The wealth of the orient 1. Americans began to view China as endless possibilities for trade.

Industrialists such as James B. Duke, who sold tobacco to china, imagined exporting numbers of things off to china. 2. Paved the way for US open door policy, and influenced imperialism in the western hemisphere. Also called for more foreign exports and foreign trade. Turner Thesis 1. Frederick Jackson turner published The significance of the Frontier in American History , which said the frontier had been essential to the growth of the economy and democracy. He argued the frontier shaped American culture and customs, and he wondered how the nation could continue to prosper without a frontier. 2. Criticized by historians, it caused the United States to look to different means of acquiring the frontier , or colonizing land in the Caribbean and western hemisphere. Alfred Thayer Mahan1. Influential imperialist who wrote The influence of Sea power upon History which argued the world greatest empires had relied on the capacity to rule the seas. Called for the construction of a U.S navy large enough to make its presence felt throughout the world. 2. Called for a huge navy, which flaunted its power later in the great white fleet . Also was a chief reason for their victory in the Spanish war, and immediately gave the U.S. more power. By 1898 the U.S. navy ranked fifth in the world and in 1900 it ranked third. Samoa1. In 1889 the U.S. establishes a protectorate over part of Samoa, to forestall German and British efforts to weaken American Influence. 2. Used as a port for American fueling, and also gave them more mobility and control in the Pacific Ocean Queen Liliuokalani1. Plantation owners depose the Hawaiian king and put into power Queen Liliuokalani, but after she attempted to give Hawaii independence, the owners deposed her as well. 2. United States sought to exploit the countries for their natural resources, and didn t care about how it affected the afflicted countries. Also gives control of island to the U.S. and they later make Hawaii a state.

even if part of it s not true. 2. This was a popular national opinion. . 2. and their reasoning for turning to the U. General Weyler1. in order to do so they sought out sensational and shocking stories.S. although it did not directly cause it. Also publishes letter stolen from a Spanish minster that describes McKinley as a chief politician and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd Yellow journalism 1. but the most likely cause of explosion was a malfunctioning boiler.S. 200. to Weyler. This. Also held a jingoistic view. Embellishing stories to boost circulation. but was not entirely correct. which reported on the atrocities the Spanish committed on the Cubans. Shows Spanish oppression of the Cubans. Ordered into into Havana Harbor to protect U.colonial war similar to the one they fought 100 years earlier (Revolutionary war). Describing sensational and shocking stories. Constantly alert for insults against their countries honor. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer were blamed of this. Provoked apathy for the Cubans by the U. Notorious Spanish general who forced large numbers of Cubans into concentration camps.000 Cubans died of starvation and disease caused because of lack of food shelter and sanitation. for help. William Randolph Hearst 1. Owned the New York Journal. Gave him the nickname Butcher . It exploded in Havana s harbor on February 15 and the American Public suspected it was the work of Spanish agents. 2.Jingoism1. However. and were often accused of yellow journalism. and encouraged intervention. The yellow press tried to sway the public to intervene in Cuba. citizens and their property. prompt American intervention in Cuba and the start of the war. The Maine 1. Nationalists who thought an aggressive foreign policy and willingness to go to war would enhance their nation s glory. 2.S. Showed the bad sides of nationalism. Helped transform newspapers and boost their business. and swift to call military retaliation. and many seemed to sympathize with the Cubans who seemed to be fighting anti. along with the publication of a letter stolen from a Spanish minister published in the New York Journal . Weyler s tactics greatly inflamed the American opinion. 260 Americans died. Taking ordinary stories and adding details to make them more interesting. and caused many military interventions by the United States. 2.

2. but led to nearly 100 dead or wounded. A volunteer cavalry unit led by Roosevelt and western cowboys. shows how little lives were lost in the struggle. He thought that all bans should join together against the Spanish no matter what their race. A splendid little war 1. What secretary of State John Hay called the war with Spain. Jose Marti was the revolutionary leader of Cuba Libre in Cuba. 2.DeLome letter 1. Sent out message that U. 2. Kettle Hill1. Teller Amendment 1. Very courageous of Roosevelt. and how easy it was to win the war with the support of the Cubans. . Spanish minister who wrote a letter that was intercepted and published in the New York Journal which describes McKinley as a cheap politician and bitter for the admiration of the crowd . but also shows how many forgot about the crucial role blacks played in this victory. not themselves. 2. Jose Marti1. Can also serve as a contrast to the Philippine war. which was anything but short. sheriffs. He joined other men with the Cuban rebels and organized an attack against the Spanish. The letter outraged the US public opinion. The war was started in April and ended in August. Again builds Roosevelt s reputation of war hero. 2. Naval supremacy guaranteed victory. Played an active role in three battles fought in the hills surrounding Santiago.American war. and after Cuba is basically was a US colony.S. and was the first event leading to the Spanish. and not many lives were lost. 2. and shows his bravery. Jose Marti helped to rally the Cubans against the Spanish and begin the military revolution against the Spanish. When ordered to stay at rear guard. was basis for Roosevelt s reputation as a war hero. Rough Riders1. Declaration that the United States would not use the war as an opportunity to acquire territory. was entering the war to benefit Cuba. he refused and wanted to fight and was killed in battle against the Spanish and his position was taken over by Palma. Rough riders lead charge uphill right into the Spanish defenses. Proved to be ironic when they were over Cuba from 1898-1902. prospectors Indians and Ivy League gentleman.

Terms of the Treaty: Gave up all rights to Cuba (see Teller Amendment and Platt Amendment) Surrendered Puerto Rico and gave up its possessions in the West Indies Surrendered the island of Guam to the United States Surrendered the Philippines to the United States for a payment of twenty million dollars Annexation of Hawaii1. gained control of it first to prevent European dominance. takeover of the Island). Philippines as a US colony 1. 1989-.S. This imperialism mindset did not turn out well for the United States.S.S. His presidency marks a departure from the post-civil war era of reconstruction Treaty of Paris. McKinley annexed Hawaii in order to build Pearl Harbor. Strongly influenced by the Turner thesis. interest in extending influence over western hemisphere.S. such as creating as a state or solely using it as a U. McKinley administration had many options to deal with the Philippines.William McKinley 1.S. the U. Strong believer in Imperialism and annexed Hawaii.The document that was signed at the end of the Spanish-American war.S. Began aggressive imperialist tactics to secure the United States as a large military force inside and outside of the Western Hemisphere. . 2.S. However. 2. which would grow into the main naval base. 25th president of the United States. Marked the beginning of U. Shows U. Allowed for the acquisition of the Philippines by the US. imperialist goals. and acquired the port in the Philippines 2. National republican leader.S naval base. 2. So. Became president at the e of a U. and thus dedicated his presidency to economic development. depression. ended the war. The U. was worried that European forces could gain a military and economic advantage over the U. McKinley used the annexation of Hawaii as a way to rally support from the Republics in the house of senate (who were calling for the U. McKinley thought the Filipinos were inferior and sought to colonize them. if a European nation was to annex Hawaii. Additionally. and was a foreign embarrassment. Aroused opposition both in the United States and the Philippines and lead to the creation of the Anti-imperialist league who believed its annexation violated the people s right to self-government.

though they almost defeated McKinley and other imperialists in the Senate. They held anti-imperialist protests and believed the subjugation would violate the Philippine s independence and autonomy. . and exchanged Filipino independence for a US naval base in Manila. A group of several elder northeastern statesmen in McKinley s party and other men of letter who were not in support of the proposed acquisition of the Philippines. William Howard Taft 1. He also stopped a literacy test for immigrants. 2. He militarily seized some of Nicaragua's ports got the leader out of power and kept marines there. An attachment to an army appropriations bill that established conditions for Cuban independence: Cuba can t make treaties with foreign powers without US approval. Didn t acknowledge Filipino self-rule. in foreign policy he used his dollar diplomacy to economically develop Latin American countries. Eventually led to mix between ruthless was and amnesty to those able to live under US rule. president from 1909 to 1913 internally was anti-trust (in the business sense) for civil service reform and a better postal system. 2. He also worked with congress to create and pass the 16th amendment to the constitution. Killed many Filipino (15 to 1 ratio). He supported the united fruit company's economic takeover of countries.Anti-Imperialist League 1. He used no power to enforce the fifteenth amendment though he supported Booker T Washington. Taft filed many antitrust suits against corporations. 2. Emilio Aguinaldo 756-757 760 1. This option would have protected the Philippines as well as US interests from European and Asian conquest. Filipine War 1. Ultimately he was a promoter of peace and desired world peace. Platt Amendment 1. Caused the realization that American actions in the Philippines were parallel to Spanish actions in Cuba. The contrasting opinions of the anti-imperialists eventually weakened them. The 4-year war that immediately occurred after the US acquisition of the Philippines to subdue the rebels. 2. Lost the 1912 election. In his foreign policy he used dollar diplomacy . An option for the McKinley could have dealt with A. Secured US control of the Philippines. The leader of the anti-colonial movement in the Philippines and later on became the Philippines first president. US can intervene in economic or political affairs. and Cuba would sell or lease land to the US for naval operations. Also were scared that the large militaristic establishment in the Philippines would threaten political liberties at home and foreign competition would rise.

loans etc.2. 2. 2. Monroe Doctrine 1. Insular Cases 1. mining. China was split up into trade sections that European countries could trade with and were not to interfere with others and keep the ports open for everyone 2. Make the Western hemisphere under American control. Made Cuba into another version of the Philippines. He was a writer and served under and knew many presidents. but it was minor. Thus with this act. Foraker Act 1. The Platt amendment outraged Cuban delegates who refused to vote on them. A series of US Supreme Court cases regarding US territories between 1901 and 1904. Initially. A US policy established in 1823 which regarded all efforts by European nations to colonize or interfere with Western Hemisphere as an act of aggression and the US has the right to intervene. There was still competition for things like railroad. Made PR into unincorporated territory with no provisions for making the inhabitants into US citizens. the US had full political control in designing PR government. 2. However. Open Door 1. 2. These cases upheld the constitutionality of the mechanisms of the Foraker Act and upheld that full American rights did not extend automatically into all US unincorporated territories. this policy had little effect because European nations took little interest in Latin America. Forced china to trade with the world without taking over. He forged an open door policy with china and advanced American interests in the boxer rebellion. The Act used in 1900 to annex Puerto Rico because the US did not think PR was ready for full independence. after 1900. Led to US citizenship for PR citizens and some autonomy over time. It ensured that everyone had trading with china and kept the US in Asia. Cuban economic and militaristic dependence rendered resistance futile. Created a new imperial mechanism for ensuring sovereignty over lands. American efforts to Preserve the open door policy created the formation of an international banking consortium that gave us some control over Chinese loans but ultimately open door policy ended in 1931. He also forged the Hay-Pauncefote treaty. Private Secretary of Lincoln and late the ambassador to Britain during the Spanish American war. John Hay 1. However. Boxer Rebellion . colonies of the US. it assumed more of an aggressive role as the US began forcing economic and political policies on LA neighbors.

Good foreign policy. but it was necessary in cases for the US to assist. and Russia) from controlling China s economy. The ideology used in conducting foreign policy in a way to keep balance between the major worldly powers. The boundary dispute is settled by the us kicking Brittan out saying that they violated the Monroe doctrine. 2. Roosevelt was very good with the Big Stick diplomacy where he managed to avoid violence most of the time while getting the American way.A. US. 2. United States seems like a protector. Good balancing power btwn foreign nations. Europe. Roosevelt Corollary 1.A. but also get real power to avoid conflict. and this rebellion threatened the maintenance of this policy. Japan. Major Powers wanted to maintain balance of power and save face. They also have accrued massive debts to Germany and Brittan.e. In the crisis of 1902 over debts Germany sent 2 Venezuelan gunboats French Panama Company . was able to prove US might and improve US navy and economy forward. it can cause war. he had the social Darwinist views that whites are superior to Asians.A.). and set up for US to control political and economic decisions in L. Rebels took siege of Beijing. Helped create US dominating stability to L. maintaining US strength. Roosevelt issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (saying Euro can t colonize L.A. 2. Geopolitical. Led in response to foreign nations (i. Many Europeans killed.A. However. Chinese led rebellion to push out foreigners from China. First challenge to Hay s policy as secretary of state. When co-equal powers conflict. The corollary gave the US the power to keep Europe from meddling in L. Had a dispute over boundary lines with Britain between them and British Guyana.A. but American soldiers were able to break the siege. He set pathways for western hemisphere domination through Roosevelt Corollary. Created Panama Canal. Still. affairs to maintain stability of the hemisphere. Balance of power politics 1. affairs and it gave the US the power to intervene in L. He believed the US needed a war to prove their worth this generation. He was set a view of democracy in freedom in the hemisphere (Panama s independence). 2. Venezuela Republic 1. etc. He won the Nobel peace prize for ending Russo-Japan War. Many ChristianChinese were killed. Roosevelt literally declared power over L. Hispanics. 1904. countries. He tried to uphold open door policy. Many views on his personality but seen as a cowboy . His policy was big stick meaning he showed US military power. VP under McKinley then became Pres once McKinley was assassinated.A.1. Hay proved himself worthy and powerful. but while Taft was bad. Theodore Roosevelt 1. proving his foreign policy superiority. 2. Caused discontent in L..

2. The US bought the land for $10 million downpay and $250. but the US wouldn t pay that much and began building in Nicaragua. Also. thus the US/Panama relations were stressed for decades after. Panama got its independence with American military help. Spurred the start of US building a canal across Nicaragua (which was cheaper than Panama when the French company wanted $109 million for the Panama land). Tomas Herran. and Colombia (which ran Panama at the time) wouldn t sell US the land for cheap. Hay-Herran Treaty 1. Although Colombia was acting legally. This was covered by the facade of freedom fighting. Signed btwn US and Great Britain in 1901. to raise the price even more. the US did not want this delay and encouraged Panamanians to rebel for independence.meaning the US could buy the land for cheaper. the US encouraged Panamanians to rebel for Independence. Philippe Buneau-Varilla . but this intervention allowed the US to buy the canal from the French owner.000 annually. allowed the US to have a great start in building the canal. to ease trade.A. Repealed former treaty saying neither the US nor Britain could build a canal in Central America without the others help. they asked for more money with the intention of stalling the agreement and regaining rights to the Canal Zone from the French company. (which ruled Panama at the time) and the US selling the US a 6 mi wide strip of Panama to build the canal for a onetime $10 million payment and $250. Buneau-Varilla. but they hid this goal under the idea that they were given Panama freedom. However. in the chaos of Organizing the new country. French company run by a Frenchman that bought land from Panama (before US tried) to build a canal through L. allowing Panama to achieve independence.1. 2. Panama was already near independence before the US intervened. thus. However. the company had gone bankrupt by 1901 and had to stop construction at about 40% completion due to lack of funds. The US navy stopped Colombians from arriving in Panama. but with the canal already 40% completed. 2. The US true intentions were to get the Panama land for cheaper. Hay Pauncefote Treaty 1. The failure of the company. Panamanian independence 1.000 annually. which was succeeded. The Panamanians were furious. The company originally was going to sell land to US for $109 million. Agreement btwn Colombian charge d affaires. 2. Colombian legislature did not approve of this agreement.e. The US wanted the Canal Zone from Panama. the owner sold the property for only $40 million without Panamanian consent. and lack of medical ability to cure the diseases there (i. malaria).

Shows Roosevelt s ability to maintain peace but also made him send the great white fleet to Japan to show he was not lacking power by making an agreement with them. and no Panamanian even signed it (it was the Frenchman). He sold the US the Panama land for REALLY cheap. the the western united states. 2. He declared himself Panama s diplomatic representative even though he was French. This was his foreign policy at the . Asians. It threatened white wages and jobs and sparked new legislation against it. Signed in 1903. Shows US bullied new country without a stable gov t. and US took advantage of Frenchman acting as a diplomat to buy land for cheaper than Panamanians would allow. shows Roosevelt s dedication to maintaining open door policy. US gets 10 mi strip of Panama to build canal for onetime payment of $10 million and an annual payment of $250. Called this the treaty which no Panamanian signed . 2. Won by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 for ending Russo-Japan War. Nobel Peace Prize 1. Still. Panamanians very unhappy with agreement. Yellow peril 1 This is a racial comment referring to the mass migration yellow peril of Asians. 2. Agreementbtwn US and Japan after California racism vs. Actually said for the first time in a speech at the Minnesota state fair. He was the 1st American to win the award.000. but the stronghold and power he takes over the weaker Latin American countries. 2. Asians.1. Gentlemen s agreement 1. 2. including the: Page act of 1875 that said that we could stop undesirable people from immigrating. Signed when Panama only recently received independence. 2. Hay Buneau-Varilla Treaty 1. and balancing world powers. The Panamanians were disappointed by this deal and were frustrated with the US for agreeing to a deal with Buneau-Varilla. mostly Chinese. Japan would stop allowing immigration of male laborers to US if US stops discrimination vs. Shows contrast between his search for peace among strong world powers. Tension btwn US and Panama as a result. Owner of the French company who originally built the canal. Possibly they came because of the Gold rush in California and to send money back to their families. Chinese exclusion act allowing the us to suspend immigration and the Immigration act of 1917 that broadened the term undesirable and expand from just Chinese being barred to many other Asian country's citizens.lasted many decades.aggressive but having a large military and displaying it. Speak softly and carry a big stick 1 Roosevelt s policy of being kind and non. so they became frustrated that the US would accept such an immoral treaty. Signed the Hay Buneau -Varilla treaty giving the US the land.

under the command of the federal government.A. forced the Haitian legislature to choose the candidate Wilson selected as Haitian president. and spread US economic power to other nations.S. Lots of antitrust actions and supports workers. Foreign policy has no concrete pattern but is in general something called moral diplomacy. maintained troops in Nicaragua and used them to select the president of Nicaragua and then to force Nicaragua to pass the Bryan. Woodrow Wilson 1. however. Philander Knox 1. Taft s secretary of state who lacked diplomatic experience. This is extremely important cuz we still have it and it still works. military worked in concert with wealthy Dominican landowners to suppress the gavilleros. a campesino guerrilla force fighting the occupation.time and influenced many of his decisions. 1917 after aggression towards US declares war and starts the draft. They created a monopoly on guess what FRUIT!. Bribed some government officials here and there. Creates the Federal Reserve. but it really made their gov ts dependent on US for political. War ends woohoo. He intervened in Latin America. Often accused of exploitative neocolonialism.. Didn t really do much for civil rights because he thought that bigger issued needed to be dealt with. particularly in Mexico. and Panama. This was the policy associated with President William Howard Taft. US had huge influences on progression of countries in this manner. and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance. 1895 . economic. Venezuelan Crisis. The U. And in many cases were the #1 employer and landowners in these countries. Created the Federal Reserve Bank. He hoped this economic stability would create political stability in L.Chamorro Treaty. 2. Cuba. The U. A corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on third world plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. and social factors. Dollar diplomacy 1. Haiti. and Caribbean. 2. American troops in Haiti. This includes the great white fleet in japan and the open door policy in china. He believed economic stability would lead to international stability. Promotes labor unions. The occupation lasted until 1924. his means to do this often led to the failure of balance btwn powers. He opened North China to international trade United Fruit: 1.. It is the idea to expand US investments and opportunities for corporations overseas. 2. He ordered the military occupation of the Dominican Republic shortly after the resignation of its President Juan Isidro Jimenez Pereyra in 1916. Through this they took over the main export of the country and thus controlled the country s economy and in many senses the country s themselves. President from 1913 to 1921.S.

threatened US intervention. showed aggressiveness without really wanting a war but Olney successfully got peace on American terms. In 1878. which spoke about unwelcome European presence and violation of the Monroe Doctrine. 2. and requested immediate reply. The Cuban general who led the insurrectors in burning cane fields. Dealt with the Pullman strike in Chicago by warning them and then sending in troops to restore the situation. he opposed high tariffs. a Brit drew a boundary line which later became contested and argued because both British Guiana and Venezuela wanted more territory. inadequately supplied guerilla warfare successfully wore the Spanish down. US gave an ultimatum to the British. Olney sought to keep diplomacy and avoid back stepping and war. Maximo Gomez 1. and was a noninterventionist. Drafted a letter to England regarding the Venezuelan boundary dispute which was later sent to London. US caused to interfere because national interest became in dispute.1. 2. disrupting railroads in order to render Cuba an economic burden and liability to Spain in order to achieve independence. In response. When Britain flat out refused. Dealt with the panic of 1893 with the Sherman Silver purchase act. Weyler issued his brutal reconcentration program which drove Cubans from their homes and killed thousands. American concern grew on the matter and did not want Venezuela to become another Africa for imperialist Britain. showed aggressiveness without really wanting a war but Olney successfully got peace on American terms. In the 1880 s. The US Secretary of State under Grover Cleveland. increased American nationalism. When Britain and Venezuela had a land dispute Cleveland stepped in and ultimately the British retreated. 2. The obese 22nd and 24th Democratic president who dealt with the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. Helped move US towards a world power status with aggressive American diplomacy. had achieved control of 2 3 of the island of Cuba and had concentrated Spanish influence. and increased the power of the Monroe Doctrine Richard Olney 1. Gave an ultimatum to the British. Demanded arbitration. Grover Cleveland (Imgonna focus on his 2nd term foreign policy cuzthat s what counts) 1. Their popularly favored. He fought for better treatment of the Chinese though he thought they were unwilling to assimilate. blowing up mills. became a symbol for unwanted European reach into the western hemisphere. He accepted a wide version of the Monroe doctrine to keep Europe out of our hemisphere. and nationalism that opened up a pathway for Republicans in 1894 and 1898 elections. Venezuela appealed to the US on the account Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine. 2. However the US ended up giving most of the land to British Guyana anyway. . Fought against congress saying that Hawaii was not good to annex because the populous did not want it and that the US should continue its non-interventionism there. The letter he wrote to London was known as Olney/Cleveland s twenty-inch gun.

He described the Treaty of Paris as the closest. 2. Believed in pragmatic considerations and expressed racial superiority and want to civilize the savage world with the white man s burden. . and most exciting struggle I have ever known. most bitter. Massachusetts Senator who with Roosevelt and McKinley lead the imperialist movement which was backed by many business leaders against the anti-imperialists. Helped lead imperialists to pass the 2 3 majority necessary for the Treaty of Paris which attained Philippines for the US.Henry Cabot Lodge 1. or ever expect to see in the Senate.