRF
MODEL-PRF
charge-i2
ratio-i2
nuO-i2
exp-i2
The first record in the "PRF" files is identification. For example, a set of profiles created to simu-
late a specific environment might all have the same identification, such as "Ionospheric disturbance."
18
Subsequent records in the "PRF" files specify additional profile parameters. Specification of these
other parameters in the profile files is handled with control strings in a manner similar to that used by
the rest of the program, except that a semicolon in column 1 is used for comments instead of a blank.
This departure from that used by the control strings is due to the frequent use of formatted columnar
data in this form of input.
Table 5 summarizes the control string for the profile files. SPECIES specifies the number of spe-
cies in the profile table. The maximum number of species is 3; the default value is 1. If the number of
species is 3, then it is assumed that they are electrons, positive ions, and negative ions. CHARGE
specifies the charge of each species; the default values are 1, -1, and 1. MASS-RATIO specifies the
mass of each species relative to that of an electron; the default values are 1,58000, and 58000. It is
assumed that the first species is electrons so the first value of charge and mass ratio is always 1. The
collision frequency may be specified in one of two ways. If an exponential collision frequency is to
be used, then the control strings COEFF-NU and EXP-NU are used. COEFF-NU specifies the
collision-frequency at the ground in collisions per second; the default values are 1.816xlO
11
,
4.54xI0
9
, and 4.54x10
9
. EXP-NU specifies the slope of exponential decay of the collision-
frequency in km-
1
; the default values are all-O.15 km-
1
. Alternatively, a tabular collision-frequency
profile may be needed. In that case, the control string COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE is
used. This control string is followed by a table of collision frequencies as a function of height, in
descending order of height. Each record in this table contains the height in km, the electron collision
frequency, the first-ion collision frequency, and the second-ion collision frequency. If the second-ion
collision frequency is not specified, then it is assumed to be the same as the first. The collision fre-
quencies are specified as collisions per second. The list of collision frequencies is terminated by a
dummy height of any negative value.
MODEL-PRF specifies the format of the charge density tables found in the files "PROFlLE-
NAMEnnn.PRF' described above. FORMATTED indicates the files are formatted in the same way as
described for COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE. UNFORMATTED indicates the files are unfor-
matted with the data being stored as follows: nrspecies, nrhts, (hten(i), (algen(i,k), k=l,nrspecies),
i=l,nrhts), where nrspecies is the number of species, nrhts is the number of heights, hten is a list of
heights, and algen is a list of the natural logarithm of each of the charge densities. These variables
are all 4 bytes long. It should be evident that such a binary file should be created using the same
FORTRAN compiler and operating system used to build the LWPC. The lists are input in order of
descending altitude. MODEL-NAME indicates the files are formatted according to a specific model
that requires a corresponding input-processing routine supplied by the user. Figure 11 shows a sam-
ple initialization file. Defaults are used for everything but the collision frequency and the number of
species.
19
SIMBAL
iThe first line (above) is the profile identification string
Species 3
Collision-Frequency-Table
100.00 5.75e+04 1.06e+04
95.00 1.27e+05 2.06e+04
90.00 2.91e+05 4.1ge+04
85.00 6.82e+05 8.58e+04
80.00 1.58e+06 1.70e+05
75.00 3.53e+06 3.21e+05
70.00 7.52e+06 5.7ge+05
65.00 1.54e+07 1.01e+06
60.00 3.05e+07 1.6ge+06
55.00 5.86e+07 2.77e+06
50.00 1.10e+08 4.50e+06
45.00 2.08e+08 8.60e+06
40.00 4.05e+08 1.72e+07
35.00 8.1ge+08 3.57e+07
30.00 1.73e+09 7.72e+07
25.00 3.74e+09 1.6ge+08
-9.
Figure 11. Sample "PROFIL£-NAM£OOO.PRP' file.
The files named "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRF' are of the same fonn as the initialization file with
the control string DENSITY·TABLE being used to specify the particle densities in place of the
control string COLLISION·FREQUENCY·TABLE. This control string is followed by a table of
charged-particle densities as a function of height. The values are input in order of descending height.
Each record in this table contains the height in km, the electron density, and the ion density. The
program computes the second-ion density to preserve charge neutrality. The charge densities are
specified as particles per cubic centimeter. The list of densities is terminated by any height of nega-
tive value. Figure 12 shows a file containing a tabular profile.
20
PRFLSCN 1 INDEX 270
Density-Table
100.00 3.62E+04 3.62E+04
95.00 1. 23E+04 1. 23E+04
90.00 6.75E+03 6.75E+03
85.00 3.47E+03 3.47E+03
80.00 1. 21E+03 2.23E+03
75.00 1.08E+03 1.64E+03
70.00 1.87E+03 1.95E+03
65.00 2.16E+03 2.61E+03
60.00 1.83E+03 5.21E+03
55.00 5.85E+02 1.73E+04
50.00 6.09E+Ol 3.12E+04
45.00 5.34E+00 3.61E+04
40.00 1.51E+00 3.51E+04
35.00 4.02E-02 3.75E+03
30.00 1.19E-02 4.58E+03
25.00 2.93E-03 5.04E+03
-9.00
Figure 12. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRP' file.
If the ionospheric model is HOMOGENEOUS, then the foregoing descriptions are enough to set
up the model. On the other hand, if the model is RANGE TABLE, then additional set up is required.
In this case, there must be a set of profile files with names of the form "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRF',
where nnn is a profile index number. The indexing is completely up to the user, but the value
encoded in the file name must always be 3 digits. Each of these files contains a tabular profile of the
form shown in figure 12. Another file is required to specify the range at which each profile is used.
This file must have a name of the form "PROFILE-NAME.NDX". This file is simply a list of records,
each containing the range and its associated profile index, with optional comments as illustrated in
figure 13.
;prflscn 1, test run, rbear= 50.0
;range index
o 447
1580 348
2080 270
Figure 13. Sample "PROFILE-NAME.NDX' file
for RANGE TABLE option.
The ionospheric model GRID TABLE provides a means for an elaborate geographical distribution
of the ionosphere. The preparation of the necessary database is best accomplished with a standalone
program. The basic features described above for range-dependent tabular profiles are applied in this
case. However, the index file is much more complicated. The user is strongly advised to study the
subroutine named PRFL_GTBL.FOR found in the distribution library named PRF before attempting
to use this option.
21
OVERRIDING THE SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE DEPENDENCE
The remaining ionospheric models are CHI EXPONENTIAL and CHI TABLE. These models allow
the user to override the solar zenith angle dependence used in the LWPM model. The setup of these
models is similar to that in RANGE EXPONENTIAL and RANGE TABLE except that values of the
solar zenith angle replace values of range in the index files. However, the user must always provide
7 sets of values to be consistent with the LWPM model. Figure 14 illustrates a sample index file for
the CHI EXPONENTIAL model. In this example, the day-to-night transition is shortened from 9
0
to
3
0
• The variation of ~ and h' from day to night is controlled by the user. In this case, a simple linear
variation was chosen. If the tabular form of this model is used, then the pair of columns for ~ and h'
is replaced by a single one specifying user-defined profile indices.
;Change length of terminator from 90-99 to 96-99
iSet beta & hprime for 30 kHz
;chi beta hprime
o 0.30 74.0
96 0.33 76.2
96.6 0.37 78.3
97.2 0.40 80.5
97.8 0.43 82.7
98.4 0.47 84.8
99 0.50 87.0
Figure 14. Sample "PROFILE-NAME.NDX' for CHI
EXPONENTIAL model.
OPTIONAL OUTPUTS
GCPATH indicates that geophysical parameters along the propagation paths are to be computed
and printed. The control string START must follow it. This option does not result in the calculation
of mode parameters along the paths. The geophysical parameters printed are the orientation of the
path with respect to the direction of propagation, the ground conductivity, dielectric constant, and the
ionospheric parameters, ~ and h'. This is a handy way for the user to get values for setting up some
of the more elaborate ionospheric models described above.
RX-DATA is used to define parameters for the received fields. The first parameter is a character
string indicating the orientation of the fields, and the second parameter is the altitude at which the
fields are computed. The vertical electric field, TM or E
z
, is obtained with the string VERTICAL.
Both the vertical and horizontal fields, TM and TE or E
z
and By, are calculated if the string is
HORIZONTAL. Both of the strings may be shortened to the first character. The initial value of the
component is VERTICAL, and the altitude at which the field is computed is zero.
LWF-VS-DISTANCE defines the ending distance and the distance increment in kin over which
the field strength is to be computed. The initial value of the ending distance is 20,000 kin. The initial
value of the distance increment is 20 kin. Although mode parameters are computed over varying
lengths of paths, the fields are computed to the same range from the transmitter for all paths. The
distance increment must be such that lwf-dist-max divided by lwf-dist-inc is less than 1001.
LWFLDS is used to obtain additional signal-strength calculations. The most time-consuming
process in the LWPC is the generation of the mode parameters along the propagation paths. The
22
calculation of the signal strength along the paths is relatively quick, so a separate mode-summing
procedure is available. In the event that the user wants to calculate mode sums for different values
of the transmitter antenna (inclination, heading, and talt) or receiver parameters (VERTICAL or
HORIZONTAL or ralt), the parameters are changed by using the corresponding control strings. The
control string LWFLDS followed by START does new signal-strength calculations and overwrites
the existing "LWF" file. In the event that review of the graphs of signal strength versus distance
reveals unusual patterns, the user may choose to recalculate the signal-strength data by using the full-
wave mode-conversion model described below. This would be accomplished by using the appropriate
control strings for the full-wave model (see MC-OPTIONS) followed by LWFLDS and START.
OPA-GRID is used to obtain additional operating-area grid files. An important use of the LWPC
is the generation of coverage displays. This is the reason that the specification of propagation paths
over operating areas is automated. If a mode sum is redone (see LWFLDS) or the boundaries of the
operating area are changed, then a new file of grid data must be generated by using the control string
OPA-GRID followed by START. This procedure can be used to enlarge the geographical area
enclosed by the grid file. However, enlarging the boundaries of the operating area must be done with
caution. The extent of each propagation path is selected to reach just beyond the boundary of the
originally specified operating area and may not be valid for a much larger area.
MC-OPTIONS controls the mode-conversion calculation. The LWPC uses a mode-conversion
model (Ferguson and Snyder, 1980) to connect the series of horizontally homogenous segments
along every propagation path. The most accurate implementation of the mode-conversion model
integrates the radio fields vertically over the boundary between segments. This integration can be
quite time consuming. A reasonably accurate and faster running implementation replaces the full-
wave integration with an approximation based on the notion that most of the interaction of the radio
wave takes place within the reflection height of the ionosphere. The default implementation of the
mode-conversion model is the approximate one. In rare cases, the full-wave model must be
employed to ensure accuracy. The control string MC-OPTIONS in table 2 is used to control the
mode-conversion model used by the program. The parameter named MC-STEP may have one of
three values. FULL-WAVE calls for the full-wave calculations to be performed. APPROXIMATE
indicates that only the approximate form of the calculations is to be used. MIXED indicates that a
mix of full-wave and approximate calculations is to be performed. The MIXED implementation uses
the approximate model except when the reference height of the ionosphere, h', is greater than a user-
specified value, set by me-test. In some instances, this mix of full-wave and approximate models can
give results almost as good as the full-wave model but in much less computer time. Unfortunately,
one often has to run the full-wave model in order to verify the mixed results. If the full-wave model
is to be employed, the user may choose to have the mode-conversion algorithm use the mode param-
eters as calculated by the LWPM or to have it iteratively refine them to ensure the accuracy of the
results. It is recommended that the iteration be used since the user is already accepting a large pen-
alty in time for employing this model. Setting wf-iterate to TRUE turns on the iteration.
The control strings that begin PRINT- are used to obtain additional output during the processing
along each propagation path. These outputs can be quite voluminous. The initial value of each of
these parameters is zero, minimizing the output. PRINT-SWG is used to obtain additional output
from the LWPM during generation of the mode parameters along the propagation path. PRINT-
SWG can have 4 values: 0 turns off the extra printout, 1 prints path parameters and a list of the mode
solutions, 2 adds a listing of the mode parameters, and 3 adds a printout of extrapolation results.
These parameters are written to the log file as they are computed along the paths. This output can be
confusing because the program does not always process the segments of the paths in sequential order
23
starting at the transmitter. PRINT-MDS controls output while the program reads and writes the
"MDS" file during the calculation of the signal strength along the path. It can have 2 values: 0 gives
very terse summary output, and 1 adds a printout of the modes' attenuation rate, etc. This output is in
order of increasing distance from the transmitter. PRINT-Me provides additional output during the
calculation of the mode sum. It can have 3 values: 0 produces a summary of the calculations, 1 adds
output of the mode-conversion coefficients, and 3 adds a printout of the integrals over the slab
boundary. PRINT-LWF prints a summary of the signal-strength calculation as it is written to an
"LWF" file. It can have 2 values: 0 gives a very terse summary, and 1 prints out the signal strength as
a function of distance from the transmitter along the path. PRINT-WF provides output only when
the full mode-conversion model is being used. It can also have 3 values: 0 turns off the printout, 1
prints the results of the iterations on the mode solutions, and 2 adds a printout of the results of the
integration of the fields versus height.
PLOTTING THE RESULTS
The program LWPM does not directly provide for the graphical display of its output. Instead,
separate programs, to be described in this section, generate graphical displays. The names of the
programs are based on the type of file they process or the quantity to be displayed: LWFPLOT plots
signal strength and phase versus distance, and GRDPLOT plots maps of contours of constant signal
strength, atmospheric noise level, signal-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-jammer ratio in geographical
displays. These programs use many of the same control strings already described for use by LWPM,
in addition to several others that will be described below. In some instances, there are fewer parame-
ters in the data strings than used by the LWPM.
PREVIEW PLOTS
The program PRVWPLOT provides a graphical display of the propagation paths and their seg-
mentation as determined by the LWPM. This allows the user to get some idea of the magnitude of the
case to be run before starting it and provides a useful display for presentations and review. This pro-
gram accepts all the control strings used in the LWPM to eliminate the possibility of errors in setting
up the two different runs. Table 6 shows additional control strings unique to PRVWPLOT (and also
GRDPLOT). One of the sample cases provided with the software distribution is for this program, and
a sample graph is shown later on in figure 23.
Table 6. Controls strings used by PRVWPLOT.
PLOTTER
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
PLT-DEVICE
MAP-ID RECTANGULAR latl lonl lat2 lon2
MAP-ID MERCATOR latl lonl lat2 lon2
MAP-ID GNOMONIC latO lanD RANGE
MAP-ID AZIMUTHAL latO lanD RANGE
MAP-ID ORTHOGRAPHIC latO lanD RANGE
MAP-ID STEREOGRAPHIC latO lanD RANGE
MAP-ID MAP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE-NAME
LAND
COAST
CONDUCTIVITY
COAST LAND
COAST CONDUCTIVITY
24
size-x size-y
size-x size-y
size-x size-y
size-x size-y
size-x size-y
size-x size-y
PLOTTER defines the plotting display device: PLT-DEVICE. This parameter may specify one of
two operating-system devices. One device is the screen, identified as SYS-SCN, and the other is the
local default printer, identified as SYS-PRN. Each of these strings may be shortened to the first five
characters. If PLT-DEVICE is just SYS, then SYS-SCN is implied. The graphical output may be
directed to any printer installed on the system provided it is the current default printer. Thus, if more
than one printer is available, the user must manually set the desired one as the system's default
printer. If PLT-DEVICE is neither of the values specified above, the graphical output is written to a
file named by the string found in PLT-DEVICE. This file may be imported as an HGL formatted file
into PowerPoint. This is especially easy if the named file has the extension "HGL".
MAP-AREA defines the projection, boundaries, and dimensions of the geographical area upon
which the operating area and the propagation paths are to be plotted. The map parameters are defined
in a manner similar to that used to define the boundaries of the operating area. The first parameter in
the data string must be the map identification, MAP-ID, having up to 20 characters. If the MAP-ID is
not followed by any other information, then it is assumed that the parameters of the map are to be
found in the map specification file named "MAP.LIS", found in the directory containing the LWPC
data files. This file will be searched for a record containing a match to the specified MAP-ID. If the
MAP-ID is followed by a single parameter, that parameter is assumed to be the name of an alternate
map area specification file, which will be searched for a record containing a match to the specified
MAP-ID. Otherwise, the program expects to find the name of the projection and the map parameters,
which depend on the projection.
The following projections are available: rectangular, Mercator, gnomonic, azimuthal equidistant,
orthographic, and stereographic. Examples of all the projections except the Mercator projection are
shown below for a common scenario. The rectangular projection is a cylindrical map projection that
is linear in both latitude and longitude. Thus, this projection distorts the high latitudes. Figure 1
shows an example of this projection. The Mercator projection is the projection used in the traditional
wall map. It shows severe distortion for latitudes above approximately SOON. The azimuthal equidis-
tant projection maps all of the points at the same distance from the center of the projection onto a
circle. The points are placed along radials corresponding to the geographic bearing angle as meas-
ured at the center point. Figure 15 is an example of an azimuthal equidistant projection. The gno-
monic projection is used in sailing charts because this projection maps great circles as straight lines.
This characteristic is clearly seen in figure 16. However, the gnomonic projection severely distorts
areas far from the center of the map. The orthographic projection (figure 17) shows the earth as seen
from far out in space. There is very little distortion in this map since it is similar to viewing a globe.
The stereographic projection (figure 18) is similar to the gnomonic except that the areas near the cen-
ter of the map are shown with very little distortion.
25
Azimuthal equidistant centered at (45N 30W)
Figure 15. Azimuthal equidistant projection.
Gnomonic centered at (45N 30W)
Figure 16. Gnomonic projection.
26
Orthographic centered at (45N 30W)
Figure 17. Orthographic projection.
Stereographic centered at (45N 30W)
Figure 18. Stereographic projection.
27
The rectangular and Mercator projections specify the boundaries of the map in order of its south-
ern latitude, western longitude, northern latitude, and eastern longitude and the dimensions of the
map. Following the conventions of the LWPC, latitudes are given in degrees North, and longitudes
are given in degrees West. The dimensions of the map are in inches. A center point, given in order of
the center latitude and longitude, and the maximum range to be displayed in km define all the gno-
monic, azimuthal equidistant, orthographic, and stereographic projections. The names of the projec-
tion may be shortened to the first four characters. The parameters associated with each projection are
shown in the header records of the sample map specification file shown below.
If the map parameters are to be found in a file, then the records of that file must contain the map
identification, the name of the projection, the boundaries of the map, and the dimensions of the map.
Figure 19 illustrates a map-area specification file. The file may begin with a header similar to that
used in the operating-area specification file. In this sample, there are several headers, one for each
projection. The last record contains the termination string END. The MAP-ID is used to select the
parameters of the map from the file. As with the op-area specification, the map identification is
always converted to uppercase before testing for a match between the user's specification and that
found in the file. Furthermore, the name of the projection supplied by the user or by the file is con-
verted to lowercase before testing for the projection to be used.
map-id reet latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x size-y
map-id mere latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x size-y
map-id gnom latO lonO range size-x size-y
map-id azim latO lonO range size-x size-y
map-id orth latO lonO range size-x size-y
map-id ster latO lonO range size-x size-y
northOOO reet 0 0 90 0 7 4
north180 reet 0 180 90 180 7 4
N-Atlant reet 0 100 90 -40 7 4
N-Pae reet -20 -120 70 100 7 5
Polar gnom 90 100 6000 7 5
world reet -90 180 90 180 7.5 6
globe orth 40 70 10000 7.5 6
end
Figure 19. Sample map-area file.
If the user specifies the map parameters, then the default map specification file, "MAP.LIS", is
updated by using the new values. If the specification file already contains an entry with the same
identification as the user's, then the parameters in the file are compared with the values supplied by
the user. Except for the dimensions of the map, if every value specified by the user does not match
those found in the specification file, then the run is aborted. This is done to require a consistent
naming convention for the map areas.
If the control string OP-AREA is used to define the coverage area, then PRVWPLOT shows the
boundaries of the specified operating area. So, the best display is obtained by making the map area
large enough to show the whole operating area.
28
MAP-TYPE is used to define the way the landmasses are to be delineated. The data string may
have one or two values. The basic map types are landmasses, ground conductivity, and coastal out-
line. If the landmass or ground-conductivity maps are used, a second map type (usually the coastal
outline) may also be used for emphasis. Table 6 shows the various combinations. If this control string
is omitted, then the boundaries of the operating area and the propagation paths are plotted without
delineating the landmasses.
FIELD STRENGTH PLOTS
The LWFPLOT routine plots signal strength as a function of distance from the transmitter in dB
above l/-lV1m. Data for each path are plotted in separate graphs. If more than one field component is
in the file, the program plots each component with different line styles and colors on the same graph.
The program also plots two additional lines at the bottom of each graph. One of these lines represents
the height of the ionosphere and the other the ground conductivity. The plot representing the ground
conductivity also contains a symbol indicating the beginning of each segment along the propagation
path. These data are taken from the path segmentation data, which are part of the file. As a reminder,
a legend for these quantities appears at the lower right edge of each graph. The label below each
graph includes the name of the program that generated the file, and the date the file was generated.
The latter helps keep track of which version of the program was used. Table 7 is a summary of the
control strings used by this program. Those that are unique to the LWFPLOT are described below.
One of the sample cases provided with the software distribution is for this program, and a sample
graph is shown later on in figure 28.
TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to name the files that contain the signal strength versus distance
data. Although not encoded in this data string, there must exist corresponding files with the extension
"LWF". The substrings NTR and NJR carry over from the LWPM to help the user keep things orga-
nized but only one transmitter may be plotted at a time (the last one in the input file before the
START control string).
Table 7. Controls strings used by LWFPLOT.
PLOTTER
FILE-LWF
TX-NTR
JX-NJR
BEARINGS
MODIFY-PWR
DIST-AXIS
AMPL-AXIS
PHAS-AXIS
PHAS-PLOT
PRINT-LWF
RUNNING-AVG
START
QUIT
PLT-DEVICE
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-LWF-DATA-FILES
TX-FILE-NAME
JX-FILE-NAME
list-of-path-bearing-angles-to-graph
power
scale-x size-x dstmax dsttic
scale-a size-a ampmin ampmax amptic
scale-p size-p phsmin phsmax phs tic UNITS
OPTION
print-lwf
nravg
FILE-LWF sets the directory path for the mode sum files. If not specified, the program uses the
directory in which it is being run.
BEARINGS is used to select specific paths from the input file. If the data string is not blank, then
the input file is searched for the designated bearing angles. If a designated bearing angle is found in
29
the file, then signal strength versus distance is plotted. If this control string is not used, then all paths
in the file are plotted.
MODIF-PWR is used to change the transmitter or jammer power to the specified value in kW,
before plotting the curves of signal strength versus distance.
DIST-AXIS contains parameters used to scale the horizontal axis of the graphs. If the parameter
scale-x is zero, then the next three parameters are used. If scale-x is not zero, then the vertical size of
the graph is determined from dstmax, dstmin, and scalex. If dstmax is -99 (default), then the maxi-
mum value is determined from the input array of distances. All the distance values are in km. The
scale is kilometers per inch.
AMPL-AXIS contains parameters used to scale the vertical axis of the amplitude graphs. If the
parameter scale-a is zero, then the next three parameters are used. If scale-a is not zero, then the
horizontal size of the graph is determined from ampmax, ampmin, and scale-a. If ampmax is -99
(default), then the maximum value is determined from the input array of signal strengths. All the
amplitude values are in dB above 1 j.!V1m. The scale is dB per inch.
PHAS·AXIS contains parameters used to scale the vertical axis of the phase graphs. If the param-
eter scale-p is zero, then the next three parameters are used. If scale-p is not zero, then the horizontal
size of the graph is determined from phsmax, phsmin, and scale-po If either phsmax or phsmin is -99
(default), then the corresponding value is determined from the input data. The units of the phase axis
are set by UNITS, which may be DEGREES or MICROSEC.
PHAS-PLOT turns plots of the phase on and off by setting OPT/ONto YES or NO.
RUNNING-AVG is used to control averaging of the input data before it is graphed. The value of
nravg specifies how many points are averaged. This is a running average so that a value output at a
specific range is the average ofthe input value at the range and (nravg-l)/2 values before and after
the range. Thus, it is common to use odd numbers for nravg.
COVERAGE PLOTS
The most commonly used graphical output program in the LWPC is GRDPLOT. This program
plots contours of constant signal, signal-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-jam ratio in a geographical dis-
play. The geographical areas are defined the same as in PRVWPLOT. Table 8 shows a complete list
of the control strings for this program. Since most of the control strings have already been described,
not all of the available ones will be discussed here.
30
Table 8. Control strings used by GRDPLOT.
size-y
size-y
size-y
size-y
size-y
size-y
size-x
size-x
size-x
size-x
PLT_DEVICE
DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-GRD-DATA-FILES
TX-FILE-NAME
JX-FILE-NAME
PLOT-LABEL
MAP-ID RECTANGULAR latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x
MAP-ID MERCATOR latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x
MAP-ID GNOMONIC latO lonO RANGE
MAP-ID AZIMUTHAL latO lonO RANGE
MAP-ID ORTHOGRAPHIC latO lonO RANGE
MAP-ID STEREOGRAPHIC latO lonO RANGE
MAP-ID MAP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE-NAME
LAND
COAST
CONDUCTIVITY
COAST LAND
COAST CONDUCTIVITY
VERTICAL
HORIZONTAL
cntr-level-min cntr-level-max cntr-level-inc
cntr-level-l cntr-level-2 ...
ta-level-l ta-level-2 ...
NOISE-MODEL-NAME MONTH/day/year hour:minute bandw
mean-platform-noise
set-to-l-to-do-noise-contours
set-to-l-to-do-plots-of-signal-contours
set-to-l-to-do-plots-of-S/N-contours
jammer-combinations-for-S/J-contours-to-be-generated
jammer-combinations-for-S/(N+J)-contours-to-be-generated
jammer-numbers-for-which-jammer-contours-to-be-generated
jammer-numbers-for-which-J/N-contours-to-be-generated
new-power-level
RCVR-MODEL-NAME
threshold-l threshold-2
chil chi2
PLOTTER
FILE-GRD
TX-NTR
JX-NJR
PLOT-LBL
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-AREA
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
MAP-TYPE
RX-DATA
RX-DATA
CNTR-RANGE
CNTR-LEVELS
TA-LEVELS
A-NOISE
P-NOISE
PLT-N
PLT-S
PLT-S/N
PLT-S/J
PLT-S/I
PLT-J
PLT-J/N
MODIFY-PWR
RX-MODEL
THRESHOLDS
TERMINATOR
BRIEF-LABELS
START
QUIT
TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to name the files that contain the operating-area grid data.
Although not encoded in the control string, corresponding files with the extension "GRD" must
exist. The substring NTR carries over from the LWPM to help the user keep things organized, but
only one transmitter may be used at a time. Thus, the program does not use the numerical value of
NTR. However, the numerical value of the substring NJR indicates the jammer numbers used in the
control strings that start with PLT-S/J and PLT-JIN, as described later.
FILE-GRD sets the directory path for the coverage grid data files. If not specified, the program
uses the directory in which it is being run.
PLOT-LBL allows the user to add a character string to each graph that is generated. The string is
the same for all graphs in a particular set and is placed along the bottom of each graph.
31
RX-DATA is used to specify the field component to be used by GRDPLOT when plotting the grid
files. The data string contains either VERTICAL or HORIZONTAL.
OP-AREA is used to specify the operating area used to create the "GRD" file in a manner identi-
cal to that used by LWPM. The "GRD" file used by the program is named by concatenating the name
specified by the control strings TX-NTR and JX-NJR with the AREA-ID.
CNTR-RANGE is used to specify a range of contour levels to be plotted. The data string contains
three values: cntr-min, cntr-max, and cntr-inc. In this case, the contour lines are plotted from the
minimum value to the maximum value in evenly spaced increments. The units of the parameters
depend on the coverage map being generated; namely, if the contour map is for signal, then cntr-min,
cntr-max, and cntr-inc are in dB above 1 ~ V / m ; if for signal-to-noise ratio, then they are dB. The
contour levels are plotted as color-filled bands using the eight colors specified in the
"GRAPHICS.INI" file described below.
CNTR-LEVELS is used to specify a list of up to nine specific contour levels to be plotted. The
units of the levels depend on the coverage map being generated; namely, if the contour map is for
signal, then cntr-min, cntr-max, and cntr-inc are in dB above 1 ~ V / m ; if for signal-to-noise ratio,
then they are dB. The contour levels are plotted as color-filled bands using the eight colors specified
in the "GRAPHICS.INI" file. The list of contour levels is processed as sequential pairs so that at
least two values must be specified.
RX-MODEL identifies the model of receiver performance to be used. As already described, there
are two receiver models. One of these was developed by PSR and is identified as PSR. The other
model was developed by MITRE and is identified as MITRE.
TA-LEVELS is used to specify up to three time availabilities for which separate coverage maps
are to be generated. These levels represent the percentage of time that a signal or signal-to-noise ratio
is exceeded.
THRESHOLDS is used to specify up to seven values for time availability contours. These levels
are in the units appropriate for the contours being plotted. For example, if the threshold is for signal,
then the units are dB above 1 ~ V / m ; if for signal-to-noise ratio, then the units are dB. If THRESH-
OLDS are specified, then contours of time availability are automatically selected.
A-NOISE is used to specify the parameters of the atmospheric noise to be used to generate con-
tour maps of signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-interference ratio. The parameters supplied in the
data string are used to find the appropriate grid data file that is assumed to exist. The extension of the
noise grid data file indicates the name of the noise model: "NT!" is for the NTIA model, "ITS" is for
the ITSN model, and "LNP" is for the LNP model. The full name of this file will be formed by con-
catenating the root file name defined by TX-NTR or JX-NJR and AREA-ID. For example, if ROOT-
FILE-NAME is Cutler and AREA-ID is Atlantic, then the program looks for a noise grid file named
"CutlerAtlantic.NTI", "CutlerAtlantic.ITS", or "CutlerAtlantic.LNP".
P-NOISE is used to specify the mean level in dB of a source of interference other than atmos-
pheric noise. This interference level is treated as a noise floor in that it becomes important as the
atmospheric noise approaches the level of the interference. Since the source of this interference is
assumed to be man-made, there is no standard deviation associated with it.
32
The control strings that start with PLT- determine the number and type of contour plots produced
in a run. The data strings PLT-S, PLT-N, and PLT-SIN have numerical inputs of one or zero, to tum
on or to tum off plotting a corresponding map of contours of signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio.
The data string of PLT-J is a list of jammer numbers for which contour maps of signal level are to be
made by using the designated jammers. The jammer numbers are taken from the NJR substring of the
control string JX-NJR. If only one jammer is used, then either JX or JX-I can be used. Similarly,
the data string for PLT-JIN identifies the transmitters for which jammer-to-noise contours are to be
made. The list of jammers does not have to be the same as used in the PLT-J control string.
The control string PLT-S/J sets up contour maps of signal-to-jam ratio. The data string associated
with this control string can be much more complicated than those associated with PLT-S and PLT-SIN
because this data string contains a list of combinations of jammers. For example, if three jammers
have been identified, then the data string can contain any of the following: 1,2, 3, 12, 13,23, and
123, indicating contours of signal-to-jammer 1, signal-to-jammer 2, signal-to-jammer 3, signal-to-the
sum of jammers 1 and 2, and so on. Similarly, the data string associated with the control string PLT-SII
is also a list of combinations of jammers. This control string generates contours of the ratio of signal-
to-jammer plus atmospheric noise.
Figure 20 illustrates a sample input file for GRDPLOT using multiple jammers. The file contain-
ing the transmitter signal data is in a file named "XMTR.GRD", and those of the jammers are in files
named "JAMRl.GRD", "JAMR2.GRD", and "JAMR3.GRD." These files are introduced to the
program by using the control strings TX, JX-I, JX-2, and JX-3, respectively. The PLT- control
strings call for signal-strength plots for the transmitter and the second jammer. In addition, plots of
the ratio of signal-to-jam for jammer 1 and the sum of jammers 1 and 3 are to be done. The CNTR-
RANGE control string indicates that the range of contours is to be selected from the data and that the
increment between levels is 3 dB.
op-area
map-area
map-type
a-noise
tx
jx-l
jx-2
jx-3
cntr-range
ta-levels
plt-s
plt-j
plt-s/j
start
quit
test -10 40 30 -50
test rect -10 40 30 -50 4 5
coast
ntia jul/15/88 18:00 1000
xmtr
jamrl
jamr2
jamr3
, ,3
50
1
2
1 13
Figure 20. Sample case for multiple jammers in GRDPLOT.
FILE SUMMARIES
The program named SCAN provides summaries of the contents of the output files of the LWPC.
The program provides different levels of output depending on the user's specification. The program
is set up to interactively get the names of the files to be scanned. However, it can be started with a
33
command line entry identifying the name of an input file. This is illustrated in the sample case named
SCAN. If the file to be scanned has the extension "MDS", there are two levels of printout. The low-
est level of output is a summary of the transmitter, op area, and the bearing angles; and lengths and
segmentation of all the paths. The next level of output adds the mode parameters at each segment of
every path. If the file to be scanned has the extension "LWF", there are three levels of output. The
lowest level is a summary of the transmitter, op area, and the bearing angles; and lengths of every
path. The next level adds the signal strength and relative phase along every path. The third level of
printout only provides the signal strength and relative phase at the receiver coordinates. This output
only makes sense if the propagation paths are specified using the RECEIVERS and +RECEIVERS
control strings. If the file to be scanned has the extension "GRD", "NTI", "ITS", or "LNP", there is
only one level of printout. This output shows the transmitter, op area, grid coordinates, and dimen-
sions.
Every file written by the programs of the LWPC contain three unique records. Every level of out-
put provided by SCAN shows these records, identified by the string "file id". In an "MDS" file, only
the first record is defined. In an "LWF" file, the first two records are defined. In a "GRD", "NTI",
"ITS", and "LNP" file, all three records are defined. Figure 21 shows an example of these three
records, taken from a "GRD" file. The first record identifies the "MDS" file from which the "LWF"
and "GRD" files were generated. The first entry in this record contains the date the file was written.
The second entry is a three-character sequence created by a random-number generator using the field
for seconds in the time of day as the seed. This entry is unique to the run in which the data are gener-
ated. Hence, if the series of data files from "MDS" through "GRD" are all created in a single execu-
tion of the LWPM, this field will be the same in all three records. The third entry identifies the pro-
gram used to create the data, and the last entry contains the full filename of the file. These entries are
designed to keep track of inconsistencies between the data contained in the files and user-generated
labels and identifications, which may change from run to run. The second record in this figure identi-
fies these same quantities in the "LWF" file, and the third record is for the "GRD" files.
06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprn.rnds
06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprn.lwf
06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprnrnediterranean.grd
Figure 21. Example of "file id" records.
SAMPLE CASES
The sample cases (table 9) are not meant to be exhaustive tests of the programs, but to be exam-
ples of the usage of the various options. These samples are included with the distribution of the soft-
ware. The primary output files from the LWPC are the ones with extension "MDS", "LWF", and
"GRD." These are not included with the distribution because they are unformatted. However, this
report shows the graphical output for the cases that may be compared to the user's results. The sam-
ple run streams are named with the extension "INP" and the resulting logs are named with the exten-
sion "LOG." Command files named with the extension "CMD" appropriate for running the sample
cases under OS/2 or Windows NT are also provided. Table 9 lists these sample cases with a brief
description of the options being exercised. A few of these cases are discussed in more detail.
34
GCPATH
PRVWPLOT
LWPM
GRDPLOT
BEARINGS
LWFPLOT
LWFLDS
HTABLE
REXP
RTABLE
CHIEXP
SCAN
Table 9. Sample cases.
Exercises the program LWPM with the GCPATH option and tests the
control strings: RECEIVERS and +RECEIVERS. It also verifies that
the ground-conductivity map is properly installed.
Exercises the program PRVWPLOT. Its successful execution verifies
that the ground-conductivity and coastal-outline maps are prop-
erly installed.
Exercises the program LWPM with the OP-AREA option. This run will
take some time but it is necessary to set up the test of GRDPLOT.
Exercises the program GRDPLOT for the data created by the sample
case named LWPM.
Exercises the program LWPM with the BEARINGS and +BEARINGS
options with a specific date and time chosen to put the day-night
terminator on the path.
Exercises the program LWFPLOT using the data created by the sam-
ple case named BEARINGS.
Exercises the program LWPM with the LWFLDS option using the data
generated by the sample case named BEARINGS.
Exercises the program LWPM with the horizontal tabular ionosphere
option.
Exercises the program LWPM with the range-dependent exponential
ionosphere option. The variation of the exponential profile
matches that used in the sample cases named BEARINGS along the
path at a bearing of 24°.
Exercises the program LWPM with the range-dependent tabular iono-
sphere option.
Exercises the program LWPM with the solar-zenith-angle-dependent
exponential ionosphere option.
Exercises the program SCAN on the outputs from several of the
other sample cases.
35
PRVWPLOT
The program named PRVWPLOT shows the propagation paths used in a case. Figure 22 shows the
run stream used for making the preview plot. The resulting display is shown in figure 23.
Select output device
plotter
plotter
plotter
case-id
tx
tx-data
ionosphere
op-area
map-type
map-area
start
quit
sys-scn
sys-prn
prvwPlot.hgl
OMEGA coverage
1wpm
OMEGA-D
lwpm Apr/08/97
Mediterranean
conductivity
N_Atlant rect
of the Mediterranean
06:30
30 10 45 -45
o 100 90 -40 7 4
Figure 22. Input data file for sample case PRVWPLOT.
90N
60N
30N
ON
100W 70W 40W
Rectangular from (ON 100W) to (90N 40E)
SOLAR: Apr/08/97:0630UT Chi 90.0, 99.0 SSP: (7.2N 83.0E)
10W 20E 40E
Figure 23. Graphical output for sample case PRVWPLOT.
36
LWPM
Figure 24 shows the basic run stream LWPM. The transmitter parameters are retrieved from the
default transmitter specification file using the transmitter name OMEGA-D. An operating area
named Mediterranean is used to define the propagation paths. The root file name is LWPM so that
the following files are created:
"LWPM.MDS", "LWPM.LWF", and "LWPMMEDITERRANEAN.GRD".
case-id OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean
Name the files
tx lwpm
Identify the transmitter
tx-data OMEGA-D
Choose the LWPM model daytime environment
ionosphere lwpm day
Define the operating area
op-area Mediterranean 30 10 45 -45
Calculate atmospheric noise using NTIA in July at 1800 UT
a-noise ntia July 18 1000
start
quit
Figure 24. Input file for sample case LWPM.
The scenario defined in figure 24 is the basis for most of the other sample problems. For example,
the propagation paths specified in BEARINGS are chosen from the set generated in this case. This
sample case must be run to generate the data sets required by several of the other cases listed in
table 9.
37
GRDPLOT
The sample case named GRDPLOT, shown in figure 25, generates the plots of contours of constant
signal strength and signal-to-atmospheric-noise ratio over the Mediterranean operating area defmed by
the sample case named LWPM. The contours in figure 26 are for the signal-to-atmospheric-noise ratio
at 90% time availability. The rapid drop in signal-to-noise ratio as propagation paths cross Greenland
is seen in the closely spaced and nearly vertical contour lines in the eastern part of the operating area.
Select output device
plotter sys-scn
plotter sys-prn
plotter grdPlot.hgl
30 10 45 -45
of the signal
of the signal to noise ratio
plot
o
plot
1
plot-lbl OMEGA North Dakota in the Mediterranean Sea
Specify location of GRD files
file-grd Output \
Name the files
tx lwpm
Choose the vertical fields
rx-data vertical
Define the operating area
op-area Mediterranean
Define the map area
map-area Mediterranean rect 30 10 45 -45 7 4
Choose the land delineation
map-type land coast
Use the atmospheric noise for the NTIA model in July at 1800 UT
a-noise ntia Jul 18 1000
Use the default contour range with 3 dB increments
cntr-range ,,3
Use time availabilities of 50% and 90%
ta-level 90
Turn on plot of the signal
plt-s 1
start
Turn off
plt-s
Turn on
pH-sin
start
Figure 25. Input file for sample case GRDPLOT.
38
Tx 1:omega-d
Noise:ntia
Freq Lat Lon Prad In Hdg All
kHz dg:mn dg:mn kW dg dg km
10.2 46:22N 98:20W 10 0 0 0
10.2 Jul 1800UT
Ionosphere
LWPM Day
FILE
18 Feb98 DXR LWPM 2.0
18 Feb98 DXR LWPM 2.0
Rx: E All Sandw Depth
km Hz It
V 0 1000 0
45N
30N
10W 20E
Rectangular from (30N 1OW) to (45N 45E)
OMEGA North Dakota in the Mediterranean Sea
45E
90% availability
SIN (diS) % a
-60.0to -57.0 85
-57.0 to -54.0 81
-54.0 to -51.0 75
-51.0 to -48.0 71
-48.0 to -45.0 66
-45.0 to -42.0 57
-42.0 to -39.0 49
-39.0 to -36.0 25
-36.0 to -33.0 13
-33.0 to -30.0 2
-30.0 to -27.0 0
..
I
-
-
Figure 26. Plotted output from sample case GRDPLOT.
39
BEARINGS
The basic case shown in figure 23 can take a long time to run. The case set up by BEARINGS,
shown in figure 27, generates data for a subset of this case using three of the paths shown in fig-
ure 23. However, the ionospheric model is LWPMwith a specific date and time.
case-id OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean
Name the output files
tx bearings
Identify the transmitter
tx-data OMEGA-D
Choose date and time
ionosphere lwpm AprilS 22:00
Set maximum range of paths
range-max 11000
Choose bearings angles at 24, 48 and 72
bearings 24 48
+bearings 72
Get extra print out from the mode generation
print-swg 2
Set the maximum range for the fields at 5000 kID
lwf-vs-dist 5000
Get extra print out from the mode summation
print-lwf 2
start
quit
Figure 27. Input file for sample case BEARINGS.
40
LWFPLOT
The program LWFPLOT is exercised by the sample run stream LWFPLOT to produce the plots of
signal versus distance shown in figure 28. This figure shows the signal strength as a function of dis-
tance from the transmitter along the path making a bearing of 48
0
• Along the bottom of the graph
is a summary of the important path segmentation data, namely, the height of the ionosphere and the
ground conductivity. The beginning of each segment is indicated by a small symbol in the curve rep-
resenting the ground conductivity.
80
60
E
3>
:1.
40
Ql
>
0
..Q
'" !Il
:E.
ill
0
20
::::>
I-
::J
0...
~
«
0
-20
o 2 4 6
DISTANCE (Mm)
8
100
h'
50
1
log(s)
-5
10
OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean
xmtUd freq tlat tlon brng pwr in hdg talt ralt
omega-d 10.2 46.4 98.3 48.0 10 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Prfl: LWPM Date: 04/15/84:2200
File: 17Feb98 TKM LWPM-20 c:\lwpcv20\output\bearings.mds
File: 17Feb98 TKM LWPM-20 c:\!wpcv20\output\bearings.lwf
Prgm: LWPM-20
Figure 28. Plotted output from sample case LWFPLOT.
41
LWPC DATA FILES
The LWPC requires a number of data files for its execution. These files contain geophysical infor-
mation such as ground conductivity, coastal outline coordinates, and coefficients for the atmospheric
noise. The program also requires a file for graphical initialization and specification of transmitter
coordinates and map area boundaries. These files must all be located in a common directory, typi-
cally named "LWPC_DAT" or "LWPC\Data".
LWPC DATA LOCATION
A file named "lwpcDAT.loc" must be placed at the root of drive C. There is no case sensitivity in
the file name on computers running OS/2 or Windows 95/NT so the name as shown is just a matter
of style or taste. This file contains only one record identifying the path to the LWPC data files. Using
one of the above examples, this record would look like "C:\LWPC\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot; if it referred to a directory
named "\LWPC\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot; on drive C.
GEOPHYSICAL DATA
The ground-conductivity map is stored in a text file named "COND$D.DAT" and in a binary file
named "COND$F.DAT. The program uses the text file to specify the ground conductivity. The pro-
gram uses the binary file to display the ground-conductivity areas graphically. The coastal outline
database is contained in a binary file named "COAST$D.DAT". The coefficients used to calculate
the levels of atmospheric noise are stored in the binary files named "ITSN$D.DAT" for the ITSN
model and in "NTIA$D.DAT" for the NTIA model.
TRANSMITTER AND MAP SPECIFICATION
The user has two methods of setting parameters associated with the control strings TX-DATA,
JX-DATA, OP-AREA, and MAP-AREA. If the user specifies the parameters of the control string
explicitly in the data string, then the corresponding specification file found in the directory contain-
ing the LWPC data files is updated by using the new values. If the specification file already contains
an entry with the same identification as used by the user, the parameters in the file are compared with
the values supplied by the user. With one exception, if every value specified by the user does not
match those found in the specification file, then the run is aborted. This is done to require a consis-
tent naming convention for transmitters, operating areas, and map areas. The exception noted above
is for MAP-AREA. The user may change the dimensions. The user can edit the specification files to
clean them up and remove entries as required. These files must be located in the directory containing
the LWPC data files. The transmitter specification file is named "XMTR.LIS", the op-area specifica-
tion file is named "AREA.LIS", and the map-area specification file is named "MAP.LIS".
GRAPHICS INITIALIZATION
The graphical output provided by the LWPC is controlled in part by an initialization file named "GRA-
PIllCS.INI". Figure 29 is a sample of this file. This file identifies colors and fill patterns for contour fill
areas and geophysical displays. There are two sections in this file. The first section identifies color
assignments and is preceded by a control string "colors" and terminated by a control string "end". Simi-
larly, the second section is demarked by the strings "fills" and "end". The order of these sections may
be reversed within the file. The records containing the string "colors" and "fills" may contain additional
identification as illustrated in the figure. Each record in the colors section must contain the following
data: name of the color, the red-green-blue (RGB) sequence used to define the color, and a pen number.
42
colors: r g b pen notes
labels 000 000 000 1 The 1st 8 colors are defined for the
red 255 000 000 2 default PowerPoint assignments for HPGL
green 000 255 000 3 importation.
yellow 255 255 000 4
blue 000 000 255 5
purple 255 155 205 6
cyan 000 255 255 7
black 000 000 000 8
coast 000 000 000 1
land 000 127 000 3
border 000 000 000 1
grid 000 000 255 1
oparea 255 155 205 1
terminator 000 000 255 5
colorl 180 000 000 2 darkRed
color2 000 128 128 4 darkCyan
color3 000 000 171 5 Blue
color4 255 255 128 6 paleYellow
color5 255 000 000 7 Red
color6 128 000 128 8 Purple
color7 255 128 128 2 Salmon
color8 000 000 100 3 darkBlue
end
fills: name
fillOl 2%
fill02 10%
fill03 20%
fill04 35%
fill05 55%
fill06 80%
fill07 99%
fill08 100%
fill09 horizontalLines
filll0 verticalLines
fillll leftDiagonalLines
fill12 rightDiagonalLines
end
Figure 29. Sample graphics initialization file.
The programs of the LWPC fix the names of the colors. However, the user may change the color
displayed by changing the RGB sequence to suit individual taste. For example, a lighter shade of
green could be displayed by changing the RGB sequence for "green" to 000125000. The pen num-
ber is written to the HPGL output files in place of the color or RGB sequence. Importing HPGL files
into PowerPoint only allows specification of pen numbers to identify colors, and the maximum num-
ber of pens (colors) is eight. The colors named "coast", "land", "border", "grid", "oparea", and "ter-
minator" are used for the corresponding display in the graphical output. The colors named "colorN",
where "N" is 1 through 8, are used in numerical order to color the contour plots generated by
"GRDPLOT". If the file provided with the software distribution is modified, care should be taken to
ensure that the pen numbers assigned to these eight colors do not match the one used for the land-
mass overlay.
43
OUTPUT DATA FILES
The output files are all written in unformatted form and a special program named SCAN is used to
print out summaries of the parameters that are stored in them. Some parameters share common usage
throughout the full set of output data files. Whenever appropriate, the parameters from one file are
passed on to subsequent types of files to provide continuity and some audit-trail information. The
first record of all data file types contains the same information. The first record contains an eight-
character string to be used to record archive information. This record also contains three strings,
named MDS-FILE-ID, LWF-FILE-ID, and GRD-FILE-ID. Each of these strings contains the date the
file was written; a randomly generated, three-character string to uniquely identify the file; and the
full file name, including the directory tree. The presence of these strings in each type of file provides
information regarding the history of the data used to produce the file. For instance, each "GRD" file
identifies the "LWF" file that provided the signal strength data and the "MDS" file that provided the
"MDS" data used to calculate the "LWF" data. The program identification will be LWPM-V20. The
first record also contains a list of parameters to identify the propagation paths for the data sets. The
character string PATH-ID contains the AREA-ID if the paths were defined with an OP-AREA control
string, Bearings if the paths were defined with the BEARINGS control string, and Receivers if the
paths were defined with the RECEIVERS control string. If the RECEIVERS control string was
used, then the list of receiver coordinates is stored in the arrays rxlat and rxlon. If the OP-AREA
control string was used, then the lengths of the paths are stored in the array range; otherwise, the
array range stores the constant value specified by the control string RANGE-MAX. Also, if the
control string OP-AREA was used, then the boundaries of the operating area are stored in this first
record.
Figure 30 shows the data written to the "MDS" files. Character strings are shown in uppercase,
and the length of each string is shown in brackets following the name of the string. Record 2 identi-
fies the parameters of each segment of each path, beginning with the geographical bearing angle
(bmg), the length of the path (rhomax), the receiver coordinates (rlat, rlon), and the range to the
receiver (rrho). Additional parameters are stored in the array param1. Currently, this array contains
10 parameters: the coordinates of the beginning ofthe segment (lat, Ion), the range from the trans-
mitter to the beginning of the segment (rho), the orientation and strength of the geomagnetic field
with respect to the direction of propagation (azim, dip, magfld), the ground conductivity and dielec-
tric constant (sigma, epsr), and the slope and reference height of the exponential ionosphere (beta,
hprime). Record 3 contains the eigen angle of the mode and the following five parameters stored in
the array param2: T1, T2, T3, T4, feR) (Ferguson and Snyder, 1980). The end of segment data for
each path is indicated by a dummy record containing: bmg, rhomax, rlat, rlon, rrho, 0, 1, 0,99.
Records 2 and 3 are repeated for each path.
44
Record:
1 ARCHIVE[8],
MDS-FILE-ID[120],
LWF-FILE-ID[120],
GRD-FILE-ID[120],
PRGM-ID[8] ,
CASE-ID[80],
PRFL-ID[40] ,
XMTR-ID[20],freq,txlat,txlon,
PATH-ID[20],nrpath,
op-latl,op-lonl,op-lat2,op-lon2,
(bearing(i),range(i),rxlat(i),rxlon(i),i=l,nrpath)
2 brng,rhomax,rlat,rlon,rrho,nprml,nrmode,nprm2,
(paraml(i),i=l,nprml)
3 (eigen (m) , (param2 (i, m) , i=l, nprm2) , m=l, nrmode)
Figure 30. Order of data parameters in "MOS" files.
Figure 31 summarizes the output written to "LWF" files. Record 2 contains a summary ofthe
parameters along each path. The array sgmnt stores the path segmentation data for each path in the
data set. At present, the number of parameters stored in sgmnt is stored in nrps, and the number of
segments is stored in nrsgmnt. The array sgmnt contains the following 10 parameters: the coordinates
of the beginning of each segment (lat, lon), the range from the transmitter to the beginning of the
segment (rho), the orientation and strength of the geomagnetic field with respect to the direction of
propagation (azim, dip, magfld), the ground conductivity and dielectric constant (sigma, epsr), and
the slope and reference height of the exponential ionosphere (beta, hprime). If nonexponential pro-
files are used, an eleventh parameter showing the profile index is added. The number of points at
which the signal strength and relative phase are computed is stored in nrptl. The signal strength and
relative phase along each path is calculated parametric in the following seven parameters: the num-
ber of field components (nrcmp), the transmitter power (power), the distance from the transmitter
(dist), the orientation of the antenna (inclination, heading), and the altitude of the transmitter and the
receiver (talt, ralt). The parameter dist is not used in LWPC-2.0; it is included for compatibility with
a planned extension of the mode summing capability. The values of these parameters, excluding
nrcmp, are stored in the array paramo The number of such parametric records determines the number
of signal-strength arrays written to the file. The number of these records is stored in nrpt2. Record 3
stores the distance, signal strength, and phase relative to the propagation in free space. The array xy
stores the distances from the transmitter at which signal strength and relative phase are computed;
amp stores the signal strength in dB above IJ.lV/m; and phs stores the relative phase. Record 3 is
repeated as required by the value of nrcmp and nrpt2 (in LWPC-2.0, nrpt2 is always 1). Records 2
and 3 are repeated for each path.
45
Record:
1 ARCHIVE[8],
MDS-FILE-ID[120],
LWF-FILE-ID[120],
GRD-FILE-ID[120],
PRGM-ID[8] ,
CASE-ID[80] ,
PRFL-ID[40] ,
XMTR-ID[20],freq,txlat,txlon,
PATH-ID[20],nrpath,
op-latl,op-lonl,op-lat2,op-lon2,
(bearing(i),range(i),rxlat(i),rxlon(i),i=l,nrpath)
2 brng,rhomax,rlat,rlon,rrho,nrps,nrsgmnt,
nrprm,nrptl,nrcmp,nrpt2, ((sgmnt(i,j),i=l,nps),j=l,nsgmnt)
3 (param(i),i=l,nprm),
(xy(i),amp(i),phs(i),i=l,nrptl)
Figure 31. Order of data parameters in "LWF" files.
Figure 32 summarizes the data written to the "GRD" files. The parameters nrcmp and nrpt2
are carried over from the "LWF" file. Record 2 identifies the operating area and its boundaries
(AREA-ID, xlatI, xlonl, xlat2, xlon2) and the number of points in the grid in longitude (nrlon) and
latitude (nrlat). The grids of signal strength and associated standard deviation of the signal are writ-
ten parametric in the same set of parameters used for the "LWF" files. Consequently, record 3 is
repeated as required by the values of nrcmp and nrpt2 (in LWPC-2.0, nrpt2 is always 1). Records 2
through 3 are repeated for each operating area. The array param stores the parameters of the grid
data: the transmitter power (power), the distance from the transmitter (dist), the orientation of the
transmitting antenna (inclination, heading), the altitude of the transmitter and the receiver (talt, ralt),
the date and time (MONTH, day, year, Un, the bandwidth (bandw), the adjustment factor for hori-
zontal noise (adjny), and the standard deviation of the signal (stndev). Furthermore, if the "GRD" file
is for atmospheric noise, then CASE-ID contains the string Noise; XMTR-ID contains the name of the
noise model and the date and time used to compute the values of atmospheric noise.
Record:
1 ARCHIVE[8],
MDS-FILE-ID[120],
LWF-FILE-ID[120],
GRD-FILE-ID[120],
PRGM-ID[8] ,
CASE-ID[80] ,
PRFL-ID[40] ,
XMTR-ID[20],freq,txlat,txlon,
PATH-ID[20],nrpath,
op-latl,op-lonl,op-lat2,op-lon2,
(bearing(i),range(i),rxlat(i),rxlon(i),i=l,nrpath)
2 area-id[20],xlatl,xlonl,xlat2,xlon2,nrlon,nrlat,
nrprm,nrcmp,nrpt2
3 (param(i),i=l,nprm),
((amplitude(i,j),sigma(i,j),i=l,nx),j=l,ny)
Figure 32. Order of data parameters in "GRD" files.
46
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
The source-code files and data files are distributed in three zip files (lwpcv20, IwpcData, baseline)
that fit on two standard 1440-kilobyte, 3.5-inch floppy diskettes. To obtain a copy of these files,
contact Jerry Ferguson (e-mail: ferguson@spawar.navy.mil).
For use on computers running Windows NT*, the executable program files and binary data files
are distributed in three other zip files (lwpcExe, IwpcDat, IwpcPlt) that fit on two standard
1440-kilobyte, 3.5-inch floppy diskettes.
Create a directory to contain the LWPC files, assumed to be "C:\LWPCv20###BOT_TEXT###quot;. Copy the distribu-
tion files into this directory and execute the file "Startup.cmd" to unpack the files.
If the LWPC files are placed in a directory not named "C:\LWPCv20###BOT_TEXT###quot;, then edit the file named
"setLWPC.cmd" to show the correct path.
Execute the file "BuildLWPC.cmd" to create the library, binary data files, and executable files.
If the executable files and the binary data files are to be used as provided in the software distribution,
copy the zip files from the diskettes into the LWPC directory. Execute the file named "Binary.cmd" to
unpack the files.
The LWPC data files are placed in a subdirectory named "Data". If these files are placed in a
directory not named "C:\LWPCv20\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot;, edit the file named "lwpcDAT.loc" to show the correct
path and copy it to the root directory of drive C.
Execute the sample cases to verify the correct installation.
The subdirectory named "C:\LWPCv20\Baseline###BOT_TEXT###quot; contains backup copies of the sample cases and
the resulting output. The files in this directory should not be modified in any way.
OPERATING SYSTEM AND COMPILER
The programs of the LWPC as distributed are written for the Windows NT® operating system and
the WATCOM C and FORTRAN compilers. The routines written in C provide the graphical interface
between the FORTRAN routines and the screen and printer. In the subdirectory named Library, these
routines all have names that begin with "sys_". The FORTRAN routines whose names end with the
string "Plot" are really subroutines to the graphics driver named "GRFDriver", which is written in C,
found in the subdirectory named GRFDriver. The compiler flags and linking options can be found in
the file named "BuildLWPC.cmd", which is executed to create the programs from the source files.
Finally, the following routines are used to make compiler-specific calls to obtain system-dependent
parameters: geccommand_line.for, geCdate.for, gecrandomJor, and geCtimeJor.
* Windows NT is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
47
REFERENCES
Buckner, R. P. and S. M. Daghestani. 1993. "Improved Methods for VLFILF Coverage Prediction,"
Pacific Sierra Research Corporation Report 2380.
CCIR. 1963. "World Distribution and Characteristics of Atmospheric Radio Noise," Report 322,
Documents of the Xth Plenary Assembly, Geneva, Switzerland.
CCIR. 1986. "World Distribution and Characteristics of Atmospheric Radio Noise," Report 322-3,
Documents of the XVIth Plenary Assembly, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ferguson, J. A. 1980. "Ionospheric Profiles for Predicting Nighttime VLFILF Propagation," TR 530
(Feb), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA.
Ferguson, J. A. 1990. "Longwave-Propagation Capability; Full FORTRAN Release: Version 1.0,"
TD 1847 (July), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA.
Ferguson, J. A. 1992. "A Review of the Ionospheric Model for the Long Wave Prediction Capabil-
ity," TD 2393 (Nov), Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Divi-
sion, San Diego, CA.
Ferguson, J. A. 1993. "Computer Programs for Assessment of Long Wavelength Radio Communica-
tions, Version 1.1: User's Guide and Source Files," TD 2394 (Jan), Naval Command, Control
and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division, San Diego, CA.
Ferguson, J. A. and F. P. Snyder. 1980. "Approximate VLFILF Waveguide Mode Conversion Model
Computer Applications: FASTMC and BUMP," TD 400 (Nov), Naval Ocean Systems Center,
San Diego, CA.
Ferguson, J. A. and F. P. Snyder. 1989a. "Long-Wave Propagation Capability Program Description
and User's Guide," TD 1449 (Jan), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA; available from
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): ABD130808.
Ferguson, J. A. and F. P. Snyder. 1989b. ''The NAVOCEANSYSCEN's Long Wavelength Propaga-
tion Capability," TD 1518 (Mar), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA; available from
DTIC: ABD133690.
Ferguson, J. A. and F. P. Snyder. 1990. "Computer Programs for Assessment of Long Wavelength
Radio Communications; Version 1.0: Full FORTRAN Code User's Guide," TD 1773 (Apr),
Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA.
Morfitt, D. G. 1977. "Effective Electron Density Distributions Describing VLFILF Propagation
Data," TR 141 (Sept), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA.
Morfitt, D. G. and C. H. Shellman. 1979. "'MODESRCH', An Improved Computer Program for
Obtaining ELFNLFILF Mode Constants in an Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide," Defense Nuclear
Agency (DNA) Interim Report 77T (Oct).
Morgan, R. R. 1968. "World-wide VLF Effective Conductivity Map," Westinghouse Electric Corpo-
ration Report 8013F-1.
48

Smith, C. M., W. A. Finn, and D. W. Sharp. 1997. "Submarine EMI VLF Communications Model,"
private communication.
Spaulding, A. D. and J. S. Washburn. 1985. "Atmospheric Radio Noise: Worldwide Levels and
Other Characteristics," U. S. Dept. of Commerce, NTIA Report 85-173.
Warber, C. R. and M. J. Shearer. 1994. "Long Wave Noise Prediction, Vol. 2. User's Guide to the
Computer Code LNP Version 3.0," Pacific Sierra Research Corporation Report 2137.
Zacharisen, D. H. and W. B. Jones. 1970. "World Maps of Atmospheric Radio Noise in Universal
Time by Numerical Mapping," U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Telecommunications,
Report OTIITSRR 2.
49
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and
maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect ofthis collection of information, including
suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA
22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503.
1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)
2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED
May 1998 Final
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS
COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR ASSESSMENT OF LONG-
WU: MP99
WAVELENGTH RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, VERSION 2.0
AN: DN306772
User's Guide and Source Files
6. AUTHOR(S)
J. A. Ferguson
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
REPORT NUMBER
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center
San Diego, CA 92152-5001 TD 3030
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING
AGENCY REPORT NUMBER
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
San Diego, CA 92110-3127
11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
13. ABSTRACT (MBl<imum 200 words)
This document describes a revision of the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) developed
by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. This version of the program includes improvements to
the graphics routines, increased flexibility in specification of alternative ionospheric models, and an option to
execute a full-wave mode conversion model for the signal-strength calculations. This version is principally composed
of FORTRAN subroutines with a few additional routines written in C to implement the graphics capabilities under
the Windows 95/NT operating systems.
14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES
Mission Area: Communications
64
decision support low frequency
16. PRICE CODE
atmospheric noise propagation
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSnRACT
OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SAME AS REPORT
NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard form 298 (FRONl)
21a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 21 b. TELEPHONE (include Area Code) 21c. OFFICE SYMBOL
Jerry Ferguson
(619) 553-3062
Code D882
e-mai1:ferguson@spawar.navy.mi1
NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard form 298 (BACK)
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION
Code D0012
Code D0271
Code D0274
Code D027
Code D0271
Code D882
Patent Counsel
Archive/Stock
Library
M. E. Cathcart
D. Richter
T. Hepner
(1)
(6)
(2)
(1)
(1)
(10)
"'\
Defense Technical Information Center
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6218
SPAWARSYSCEN Liaison Office
Arlington, VA 22202-4804
Center for Naval Analyses
Alexandria, VA 22302-0268
(4)
Navy Acquisition, Research and Development
Information Center (NARDIC)
Arlington, VA 22244-5114
GIDEP Operations Center
Corona, CA 91718-8000

SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER San Diego, California 92152 -5001
H. A. Williams, CAPT, USN Commanding Officer R. C. Kolb Executive Director

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
The work detailed in this document was performed under project MP99 for the Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Command by the Ionospheric Branch within the Propagation Division of SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego.

Released by J. A. Ferguson, Head Ionospheric Branch

Under authority of J. H. Richter, Head Propagation Division

JA

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS PROPAGATION MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEOPHYSICAL MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE IONOSPHERE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
2 2 4 4 6

PATH SEGMENTATION
ATMOSPHERIC NOISE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RECEIVER MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DRIVER PROGRAM

8 8
9 10 12 12 17 18 22 22
24

CONTROL STRINGS..................................................... FILE SPECIFICATION COVERAGE SPECiFiCATION............................................. IONOSPHERIC SPECiFiCATION........................................... TABULAR PROFILES .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OVERRIDING THE SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE DEPENDENCE.................. OPTIONAL OUTPUTS
PLOTTING THE RESULTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PREVIEW PLOTS........................................................ FIELD STRENGTH PLOTS................................................ COVERAGE PLOTS ..................... FILE SUMMARIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAMPLE CASES PRVWPLOT LWPM................................................................... GRDPLOT BEARINGS LWFPLOT LWPC DATA FILES LWPC DATA LOCATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEOPHYSICAL DATA

24 29 30 33
34 36 37 38 40 41 42 42 42

TRANSMITTER AND MAP SPECIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRAPHICS INITIALIZATION ...................
OUTPUT DATA FILES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOFTWARE INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATING SYSTEM AND COMPILER REFERENCES

42 42
44 47 47 48

iii

Figures
1. Illustration of automatic path selection 2. Illustration of the day/night transition 3. Illustration of the polar cap transition 4. Illustration of the transpolar transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Flow diagram for path segmentation 6. Comparison between PSR and MITRE receiver models 7. Sample transmitter specification file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. Sample operating-area file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Sample of user-specified path segmentation 10. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"file for RANGE EXPONENTIAL option. . . . . . . . . . 11. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEOOO.PRF"file 12. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.PRF"file 13. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"file for RANGE TABLE option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Sample "PROFILE-NAMENDX"for CHI EXPONENTIAL model 15. Azimuthal equidistant projection 16. Gnomonic projection 17. Orthographic projection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Stereographic projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. Sample map-area file 20. Sample case for multiple jammers in GRDPLOT . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. .. 21. Example of ''file id" records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. Input data file for sample case PRVWPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. Graphical output for sample case PRVWPLOT 24. Input file for sample case LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. Input file for sample case GRDPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. Plotted output from sample case GRDPLOT 27. Input file for sample case BEARINGS 28. Plotted output from sample case LWFPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. Sample graphics initialization file 30. Order of data parameters in "MDS" files 31. Order of data parameters in "LWF" files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. Order of data parameters in "GRD" files " .................................. 4 5 5 6 7 9 13 14 16 18 20 21 21 22 26 26 27 27 28 33 34 36 36 37 38 39 40 41 43 45 46 46

iv

Tables
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Transition parameters Basic control strings for LWPM Default ground-conductivity indices for the LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Default ionospheric-profile indices for the LWPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control strings for tabular profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Controls strings used by PRVWPLOT Controls strings used by LWFPLOT Control strings used by GRDPLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sample cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11 15 16 18 24 29 31 35

v

such difficulties are compounded by the use of control strings that are strings of characters used to organize the many different kinds of input to the program and to direct the order and types of calculations to be performed. the program that implements the propagation model and associated calculations is named the LongWave Propagation Model (LWPM).b. For example..e. 1993) documented previous versions of this capability.0 (LWPC-2. Furthermore. This feature also makes it convenient to switch various program options on and off. the signal strength along each path is computed. TX-DATA Uppercase. The following conventions will be used in this document: Names of programs Names of files Control strings Character strings Numerical inputs Uppercase. as in the above example. italics. It is difficult to distinguish the names of programs. A blank in the first column of a line of data causes the string to be treated as a comment line. The final grid of signal strength values is used to display the signal-strength in a geographic display. i. The control strings have the same meaning and use among all the programs. bold.. designated version 2.e. These individual programs are described below. from each other..e. i... The signal strength along the paths is then interpolated onto a grid overlying the operating area. If a control string is shortened too much. On input. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required steps. To make it easier to read control strings composed of more than one word. The LWPC is a collection of separate programs that perform unique actions. etc. For example.e. i. The user specifies the transmitter location and frequency. and the program that generates geographical displays of the signal strength is named GRDPLOT. the orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennae. This document describes a revision of the LWPC. This document is primarily a description of a computer program. The LWPC is typically used to generate geographical maps of signal availability for coverage analysis.MDS" Uppercase. and the boundaries of the operating area. increased flexibility in specification of alternative ionospheric models. "SAMPLE. 1990) and Ferguson (1990. that includes improvements to the graphics routines. most control strings may be abbreviated. allowing the user to annotate run streams for documentation and to provide prompts for editing.e. file names. The LWPC uses character strings to control programs and to specify options. Ferguson and Snyder (1989a. TX-IDENTIFICATION Italics.0). The program automatically selects paths along geographic bearing angles to ensure that the operating area is fully covered.. The diurnal conditions and other relevant geophysical parameters are then determined along each path. it will not be recognized and execution will stop.INTRODUCTION This document describes a revision of the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) developed by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center. and an option to execute a full-wave mode-conversion model for the signal-strength calculations. variables. some of the input parameters represent strings of characters while others represent numerical values. i. dashes or underscores are used to connect the separate words. the string TX-DATA can be entered in upper or lower case and can be shortened to TX-D. i. San Diego. frequency DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 . After the mode parameters along each path are determined. LWPM Uppercase in double quotes. This version is principally composed of FORTRAN subroutines with a few additional routines written in C to implement the graphics capabilities under the Windows 95/NT operating systems. In this document.

Furthermore. ground conductivity. The extrapolation and iteration procedure is then restarted. Orthographic and stereographic map displays were added. This combination of rigorous mode 2 . 1992) and Morfitt (1977). A new graphics initialization file was added to enable user-specified color and fill schemes. The distribution and the parameters of the segments are determined by changes in the ionosphere. a mode-searching algorithm is used to obtain starting solutions. The default model of the lower boundary of the waveguide is based on the Westinghouse Geophysics Laboratory conductivity map (Morgan. At the beginning of each of these groups. the modes of the segment are found by using the mode-searching algorithm. Two models of receiver performance with respect to atmospheric noise were added. This model was derived from extensive analysis of available measurements as described by Ferguson (1980. An option for user-specified path segmentation was added. Du and au. Filled contour plotting was implemented. It should be noted that many of the parameters that describe the boundaries of the earth-ionosphere waveguide are not known with great accuracy over all regions and times. These changes also make the predictions more conservative. The option of exporting the graphical output to PowerPoint was added. If the distance over which the extrapolation is performed is too large. and the geomagnetic field. New graphics routines were written to enhance the graphical interface and to use operatingsystem printer drivers. The default model defmes an average value of the slope and reference height that depends on frequency and diurnal condition. or the extrapolation or the iteration gives invalid modes. night. The handling of atmospheric noise statistics was modified to include the noise variability parameters. The LWPM uses two procedures to calculate the mode solutions for each horizontally homogeneous segment. The variability of the signal as stored in the "GRD" files was modified to use separate values for day. High-resolution maps of landmasses and coastal outlines were developed. The mode solutions in the remaining segments of a particular group are obtained by extrapolating up to three sets of existing solutions by using distance from the transmitter as the extrapolation variable. the height of the nighttime ionosphere over the polar caps is lower than it is at middle and equatorial latitudes. horizontally homogeneous exponential conductivity profile to complicated spatially varying distributions of electron and charged-ion densities. making the coverage predictions consistent with CCIR (1963) recommendations.SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS New control string handlers have been written that allow parameter lists for control strings to be truncated. The extrapolated solutions are adjusted for the effects of the geomagnetic field by using a Newton-Raphson iteration technique. This algorithm is essentially that of Morfitt and Shellman (1979). and transition. A number of possible specifications of the ionosphere are provided in the LWPM ranging from a simple. PROPAGATION MODEL The propagation model implemented in the LWPC treats the space between the earth's surface and the lower ionosphere as a waveguide. 1968). Segments with a common ground conductivity and ionosphere are grouped together and processed in order of increasing distance from the transmitter. A log-linear slope and a reference height define this exponential model. Propagation paths are broken into a series of horizontally homogeneous segments. The default model of the ionosphere used in the LWPM employs a conductivity that increases exponentially with height. The upper boundary of this waveguide is the earth's ionosphere that is characterized by a conductivity that may be specified by the user.

A reasonably accurate and much faster running implementation replaces the full-wave integration with an approximation based on the notion that most of the interaction of the radio wave takes place within the reflection height of the ionosphere. Generally. The LWPC is typically used to generate geographical maps of signal availability for coverage analysis. and 60°). to ensure that all significant low-conductivity areas of the ground are included in the coverage analysis. In the color rendition of this map. Figure 1 illustrates this automatic path selection for a transmitter located in North Dakota and an operating area that encloses the Mediterranean Sea. The dashed lines show the paths selected during the second pass. black. Unfortunately. In this figure. these areas are found in eastern Canada and Greenland. 3 . and purple are regions of low ground conductivity.searching and extrapolation followed by iterative correction gives the most efficient generation of the required mode parameters along the propagation path. the need to use the full-wave model is readily apparent in these graphs. The most accurate implementation of the mode-conversion model integrates the radio fields vertically over the boundary between segments. In rare cases. 45°. the areas shown in yellow. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required steps. at a finer resolution of 3 °. particularly graphs of the signal strength versus distance. 1980) to connect the series of horizontally homogenous segments along every propagation path. These are the ones from the pass using coarse resolution (30° . These are required to ensure that the low-conductivity areas are included in the coverage. The LWPC uses a mode-conversion model (Ferguson and Snyder. Three of the paths are shown as solid lines. the full-wave model must be employed to ensure accuracy. The program automatically selects paths along geographic bearing angles at a coarse resolution of 15° to ensure that the operating area is fully covered. to ensure that they make sense. there is no test that can be performed ahead of time to ensure that this option is necessary. The figure shows the boundary of the operations area and all of the propagation paths automatically selected by the LWPM. The default implementation of the mode-conversion model is the approximate one. red. This integration can be quite time consuming. The user must review the output of the program. More paths are added as necessary.

The parameters of the upper boundary vary depending primarily on solar radiation. in Ian. The solar zenith angle is the key parameter used to determine the ionospheric profile at each point along the path. Illustration of automatic path selection. The nighttime latitudinal transition from middle to polar latitudes takes place between geomagnetic dip angles of 70° and 74 0. The lower boundary is considered to be a set of semi-infinite regions of fixed conductivity extending downward from the surface. the geomagnetic dip angle determines thegeomagnetic latitude. The effect of the geomagnetic field is small in the daytime and significant in the nighttime. The electron density and the earth's geomagnetic field control the interaction of the radio waves with the ionosphere. One of these transitions is between daytime and nighttime.60N 30N ON 100W lOW 40W 10W 20E 40E Figure 1. In the simple model of the ionosphere used in the LWPM. ~. a waveguide model is used for propagation in the LWPM. Values for ~ and h' are 4 . For nighttime paths. The nighttime ionosphere in the polar latitudes is strongly influenced by injections of solar particles guided there by the earth's geomagnetic field. The model of the ionosphere used in the LWPM produces an exponential increase in conductivity with height specified by a slope. GEOPHYSICAL MODEL As already noted. in Ian-I and a reference height. The boundaries of this waveguide are the earth's surface and the ionosphere. the effect of these particles is to lower the effective height of the ionosphere. The other transition occurs in the nighttime between middle geomagnetic latitudes and polar latitudes. The daytime ionosphere is specified for solar zenith angles less than 90° and the nighttime ionosphere for solar zenith angles greater than 99° . THE IONOSPHERE There are two major transitions in the ionosphere. h'.

1989b).I at 10 kHz to 0.2 99 SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE (deg) Figure 2. When the path is fully night. However. Figure 2 illustrates how these five intervals define the basic dawn/dusk transition. 5 . This model sets the value of p and h' for the daytime and nighttime ionosphere separately. The nighttime ionosphere is more complicated in that p varies with frequency while h' is constant at 87 km.I and a constant value of h' equal to 74 km.8 km. The variation with frequency has p varying from 0.4 97.I at 60 kHz.6 95. as they would be defined along a hypothetical path that traverses the pole from day to night using the parameters in this table. Illustration of the polar cap transition. Between the daytime and nighttime values of Pand h'. Thus. This simple model is used to provide a reasonable set of ionospheric profiles to handle all the transitions in the ionosphere.specified by the program for both daytime and nighttime at each of two reference frequencies. controls the ionosphere. the magnetic dip angle. five additional values of Pand h' are calculated at equal intervals. rather than the solar zenith angle. Figure 3 illustrates this transition. Illustration of the day/night transition. Figure 4 illustrates the two transitions.3 km. The numerical specification of the model of the ionosphere used in this program is derived from Morfitt (1977) and Ferguson (1980) and is the same as in previous versions of the LWPC (Ferguson and Snyder. MID-LATITUDES POLAR CAP 70 72 GEOMAGNETIC DIP ANGLE (deg) 74 Figure 3. the last four segments of the day-to-night transition are used to make the transition from middle latitudes to polar latitudes when the propagation path is in night. h' also depends on the geomagnetic dip angle. A more sophisticated model is not warranted because of a lack of data. The daytime ionosphere has a constant value of p equal to 0.8 93. DAY NIGHT 90 91. This dependence is chosen so that the h' for the polar nighttime ionosphere is the midpoint of the intervals between day and night. values of Pand h' for day and for night are obtained by linear interpolation in frequency. Given the frequency specified by the user.3 km. Table 1 shows the values of the ionospheric parameters at 30 kHz.

At each of the small intervals.40 0. Solar Zenith Angle (X) (deg) b (km-1 ) Day 0.0 Geomagnetic Dip (D) (deg) D < 70 70 72 74 72 70 < D < 72 < D < 74 x 90 91 .5 82. An additional consideration is the balancing of the completeness of the mode-searching algorithm with the speed of the extrapolation and iteration algorithm as it processes many segments. for every set of ranges on the left side of table 1.8 87 90 91.33 0.8 < X < 93. a propagation path is a great circle from the transmitter.6 < X < 95.2 99 < 90 < X < 91.6 74 72 70 SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE CONTROL DIP-ANGLE CONTROL Figure 4.0 76.5 82.30 0. Transition parameters. Illustration of the transpolar transition.3 80.4 97.3 80. The current implementation of the LWPM treats the transition from midnight to noon the same as that from noon to midnight.8 93. Thus.37 0. these parameters are examined to determine if a new segment of the earth-ionosphere waveguide needs to be set. The goal of this process is to include important features of the propagation path while keeping the number of segments to a computationally manageable level.6 95.7 84. For example. the LWPM uses solar zenith angles in a way that indicates whether the direction of propagation is from midnight toward noon or vice versa.4 < X < 97. Figure 5 illustrates the decision-making process. The LWPM models the variation of the geophysical parameters along the path as a series of horizontally homogeneous segments.Table 1. there is a mirrored set of negative values of solar zenith angles. DAY POLAR CAP NIGHT h'=74 76.50 h' (km) 74. orientation of the geomagnetic field with respect to the path and the solar zenith angle at small fixed-distance intervals along each path.8 87. It accounts in large part for the differences in how the waveguide-mode solutions vary under differing ionospheric conditions and from one geomagnetic condition to another. the program determines the ground conductivity.2 78.2 < X < 99 < < D < 90 Pole < D < 74 < D < 72 X D < 70 Although not shown in table 1 and figures 2 through 4.43 0. To do this. propagation anisotropy is considerably 6 . dielectric constant.8 93.47 Night 0.7 84. PATH SEGMENTATION Geometrically.2 78.

It should be noted that the minimum length of a segment is 100 km. Flow diagram for path segmentation.diminished under day conditions as compared to nighttime conditions. the variation of the geomagnetic parameters between points on the path is allowed to be larger in daytime than at night. the appearance of "SAVE" indicates that a horizontally homogenous path segment will be defined and mode parameters will be computed for that segment. In figure 5. Therefore. If ( R = 0 ) then SAVE If ( 0 or h' changed and bR > 100 km ) then SAVE If ( IDI > 80 ) then NEXT R If ( h' > h' polar) then Day-like If (bD > 15 ) then SAVE If ( 70 < 101 < 80 and A > 45 ) then SAVE If ( 30 < 101 < 70 and A > 30 ) then SAVE If( 0 < 101 < 30 and A > 15) then SAVE Night-like If (bD > 10 ) then SAVE If ( 70 < IDI < 80 and A > 20 ) then SAVE If ( 30 < IDI < 70 and A > 15 ) then SAVE If ( 0 < IDI < 30 ) then - Next R I Next R I Trans-Equatorial If (170 < A < 210 and bD > 3) then SAVE If ( 350 < A < 30 and bD > 3 ) then SAVE If (bA > 15 ) then SAVE I Next R I Legend R oR D oD A oA h' o Distance from the transmitter Change in R since the last SAVE Geomagnetic dip angle Change in D since the last SAVE Geomagnetic azimuth angle Change in A since the last SAVE Reference height of the ionosphere Ground conductivity Figure 5. 7 .

The variation of these parameters of atmospheric noise over time and position is quite different among these models. The model named LNP is a lightning-based model developed by Pacific Sierra Research for the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Nuclear Agency (Warber and Shearer. Receivers are designed with algorithms designed to minimize the most important detrimental effects of atmospheric noise. so the coverage assessments produced simply by changing the model of atmospheric noise can be spectacular.ATMOSPHERIC NOISE The LWPC allows for three models of atmospheric noise. which maps the basic noise map parameter. These two models are based on surface mappings of measurements at a limited number of sites. The nature of atmospheric noise can have a dramatic effect on the performance of radio receivers. Thus. 1963). Faro. One of these is described by Buckner and Daghestani (1993) and designated as PSR. (1997) and designated as MITRE. and the impulsiveness of the noise. Typically. The model named NTIA is the new noise model developed by using additional measurements and has since become the new CCIR model described in CCIR Report 322-3 (CCIR. 8 . in Universal time. Vd. The curves in figure 6 illustrate the relative gain in the noise-reduction circuit (NRC) as a function of the noise parameter. 1994). the standard deviation of the variation. it is computationally quite complicated and slow running. the MITRE model (solid line) produces a much more conservative picture of receiver performance with regard to the impulsiveness of the atmospheric noise. This model calculates atmospheric noise by summing the contributions from lightning all over the world after calculating the effects of propagation from the lightning to the receiver. RECEIVER MODEL Two models of receiver performance have been incorporated into the LWPC. However. which is called the V d. 1986). On the other hand. the key to understanding how the receivers will perform in different locations and times is proper modeling of the critical parameters of atmospheric noise. The PSR model (dashed line) shows significant gains for Vd greater than 12 dB but equally significant reductions in performance when Vd is less than 7 dB. and the other is described by Smith et al. The model named ITSN is the implementation of CCIR 322 (CCIR. The latter is described by the ratio of the rms to the average of the noise expressed in dB. these parameters are the mean value.

or an operating area.. These control strings are placed in files with the extension "INP" (for Inputs). if for some reason. and the diurnal condition. The "GRD" file contains values of the signal strength and its standard deviation in a grid of latitude versus longitude that covers the user-specified operating area. a specific control string is used to initiate the calculations. After the necessary control strings and their associated data are specified. the parameters are written to a file named with the extension "MDS" (for Modes)..I > . If it exists. The propagation paths can be defined by specifying geographical bearing angles. The basic transmitter parameters consist of its location and frequency. all night. If the noise values are calculated for the NTIA 9 . the program calculates the field strength along each path using the parameters specified for the transmitting antenna and the receiver. When all paths have been processed. 3 4 5 6 7 8 ) ' 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1819 20 w a: -2 -4 / / / --6 1------ / / -8 Figure 6. receiver locations. The diurnal condition may be specified as all day. DRIVER PROGRAM The program named LWPM sets up propagation paths and organizes the calculation of solutions to the earth-ionosphere waveguide (mode parameters). These data are written to a file named with the extension "LWF" (for Long-Wave Fields). If the generation of the data aborts for some reason. As the calculation of mode parameters along each path is completed. a case is being repeated using a previously used root file name. the LWPM reads the "MDS" file to find the last complete path and continues execution with the next one in sequence.10 8 6 CD « C) () z ~ 4 2 0 2 a: z w ~ . If the propagation paths are set up automatically by user specification of an operating area. transmitter parameters. or as a specific date and time. Because of this restart capability. the user needs to correct the error (if any) and restart the program. Calculations for successive paths continue automatically. At the same time. then the "MDS" file for the previous run must be deleted or moved to another directory before the new run is started. a corresponding grid file is written for the atmospheric noise.. the program uses the data in the "LWF" file to generate a file named with the extension "GRD" (for Grid). Comparison between PSR and MITRE receiver models. Basic input to the program consists of a root file name (used to define the names of output files).

CONTROL STRINGS The input and execution of this program are directed by the use of control strings. The program forces the spacing in the longitude and latitude to be a multiple of 2 V2 0. This feature allows for convenient switching on and off of various program options and enables annotation of the input files. they have the same format and use as the "GRD" files containing signal strength data.0. it is named with the extension "LNP".model. These noise models will be described in detail later in this document. then the file is named with the extension "NT!". together with "GRD" files for other transmitters. if for the ITSN model. These "GRD" files may now be used in GRDPLOT to obtain geographical displays of the signal levels. noise levels. The use of control strings is illustrated by the sample cases. signal-to-jammer levels. the grid has 145 points in longitude and 73 points in latitude. signal-to-noise levels. Even though the noise files have extensions other than "GRD". it is named with the extension "ITS". Lines in the input file with a blank in column 1 are treated as comments. Each of the possible control strings and their associated data are described below. or. The program also ensures that the grids align along 50 boundaries. In LWPC-2. 10 . The operating-area grids are set up to give the finest resolution permitted within the dimensions of the program. and if for the Long-Wave Noise Program. which is also the minimum spacing allowed. summarized in table 2.

+RECEIVERS rx-lat-n rx-lon-n rx-lat-m rx-lon-m . bearing-n bearing-m . Basic control strings for LWPM. +BEARINGS RECEIVERS rx-lat-l rx-lon-l rx-lat-2 rx-lon-2 . RANGE-MAX range-max-of-paths-defined-with-BEARINGS-and-RECEIVERS IONOSPHERE LWPM DAY LWPM NIGHT IONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE LWPM MONTH/day/year hour:minute HOMOGENEOUS EXPONENTIAL beta hprime IONOSPHERE HOMOGENEOUS TABLE PROFILE-NAME IONOSPHERE CHI EXPONENTIAL PROFILE-NAME IONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE CHI TABLE PROFILE-NAME IONOSPHERE RANGE EXPONENTIAL PROFILE-NAME RANGE TABLE PROFILE-NAME IONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE GRID TABLE PROFILE-NAME NOISE-MODEL-NAME MONTH/day/year hour:minute band-width A-NOISE RX-DATA VERTICAL altitude RX-DATA HORIZONTAL altitude LWF-VS-DIST lwf-dist-max lwf-dist-inc MC-OPTIONS MC-STEP me-test wf-iterate PRINT-SWG print-swg print-mds PRINT-MDS PRINT-MC print-me PRINT-LWF print-lwf PRINT-WF print-wf GCPATH LWFLDS OPA-GRID PRESEG START QUIT 11 . A blank in column 1 is for comments FILE-MDS DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-MDS-DATA-FILES DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-LWF-DATA-FILES FILE-LWF DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-GRD-DATA-FILES FILE-GRD DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-PRF-DATA-FILES FILE-PRF FILE-NDX DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-NDX-DATA-FILES CASE-IDENTIFICATION CASE-ID ROOT-FILE-NAME-FOR-TRANSMITTER-NUMBER-NTR TX-NTR JX-NJR ROOT-FILE-NAME-FOR-JAMMER-NUMBER-NJR TX-ID freq lat lon power inclination heading altitude TX-DATA TX-DATA TX-ID TX-SPECIFICATION-FILE JX-DATA JX-ID freq lat lon power inclination heading altitude JX-DATA JX-ID JX-SPECIFICATION-FILE OP-AREA AREA-ID op-latl op-lonl op-lat2 op-lon2 OP-AREA AREA-ID OP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE BEARINGS bearing-l bearing-2 .Table 2.

which has the initial value 1. This frees the user from having to remember and repeat the parameters of the transmitters and enforces a consistent naming convention among multiple users of the program. and altitude in km of the short dipole antenna. respectively.LWF". The root file name is a character string with no embedded blanks. If not specified. and antenna altitude. This file must be located in the directory containing the LWPC data files. the parameters are simply encoded in the data string. For example. FILE-LWF sets the directory path for the files containing signal strength and phase versus distance (also called mode sums).LIS".FILE SPECIFICATION FILE-MDS sets the directory path for the mode parameter data files. antenna orientation. If the transmitter parameters are encoded in the data string and they match those of a record in the transmitter list. FILE-PRF sets the directory path for the profile specification files. The transmitter or jammer identification encoded in the control string is used to select the correct parameters from the file by matching the user-specified transmitter identification with one of those found in the file. The initial value of all these parameters is zero. then they are automatically added to the file. The NTR and NJR are optional numbers designating the corresponding transmitter and jammer number. The content and usage of these files are indicated by the extension appended to the root file name. then the program will generate files named "Cutler. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. The programs that do graphical displays place this string in their output. if ROOT-FILE-NAME is Cutler. There are two methods for defining these transmitter parameters. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. FILE-NDX sets the directory path for the profile specification index files. Figure 7 illustrates a transmitter specification file.MDS" and "Cutler. inclination in degrees from the vertical. The first parameter in the data string must always be the transmitter or jammer identifier. If not specified. FILE-GRD sets the directory path for the coverage grid data files. If not specified. the parameters are read from a file named "XMTR. except for power. In the second. In the first method. frequency. respectively. Each record in the file must contain the identification. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. then the user-specified transmitter identification string is changed to the one found in the file. Its purpose is to supplement the often purely numerical parameters that are also displayed. This directory will be described later. radiated power in kW. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. If not specified. The last record must 12 . This identification can be up to 20 characters. TX-DATA and JX-DATA are used to specify the parameters of transmitters. longitude in degrees west. TX-ID or JX-ID. location. If the parameters encoded in the data string are unique. COVERAGE SPECIFICATION CASE-ID allows the user to introduce an arbitrary string of up to 80 characters into the data files. power. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. latitude in degrees north. If not specified. TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to define the root file name for the output files. The other parameters of the transmitter are its frequency in kHz. The sign convention is that latitude south and longitudes east are negative. geographical heading in degrees east of north. A vertical antenna is defined by an inclination of zero.

974 -43. then that parameter or string is assumed to be the name of an alternate file containing area specification data.0 17.053 -38. If AREA~ID is followed by a single parameter or string.2 16.702 21. The order of the values is important but not the format of the input (as long as it is compatible with the type ofthe variable).405 46. The control string defines the boundaries of the operating area. Thus.15 67.0 -21. if just the area identification is specified. This works because the program does not attempt to decode the data string until it finds a match between the user-specified TX-ID and an entry in the data file. The last record must contain the termination string END. This identification may be followed by the latitude and the longitude of the lower left-hand corner and the upper right-hand corner of the area in order of its southern latitude.273 76.639 157.15 158. Thus. The file may begin with a header to identify the parameters to follow in a manner similar to that used in the transmitter specification file. Blanks or commas separate the parameters in both the data string and the records of the specification file. Anthorn is treated the same as ANTHORN.2 10.417 44. In either of these latter two cases.2 Ion -13.017 3.191 -146.0 24. contain the string END as shown in the figure.29 65.935 -129. OP-AREA is used to define a set of paths that span an operating area.453 1. As with the transmitter specification.917 pwr 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 40 1 250 1000 630 1000 130 incl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 headng 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 alt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 note Norway Trinidad Haiku La Moure La Reunion Argentina Australia Japan Rugby Yosami Anthorn Annapolis H. Sample transmitter specification file.4 19. the area identification is always converted to uppercase before testing for a match between that specified by 13 . and eastern longitude.187 -137.633 48. northern latitude.967 54.3 23. containing up to 20 characters. the AREA-ID is used to select the parameters of the op area from the file. Figure 8 illustrates an operating-area specification file.2 10.2 10.E.Holt Lualualei Cutler Jim Creek Figure 7.2 10. 8 21. the boundaries of the operating area are to be found in a file named "AREA.615 52. In a manner similar to that used for TX-DATA and JX-DATA. Alternatively.8 lat 66. The first parameter in the data string must always be the area identification. the careful alignment of columns shown in the figure is not necessary.366 -20.4 24.831 98.137 61.481 34. these boundaries can be specified in one of two ways. as illustrated.2 10. 4 22.Tx-id OMEGA-A OMEGA-B OMEGA-C OMEGA-D OMEGA-E OMEGA-F OMEGA-G OMEGA-H GBR NDT Anthorn NSS NWC NPM NAA NLK end freq 10.LIS" located in the directory that contains the LWPC data files.5 -114.915 39.336 -55. These paths will be used to produce coverage maps.37 34. The first record may be an optional header that contains no numerical data. The identification string supplied in the data string and the identification strings in the specification file are converted to uppercase characters before they are compared with each other.0 21. western longitude. additional information may be included in the records following the antenna altitude. AREA-ID.2 10.2 10.42 10. Since the program does not process values beyond the antenna altitude.283 21.

area-id Atlantic Pacific Arctic Polar world test end lat1 10 5 40 40 -90 5 lon1 100 -120 -80 -80 180 -170 lat2 75 70 90 90 90 30 lon2 -40 100 -80 -80 180 150 Figure 8. The control string RANGE-MAX provides a single value used to define the length of all paths specified with these options. Only pairs of coordinates are allowed so that use of +RECEIVERS requires that the first value in the data string be latitude. The first parameter in the data string is the name of one of the noise models currently available. If the operating-area parameters are encoded in the control string and they match those of a record in the LWPC data file named "AREA. Additional pairs of coordinates may be supplied by using the control string +RECEIVERS. additional values of bearings may be supplied by using the control string +BEARINGS. RECEIVERS. then the program will generate a grid file named "CutlerAtlantic. and LNP names the noise model ofWarber and Shearer (1994). In the first pass. the lengths of the paths are truncated to conform to the dimensions of the operating area. is 120. each path is only as long as it needs to be to cover the operating area. This calculation is performed only when using OP-AREA to set up the paths. When the OP-AREA control string is used. BEARINGS. If the paths are defmed by using RECEIVERS. NTIA names the noise model of Spaulding and Washburn (1985). the data string is a list of pairs of coordinates in order of latitude and longitude. The maximum number of receivers is 60. This extra value is found at the end of print outs of the "LWF" files (to be discussed later). then an extra value of signal strength is computed by the LWPM at the distance defined by the receiver coordinates. then the user-specified area identification string is changed to the one found in the list. The data provided by the control strings BEARINGS and RECEIVERS define the direction of the paths. If the parameters encoded in the data string are unique. then they are automatically added to the file. The initial value of range_max is 20. The maximum number of bearing angles that may be defined using one BEARINGS. and RANGE-MAX provide an alternative method for specifying paths. chosen to ensure that significant low-conductivity areas that might be encountered by the paths are included. ITSN names the ITS noise model of Zacharisen and Jones (1970).the user and that found in the file. This frees the user from having to remember and repeat the parameters of operating areas in the files. In other words. Sample operating-area file. Furthermore. a coarse selection is made at 15° intervals. Similarly. which is not 14 . For example.000 kIn. together with additional +BEARINGS. In this case. This option is used to create a "GRD" file. The data files for the ITSN and NT/A models are calculated by the program.GRD". The name of this file will be formed by concatenating the root file name defined by TX-NTR or JX-NJR and AREA-ID. if ROOT-FILE-NAME is Cutler and AREA-ID is Atlantic. A-NOISE is used to specify the parameters of the atmospheric noise to be computed over the operating-area grid. the bearing angles of the paths are selected automatically. A second pass adds paths at a bearing-angle resolution of 3°. RECEIVERS is used to set up paths using a set of geographical positions. The control string BEARINGS is followed by a list of geographical bearing angles measured in degrees east of north.LIS". A separate program. In the event that all bearing angles are not specified in one control string.

and their associated profile indices. the user may use the profile index either to override the order of the built-in ionospheric parameters or to specify arbitrary values. Alternatively. This control string is followed by a series of records that list distances from the transmitter and associated path parameters. PRESEG is used to provide user-specified path segmentation data overriding the LWPM's automatic segmentation. Figure 9 shows a simple example of user-specified segmentation of a path. If placeholders fill all of the fields for the ground conductivity. the user may vary the actual ground-conductivity parameters or override the built-in map by controlling the ordering of the default values.I . Thus. Default ground-conductivity indices for the LWPM. A string of the form MONTH/day/year specifies the date where MONTH is the name of the month. but the remaining parameters are optional. The date and time for which the noise is to be computed are specified by the date and time encoded in the data string. The last parameter in the data string is the bandwidth in Hz for the noise computation. Index 0' flEQ 5 5 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 81 1 2 3 4 1 X 10-5 3 X 10-5 1 X 10-4 3 X 10-4 5 6 7 1 1 X 10-3 3x 10-3 x 10-2 8 9 3 x 10-2 1 x 10-1 4 10 15 . The initial value of the day. There is no initial value for the month. If a placeholder is used for any of the geomagnetic parameters. The first record must be for zero distance. the profile indices may refer to a set of user-specified ionospheric profiles. This feature is described in detail in the section on ionospheric specification. Consistent with table 1. Table 3. strength of the geomagnetic field in Webers/m2. The user may elect to use the LWPM's ground-conductivity values by setting the ground-conductivity index instead of directly setting the conductivity and the ratio of the dielectric constant relative to free space of the ground. ratio of the dielectric constant of the ground to that of free space. The distance from the transmitter must be given. and time is zero. and its reference height (h') in km. The records are read by using a list-directed format in which each one must contain either a value or a placeholder for missing parameters (indicated by consecutive commas). then the LWPM calculates the relevant value. ionospheric profile index. The initial value of the noise model is NTIA and of the bandwidth is 1000 Hz.part of the LWPC. ground conductivity index. geomagnetic azimuth in degrees east of north. Similarly. ground conductivity in Seimens. geomagnetic dip in degrees from the horizontal. the LWPM will provide values by using the default model. the associated ionospheric profile parameters used in the LWPM. A string of the form hour:minute specifies the time. the slope of an exponential ionosphere (~) in km. The path parameters are distance in km. Table 3 shows the ground-conductivity indices for the ground conductivity used in the LWPM. year. the values in table 4 show the ranges of the solar zenith angle. must provide the data files for the LNP model.

4920"" 6".0 91.2 99.6 95.30 0.0 91.0 76.0 84..2 99.30 0.2 -95.30 0.30 0. Default ionospheric-profile indices for the LWPM. 16 .13.8 -90.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 -99.2 -95.7 80. This control string is required to obtain any output from the program.6 -91.30 0.30 87.. 1340""10".4 -93.8 82.0 -97.3 80.5 78.0 -97.4 97.2 74. QUIT terminates the current run.30 0. Sample of user-specified path segmentation..8 87.30 0.30 0.12".3 76.. 40000 start Figure 9.4 97.7.4 -93.8 93. 4020""6".8.8 -90.0 < < < < < < < < < < < < < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < X < -99..5 82.30 0.. 5200""6".. 6000""6".13.30 0.30 0.0 90.2 78.7 84.8 93.0 90.6 -91.6 95. Index Solar Zenith Angle (X) (deg) ~ (km-1 ) h' (km) -180.30 0. 9".0 tx decOO ionosphere lwpm Dec/15/1996 00 preseg 0" " 5".0 0..0 180.Table 4. START indicates that all user-specified input is complete and that execution is to begin.

To set just the hour. The fIrst of these models is the default for the LWPM program. The first parameter in the data string defines the ionospheric model. The fIrst set is indicated by EXPONENTIAL. The date and time are used to fInd the location of the day-night transition from which an appropriate variation of the parameters of the ionospheric profIle is defIned along the path. :minute may be deleted. The date substring contains the name of the month. Finally. The defInition of the nighttime ionosphere includes the lower effective height of the ionosphere at polar latitudes. then the diurnal condition over the whole path is daylight. A number of options are available for setting up tabular profIles. The CHI model allows the user to specify profIles that depend on the solar zenith angle. and GRID models allow the user to override the default model. Two sets of substrings may follow the HORIZONTAL model name. the user specifIes a range-dependent ionospheric variation.NDX'. This substring is followed by the root name of a fIle named "PROFILE-NAME" used to specify the names of fIles required for tabular input. This fIle contains a list of records. The calculations of the LWPC depend on the year only in so far as the position of the sun as seen on the earth shifts slightly from year to year. RANGE. CHI. Five models are recognized: LWPM. then the diurnal condition over the whole path is night. The date substring is followed by the time substring. The initial value for this string is LWPM DAY. basically overriding the default model. HOMOGENEOUS. In this model. If the ionospheric model is RANGE EXPONENTIAL. To set just the month and day. The GRID model is intended for problems in which the ionosphere varies over a userspecified geographic grid.IONOSPHERIC SPECIFICATION IONOSPHERE is used to specify the diurnal condition over all the propagation paths of a specific run. The RANGE model is used to examine a single propagation path. Although physically unrealistic. a specifIc date and time may be specifIed by using two substrings. the day of the month. /year may be dropped. RANGE. which is followed by the numerical values of the slope and reference height of the profIle: beta and hprime. These options will be discussed below. just the month may be specifIed by dropping /day/year. and GRID. these two conditions are useful for some kinds of analyses. If the substring is DAY. the specification of the ionosphere along the path is done in a fIle with a name of the form "PROFILE-NAME. CHI. 17 . which contains the Universal time (UT) in the form hour:minute. If the substring is NIGHT. If LWPM is specifIed. The HOMOGENE-OUS. and the year in the form MONTH/day/year. each containing the range and its associated slope and reference height ([3. substrings specifying the diurnal condition to be applied follow. The date substring must contain at least the name of the month. The time substring must contain at least the hour. The second substring is TABLE. The HOMOGENEOUS model is used to specify a uniform ionosphere over all propagation paths. Similarly. This model is described elsewhere in this document. with optional comments (records with a semicolon in column 1) as illustrated in fIgure 10. h').

TABULAR PROFILES Setting up tabular profiles is relatively straightforward although it can be somewhat tedious.PRF' where the "000" are all zeroes. then default values are used. The second type of file.Date and time . the collision frequency.30 3000 0. etc. Two basic files should be supplied. The index file (if needed) must have a name of the form "PROFlLE-NAME." 18 .0 74.30 1340 0.0 74.30 5120 0.5 Figure 10.0 74. Sample "PROFILE-NAME.30 4740 0.0 74.2 76.30 2760 0.0 74.0 74.PRF'. If the ionospheric model is HOMOGENEOUS TABLE. comment SPECIES number-of-species CHARGE charge-e charge-i 1 MASS-RATIO ratio-e ratio-il COEFF-NU nuO-e nuO-il EXP-NU exp-e exp-il COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE DENSITY-TABLE MODEL-PRF FORMATTED MODEL-PRF UNFORMATTED MODEL-NAME MODEL-PRF charge-i2 ratio-i2 nuO-i2 exp-i2 The first record in the "PRF" files is identification. Table 5. then "nnn" is not required.30 4880 0.0 74.0 74.30 hprime 74. such as "Ionospheric disturbance.0 76. a set of profiles created to simulate a specific environment might all have the same identification.. For range-dependent cases (to be discussed below) a third (index) file is needed to set the profile to be used at each distance. with a name of the form "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.Bearing angle at 24 rho beta o 0.30 2400 0.3 80. The parameter "nnn" is the profile index that is defined by the user. Apr /15 22: 00 . For example.30 3720 0.2 78.0 74. as shown in table 5 and discussed below. .30 2520 0.30 1020 0. If this file is not found. This file is an initialization file that sets up the number of species of charged particles in the ionosphere (up to 3).30 4640 0. The first of these basic files must be named with the form "PROFILE-NAMEOOO.NDX".30 1140 0.NDX' file for RANGE EXPONENTIAL option.. Control strings for tabular profiles. specifies the charge densities as a function of height. Note that the extension in all cases is "PRF".30 420 0.

Figure 11 shows a sample initialization file. -1. MASS-RATIO specifies the mass of each species relative to that of an electron. Alternatively.15 km. The list of collision frequencies is terminated by a dummy height of any negative value. and 58000. the default value is 1. a tabular collision-frequency profile may be needed. (algen(i. If an exponential collision frequency is to be used. hten is a list of heights. then it is assumed that they are electrons. EXP-NU specifies the slope of exponential decay of the collisionfrequency in km. i=l. the control string COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE is used. Defaults are used for everything but the collision frequency and the number of species. positive ions. This departure from that used by the control strings is due to the frequent use of formatted columnar data in this form of input.1. the electron collision frequency. The collision frequencies are specified as collisions per second. COEFF-NU specifies the collision-frequency at the ground in collisions per second. The maximum number of species is 3.nrhts). Table 5 summarizes the control string for the profile files. and negative ions.54xI09. except that a semicolon in column 1 is used for comments instead of a blank. k=l. MODEL-NAME indicates the files are formatted according to a specific model that requires a corresponding input-processing routine supplied by the user. It is assumed that the first species is electrons so the first value of charge and mass ratio is always 1. UNFORMATTED indicates the files are unformatted with the data being stored as follows: nrspecies.PRF' described above. and the second-ion collision frequency. If the number of species is 3. and 4. then it is assumed to be the same as the first. in descending order of height. the default values are 1.58000. MODEL-PRF specifies the format of the charge density tables found in the files "PROFlLENAMEnnn. This control string is followed by a table of collision frequencies as a function of height. (hten(i).nrspecies). Specification of these other parameters in the profile files is handled with control strings in a manner similar to that used by the rest of the program. CHARGE specifies the charge of each species. In that case. and algen is a list of the natural logarithm of each of the charge densities.k).54x109 . If the second-ion collision frequency is not specified. SPECIES specifies the number of species in the profile table.Subsequent records in the "PRF" files specify additional profile parameters. 4. FORMATTED indicates the files are formatted in the same way as described for COLLISION-FREQUENCY-TABLE. nrhts. then the control strings COEFF-NU and EXP-NU are used. the first-ion collision frequency. the default values are 1. These variables are all 4 bytes long. The collision frequency may be specified in one of two ways. and 1. Each record in this table contains the height in km. where nrspecies is the number of species. The lists are input in order of descending altitude.1. 19 .816xlO 11 . the default values are all-O. nrhts is the number of heights. It should be evident that such a binary file should be created using the same FORTRAN compiler and operating system used to build the LWPC. the default values are 1.

52e+06 5.00 6.58e+04 80.00 1.00 5.00 2.06e+04 95.6ge+06 55.PRF' are of the same fonn as the initialization file with the control string DENSITY·TABLE being used to specify the particle densities in place of the control string COLLISION·FREQUENCY·TABLE.74e+09 1.SIMBAL iThe first line (above) is the profile identification string Species 3 Collision-Frequency-Table 100.77e+06 50.54e+07 1.05e+07 1. and the ion density. The list of densities is terminated by any height of negative value.75e+04 1.57e+07 30.58e+06 1. Figure 11.00 1.82e+05 8.00 3.1ge+04 85.86e+07 2.00 1.21e+05 70. The files named "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.73e+09 7.53e+06 3.1ge+08 3.10e+08 4.PRP' file.70e+05 75.00 5.00 4.00 1.6ge+08 -9. This control string is followed by a table of charged-particle densities as a function of height.06e+04 90.00 3.00 1. The program computes the second-ion density to preserve charge neutrality.91e+05 4.00 3.08e+08 8. Each record in this table contains the height in km. The values are input in order of descending height.7ge+05 65.00 7. Sample "PROFIL£-NAM£OOO.01e+06 60.05e+08 1.60e+06 40. Figure 12 shows a file containing a tabular profile.72e+07 35. the electron density.00 8.72e+07 25. 20 .00 2.50e+06 45. The charge densities are specified as particles per cubic centimeter.27e+05 2.

NDX' file for RANGE TABLE option.04E+03 Figure 12. Each of these files contains a tabular profile of the form shown in figure 12. . The user is strongly advised to study the subroutine named PRFL_GTBL.16E+03 60.87E+03 65.FOR found in the distribution library named PRF before attempting to use this option. where nnn is a profile index number.00 1.00 2. 23E+04 6. Sample "PROFILE-NAME. Sample "PROFILE-NAMEnnn. then additional set up is required. However. 23E+04 90.00 5.PRP' file. The basic features described above for range-dependent tabular profiles are applied in this case.51E+04 3.75E+03 4.08E+03 70. the index file is much more complicated.00 1.85E+02 50. The preparation of the necessary database is best accomplished with a standalone program.75E+03 3. The ionospheric model GRID TABLE provides a means for an elaborate geographical distribution of the ionosphere.00 3. but the value encoded in the file name must always be 3 digits.64E+03 1.00 1.NDX".00 1.51E+00 35. In this case.61E+03 5.00 4.62E+04 1.34E+00 40. test run.95E+03 2.00 3.58E+03 5. each containing the range and its associated profile index. If the ionospheric model is HOMOGENEOUS.19E-02 25.21E+03 1. if the model is RANGE TABLE.47E+03 2. 21E+03 75.83E+03 55.23E+03 1. The indexing is completely up to the user. then the foregoing descriptions are enough to set up the model.00 6.47E+03 80.00 3.00 6.73E+04 3. Another file is required to specify the range at which each profile is used.62E+04 95.PRF'.75E+03 85.00 1. rbear= 50.93E-03 -9.00 1.09E+Ol 45. This file must have a name of the form "PROFILE-NAME.PRFLSCN 1 INDEX 270 Density-Table 100. with optional comments as illustrated in figure 13.0 . This file is simply a list of records.00 2. there must be a set of profile files with names of the form "PROFILE-NAMEnnn.02E-02 30.prflscn 1.61E+04 3.00 5.00 1. 21 .12E+04 3.range index o 447 1580 348 2080 270 Figure 13. On the other hand.

the fields are computed to the same range from the transmitter for all paths. This option does not result in the calculation of mode parameters along the paths. TM or E z.NDX' for CHI EXPONENTIAL model.5 97. LWF-VS-DISTANCE defines the ending distance and the distance increment in kin over which the field strength is to be computed. However. Figure 14 illustrates a sample index file for the CHI EXPONENTIAL model. OPTIONAL OUTPUTS GCPATH indicates that geophysical parameters along the propagation paths are to be computed and printed. The control string START must follow it.3 97.50 87.000 kin. the user must always provide 7 sets of values to be consistent with the LWPM model. dielectric constant. the ground conductivity. The first parameter is a character string indicating the orientation of the fields.47 84. The most time-consuming process in the LWPC is the generation of the mode parameters along the propagation paths.30 74.6 0. a simple linear variation was chosen. Sample "PROFILE-NAME.2 96. Both the vertical and horizontal fields. The initial value of the component is VERTICAL. LWFLDS is used to obtain additional signal-strength calculations.0 96 0. The setup of these models is similar to that in RANGE EXPONENTIAL and RANGE TABLE except that values of the solar zenith angle replace values of range in the index files. and the ionospheric parameters. and the second parameter is the altitude at which the fields are computed.Change length of terminator from 90-99 to 96-99 iSet beta & hprime for 30 kHz . The vertical electric field. The initial value of the ending distance is 20. This is a handy way for the user to get values for setting up some of the more elaborate ionospheric models described above. are calculated if the string is HORIZONTAL. then the pair of columns for ~ and h' is replaced by a single one specifying user-defined profile indices.chi beta hprime o 0.4 0. The 22 .0 Figure 14.37 78. The initial value of the distance increment is 20 kin.33 76.8 0. the day-to-night transition is shortened from 9 0 to 3 0 • The variation of ~ and h' from day to night is controlled by the user.2 0. If the tabular form of this model is used. Although mode parameters are computed over varying lengths of paths. The distance increment must be such that lwf-dist-max divided by lwf-dist-inc is less than 1001.43 82. In this example. These models allow the user to override the solar zenith angle dependence used in the LWPM model. .7 98. The geophysical parameters printed are the orientation of the path with respect to the direction of propagation. TM and TE or E z and By. ~ and h'. Both of the strings may be shortened to the first character. and the altitude at which the field is computed is zero. RX-DATA is used to define parameters for the received fields.40 80. In this case. is obtained with the string VERTICAL.OVERRIDING THE SOLAR ZENITH ANGLE DEPENDENCE The remaining ionospheric models are CHI EXPONENTIAL and CHI TABLE.8 99 0.

Unfortunately.calculation of the signal strength along the paths is relatively quick. This would be accomplished by using the appropriate control strings for the full-wave model (see MC-OPTIONS) followed by LWFLDS and START. These outputs can be quite voluminous. The parameter named MC-STEP may have one of three values. The default implementation of the mode-conversion model is the approximate one. MC-OPTIONS controls the mode-conversion calculation. An important use of the LWPC is the generation of coverage displays. PRINT-SWG is used to obtain additional output from the LWPM during generation of the mode parameters along the propagation path. It is recommended that the iteration be used since the user is already accepting a large penalty in time for employing this model. APPROXIMATE indicates that only the approximate form of the calculations is to be used. minimizing the output. then a new file of grid data must be generated by using the control string OPA-GRID followed by START. The most accurate implementation of the mode-conversion model integrates the radio fields vertically over the boundary between segments. enlarging the boundaries of the operating area must be done with caution. A reasonably accurate and faster running implementation replaces the fullwave integration with an approximation based on the notion that most of the interaction of the radio wave takes place within the reflection height of the ionosphere. heading. If the full-wave model is to be employed. is greater than a userspecified value. The LWPC uses a mode-conversion model (Ferguson and Snyder. This procedure can be used to enlarge the geographical area enclosed by the grid file. This is the reason that the specification of propagation paths over operating areas is automated. MIXED indicates that a mix of full-wave and approximate calculations is to be performed. The control string LWFLDS followed by START does new signal-strength calculations and overwrites the existing "LWF" file. In rare cases. If a mode sum is redone (see LWFLDS) or the boundaries of the operating area are changed. OPA-GRID is used to obtain additional operating-area grid files. the user may choose to recalculate the signal-strength data by using the fullwave mode-conversion model described below. set by me-test. In some instances. However. and talt) or receiver parameters (VERTICAL or HORIZONTAL or ralt). FULL-WAVE calls for the full-wave calculations to be performed. h'. The extent of each propagation path is selected to reach just beyond the boundary of the originally specified operating area and may not be valid for a much larger area. and 3 adds a printout of extrapolation results. 2 adds a listing of the mode parameters.are used to obtain additional output during the processing along each propagation path. PRINTSWG can have 4 values: 0 turns off the extra printout. 1980) to connect the series of horizontally homogenous segments along every propagation path. 1 prints path parameters and a list of the mode solutions. Setting wf-iterate to TRUE turns on the iteration. In the event that review of the graphs of signal strength versus distance reveals unusual patterns. so a separate mode-summing procedure is available. the user may choose to have the mode-conversion algorithm use the mode parameters as calculated by the LWPM or to have it iteratively refine them to ensure the accuracy of the results. This integration can be quite time consuming. The control string MC-OPTIONS in table 2 is used to control the mode-conversion model used by the program. In the event that the user wants to calculate mode sums for different values of the transmitter antenna (inclination. this mix of full-wave and approximate models can give results almost as good as the full-wave model but in much less computer time. This output can be confusing because the program does not always process the segments of the paths in sequential order 23 . The initial value of each of these parameters is zero. These parameters are written to the log file as they are computed along the paths. one often has to run the full-wave model in order to verify the mixed results. the full-wave model must be employed to ensure accuracy. The MIXED implementation uses the approximate model except when the reference height of the ionosphere. The control strings that begin PRINT. the parameters are changed by using the corresponding control strings.

and 2 adds a printout of the results of the integration of the fields versus height. It can have 3 values: 0 produces a summary of the calculations. separate programs. Instead. These programs use many of the same control strings already described for use by LWPM. The names of the programs are based on the type of file they process or the quantity to be displayed: LWFPLOT plots signal strength and phase versus distance.starting at the transmitter. atmospheric noise level. One of the sample cases provided with the software distribution is for this program. PLOTTER MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE PLT-DEVICE MAP-ID RECTANGULAR latl lonl lat2 lon2 MAP-ID MERCATOR latl lonl lat2 lon2 MAP-ID GNOMONIC latO lanD RANGE MAP-ID AZIMUTHAL latO lanD RANGE MAP-ID ORTHOGRAPHIC latO lanD RANGE MAP-ID STEREOGRAPHIC latO lanD RANGE MAP-ID MAP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE-NAME LAND COAST CONDUCTIVITY COAST LAND COAST CONDUCTIVITY size-x size-x size-x size-x size-x size-x size-y size-y size-y size-y size-y size-y 24 . Table 6. etc. PRINT-MDS controls output while the program reads and writes the "MDS" file during the calculation of the signal strength along the path. It can have 2 values: 0 gives a very terse summary. In some instances. generate graphical displays. This allows the user to get some idea of the magnitude of the case to be run before starting it and provides a useful display for presentations and review. to be described in this section. It can have 2 values: 0 gives very terse summary output. PRINT-Me provides additional output during the calculation of the mode sum. PLOTTING THE RESULTS The program LWPM does not directly provide for the graphical display of its output. It can also have 3 values: 0 turns off the printout. Table 6 shows additional control strings unique to PRVWPLOT (and also GRDPLOT). and 3 adds a printout of the integrals over the slab boundary. 1 adds output of the mode-conversion coefficients. and 1 prints out the signal strength as a function of distance from the transmitter along the path. in addition to several others that will be described below. signal-to-noise ratio. PRINT-WF provides output only when the full mode-conversion model is being used. 1 prints the results of the iterations on the mode solutions. Controls strings used by PRVWPLOT. there are fewer parameters in the data strings than used by the LWPM. PRINT-LWF prints a summary of the signal-strength calculation as it is written to an "LWF" file. and a sample graph is shown later on in figure 23. and signal-to-jammer ratio in geographical displays. This output is in order of increasing distance from the transmitter. and 1 adds a printout of the modes' attenuation rate. This program accepts all the control strings used in the LWPM to eliminate the possibility of errors in setting up the two different runs. and GRDPLOT plots maps of contours of constant signal strength. PREVIEW PLOTS The program PRVWPLOT provides a graphical display of the propagation paths and their segmentation as determined by the LWPM.

The first parameter in the data string must be the map identification. The azimuthal equidistant projection maps all of the points at the same distance from the center of the projection onto a circle. 25 . Examples of all the projections except the Mercator projection are shown below for a common scenario. There is very little distortion in this map since it is similar to viewing a globe. the program expects to find the name of the projection and the map parameters. that parameter is assumed to be the name of an alternate map area specification file. Mercator. the gnomonic projection severely distorts areas far from the center of the map. and stereographic. Thus. The rectangular projection is a cylindrical map projection that is linear in both latitude and longitude. The following projections are available: rectangular. Figure 15 is an example of an azimuthal equidistant projection. The map parameters are defined in a manner similar to that used to define the boundaries of the operating area. This file will be searched for a record containing a match to the specified MAP-ID. The points are placed along radials corresponding to the geographic bearing angle as measured at the center point. if more than one printer is available. The stereographic projection (figure 18) is similar to the gnomonic except that the areas near the center of the map are shown with very little distortion. gnomonic. This file may be imported as an HGL formatted file into PowerPoint. then SYS-SCN is implied. and dimensions of the geographical area upon which the operating area and the propagation paths are to be plotted. If the MAP-ID is followed by a single parameter. The orthographic projection (figure 17) shows the earth as seen from far out in space. identified as SYS-PRN.LIS". found in the directory containing the LWPC data files. the graphical output is written to a file named by the string found in PLT-DEVICE. Each of these strings may be shortened to the first five characters. MAP-ID. This characteristic is clearly seen in figure 16. Otherwise. and the other is the local default printer.PLOTTER defines the plotting display device: PLT-DEVICE. The Mercator projection is the projection used in the traditional wall map. One device is the screen. This parameter may specify one of two operating-system devices. MAP-AREA defines the projection. If PLT-DEVICE is just SYS. this projection distorts the high latitudes. then it is assumed that the parameters of the map are to be found in the map specification file named "MAP. boundaries. azimuthal equidistant. If PLT-DEVICE is neither of the values specified above. Thus. Figure 1 shows an example of this projection. identified as SYS-SCN. having up to 20 characters. which will be searched for a record containing a match to the specified MAP-ID. If the MAP-ID is not followed by any other information. orthographic. the user must manually set the desired one as the system's default printer. which depend on the projection. However. The gnomonic projection is used in sailing charts because this projection maps great circles as straight lines. The graphical output may be directed to any printer installed on the system provided it is the current default printer. It shows severe distortion for latitudes above approximately SOON. This is especially easy if the named file has the extension "HGL".

26 . Gnomonic projection. Azimuthal equidistant projection. Gnomonic centered at (45N 30W) Figure 16.Azimuthal equidistant centered at (45N 30W) Figure 15.

Stereographic centered at (45N 30W) Figure 18. 27 . Stereographic projection. Orthographic projection.Orthographic centered at (45N 30W) Figure 17.

As with the op-area specification. the map identification is always converted to uppercase before testing for a match between the user's specification and that found in the file. western longitude. then the parameters in the file are compared with the values supplied by the user. northern latitude. given in order of the center latitude and longitude. azimuthal equidistant. one for each projection. then the default map specification file. the name of the projection. 28 . Except for the dimensions of the map. map-id map-id map-id map-id map-id map-id northOOO north180 N-Atlant N-Pae Polar world globe end reet mere gnom azim orth ster reet reet reet reet gnom reet orth latl latl latO latO latO latO 0 0 0 -20 90 -90 40 lonl lonl lonO lonO lonO lonO 0 180 100 -120 100 180 70 lat2 lat2 range range range range 90 90 90 70 6000 90 10000 lon2 lon2 size-x size-y size-x size-y size-x size-y size-x size-y size-x size-y size-x size-y 7 4 0 180 7 4 -40 7 4 7 5 100 7 5 180 7. and the maximum range to be displayed in km define all the gnomonic. If the map parameters are to be found in a file. "MAP. Furthermore. then PRVWPLOT shows the boundaries of the specified operating area. The names of the projection may be shortened to the first four characters. The MAP-ID is used to select the parameters of the map from the file. latitudes are given in degrees North. The file may begin with a header similar to that used in the operating-area specification file. If the user specifies the map parameters. and eastern longitude and the dimensions of the map. the name of the projection supplied by the user or by the file is converted to lowercase before testing for the projection to be used.The rectangular and Mercator projections specify the boundaries of the map in order of its southern latitude. The parameters associated with each projection are shown in the header records of the sample map specification file shown below. So. orthographic. Following the conventions of the LWPC. and stereographic projections. the boundaries of the map. the best display is obtained by making the map area large enough to show the whole operating area. In this sample. The dimensions of the map are in inches. The last record contains the termination string END.5 6 7. then the run is aborted. This is done to require a consistent naming convention for the map areas.5 6 Figure 19. there are several headers. is updated by using the new values. then the records of that file must contain the map identification.LIS". if every value specified by the user does not match those found in the specification file. A center point. If the specification file already contains an entry with the same identification as the user's. Figure 19 illustrates a map-area specification file. and longitudes are given in degrees West. Sample map-area file. and the dimensions of the map. If the control string OP-AREA is used to define the coverage area.

Controls strings used by LWFPLOT. the program plots each component with different line styles and colors on the same graph. One of the sample cases provided with the software distribution is for this program. a legend for these quantities appears at the lower right edge of each graph. Although not encoded in this data string. which are part of the file. Those that are unique to the LWFPLOT are described below. If not specified. If a designated bearing angle is found in 29 . then the boundaries of the operating area and the propagation paths are plotted without delineating the landmasses. FIELD STRENGTH PLOTS The LWFPLOT routine plots signal strength as a function of distance from the transmitter in dB above l/-lV1m. then the input file is searched for the designated bearing angles. One of these lines represents the height of the ionosphere and the other the ground conductivity. The label below each graph includes the name of the program that generated the file. The plot representing the ground conductivity also contains a symbol indicating the beginning of each segment along the propagation path. If the data string is not blank. BEARINGS is used to select specific paths from the input file. and coastal outline. The basic map types are landmasses. and the date the file was generated. The data string may have one or two values. As a reminder. The program also plots two additional lines at the bottom of each graph.MAP-TYPE is used to define the way the landmasses are to be delineated. Data for each path are plotted in separate graphs. Table 7. Table 7 is a summary of the control strings used by this program. the program uses the directory in which it is being run. If more than one field component is in the file. and a sample graph is shown later on in figure 28. PLOTTER FILE-LWF TX-NTR JX-NJR BEARINGS MODIFY-PWR DIST-AXIS AMPL-AXIS PHAS-AXIS PHAS-PLOT PRINT-LWF RUNNING-AVG START QUIT PLT-DEVICE DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-LWF-DATA-FILES TX-FILE-NAME JX-FILE-NAME list-of-path-bearing-angles-to-graph power scale-x size-x dstmax dsttic scale-a size-a ampmin ampmax amptic scale-p size-p phsmin phsmax phs tic UNITS OPTION print-lwf nravg FILE-LWF sets the directory path for the mode sum files. These data are taken from the path segmentation data. If this control string is omitted. Table 6 shows the various combinations. The substrings NTR and NJR carry over from the LWPM to help the user keep things organized but only one transmitter may be plotted at a time (the last one in the input file before the START control string). If the landmass or ground-conductivity maps are used. a second map type (usually the coastal outline) may also be used for emphasis. The latter helps keep track of which version of the program was used. there must exist corresponding files with the extension "LWF". TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to name the files that contain the signal strength versus distance data. ground conductivity.

Table 8 shows a complete list of the control strings for this program. The scale is kilometers per inch. ampmin. then the next three parameters are used. and scale-a.!V1m. MODIF-PWR is used to change the transmitter or jammer power to the specified value in kW. DIST-AXIS contains parameters used to scale the horizontal axis of the graphs. COVERAGE PLOTS The most commonly used graphical output program in the LWPC is GRDPLOT. then the maximum value is determined from the input array of distances. AMPL-AXIS contains parameters used to scale the vertical axis of the amplitude graphs. PHAS-PLOT turns plots of the phase on and off by setting OPT/ONto YES or NO. dstmin. All the distance values are in km. The value of nravg specifies how many points are averaged. and signal-to-jam ratio in a geographical display. This program plots contours of constant signal. then signal strength versus distance is plotted. 30 . and scale-po If either phsmax or phsmin is -99 (default). PHAS·AXIS contains parameters used to scale the vertical axis of the phase graphs. then the vertical size of the graph is determined from dstmax. The scale is dB per inch. If the parameter scale-x is zero. it is common to use odd numbers for nravg. then the corresponding value is determined from the input data. and scalex. then the next three parameters are used. Since most of the control strings have already been described. Thus. This is a running average so that a value output at a specific range is the average ofthe input value at the range and (nravg-l)/2 values before and after the range. If scale-a is not zero. If the parameter scale-a is zero. RUNNING-AVG is used to control averaging of the input data before it is graphed. phsmin. If ampmax is -99 (default). All the amplitude values are in dB above 1 j. If this control string is not used. signal-to-noise ratio. which may be DEGREES or MICROSEC. The geographical areas are defined the same as in PRVWPLOT.the file. then the horizontal size of the graph is determined from ampmax. The units of the phase axis are set by UNITS. If dstmax is -99 (default). not all of the available ones will be discussed here. If the parameter scale-p is zero. If scale-x is not zero. then the maximum value is determined from the input array of signal strengths. If scale-p is not zero. then the next three parameters are used. then all paths in the file are plotted. before plotting the curves of signal strength versus distance. then the horizontal size of the graph is determined from phsmax.

the program uses the directory in which it is being run. 31 . NOISE-MODEL-NAME MONTH/day/year hour:minute bandw mean-platform-noise set-to-l-to-do-noise-contours set-to-l-to-do-plots-of-signal-contours set-to-l-to-do-plots-of-S/N-contours jammer-combinations-for-S/J-contours-to-be-generated jammer-combinations-for-S/(N+J)-contours-to-be-generated jammer-numbers-for-which-jammer-contours-to-be-generated jammer-numbers-for-which-J/N-contours-to-be-generated new-power-level RCVR-MODEL-NAME threshold-l threshold-2 chil chi2 TX-NTR and JX-NJR are used to name the files that contain the operating-area grid data. Although not encoded in the control string.. The substring NTR carries over from the LWPM to help the user keep things organized. However. as described later. corresponding files with the extension "GRD" must exist. The string is the same for all graphs in a particular set and is placed along the bottom of each graph. PLOT-LBL allows the user to add a character string to each graph that is generated.. Control strings used by GRDPLOT. Thus. If not specified. FILE-GRD sets the directory path for the coverage grid data files. ta-level-l ta-level-2 . the numerical value of the substring NJR indicates the jammer numbers used in the control strings that start with PLT-S/J and PLT-JIN.. the program does not use the numerical value of NTR.. but only one transmitter may be used at a time. PLOTTER FILE-GRD TX-NTR JX-NJR PLOT-LBL MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-AREA MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE MAP-TYPE RX-DATA RX-DATA CNTR-RANGE CNTR-LEVELS TA-LEVELS A-NOISE P-NOISE PLT-N PLT-S PLT-S/N PLT-S/J PLT-S/I PLT-J PLT-J/N MODIFY-PWR RX-MODEL THRESHOLDS TERMINATOR BRIEF-LABELS START QUIT PLT_DEVICE DIRECTORY-LOCATION-OF-GRD-DATA-FILES TX-FILE-NAME JX-FILE-NAME PLOT-LABEL MAP-ID RECTANGULAR latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x size-y MAP-ID MERCATOR latl lonl lat2 lon2 size-x size-y MAP-ID GNOMONIC latO lonO RANGE size-x size-y size-x size-y latO lonO RANGE MAP-ID AZIMUTHAL size-x size-y MAP-ID ORTHOGRAPHIC latO lonO RANGE size-x size-y MAP-ID STEREOGRAPHIC latO lonO RANGE MAP-ID MAP-AREA-SPECIFICATION-FILE-NAME LAND COAST CONDUCTIVITY COAST LAND COAST CONDUCTIVITY VERTICAL HORIZONTAL cntr-level-min cntr-level-max cntr-level-inc cntr-level-l cntr-level-2 .Table 8.

"CutlerAtlantic. Since the source of this interference is assumed to be man-made. The full name of this file will be formed by concatenating the root file name defined by TX-NTR or JX-NJR and AREA-ID. The units of the levels depend on the coverage map being generated. cntr-max. The other model was developed by MITRE and is identified as MITRE. if the contour map is for signal.RX-DATA is used to specify the field component to be used by GRDPLOT when plotting the grid files. The parameters supplied in the data string are used to find the appropriate grid data file that is assumed to exist. The extension of the noise grid data file indicates the name of the noise model: "NT!" is for the NTIA model. namely. TA-LEVELS is used to specify up to three time availabilities for which separate coverage maps are to be generated. These levels represent the percentage of time that a signal or signal-to-noise ratio is exceeded. if for signal-to-noise ratio. For example. and cntr-inc are in dB above 1 ~V/m. or "CutlerAtlantic. then they are dB. then cntr-min. The list of contour levels is processed as sequential pairs so that at least two values must be specified. then the units are dB above 1 ~V/m. then they are dB. namely.NTI". then the units are dB. and cntr-inc are in dB above 1 ~V/m. 32 . In this case. As already described. cntr-max. if the contour map is for signal. cntr-max. This interference level is treated as a noise floor in that it becomes important as the atmospheric noise approaches the level of the interference. if ROOTFILE-NAME is Cutler and AREA-ID is Atlantic. then cntr-min. The data string contains three values: cntr-min. if for signal-to-noise ratio. The contour levels are plotted as color-filled bands using the eight colors specified in the "GRAPHICS. and "LNP" is for the LNP model.INI" file described below. RX-MODEL identifies the model of receiver performance to be used. if for signal-to-noise ratio. These levels are in the units appropriate for the contours being plotted. the contour lines are plotted from the minimum value to the maximum value in evenly spaced increments. The "GRD" file used by the program is named by concatenating the name specified by the control strings TX-NTR and JX-NJR with the AREA-ID. if the threshold is for signal.LNP". The contour levels are plotted as color-filled bands using the eight colors specified in the "GRAPHICS. The data string contains either VERTICAL or HORIZONTAL. there is no standard deviation associated with it. then the program looks for a noise grid file named "CutlerAtlantic. For example. P-NOISE is used to specify the mean level in dB of a source of interference other than atmospheric noise. OP-AREA is used to specify the operating area used to create the "GRD" file in a manner identical to that used by LWPM. "ITS" is for the ITSN model. CNTR-RANGE is used to specify a range of contour levels to be plotted. One of these was developed by PSR and is identified as PSR. and cntr-inc. there are two receiver models. CNTR-LEVELS is used to specify a list of up to nine specific contour levels to be plotted.INI" file. A-NOISE is used to specify the parameters of the atmospheric noise to be used to generate contour maps of signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-interference ratio.ITS". THRESHOLDS is used to specify up to seven values for time availability contours. then contours of time availability are automatically selected. The units of the parameters depend on the coverage map being generated. If THRESHOLDS are specified.

and those of the jammers are in files named "JAMRl. then either JX or JX-I can be used.23. JX-I." These files are introduced to the program by using the control strings TX. signal-to-the sum of jammers 1 and 2. FILE SUMMARIES The program named SCAN provides summaries of the contents of the output files of the LWPC. The program provides different levels of output depending on the user's specification.GRD. it can be started with a 33 .GRD".determine the number and type of contour plots produced in a run. 12. respectively. The file containing the transmitter signal data is in a file named "XMTR.2. Figure 20 illustrates a sample input file for GRDPLOT using multiple jammers. noise. Similarly. then the data string can contain any of the following: 1. if three jammers have been identified. PLT-N. In addition. "JAMR2. The program is set up to interactively get the names of the files to be scanned. to tum on or to tum off plotting a corresponding map of contours of signal. If only one jammer is used. The data string associated with this control string can be much more complicated than those associated with PLT-S and PLT-SIN because this data string contains a list of combinations of jammers.control strings call for signal-strength plots for the transmitter and the second jammer. and so on.GRD". 3. The CNTRRANGE control string indicates that the range of contours is to be selected from the data and that the increment between levels is 3 dB. and 123. JX-2. the data string for PLT-JIN identifies the transmitters for which jammer-to-noise contours are to be made. However. op-area map-area map-type a-noise tx jx-l jx-2 jx-3 cntr-range ta-levels plt-s plt-j plt-s/j start quit test -10 40 30 -50 test rect -10 40 30 -50 4 5 coast ntia jul/15/88 18:00 1000 xmtr jamrl jamr2 jamr3 . The list of jammers does not have to be the same as used in the PLT-J control string. signal-to-jammer 2. plots of the ratio of signal-to-jam for jammer 1 and the sum of jammers 1 and 3 are to be done. 13. indicating contours of signal-to-jammer 1. . and signal-to-noise ratio. and PLT-SIN have numerical inputs of one or zero. Similarly.GRD". Sample case for multiple jammers in GRDPLOT. The PLT. This control string generates contours of the ratio of signalto-jammer plus atmospheric noise. The data string of PLT-J is a list of jammer numbers for which contour maps of signal level are to be made by using the designated jammers.The control strings that start with PLT. and "JAMR3. The control string PLT-S/J sets up contour maps of signal-to-jam ratio. signal-to-jammer 3. the data string associated with the control string PLT-SII is also a list of combinations of jammers. The data strings PLT-S. The jammer numbers are taken from the NJR substring of the control string JX-NJR. and JX-3.3 50 1 2 1 13 Figure 20. For example.

The third level of printout only provides the signal strength and relative phase at the receiver coordinates. The primary output files from the LWPC are the ones with extension "MDS"." Command files named with the extension "CMD" appropriate for running the sample cases under OS/2 or Windows NT are also provided. The sample run streams are named with the extension "INP" and the resulting logs are named with the extension "LOG. However. This is illustrated in the sample case named SCAN. The third entry identifies the program used to create the data. This output only makes sense if the propagation paths are specified using the RECEIVERS and +RECEIVERS control strings. all three records are defined.grd Figure 21. and "LNP" file. If the file to be scanned has the extension "GRD". Table 9 lists these sample cases with a brief description of the options being exercised. The first entry in this record contains the date the file was written. if the series of data files from "MDS" through "GRD" are all created in a single execution of the LWPM. and "GRD. which may change from run to run. In an "MDS" file. there are two levels of printout. the first two records are defined. and dimensions. op area. Figure 21 shows an example of these three records. this report shows the graphical output for the cases that may be compared to the user's results. This output shows the transmitter. The first record identifies the "MDS" file from which the "LWF" and "GRD" files were generated.rnds 06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprn. and the third record is for the "GRD" files. "ITS". and the bearing angles. In a "GRD". The next level adds the signal strength and relative phase along every path. 06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprn. Hence. and the bearing angles. In an "LWF" file. The next level of output adds the mode parameters at each segment of every path.command line entry identifying the name of an input file. The second record in this figure identifies these same quantities in the "LWF" file. identified by the string "file id". taken from a "GRD" file. The lowest level is a summary of the transmitter. SAMPLE CASES The sample cases (table 9) are not meant to be exhaustive tests of the programs. These samples are included with the distribution of the software. there are three levels of output. op area." These are not included with the distribution because they are unformatted. and lengths of every path.lwf 06Feb98 IWC LWPM-20 c:\aaa\lwprn\baseline\output\lwprnrnediterranean. Every level of output provided by SCAN shows these records. this field will be the same in all three records. "ITS". "NTI". but to be examples of the usage of the various options. The second entry is a three-character sequence created by a random-number generator using the field for seconds in the time of day as the seed. This entry is unique to the run in which the data are generated. If the file to be scanned has the extension "MDS". A few of these cases are discussed in more detail. op area. or "LNP". These entries are designed to keep track of inconsistencies between the data contained in the files and user-generated labels and identifications. "LWF". 34 . and lengths and segmentation of all the paths. Example of "file id" records. and the last entry contains the full filename of the file. "NTI". there is only one level of printout. Every file written by the programs of the LWPC contain three unique records. only the first record is defined. grid coordinates. If the file to be scanned has the extension "LWF". The lowest level of output is a summary of the transmitter.

Exercises the program LWPM with the horizontal tabular ionosphere option. Exercises the program LWPM with the OP-AREA option. Exercises the program LWPM with the range-dependent tabular ionosphere option. GCPATH Exercises the program LWPM with the GCPATH option and tests the control strings: RECEIVERS and +RECEIVERS. The variation of the exponential profile matches that used in the sample cases named BEARINGS along the path at a bearing of 24°. Its successful execution verifies that the ground-conductivity and coastal-outline maps are properly installed. Exercises the program SCAN on the outputs from several of the other sample cases. Exercises the program GRDPLOT for the data created case named LWPM. Exercises the program LWPM with the LWFLDS option using the data generated by the sample case named BEARINGS. Sample cases. Exercises the program LWFPLOT using the data created by the sample case named BEARINGS. It also verifies that the ground-conductivity map is properly installed. Exercises the program LWPM with the solar-zenith-angle-dependent exponential ionosphere option. Exercises the program LWPM with the range-dependent exponential ionosphere option. LWFPLOT LWFLDS HTABLE REXP RTABLE CHIEXP SCAN 35 . Exercises the program PRVWPLOT.Table 9. PRVWPLOT LWPM GRDPLOT BEARINGS by the sample Exercises the program LWPM with the BEARINGS and +BEARINGS options with a specific date and time chosen to put the day-night terminator on the path. This run will take some time but it is necessary to set up the test of GRDPLOT.

. Graphical output for sample case PRVWPLOT.---r----r--. 36 .PRVWPLOT The program named PRVWPLOT shows the propagation paths used in a case...---r----r---j""---T"~-_r_--.. Input data file for sample case PRVWPLOT.hgl case-id OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean tx 1wpm tx-data OMEGA-D ionosphere lwpm Apr/08/97 06:30 op-area Mediterranean 30 10 45 -45 map-type conductivity map-area N_Atlant rect o 100 90 -40 7 4 start quit Figure 22.2N 83.. The resulting display is shown in figure 23.0 SSP: (7. 60N 30N ON 100W 70W 40W 10W 20E 40E Rectangular from (ON 100W) to (90N 40E) SOLAR: Apr/08/97:0630UT Chi 90.----r---r---j""----... 99.-___... Figure 22 shows the run stream used for making the preview plot. Select output device plotter sys-scn sys-prn plotter plotter prvwPlot..0E) Figure 23... 90N ..0.

GRD". The transmitter parameters are retrieved from the default transmitter specification file using the transmitter name OMEGA-D. "LWPM. 37 .LWF".MDS". the propagation paths specified in BEARINGS are chosen from the set generated in this case. The scenario defined in figure 24 is the basis for most of the other sample problems. This sample case must be run to generate the data sets required by several of the other cases listed in table 9. case-id OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean Name the files tx lwpm Identify the transmitter tx-data OMEGA-D Choose the LWPM model daytime environment ionosphere lwpm day Define the operating area op-area Mediterranean 30 10 45 -45 Calculate atmospheric noise using NTIA in July at 1800 UT a-noise ntia July 18 1000 start quit Figure 24. The root file name is LWPM so that the following files are created: "LWPM. Input file for sample case LWPM. and "LWPMMEDITERRANEAN.LWPM Figure 24 shows the basic run stream LWPM. For example. An operating area named Mediterranean is used to define the propagation paths.

GRDPLOT The sample case named GRDPLOT. The contours in figure 26 are for the signal-to-atmospheric-noise ratio at 90% time availability. Input file for sample case GRDPLOT.. generates the plots of contours of constant signal strength and signal-to-atmospheric-noise ratio over the Mediterranean operating area defmed by the sample case named LWPM. 38 .hgl plot-lbl OMEGA North Dakota in the Mediterranean Sea Specify location of GRD files file-grd Output \ Name the files tx lwpm Choose the vertical fields rx-data vertical Define the operating area op-area Mediterranean 30 10 45 -45 Define the map area map-area Mediterranean rect 30 10 45 -45 7 4 Choose the land delineation map-type land coast Use the atmospheric noise for the NTIA model in July at 1800 UT a-noise ntia Jul 18 1000 Use the default contour range with 3 dB increments cntr-range . The rapid drop in signal-to-noise ratio as propagation paths cross Greenland is seen in the closely spaced and nearly vertical contour lines in the eastern part of the operating area. shown in figure 25. Select output device plotter sys-scn plotter sys-prn plotter grdPlot.3 Use time availabilities of 50% and 90% ta-level 90 Turn on plot of the signal plt-s 1 start Turn off plot of the signal plt-s o Turn on plot of the signal to noise ratio pH-sin 1 start Figure 25.

0 -42.0to -57.0 to -51.0 -33. 39 .0 to -36.0 to -30. Plotted output from sample case GRDPLOT.0 to -48.0 -45.Tx 1:omega-d Noise:ntia 45N Freq Lat Lon Prad In Hdg All kHz dg:mn dg:mn kW dg dg km 10.0 -51.0 to -45. I - 30N 10W 20E Rectangular from (30N 1OW) to (45N 45E) OMEGA North Dakota in the Mediterranean Sea 45E Figure 26.0 to -33.0 -54.0 85 81 75 71 66 57 49 25 13 2 0 .0 to % a -57.0 to -39.0 -39.0 -48.0 18 Feb98 DXR LWPM 2.0 to -42.grd c:~wpcv20\output\lwpmmediterranean..0 -36.2 Jul 1800UT Ionosphere LWPM Day FILE 18 Feb98 DXR LWPM 2.0 to -54.nti Rx: E All Sandw Depth km Hz It V 0 1000 0 90% availability SIN (diS) -60.2 46:22N 98:20W 10 0 0 0 10.0 -27.0 c:~wpcv20\outputllwpmmediterranean.0 -30.

The case set up by BEARINGS. the ionospheric model is LWPM with a specific date and time. case-id OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean Name the output files tx bearings Identify the transmitter tx-data OMEGA-D Choose date and time ionosphere lwpm AprilS 22:00 Set maximum range of paths range-max 11000 Choose bearings angles at 24. 48 and 72 bearings 24 48 +bearings 72 Get extra print out from the mode generation print-swg 2 Set the maximum range for the fields at 5000 kID lwf-vs-dist 5000 Get extra print out from the mode summation print-lwf 2 start quit Figure 27.BEARINGS The basic case shown in figure 23 can take a long time to run. Input file for sample case BEARINGS. 40 . shown in figure 27. However. generates data for a subset of this case using three of the paths shown in figure 23.

This figure shows the signal strength as a function of distance from the transmitter along the path making a bearing of 48 0 • Along the bottom of the graph is a summary of the important path segmentation data.Q !Il :E. ill '" ::::> 0.0 10 0 0. The beginning of each segment is indicated by a small symbol in the curve representing the ground conductivity. 80 60 E > 0 Ql 3> :1. the height of the ionosphere and the ground conductivity.LWFPLOT The program LWFPLOT is exercised by the sample run stream LWFPLOT to produce the plots of signal versus distance shown in figure 28. 40 ...4 98.0 Prfl: LWPM Date: 04/15/84:2200 File: 17Feb98 TKM LWPM-20 c:\lwpcv20\output\bearings..0 0.mds File: 17Feb98 TKM LWPM-20 c:\!wpcv20\output\bearings. 41 .0 0.lwf Prgm: LWPM-20 Figure 28.2 46. ~ 0 20 I- ::J « 0 100 h' 50 1 log(s) -5 -20 o 2 4 6 DISTANCE (Mm) 8 10 OMEGA coverage of the Mediterranean xmtUd freq tlat tlon brng pwr in hdg talt ralt omega-d 10. Plotted output from sample case LWFPLOT. namely.3 48.

DAT. LWPC DATA LOCATION A file named "lwpcDAT.LWPC DATA FILES The LWPC requires a number of data files for its execution. There is no case sensitivity in the file name on computers running OS/2 or Windows 95/NT so the name as shown is just a matter of style or taste. coastal outline coordinates. the parameters in the file are compared with the values supplied by the user. The program uses the text file to specify the ground conductivity.INI". then the run is aborted. GEOPHYSICAL DATA The ground-conductivity map is stored in a text file named "COND$D. The program also requires a file for graphical initialization and specification of transmitter coordinates and map area boundaries. and a pen number. then the corresponding specification file found in the directory containing the LWPC data files is updated by using the new values.DAT" for the ITSN model and in "NTIA$D. The program uses the binary file to display the ground-conductivity areas graphically. operating areas. If the user specifies the parameters of the control string explicitly in the data string. The order of these sections may be reversed within the file. The exception noted above is for MAP-AREA.DAT" for the NTIA model. OP-AREA.LIS". With one exception. These files must all be located in a common directory. the op-area specification file is named "AREA. Each record in the colors section must contain the following data: name of the color. JX-DATA. Using one of the above examples. These files must be located in the directory containing the LWPC data files.loc" must be placed at the root of drive C. The user may change the dimensions. if every value specified by the user does not match those found in the specification file. The user can edit the specification files to clean them up and remove entries as required. If the specification file already contains an entry with the same identification as used by the user. and coefficients for the atmospheric noise. the second section is demarked by the strings "fills" and "end". the red-green-blue (RGB) sequence used to define the color. this record would look like "C:\LWPC\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot; if it referred to a directory named "\LWPC\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot; on drive C. 42 . This file identifies colors and fill patterns for contour fill areas and geophysical displays. This file contains only one record identifying the path to the LWPC data files. The coastal outline database is contained in a binary file named "COAST$D. The first section identifies color assignments and is preceded by a control string "colors" and terminated by a control string "end". The transmitter specification file is named "XMTR. These files contain geophysical information such as ground conductivity. and MAP-AREA. and the map-area specification file is named "MAP. This is done to require a consistent naming convention for transmitters. The coefficients used to calculate the levels of atmospheric noise are stored in the binary files named "ITSN$D. Figure 29 is a sample of this file. Similarly. The records containing the string "colors" and "fills" may contain additional identification as illustrated in the figure. and map areas.DAT".DAT" and in a binary file named "COND$F. typically named "LWPC_DAT" or "LWPC\Data". TRANSMITTER AND MAP SPECIFICATION The user has two methods of setting parameters associated with the control strings TX-DATA.LIS". There are two sections in this file.LIS". GRAPHICS INITIALIZATION The graphical output provided by the LWPC is controlled in part by an initialization file named "GRAPIllCS.

000 4 255 5 205 6 255 7 000 8 000 1 000 3 000 1 255 1 205 1 255 5 000 2 darkRed 128 4 darkCyan 171 5 Blue 128 6 paleYellow 000 7 Red 128 8 Purple 128 2 Salmon 100 3 darkBlue name 2% 10% 20% 35% 55% 80% 99% 100% horizontalLines verticalLines leftDiagonalLines rightDiagonalLines Figure 29. 43 . The colors named "coast". If the file provided with the software distribution is modified. Importing HPGL files into PowerPoint only allows specification of pen numbers to identify colors. "oparea". where "N" is 1 through 8. are used in numerical order to color the contour plots generated by "GRDPLOT". "land". "border". For example. care should be taken to ensure that the pen numbers assigned to these eight colors do not match the one used for the landmass overlay. The pen number is written to the HPGL output files in place of the color or RGB sequence. The colors named "colorN". the user may change the color displayed by changing the RGB sequence to suit individual taste. However.colors: labels red green yellow blue purple cyan black coast land border grid oparea terminator colorl color2 color3 color4 color5 color6 color7 color8 end fills: fillOl fill02 fill03 fill04 fill05 fill06 fill07 fill08 fill09 filll0 fillll fill12 end r 000 255 000 255 000 255 000 000 000 000 000 000 255 000 180 000 000 255 255 128 255 000 g 000 000 255 255 000 155 255 000 000 127 000 000 155 000 000 128 000 255 000 000 128 000 pen notes b 000 1 The 1st 8 colors are defined for the 000 2 default PowerPoint assignments for HPGL 000 3 importation. and "terminator" are used for the corresponding display in the graphical output. and the maximum number of pens (colors) is eight. a lighter shade of green could be displayed by changing the RGB sequence for "green" to 000125000. Sample graphics initialization file. The programs of the LWPC fix the names of the colors. "grid".

T4. The first record contains an eightcharacter string to be used to record archive information. Additional parameters are stored in the array param1. The presence of these strings in each type of file provides information regarding the history of the data used to produce the file. this array contains 10 parameters: the coordinates of the beginning ofthe segment (lat. rlon). the orientation and strength of the geomagnetic field with respect to the direction of propagation (azim. and Receivers if the paths were defined with the RECEIVERS control string. 0. three-character string to uniquely identify the file. otherwise. named MDS-FILE-ID. Currently. the length of the path (rhomax). feR) (Ferguson and Snyder. 44 . and the range to the receiver (rrho). if the control string OP-AREA was used. and the full file name. dip. Some parameters share common usage throughout the full set of output data files. Records 2 and 3 are repeated for each path. the ground conductivity and dielectric constant (sigma. and the slope and reference height of the exponential ionosphere (beta. each "GRD" file identifies the "LWF" file that provided the signal strength data and the "MDS" file that provided the "MDS" data used to calculate the "LWF" data. 0. then the lengths of the paths are stored in the array range. the parameters from one file are passed on to subsequent types of files to provide continuity and some audit-trail information. rlon.OUTPUT DATA FILES The output files are all written in unformatted form and a special program named SCAN is used to print out summaries of the parameters that are stored in them. Character strings are shown in uppercase. Record 3 contains the eigen angle of the mode and the following five parameters stored in the array param2: T1. The first record also contains a list of parameters to identify the propagation paths for the data sets. epsr). then the boundaries of the operating area are stored in this first record. the array range stores the constant value specified by the control string RANGE-MAX. For instance. If the RECEIVERS control string was used.99. beginning with the geographical bearing angle (bmg). hprime). Figure 30 shows the data written to the "MDS" files. Also. Bearings if the paths were defined with the BEARINGS control string. then the list of receiver coordinates is stored in the arrays rxlat and rxlon. rlat. and the length of each string is shown in brackets following the name of the string. the range from the transmitter to the beginning of the segment (rho). T2. 1980). rhomax. This record also contains three strings. Ion). Record 2 identifies the parameters of each segment of each path. The program identification will be LWPM-V20. 1. T3. rrho. The end of segment data for each path is indicated by a dummy record containing: bmg. including the directory tree. Each of these strings contains the date the file was written. and GRD-FILE-ID. The first record of all data file types contains the same information. Whenever appropriate. a randomly generated. If the OP-AREA control string was used. LWF-FILE-ID. the receiver coordinates (rlat. The character string PATH-ID contains the AREA-ID if the paths were defined with an OP-AREA control string. magfld).

the distance from the transmitter (dist). it is included for compatibility with a planned extension of the mode summing capability. The values of these parameters. the range from the transmitter to the beginning of the segment (rho).rhomax.rxlat(i). and the altitude of the transmitter and the receiver (talt. Records 2 and 3 are repeated for each path.i=l. At present.nprml. signal strength. GRD-FILE-ID[120]. nrmode) Figure 30. and the number of segments is stored in nrsgmnt. lon).i=l.txlat. Order of data parameters in "MOS" files. the orientation of the antenna (inclination. Figure 31 summarizes the output written to "LWF" files.0. The number of points at which the signal strength and relative phase are computed is stored in nrptl.txlon.rrho. PRFL-ID[40] . nrpt2 is always 1). Record 3 is repeated as required by the value of nrcmp and nrpt2 (in LWPC-2.range(i). (paraml(i). CASE-ID[80]. the transmitter power (power).freq. PATH-ID[20].0. the orientation and strength of the geomagnetic field with respect to the direction of propagation (azim. the ground conductivity and dielectric constant (sigma.lV/m. 45 . and the slope and reference height of the exponential ionosphere (beta.rxlon(i). ralt). nprm2) .nrpath. and phs stores the relative phase. MDS-FILE-ID[120].nprml) 3 (eigen (m) . The number of these records is stored in nrpt2. amp stores the signal strength in dB above IJ. hprime). (param2 (i. and phase relative to the propagation in free space. If nonexponential profiles are used. (bearing(i).rlat.rlon. The array sgmnt stores the path segmentation data for each path in the data set. XMTR-ID[20]. are stored in the array paramo The number of such parametric records determines the number of signal-strength arrays written to the file. m=l. Record 3 stores the distance. heading). the number of parameters stored in sgmnt is stored in nrps. LWF-FILE-ID[120]. magfld).nrpath) 2 brng. epsr). an eleventh parameter showing the profile index is added. The array sgmnt contains the following 10 parameters: the coordinates of the beginning of each segment (lat. op-latl. PRGM-ID[8] .nrmode. excluding nrcmp. dip.nprm2.Record: 1 ARCHIVE[8]. i=l.op-lonl. The signal strength and relative phase along each path is calculated parametric in the following seven parameters: the number of field components (nrcmp). The parameter dist is not used in LWPC-2.op-lat2. Record 2 contains a summary ofthe parameters along each path.op-lon2. The array xy stores the distances from the transmitter at which signal strength and relative phase are computed. m) .

nx).rxlon(i). ((sgmnt(i. record 3 is repeated as required by the values of nrcmp and nrpt2 (in LWPC-2.xlat2.op-lon2.txlat. year. XMTR-ID[20].nrptl) Figure 31. heading).amp(i). PRFL-ID[40] . the date and time (MONTH. Order of data parameters in "LWF" files. MDS-FILE-ID[120]. CASE-ID[80] .nrpt2. nrprm. LWF-FILE-ID[120]. xlon2) and the number of points in the grid in longitude (nrlon) and latitude (nrlat).nrlat.nrps.op-lon2.freq.0. MDS-FILE-ID[120].j).i=l. ralt).i=l. nrpt2 is always 1). The grids of signal strength and associated standard deviation of the signal are written parametric in the same set of parameters used for the "LWF" files.i=l. PRFL-ID[40] .rxlon(i). the distance from the transmitter (dist).i=l.i=l.nprm).rlon. Un.rhomax.Record: 1 ARCHIVE[8].xlatl. Consequently. xlonl.nsgmnt) 3 (param(i). the bandwidth (bandw). CASE-ID[80] .nrpath) 2 brng. The array param stores the parameters of the grid data: the transmitter power (power). op-latl. (bearing(i).xlonl.xlon2.nrcmp. PATH-ID[20].j=l.j).nrpt2 3 (param(i).i=l.rlat.nprm).j=l. Record: 1 ARCHIVE[8].txlat.ny) Figure 32. GRD-FILE-ID[120]. Furthermore. and the standard deviation of the signal (stndev). xlat2. Figure 32 summarizes the data written to the "GRD" files. GRD-FILE-ID[120]. Records 2 through 3 are repeated for each operating area.i=l.op-lonl.op-lonl. the orientation of the transmitting antenna (inclination.txlon. (bearing(i). the altitude of the transmitter and the receiver (talt.nrpath. day. PRGM-ID[8] .rrho.txlon.nrcmp. the adjustment factor for horizontal noise (adjny). op-latl. if the "GRD" file is for atmospheric noise.freq.rxlat(i). Record 2 identifies the operating area and its boundaries (AREA-ID.range(i). The parameters nrcmp and nrpt2 are carried over from the "LWF" file. LWF-FILE-ID[120].phs(i).rxlat(i).j).sigma(i.op-lat2. XMTR-ID[20].nrlon.nrsgmnt. then CASE-ID contains the string Noise. 46 . nrprm.nrptl. PRGM-ID[8] . XMTR-ID contains the name of the noise model and the date and time used to compute the values of atmospheric noise.nps).op-lat2.nrpath. PATH-ID[20]. ((amplitude(i. Order of data parameters in "GRD" files.range(i). (xy(i). xlatI.nrpath) 2 area-id[20].

the executable program files and binary data files are distributed in three other zip files (lwpcExe. edit the file named "lwpcDAT. 47 . The files in this directory should not be modified in any way. The LWPC data files are placed in a subdirectory named "Data". To obtain a copy of these files. IwpcData.cmd" to show the correct path.for. For use on computers running Windows NT*. baseline) that fit on two standard 1440-kilobyte.5-inch floppy diskettes.cmd" to unpack the files. these routines all have names that begin with "sys_". 3. * Windows NT is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. If these files are placed in a directory not named "C:\LWPCv20\Data###BOT_TEXT###quot;. found in the subdirectory named GRFDriver. IwpcDat. which is executed to create the programs from the source files. Copy the distribution files into this directory and execute the file "Startup. 3. In the subdirectory named Library. The FORTRAN routines whose names end with the string "Plot" are really subroutines to the graphics driver named "GRFDriver". IwpcPlt) that fit on two standard 1440-kilobyte. binary data files.SOFTWARE INSTALLATION The source-code files and data files are distributed in three zip files (lwpcv20.for. Finally. and executable files. OPERATING SYSTEM AND COMPILER The programs of the LWPC as distributed are written for the Windows NT® operating system and the WATCOM C and FORTRAN compilers. Create a directory to contain the LWPC files. geCdate. and geCtimeJor. the following routines are used to make compiler-specific calls to obtain system-dependent parameters: geccommand_line. Execute the file named "Binary. The compiler flags and linking options can be found in the file named "BuildLWPC. Execute the file "BuildLWPC. gecrandomJor.5-inch floppy diskettes. Execute the sample cases to verify the correct installation. assumed to be "C:\LWPCv20###BOT_TEXT###quot;. The routines written in C provide the graphical interface between the FORTRAN routines and the screen and printer.loc" to show the correct path and copy it to the root directory of drive C. then edit the file named "setLWPC. If the LWPC files are placed in a directory not named "C:\LWPCv20###BOT_TEXT###quot;.mil).cmd".navy.cmd" to unpack the files. If the executable files and the binary data files are to be used as provided in the software distribution. copy the zip files from the diskettes into the LWPC directory. which is written in C.cmd" to create the library. contact Jerry Ferguson (e-mail: ferguson@spawar. The subdirectory named "C:\LWPCv20\Baseline###BOT_TEXT###quot; contains backup copies of the sample cases and the resulting output.

Ferguson. D. G. Naval Ocean Systems Center. 1990. San Diego. "Computer Programs for Assessment of Long Wavelength Radio Communications.0. San Diego. CA. "'MODESRCH'. Ferguson. 1993. A. Snyder. 1992. Daghestani. Version 1. Ferguson. and F. CA. "A Review of the Ionospheric Model for the Long Wave Prediction Capability. Documents of the Xth Plenary Assembly. P. "Ionospheric Profiles for Predicting Nighttime VLFILF Propagation. P. and F. CA." TD 1518 (Mar). Naval Ocean Systems Center." Pacific Sierra Research Corporation Report 2380. and C. Ferguson. Geneva. and F. Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division. G. CA. Switzerland. "Computer Programs for Assessment of Long Wavelength Radio Communications. "Effective Electron Density Distributions Describing VLFILF Propagation Data." TD 1847 (July). available from DTIC: ABD133690." TD 1449 (Jan). 1980. 1993. 1968. Ferguson. Snyder. 1986. San Diego. ''The NAVOCEANSYSCEN's Long Wavelength Propagation Capability. 1989a. "World-wide VLF Effective Conductivity Map. "World Distribution and Characteristics of Atmospheric Radio Noise. Full FORTRAN Release: Version 1. Geneva." TD 2394 (Jan)." Report 322. J. 1990. J. Naval Ocean Systems Center. J. 1963.REFERENCES Buckner. Ferguson.1: User's Guide and Source Files. CCIR. "Approximate VLFILF Waveguide Mode Conversion Model Computer Applications: FASTMC and BUMP. Snyder. CA. Switzerland. "Improved Methods for VLFILF Coverage Prediction. 1980." TR 141 (Sept). Naval Command. A. Version 1. Morgan. and F. CCIR. A. available from Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC): ABD130808. Ferguson. "World Distribution and Characteristics of Atmospheric Radio Noise. San Diego. CA. Naval Command. P. CA.0: Full FORTRAN Code User's Guide. J." Report 322-3." TD 1773 (Apr). 1989b. Naval Ocean Systems Center. "Longwave-Propagation Capability. CA. A. San Diego. A. R. and S. Morfitt. Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division. R. A. J. Documents of the XVIth Plenary Assembly. Naval Ocean Systems Center. Snyder." Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) Interim Report 77T (Oct). D. A. Morfitt. J. A." Westinghouse Electric Corporation Report 8013F-1. 1977. 48 . San Diego. P. "Long-Wave Propagation Capability Program Description and User's Guide. San Diego. Naval Ocean Systems Center. R. 1979. J. Ferguson. H. An Improved Computer Program for Obtaining ELFNLFILF Mode Constants in an Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide. Shellman. San Diego. J. P. Naval Ocean Systems Center." TD 400 (Nov)." TR 530 (Feb). CA. M. San Diego." TD 2393 (Nov).

of Commerce. 1985. Shearer. NTIA Report 85-173. Office of Telecommunications. A. R.." private communication. Dept. "Submarine EMI VLF Communications Model. C. • 49 . 2. 1970. B. User's Guide to the Computer Code LNP Version 3. Sharp. and J. S. Jones. W. Warber. and W. J. Report OTIITSRR 2. Washburn. and D. H. Finn.0.S. 1997. C. W." Pacific Sierra Research Corporation Report 2137. Dept. "Atmospheric Radio Noise: Worldwide Levels and Other Characteristics." U. and M. D. M. S." U. Zacharisen.Smith. of Commerce. D. Vol. "World Maps of Atmospheric Radio Noise in Universal Time by Numerical Mapping. Spaulding. "Long Wave Noise Prediction. 1994. A.

including the time for reviewing instructions. and completing and reviewing the collection of information. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. including suggestions for reducing this burden. Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188). gathering and maintaining the data needed. SUBJECT TERMS 15. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. NUMBER OF PAGES Mission Area: Communications decision support atmospheric noise 17. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final 5. This version of the program includes improvements to the graphics routines. FUNDING NUMBERS COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR ASSESSMENT OF LONGWAVELENGTH RADIO COMMUNICATIONS. Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. ABSTRACT (MBl<imum 200 words) This document describes a revision of the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) developed by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect ofthis collection of information. REPORT DATE 3.0 User's Guide and Source Files 6. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command San Diego. to Washington Headquarters Services. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego. VA 22202-4302. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release. AUTHOR(S) WU: MP99 AN: DN306772 J. searching existing data sources. PRICE CODE 18. and an option to execute a full-wave mode conversion model for the signal-strength calculations. DC 20503. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response. Washington. Ferguson 7. A. Arlington. 14. CA 92152-5001 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) TD 3030 10. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT 16. 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED May 1998 4. increased flexibility in specification of alternative ionospheric models. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. 13. VERSION 2. CA 92110-3127 11. 1. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT 64 low frequency propagation 19. This version is principally composed of FORTRAN subroutines with a few additional routines written in C to implement the graphics capabilities under the Windows 95/NT operating systems. San Diego.REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. LIMITATION OF ABSnRACT UNCLASSIFIED NSN 7540-01-280-5500 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SAME AS REPORT Standard form 298 (FRONl) . and to the Office of Management and Budget. Suite 1204. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 20. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. distribution is unlimited.

OFFICE SYMBOL Jerry Ferguson (619) 553-3062 e-mai1:ferguson@spawar.navy.21a. TELEPHONE (include Area Code) 21c. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 21 b.mi1 Code D882 NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard form 298 (BACK) .

E. VA 22202-4804 Center for Naval Analyses Alexandria. VA 22244-5114 GIDEP Operations Center Corona.INITIAL DISTRIBUTION Code D0012 Code D0271 Code D0274 Code D027 Code D0271 Code D882 Patent Counsel Archive/Stock Library M. CA 91718-8000 . Research and Development Information Center (NARDIC) Arlington. VA 22302-0268 (4) Navy Acquisition. Hepner (1) (6) (2) (1) (1) (10) "'\ Defense Technical Information Center Fort Belvoir. Richter T. Cathcart D. VA 22060-6218 SPAWARSYSCEN Liaison Office Arlington.