Process Description Of Edible oil Refinery

For Batch refining the oil, there are three basic processes in the refinery. First process

neutralizing the oil in the neutralizer to remove the Free Fatty Acids (FFA) by adding caustic soda. Oil
is is heated upto about 60°C by thermic fluid coils and oil is stirred by stirrer. Then soap stock formed due to chemical reaction is allowed to settle at the bottom of the neutralizer from where it is taken out into soap pan. Neutralized oil is drawn into the second vessel called

bleacher where colour of oil is removed by bleaching process with aid of
chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching earth. Oil is generally heated upto 110°C by thermic fluid coils. Stirring is also continued. Bleaching process is done under vacuum.

the filter press where bleaching earth and chemicals are separated and clean bleached oil is then drawn to deodourizer where oil is heated above 110°C through thermic fluid coils and
Bleached oil then goes to

then live steam is given to the oil from the bottom steam nozzles and temperature of oil is raised upto 200 to 220°C through thermic fluid coils. Entire process is done under high vacuum. Thus smell is removed from the oil in the deodourizer. Then it goes to cooler where water

circulating coils take away heat and oil is cooled. Again it goes to second filter press where completely refined and transparent colour less oil is obtained.
Thermic Fluid Boiler, Vacuum Pump, Barometric Condenser, Catch0ls, Steam Generator etc. play their role in the refining process. So these equipments are part of the refinery and connected with the vessels through pipelines.

A. Neutralisation of degummed veg, oil
[1] In batch neutralization preheating the oil charge up to 70 to 80 o C before adding the caustic is preferred than cold neutralization . However cottonseed oil is neutralized with alkali at room temperature as pre heating caused color fixation. [2] Selection of lye and its strength is very essential as it varies from oil to oil depending upon the FFA content of oil . Also excess of lye are usually used for neutralization of oils. [3]The oil charge immediately after de gumming at 80 o C is neutralized with requisite quantity of lye . If oil charge is at room temperature it should be heated to 70-75 oC before neutralization to remove free fatty acids in short called FFA and other undesirable material by series of steps like addition of caustic lye, constant stirring after addition, little water washing (@ 1 to 10% ) , settling, allowing soap stock draining after 2-3 hours from where it is taken out into soap pan, Two hot water washing respectively. Final FFA should be 0.09 to 0.10%. then neutralized oil send to either storage or Bleacher

B. Bleaching of neutralized oil
Neutralized oil is then charged into the Bleacher Reactor wherein colour of oil is removed by bleaching process with aid of chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching earth. Oil is generally heated up to 110°C under continuous Stirring through drive and medium vacuum. Bleached oil then pumped to the filter press where oil spent earth with gums are get separated

C. Deodourising of Bleached oil
The Bleached oil is then charged to deodourizer where oil is heated above 110°C either steam or Thermic fluid oil and live steam sparged in bleached oil from the bottom steam nozzles. The temperature of oil is raised up to 200 to 220°C under high vacuum to remove undesirable odiferous material with l in the deodourizer.

C. Cooling of Deodourised oil
Immediately after deodorization refined vegetable oil dropped in to cooler which is under high vacuum with the help of water circulating coils and stirrer heat is take away oil is cooled up 45 o C. Again this deodorized oil then pumped to second filter press and polish filter and getting with transparent colour less oil refined vegetable oil .

*Additional Process for palm oil refinery with fraction process
Specially for palm oil refinery, fractionation process is required in which palm olein and palm stearin are separated by scientifically cooling the refined palm oil by chilling plant and then filtering the oil. For this purpose crystalizing vessel is used in which chilling pipe coils cool the oil for fractionation.

Palm sterene crystals are formed due to chilling which are separated in the filter press and pure liquid of palm olein is obtained and palm sterene cake is retained in the filter press. (01) The chilling plant for fractionation process which will include shell and tube chiller, compressor, motor, pump, condenser, control panel box etc. required for processing. (02) Crystallizer unit completed with chilling coil. (03) Filter press for separation of palm olein and palm stearin. Salient Features of Oil Refinery Machinery ( 5 MT/Batch to 10MT/Batch ie. 20 MT to 40MT/24 Hours) We makes all ranges of Refinery from 5 MT/Batch to 10MT/Batch ie. 20 MT to 40MT /day( 24Hours) includes recent developed technological machineries such as Neutralization reactor with conical bottom , bleacher with dished end on both sides , deodorizers with dished end on both sides , horizontal / vertical cooler , Plate and frame Filter press, pressure Leaf Filter, Crude oil/Washed oil/ Bleached oil/ Deodorized or cooled oil/ Refined oil/various all others storage tanks, Thermic fluid boiler, Steam boiler, Vacuum pump, Water pumps, oil pumps, High vacuum system with ejectors and booster, Barometric condenser at 12met. height to create high vacuum, Cooling Tower, water /oil// thermic fluid oil/barometric condenser, vacuum pump pipelines , Drive with gears and motors , ISI coloring codes for different pipelines , Vacuum gauges, pressure gauges and all other instruments wherever required , insulation, various types of standard valves, Reactor coils, SS nozzle and full steel structure with three floors according to the suitable capacity, type ,size and arrangement.

Crude veg, Oil ----->
1. Degumming----> Neutralization--->Bleaching-->Filtration Or 2. Refrigenationand Fitration ----->Deodourisation-->Filtration----> Micropolish filtration ----->Cooling --> Tank Storage or packing [ Refined vegetable oil

BSS CASTOR OIL REFINING:
Degumming is provided with steam coil and steam sparger for heating the oil. Bleacher is provided with double pipe coil. One is for thermic fluid and another is for cooling water. In case of Medicinal Castor oil Deodorizer is provided with double pipe coil i.e. in both the coils, thermic fluid is circulated. Steam is ejected from the stainless nozzles provided on the steam pipe cross supported at the bottom. The Process is nearby similar to above with slight change. Crude Castor Oil -----> Degumming----> Bleaching ---> Drying I I v BSS CASTOR OIL

Cargill plans to sell Kandla refinery to Louis Dreyfus 13 Dec 2007, 0225 hrs IST, Nidhi Nath Srinivas, Save Print EMail Share Comment Text:

NEW DELHI: Cooking oil is again sizzling with deals. US food industry giant Cargill is chopping its excess capacity in India. It plans to sell one of its port-based cooking oil refineries at Kandla to Louis Dreyfus, one of the world¶s top three commodity trading and processing companies. This would be the $20-billion Louis Dreyfus¶s first strategic asset acquisition here and a signal that it would soon enter India¶s branded cooking oils market. India is the world¶s fourth largest edible oil economy after the US, China and Brazil, and it is the second largest importer after China. With giants such as Bunge, Kuok, Wilmar, ADM, and Cargill already in the scrum, Indian consumers would now have one more global oilseed giant vying for their attention. Cargill India and Louis Dreyfus India previous week signed an MoU, under which Cargill would sell one of its refineries, which includes a vanaspati plant, at Kandla to Louis Dreyfus India. Market sources are pegging the sale at around Rs 100 crore at current replacement costs. Once the sale is through, Cargill India would still be left with three refineries, including one each at Kandla and Pune, that earlier belonged

to Parakh Foods, along with a greenfield plant at Paradeep. ³The sale is part of Cargill¶s strategy to undertake asset rationalisation. It would still have a capacity of 4,000 t per day, which is ample right now for its supply chain,´ sources said. There is also a feeling that it may be counter-productive in the edible oils business to concentrate refineries in a couple of places because transporting oil to retail areas is very expensive. ³Cooking oil is very freight sensitive. So you can¶t run the whole supply chain from refineries located in just one place. That is why most large players such as Adani Wilmar and Ruchi group have facilities located in various states,´ they added. Moreover, there is still plenty of capacity available. ³Cargill is open to acquisitions in other states, as and when the opportunity arises. Given the excess refining capacity available, it is easy to lease refineries whenever the need arises,´ sources said. Louis Dreyfus had been scouting for a potential acquisition target for the past one year as a preliminary move for entering India¶s branded edible oils market. Acquiring a port-based refinery makes strategic sense because it allows the MNC to leverage its global oil trading network and risk management systems. Edible oils have received maximum FDI among all food staples in India, especially because the branded oils segment is growing at a huge 15% every year. Moreover, companies enjoy a profit margin of around 6.5% when they sell branded oils . Louis Dreyfus has also leased several soyabean crushing plants this season to push its way into becoming one of the five largest soya processors in India, overtaking ITC.

EDIBLE OIL REFINERY : COOKING OIL REFINERY : VEGETABLE OIL REFINERY Process and Layout

For refining the oil, there are three basic processes in the edible oil refinery. First process is neutralizing the oil in the neutralizer to remove the Free Fatty Acids (FFA) by adding caustic soda. Oil is heated upto about 60°C by thermic fluid coils and oil is stirred by stirrer. Then soap stock formed due to chemical reaction is allowed to settle at the bottom of the neutralizer from where it is taken out into soap pan.

Neutralized oil is drawn into the second vessel called bleacher where colour of oil is removed by bleaching process with aid of chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching earth. Oil is generally heated upto 110°C by thermic fluid coils. Stirring is also continued. Bleaching process is done under vacuum. Bleached oil then goes to the filter press where bleaching earth and chemicals are separated and clean bleached oil is then drawn to deodourizer where oil is heated above 110°C through thermic fluid coils and then live steam is given to the oil from the bottom steam nozzles and temperature of oil is raised upto 200 to 220°C through thermic fluid coils. Entire process is done under high vacuum. Thus smell is removed from the oil in the deodourizer. Then it goes to cooler where water circulating coils take away heat and oil is cooled. Again it goes to second filter press where completely refined and transparent colour less oil is obtained. Thermic Fluid Boiler, Vacuum Pump, Barometric Condenser, Catchalls, Steam Generator etc. play their role in the refining process. So these equipments are part of the refinery and connected with the vessels through pipelines. Additional Process for palm oil refinery Specially for palm oil refinery, fractionation process is required in which palm olene and palm sterene are separated by scientifically cooling the refined palm oil by chilling plant and then filtering the oil. For this purpose crystalizing vessel is used in which chilling pipe coils cool the oil for fractionation. Palm sterene crystals are formed due to chilling which are separated in the filter press and pure liquid of palm olene is obtained and palm sterene cake is retained in the filter press. Specifications of Edible Oil Refinery
{Capacity 5 tonnes per day i.e. 4 batches of 1250 kg. each } (1) All the main vessels i.e. two neutralizers, one bleacher and one deodourizer are properly arranged on the first floor of the steel structure. So all these vessels are hanging on the steel strucutre. Just below the two neutralizers, two soap pans are resting on the ground floor in which soap stock is collected. There is a steam pipe arrangement in the soap pans also.

(2) Steel structure has size of 14ft. x 14ft. (i.e. 4.25mtr. x 4.25mtr). First floor is 9ft. above the ground level. There are 8 coloumns of double chanel which supports the entire steel structure. It has proper staircase and railing on all the sides of steel structure at the first floor and also on staircase. Two filter presses are also accomodated on the first floor of the steel structure. (3) Two oil tanks i.e. raw oil tank and bleached oil tank are accomodated under the strucutre on the ground floor. Then cooler, thermic fluid boiler, two steam generators, vacuum pump, water pumps, oil pumps and refined oil tank are arranged on the ground floor around the steel structure i.e. outside the square of 14ft. x 14ft. of the steel structure. So total space occupied is about 30ft. × 30ft. (9mtr. x 9mtr.) (4) 40ft. tower is erected just near the deodourizer and its complete structure is supported from the ground floor and also it is attached with the refinery structure. Berometric condenser is arranged at 40ft. height to create proper vacuum. (5) All types of piplines are interconnected as per the requirement of the refinery i.e. oil pipelines (yellow colour), vacuum pipelines (blue colour), steam pipelines (black colour), water pipelines (white colour), thermic fluid pipelines (red colour). At all appropriate places, proper valves are provided in the pipelines. (6) Neutralizer is provided with thermic fluid coil for heating the oil. (7) Bleacher is provided with double pipe coil. One is for thermic fluid and another is for cooling water. (8) Deodorizer is provided with double pipe coil i.e. in both the coils, thermic fluid is circulated. Steam is ejected from the stainless nozzles provided on the steam pipe cross supported at the bottom. (9) Cooler is provided with double pipe coil. Both for cooling water. (10) In every vessel temperature gauge is provided. Vacuum gauge is provided on deodorizer, bleacher and cooler. (11) Neutralizer is open on the top having conical bottom. (12) Bleacher has dished ends on both the sides. Similarly deodorizer has dished ends on both the sides. Cooler has also dished ends on both the sides.
Specification of Edible oil Refinery with fractionation Process

(13) There will be chilling plant for fractionation process which will include shell and tube chiller, compressor, motor, pump, condenser, control panel box etc. (14) Crystallizing unit which is similar to neutralizer complete with chilling coil. (15) Filter press for separation of palm olein and palm stearin.