Construction of Pipe Roof and Support System in Proposed Outlet Drain Undercrossing North Buona Vista Road, Singapore

T Sun, W& M Consultants, Singapore.
Mr. Chelliah_MURUGAMOORTHY, Land Transport Authority, Singapore, Dr.Lingting Zhang, Or Kim Peow Contractors (Pte) Ltd, Singapore

Abstract: The project in the paper included design and construction of a permanent 120m long RC box culvert and sewer diversion at North Buona Vista Road (NBV) Singapore. The pipe roof method was selected by the design and build contractor in fulfilment of the contract requirement for the 53 m box section undercrossing NBV Road. The adopted methodology comprised the installation by pipe jacking of numbers of interlocking steel pipes followed by traverse series of steel frames for safe mining of the tunnel. This served to maintain uninterrupted service conditions for the road, subways tunnel and other services. There are many challenges in the construction of pipe roof and mined tunnel. This paper deals with the consideration in the design and construction of such works. It also highlighted the problems encountered during the construction, subsequent solution adopted and protection of existing utilities as well as monitoring of settlement of the surrounding areas of the project.

minimal deviations, good safety and quality standards 1. INTRUDUCTION: The Land Transport Authority of Singapore (LTA) and within the time schedule and cost control. The project was divided into various zones and areas as shown in Fig 1. Fig 2 shows the longitudinal section view along with the mined tunnel. The outer dimension of drain is 7m wide by 5m high (inner 6m x 4 m). The gradient of the proposed outlet drain is 0.1% ( 1: 1000). Contract C 8288 for Tanglin Halt Outlet Drain at North Buona Vista of Road a comprises 120m long the design and RC



(reinforcement concrete) box culvert, sewer diversion and other related works located along Commonwealth Avenue, Commonwealth Avenue West Buona Vista Road. Part of the works under this contract is the construction of approximately 53m of drainage box culvert undercrossing North Buona Vista Road using approved tunneling method. The Contractor Or Kim Peow Contractors (Pte) Ltd (OKP) commenced the project on 15th December 2008 and the whole works were scheduled for completion on 14th December 2010. The contract’s requirement mandated that uninterrupted, smooth road and rail traffic be maintained, and that the sewer and other utilities be protected against damages. After careful consideration it was concluded that with the adoption of pipe roof, mined tunnel method, the requirements can be met. The outlet drain box culvert under design and build contract was completed with and North

Fig 1. Layout of proposed drainage box culvert

Fig 2. Longitudinal section of drainage box culvert

T. GEOLOGICAL / SITE CONDITION The key design considerations as detailed in various communications with LTA(LTA 2009b) and other tender The ground condition along the alignment of the mined tunnel is given in LTA’s soil interpretative report (LTA 2009a). CC4739C. . 4. have been deployed in USA and Singapore in the last twenty years. with obstructions such as sheet piles. type and capabilities of jacking Fig 3. ii. as reported in Martha Railway Underpass . Design soil parameters settlement .USA (Atalah. skill of operators. stability of the excavated base stability during excavation. General soil profile of the mined tunnel zone machine used. and D. ABH 3 and ABH 4 and is summarised in Fig 3. CONSTRUCTION 3. iii. 16mm thick circular steel pipes interconnected by clutch to form an inverted U pipe-roof structure around the footprint of the proposed drain. 1991) Orchard-C. Soil improvements and types and extent of protection to existing services. and contract documents consisted of factors such as: i. including soil-structure interaction between pipe-roof and surrounding face and ground.1 Construction methodology The temporary earth retaining structure to support the The part of the contract involving the drain undercrossing North Buona Vista Road was to be on a design and build basis. 1993).L. The profile is derived from the soil logs at boreholes ABH 2. Other pertinent points related to method and operation included: the adoption of 3 sided pipe roof pipe. This method known as pipe roof/ arch. This was achieved over several months of presentations and detail proposal to and close discussions with LTA and PUB (Public Utilities Board).K . Iseley. DESIGN AND BUILD CONTRACT 4. 2010) and adopted during the construction stage. A. iv. the later being the Authority which will take over the drain upon its completion. their maintenance of face pressure. Structural aspects such as the design of the piperoof and the structural steel frames supporting the piped-roof. details of pipe clutching and damages expected to be caused by excessive Table 1.. timber pieces. ground during the excavation of the mined tunnel consists of a series of 780mm diameter. Risk assessment and hazard analysis including alert and suspension levels for instrumentations such as inclinometers and settlement markers were thoroughly considered in the Report for Overall Constriction Impact Assessment (CIAR) (Parson B. 2009). mitigation measures and others.. excavation speed especially when encountered The geotechnical design parameters adopted in the design is shown in Table 1 (Parson B. P. Geotechnical aspects. The Contractor’s appointed design consultant studied the soil condition and other information on the project and designed the pipe roof over other method of construction for the drain.2.Tang Underpass Singapore (Darling.

The permanent drain section inside the mined tunnel between the jacking shaft and the receiving shaft were . and a 10m zone at mid-point of the mined tunnel. comprised of 10 at the top and 6 on either side . Drainage holes (2 nos.1 to Fig 4. Three sections of soil improvements were provided and these are located at the interfaces with the jacking shaft.65 m spacing both ways. would be provided to stabilize the face of the excavation in the F2 layer.They were installed in predetermined sequence.5m. Soil reinforcement in the form of reinforcement bar arranged in a square grid pattern at 0.3 View of interlocking pipe roof with steel entrance frame cut. The interlocking steel pipes forming the pipe roof together with the support system is shown in Fig 4. and consecutively on left and right before the vertical rows were done.5 Complete pipe roof with interlocking pipes The pipe roof (Parsons B 2009) is in-turn supported by structural steel frames at every 1.5m with the width of the excavated slope also limited to 1. the receiving shaft. Each excavation step is also 1.2 Details of Pipe Clutch built-up of excess pore-water pressure during the excavation. The face of the excavation would also be protected temporarily during each stage excavation with a layer of short-crete of 15mm thick.5m’s interval.The pipe roof formed by 22 rows of steel pipes .4 partially completed pipe roof Fig 4. After the pipe roof and the last portal frame( at the tunnel opening into the receiving shaft) were installed.) were also provided to release any Fig 4. starting from the lead central row on top. the soldier piles and the sheet piles around the shaft were Fig 4.1 Transverse view of interlocking pipe roof Fig 4.5 Fig 4.

. 0+055 . The West End line viaduct and the MRT (CCL 4& 5 ) Tunnel. whereas others were done after that to ensure that the steel pipes do not pose any corrosion problems in the long run.2009 d).1 Protections of utilities Fig 7a shows the service MRT Line tunnels under the Many utilities were encountered in the project areas and need to be diverted or protected. and the influence zone of the services Fig 6 Cross section showing major utilities relative distance from the proposed out let drain and the Fig 7b. The plan and cross section view showing the utilities is given in Fig 5 and 6 Fig 7a MRT tunnel underneath of mined tunnel Fig 7b. 4. Fig (LTA. mined tunnel and found to have maximum settlement of 6 mm. pipe jacking and monitoring of settlements.and 7 c shows the cross sections of the major services( MRT /Sewer lines and MRT viaduct ) .Section taken at Ch. B 2010). mined tunnel. much less than the allwoable 15mm according to LTA Civil Design Criteria ( LTA 2009 c) and LTA Code of practice for RailWay Protecvtion. 2 Construction problems encountered The major construction problems encountered include those realted to utilities protecton..then cast. 4. These were identified in the CIAR Report ( Parsons. which was laid some 4. Some of the piped-roof pipes were filled with approved cement-based backfill material before the Fig 5 Plan view showing major utilities casting of the final drain section.2.4 m below the propsed outlet drain were checked for the effect of the excaation of the shafts.

the works on them. Existing utilities within the area of mined tunnel Utilities Protection measures NA(Within allowable limit) and solutions decided upon expeditiously and promptly carried out to prevent any further excessive settlements. Table 2. PUB and other agencies helped to ensure that all such measures were carefully evaluated Fig 8 .230kv cables 22kv cables Joint bays(4 m above Culvert) *Whichever Support by TAM Grouting 1:200 Support by TAM Grouting Support and jack up 1:275 20 mm lesser . and cumulated in the complex web of instrumentations installed (refer to Fig 9 ). At rare occasions when settlements occasionally exceeded the suspension levels. The laborious monitoring process. the pipe jacking and tunnel mining works were stopped to enable lifting of the services to adjust the base condition to normal to avoid damages to the utilities. The mandatory requirements for the maintenance of uninterrupted service for the services offered many challenges to the project. This is done in compliance of the approved( by the authorities) stringent method. Utilities and protection measures adopted The services and utilities and their allowable settlements at the influence zones of the mined tunnel are indicted in Table 2. The requirements of Power Grid were particularly strenuous on the joint cable bay at the centre of box culvert along North Buona Vista Road. Layout of Joint Bay & Instrumentations 1:300 . Fig 8 shows the general summary of utilities encountered and the protection measures adopted. NA Not Applicable Instrumentations were installed to measure the effect of Fig 7c-Section taken at Ch 0+065. with daily /weekly instrumentation meeting in the presence of LTA. Allowable different settlement 15 or 1:1000 * 15 or 1:1000* Allowable absolute settlement The West End line viaduct CCL 4& 5 Tunnel 150 dia water pipe 300 dia water pipe SingTel/ Star Hub cables 1650 dia sewer NA (Within allowable limit (Abandoned) Re-propping 1:240 Re-propping 1:100 Within allowable limit (estimated less than 1: 300) NA Fig 9 .

2009 ) along the traverse section of 51mm. Layout of instrumentation and monitoring system for a number of locations.8 m were to be driven and the soil excavated . galvanised steel pieces and timber residues.took much longer (over 30 days each). which took over 4 hours for each joint.. The jacking force encountered for these cases went up to over 150 tonne and additional time was needed to complete these rows. Pipe jacking force for each pipe was calculated to be 50 tonne for the 53 m of jacking. so as to enable the cutting and the extraction of the sheet pile The allowable limits for settlement as set in CIAR are as follows: • • Alert level =0. Jacking for this particular row progressed smoothly until the cutter head of the machine hit very hard object. Two jacking machines were utilised and the teams’ work to jack the pipes in set predetermined designed sequence to enable proper pipe roof to be formed after all pipes have been jacked. This provided the systematic monitoring of the ground settlement of the surrounding areas and other changes such as in ground water table and other as a result of construction of the pipe jacking and the mined tunnel.4. which were left in place by earlier contracts. A thorough investigation was carried. or maximum gradient of 1/250 or 0. This was mostly achieved with the jacking force ranging from 50 to 80 tonne for all except three rows of pipe that encountered obstruction. at some 20 m from the jacking shaft. and it was decided that a series of steel caisson of diameter 1.3 Settlement Control and Monitoring The CIAR Report (Parsons B. Suspension level =deisgn value the ground level was The maximum settlement at expected to be along the centre of the mined tunnel axis. later found to be sheet pile. The pipe jacking works were planned on a 24 hours basis. which were unforeseen. This resulted in a cycle of 9 days in between each row of jacking. These obstructions were in the form of sheet pile.2 Pipe Jacking 4. This was well within the LTA allowable limit of 1/100 (LTA 2009e). 2010) helped to design and adopt a comprehensive monitoring system as shown in Fig 10 . The three rows which hit obstructions . Luck does seem to play a big part as the sheet piles were encountered only in one row of jacking. However with skilled operators and proper design and site management.2. the jacking 22 pipes was completed from Aug 2009 to Jul 2010. These had not identified during the tender stage. alternating between actual pipe jacking and butt welding of the steel pieces and testing of the welds. . The particular case of encountering of sheet pile during jacking proved to be very challenging indeed.2. Fig 11 shows the predicted settlement (Wong K S. a total of 11 months. This is within the overall construction period planned for the pipe jacking phase. In all.7 x deisgn values Fig 10. The works were carried out overnight with partial lane closures to ensure minimal traffic interruption along the North Buona Vista Road.4%. no significant damages were encountered in the works or utilities during the process.

Power Grid. as well as experienced design consultants and supervision staff to complete the design and build outlet drain . after jacking and tunnel mining 5. The prisms were installed along pipe L1 next to the lead pipe (The lead pipe is in the centre of the top rows of pipes) which was expected to produce the maximum settlements. At two other prisms locations in the centre of the left and right vertical pipes. sub contractors. In the meetings. The pipe roof component of the contract C 8288 is the most challenging of the project. Daily instrumentation meetings were troublesome but useful to ensure all stakeholders are up to date and to provide promptness of action. Plots in Fig 12 depict the readings taken with the prisms installed to measure the combined effect of pipe roof and mined tunnel. SITE ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT The contractor engaged a number of specialists and subcontractors such as grouting. This is below the allowable of 125 mm . In all. During the course of the construction. Power Grid. and SingTel etc were initially apprehensive on the risk posed by such method. and give prompt decision to enable problems to be resolved. the pipe roof and the tunnel mining were done with uninterrupted service of the bored tunnel. and the accredited checkers. However with the direct and active involvements of all parties. the project represents a successful implementation of the good design and build construction mode for a difficult and delicate project. meetings with the contractor. PUB) and consultants were held daily / weekly accordingly to the needs. and predicated of 51 mm. The well coordinated efforts of these stakeholders resulted in Fig 11 The predicted settlement along the traverse section during various stages of excavation overall completion of the project with minimal time and cost overrun. The tight control and reporting requirements ensured that works were carried out within . SingTel. and it was dictated at the tender stage by the Client ( LTA) that it be done on a design and build basis. the instrumentation personnel. and with skilled 6. pipe jacking. the participants evaluated and decided on rectification measures and adjustments to the procedures to ensure working within the alert and suspensions levels and in a safe and acceptable manner.Fig 12. after the completion of the tunnel mining . CONCLUSION operations of the jacking and other specialists. instrumentation monitoring provide the necessary monitoring and back up support. sewer lines and other utilities. shaft construction . maximum settlements were much less than this figure. specialists. Plots showing readings of Prisms installed along the axis of pipe. The strict procedures adopted on the work control especially on monitoring and remedial measures taken to contain settlement issues were strictly successfully implemented. The maximum settlement at this pipe was 30 mm at about 20 m from the jacking shaft. instrumentation and monitoring experts. roads. the authorities such as LTA and PUB are constantly on the scene to During construction. authorities (such as LTA. Many stakeholders including the client and other authorities such as PUB. including designers.

Or Kim Peow Contractors (Pte) Ltd (OKP) and Land Transport Authority (LTA) for permission to publish this paper. 19-23. 1991. and D.LTA Civil Design Criteria LTA 2009d . LTA interpretive soil report for C 8288. Tunnels & summer.” Pacific Tunnelling. and within the project’s time frame and contract cost approved. REFERENCES: Atalah. Rim Supplement to pp. Chapter 24. June. The views presented in the paper are solely that of the authors. Correspondence between OKP/LTA and Authorities (LTA comments on contractor’s response to LTA earlier comments on DAR 8288/CON/0019(DATED 7 May 09). LTA and quality guidance. Jacking under Singapore’s Busiest Street.. 1993. pp. Wong K S. 435453. Parsons Brinckerhoff. 2009. LTA 2009e. The lessons learnt from this project. O/ 2009. LTA 2009b." Proceedings of Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference. Independent report on Tanglin Halt Outlet Drain-mined tunnel.T. 2010. Darling. Design Report for Mined Tunnel submitted to LTA.L. LTA 2009c . P. Report for overall constriction Impact Assessment (CIAR). Code of practice for works on Public Street. unless otherwise stated. A. . especially in mutual consultations and control can be applied universally in similar projects. SME. "Pipe Arch Horizontal Drift Method for MARTA's Transit Extension Under I-285.Code of practice for RailWay Protecvtion. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the Contractor. "Jacking Under Singapore's Busiest Street. Parsons Brinckerhoff. Iseley.