Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA


Background: HSPA Evolution Higher data rates Signaling Improvements Architecture Evolution/ Home NodeB

HSPA+ (HSPA Evolution) Background
For operators deploying High Speed Packet Access (HSPA*) now there is the now, need to continue enhancing the HSPA technology 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) being standardized now, but not backwards compatible with HSPA 223 HSDPA operators in service in 93 countries (Oct. 08)** Investment protection needed for current HSPA deployments HSPA+ effort introduced in 3GPP in March 2006 Initiated by 3G Americas & the GSMA HSPA+ defines a broad framework and set of requirements for the evolution of HSPA
Rel.-7: Rel 7: improvements mainly in downlink Rel.-8: further uplink enhancements

*HSPA is the combination of HSDPA and HSUPA

HSPA+ introduced to continue focus on enhancements to HSPA
UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 2

HSPA+ Goals
Based on the importance of the HSPA-based radio network 3GPP HSPA based network, agreed that HSPA+ should: Provide spectrum efficiency, peak data rates & latency comparable to LTE in 5 MHz
Exploit full potential of the CDMA air interface before moving to OFDM

Allow operation in an optimized packet-only mode for voice and data
Utilization of shared channels only

Be backward compatible with Release 99 through Release 6 p g Offer a smooth migration path to LTE/SAE through commonality, and facilitate joint technology operation Ideally, Ideally only need a simple infrastructure upgrade from HSPA to HSPA+ HSPA evolution is two-fold Improvement of the radio Architecture evolution

Aggressive HSPA+ goals for enhancing HSPA A i l f h i
UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 3

Higher Order Modulations (HOMs) Uplink Downlink BPSK 2 bits/symbol y 16QAM 4 bits/symbol y 64QAM 6 bits/symbol y Increases the peak data rate in a high SNR environment Very effective for micro cell and indoor deployments HOMs increase the number of bits/symbols transmitted. thereby increasing the peak rate i i th k t UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 4 .

0 11.1 21 1 HSPA+ (64 QAM) 14.HOM Peak Rate Performance Benefits: DL 64-QAM & UL 16-QAM Downlink Mb/s 42. quasi-static or fixed users close to th cell center.0 HSPA+ (16 QAM & 2x2 MIMO) 21. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 5 . l t the ll t lightly loaded conditions) HSPA+ (64 QAM & 2x2 MIMO*) 28.74 HSUPA (BPSK) *Part of 3GPP Rel-8 Theoretical Max Peak Rates In Perfect RF Conditions Higher order modulations provide peak rate benefits for users in very good channel conditions UMTS Networks **Using 2 resource blocks for PUCCH and max prime factor restriction = 5 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.g.5 11 5 HSDPA (16 QAM) Uplink HSPA+ (16 QAM) 5.2 Equal to LTE peak rates in 5 MHz 2x2 SU-MIMO + 64 QAM in DL 16-QAM in UL** The use of Higher Order Modulations significantly increases the th i th theoretical ti l peak rates of HSPA Provides data rate b P id d t t benefits fit for users in very good channel conditions (e.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 6 .3 11 3 Mbit/s 15. Equalizer Without 64-QAM Sector Throughput 90%-tile Throughput (normalized for 1 user per sector) 10 Mbit/s 12 Mbit/s With 64-QAM 11.HSDPA 64-QAM – Micro Cell / Hotspot Deployment ~30% throughput increase for top 10% users Results from 3GPP R1-063415 Key assumptions: 500m intersite distance and 6dB attenuation from non-serving cells (models site-to-site isolation) 2 Rx Antenna.6 Mbit/s Gain 13% 30% HOMs provide significant improvements for “hot spot” deployments UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

Multiple Antenna Techniques • Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) or Beamforming − − − Node-B UE 1 Different data streams sent to different users using the same codes Improves throughput even in low SINR conditions (cell edge) (cell-edge) Already supported in Release 5/6. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 7 . works with single antenna UEs UE 2 • Spatial Multiplexing (SM) − − − SU MIMO SU-MIMO Multiple data streams sent to the same user Significant throughput gains for UEs in high SINR conditions Double Transmit Adaptive Array ( p y (D-TxAA) was adopted for Rel-7 ) p FDD and is based on dual codeword SU-MIMO Node-B UE • Closed Loop T Cl dL Transmit Di i Diversity (CLTD) i − − Improves reliability on a single data stream Fall back scheme if channel conditions do not allow SM Node-B UE UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

e. 4 beams Selection • Spatial partitioning of the sector area by help of a fixed number of beams • S-CPICH (per beam) is introduced for improving UE channel estimation • Beam specific secondary scrambling codes can be applied → code limitation preventable Fixed Fi d spatial filt ti l filters. Butler-Matrix or baseband implementation p UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Fixed Beam Switching (FBS) From UL e. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 8 .g.g.

Adaptive Beamforming/ Beam Pointing (BP) User specific adaptive spatial filtering • User specific antenna patterns are formed depending on a pre-defined optimisation criteria. g − MaxSINR − MaxSNR • maxSNR significantly outperforms maxSIR UL measurements t Adaptation Algorithm • For a low angular spread BP is nearly equivalent to maxSNR UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 9 . . e.g.

N} • CSISO UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 10 .Basic MIMO Channel M Tx Coding/Modulation/ Weighting/Mapping N Rx Weighting/Demapping Demodulation/Decoding The MIMO channel consists of M Tx and N Rx antennas Each Tx antenna transmits a different signal g The signal from Tx antenna j is received at all Rx antennas i Channel capacity can increase linearly CMIMO ≤ min{M.

QPSK) V11 Antenna 1 V12 Stream 2 Encode Channel interleave Modulator (16QAM.e.MIMO in HSPA+ Release 7 MIMO for HSDPA 2x2 D-TxAA.. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 11 . QPSK) V21 Antenna 2 V22 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. change per subframe and no antenna verification) Stream 1 Encode Channel interleave Modulator (16QAM. Mode 1 d HS-DPCCH-only feedback (CQI and PCI reported on HS-DPCCH) PARC Algorithm with support for dual stream and single stream (different from Tx diversity i.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 12 .MIMO Performance Benefits 2x2 D-TxAA MIMO scheme doubles peak rate from 14 4 Mbps to 28 8 Mbps D TxAA 14.75 0.25 0 Near Cell Center SISO (1x1) Note: All gains normalized to Near Cell Center SISO Data Rate Spectral Effic ciency Gain (%) of 2x2 n MIMO over 1x2 LM o MMSE 2 100 80 60 40 20 0 D ata R ate G ain o f M IM O vs. mean & cell edge user data rate benefits for isolated cells or noise/coverage limited cells 2x2 D-TxAA MIMO provides 20%-60% larger spectral efficiency than 1x2 1.5 0.75 1.8 2x2 D-TxAA MIMO provides significant experienced peak.25 1 25 1 0. S IS O fo ran Iso late C ell r ed MIMO (2x2) Average Cell Location Cell Edge Interference Limted System Isolated Cell MIMO provides significant data rate and spectral efficiency benefits for isolated. noise limited cells UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.4 28.5 1.

16QAM QPSK.6 36 3. 16QAM QPSK.8 3. 64QAM QPSK. 16QAM QPSK. 16QAM QPSK.9 1.0 17. 16QAM. 6 Q QPSK.2 7. 16QAM.HSDPA – UE Physical Layer Capabilities HS DSCH HS-DSCH Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Catego y Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Catego y 3 Category 13 Category 14 Category 15 Category 16 Category 17 Category 18 Category 19 Category 20 Maximum number of HS-DSCH multicodes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 15 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Supported Modulation Formats QPSK. 16QAM QPSK. 16QAM QPSK. 16QAM QPSK.2 Note: UEs of Categories 15 – 20 support MIMO UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 64QAM QPSK.1 23.2 1. 16QAM QPSK. 16QAM QPSK QPSK Q S . 16QAM QPSK.0 0. 64QAM/ MIMO: QPSK.3 28. 16QAM Q S . 64QAM Minimum inter-TTI interval 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum MAC-hs TB size 7298 7298 7298 7298 7298 7298 98 14411 14411 20251 27952 3630 3630 35 80 35280 42192 23370 27952 35280/ 23370 42192/ 27952 35280 42192 Total number of soft channel bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 6 00 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800 259200 59 00 259200 345600 345600 259200/ 345600 259200/ 345600 518400 518400 Theoretical maximum data rate (Mbit/s) 1. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 cf. 6Q .1/ 28. 16QAM. 16QAM QPSK. 16QAM.2 10.306 13 .3 21.1 14. TS 25.6 6 21. 16QAM QPSK.6 7.2 42. 16QAM.8 17. 64QAM QPSK. 6Q QPSK. 64QAM/ MIMO: QPSK. 16QAM.0 35. 16QAM QPSK.8 1.2 1.6/ 23.

num.7) Max.74 2.89 2.45 2. a u Codes 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 Min SF S SF4 SF4 SF4 SF2 SF2 SF2 SF2 EDCH TTI C 10 msec 10 msec/ / 2 msec 10 msec 10 msec/ 2 msec 10 msec 10 msec/ 2 msec 10 msec/ 2 msec Maximum MAC-e a u Ce TB size 7110 14484/ / 2798 14484 20000/ 5772 20000 20000/ 11484 8 20000/ 22996 Theoretical maximum PHY eo et ca a u data rate (Mbit/s) 0.5 NOTE 1: When 4 codes are transmitted in parallel.71 1.306 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.0/ 11.0 2.0/ 2. 25. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 14 .4 1.0/ 5.45/ / 1.E-DCH – UE Physical Layer Capabilities E-DCH C Category Category 1 Category 2 g y Category 3 g y Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 (Rel. two codes shall be transmitted with SF2 and two codes with SF4 NOTE 2: UE Category 7 supports 16QAM cf.

VoIP) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 15 .g.Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) Uplink DPCCH gating during p g g g inactivity significant reduction in UL interference F-DPCH F DPCH gating during inactivity New uplink DPCCH slot format optimized for transmission p DPCCH only Prior to Rel-7 Data Pilot Rel-7 using CPC Data Pilot HS SCCH less HS-SCCH-less transmission introduced to reduce signaling bottleneck for realreal time-services on HSDPA CPC significantly reduces control channel overhead for low bit rate real-time services (e.

5 1 0.9 CPC provides significant V IP on HSPA capacity b id i ifi t VoIP it benefits fit * All VoIP on HSPA capacities assume two receive antennas in the terminal UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.2 AMR7.95 AMR5.5 0 Note: All capacity gains normalized to AMR12. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 16 .2 circuit voice and 35-40% benefit compared to Rel-6 VoIP on HSPA 3 R'99 Circuit Voice VoIP on HSPA (Rel'6)* VoIP on HSPA (CPC)* Vo Capa oIP acity Gain of CPC n C 2.5 2 1.2 Circuit Voice Capacity AMR12.CPC Performance Benefits CPC provides up to a factor of two VoIP on HSPA capacity benefit compared to Rel-99 AMR12.

“Always On” Enhancement of CPC CPC allows UEs in CELL DCH to “sleep” during periods of inactivity CELL_DCH sleep Reduces signaling load and battery consumption (in combination with DRX) Allows users to be kept in CELL_DCH with HSPA bearers configured Need to page and re-establish bearers leads to call set up delay UE in URA_PCH Incoming call Without CPC. users typically kept in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH state to save radio resources and battery Page UE Paging Response UE in CELL_DCH Incoming call CPC allows users to kept in CELL_DCH Send data almost Immediately (<50ms reactivation) ( ) CELL_FACH Re-establish bearers CELL_DCH Send data Avoids several hundred ms of call setup d l f ll t delay CPC avoids re-establishment delays UMTS Networks improves “always on” experience WS 2008 17 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim .

-8 work item opened to improve RACH procedure Direct use of HSUPA in CELL FACH CELL_FACH UE in URA_PCH Incoming call Page UE Paging Response Use HSDPA for faster transmission of signaling messages 2ms frame length with up to 4 retransmissions CELL_FACH Re establish Re-establish bearers CELL_DCH Send data Enhanced CELL_FACH/Paging/RACH reduces setup d l E h d CELL FACH/P i /RACH d delay UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. eventually fall back to CELL_PCH/URA_PCH HSPA+ introduces e a ce e ts to S t oduces enhancements reduce the delay in signaling the transition to CELL_DCH use of HSDPA in CELL_FACH and URA/CELL_PCH t t i t d f S URA/CELL PCH states instead of SCCPCH Enhanced CELL_FACH Enhanced Paging procedure In Rel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 improves P C i PoC 18 .Enhanced CELL_FACH & Enhanced Paging Procedure UEs are not always kept in CELL DCH CELL_DCH state.

E-HICH for HARQ τ p a #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 PRACH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Access slot set 1 Access slot set 2 10 ms 10 ms UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.E-RACH – High level description RACH preamble ramping as in R 99 with AICH/E-AICH acknowledgement R’99 AICH/E AICH Transition to E-DCH transmission in CELL_FACH Possibility to seamlessly transfer to Cell_DCH NodeB can control common E-DCH resource in CELL_FACH Resource assignment indicated from NodeB to UE Transmission starts with power ramping on preamble reserved for E-DCH access NodeB responds by allocating common E-DCH resources UE starts common E-DCH transmission. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 19 . E-AGCH for rate control. F-DPCH for power control.

UTRAN Architecture Core Network Iu RNS SDU buffer Iu RNS Iur RNC Iub Iub Node B Iub Node B TCP RTT: ~300ms UTRAN RNC Iub Ib Node B Priority Queue Node B MAC-hs RTT: ~10ms RLC RTT RTT: ~100ms UE Multiple ARQ loops at different levels UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 20 .

00 2.00 Rmax [Mb bps] 8. Theoretical limit: PHY >> RLC Options to increase data rate Increase PDU size/ RLC window Reduce RTT 80 100 120 HSDPA increases peak data rate significantly. RLC Window Size. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 21 . while it does not reduce RLC RTT equivalently ! UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.00 8 00 6.00 12. h t Li it Wi d Si RLC payload = 320bits.00 0.00 10.00 4. Parameter = RLC RTT [ms] 14.00 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 RLC Window Size [#PDUs] Limit to safely avoid protocol error. RLC Window Size RLC Th Throughput Limit vs.RLC Throughput Limit vs.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 22 . x19 2 80 Rel’6 RLC-AM PDU MAC-hs 22 bits 2 80 2 80 2 80 MAC-hs PDU Traffic flow i for user k Traffic flow j for user k 1500 byte IP packet 1500 byte IP packet RLC AM RLC-AM 2 RLC-AM PDU RLC AM RLC-AM 2 RLC-AM PDU 1500 1500 MAC-ehs 1 MAC-ehs PDU Rel’7 1500 1500 Layer-2 enhancements to support higher rates of HSPA+ UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.. even with aggressive settings for the RLC PDU size and RLC-AM window size Release 7 introduces new Layer-2 features to improve HSDPA Flexible RLC PDU size MAC-ehs l MAC h layer segmentation/ t ti / reassembly (based on radio conditions) MAC-ehs layer flow multiplexing Release 8 improves E-DCH MAC-i/ MAC-is Traffic flow i for user k 1500 byte IP packet RLC-AM 2 80 2 80 .Enhanced Layer-2 Support for High Data Rates Release 6 RLC layer cannot support new peak rates offered by HSPA+ features such as MIMO & 64-QAM RLC-AM peak rate limited to ~13 C pea ate ted 3 Mbps.. .

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 23 .321) Flow Control Scheduling/ Priority handling HARQ handling TFRC Selection Priority Queue Mux MAC – Control Segmentation Segment S t ation Segment S t ation Priority Queue MUX Segment S t ation HARQ entity TFRC selection Associated Uplink Signalling HS-DSCH Associated Downlink Signalling UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.MAC-ehs in NodeB MAC-d flows MAC-ehs Scheduling/Priority handling Priority Queue distribution Priority Queue Priority Queue Priority Queue MAC-ehs Functions (TS 25.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 24 .Evolved HSPA Architecture (1) – Objectives Further improve latency and bit rate with limited and controlled hardware and software impacts Take advantage of these improvements as soon as today E. software) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. independently of the availability of the SAE Core Operate as a packet-only network based on shared channels only Backwards compatible with legacy terminals Simple upgrade of existing infrastructure (for both hardware.g.

with carrier sharing GGSN GGSN Iu SGSN SGSN Control plane: Iu Control plane: Iu Userplane: Iu/Gn (”one tunnel”) RNC Userplane: Iu/Gn (”one tunnel”) ” Legacy” UTRAN Iur EvolvedHSPA NodeB EvolvedHSPA NodeB Iur NodeB NodeB UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.stand-alone Evolved HSPA.Evolved HSPA Architecture (2) – Full RNC/NodeB collapse 2 deployment scenarios: standalone UTRAN or carrier sharing with “legacy”UTRAN Evolved HSPA. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 25 .

RRC. handover control. RLC/MAC) Optimisation of resources Central management of common channels g Synergy with LTE RLC.Evolved HSPA Architecture (3): Key features Optimal efficiency with all radio functions grouped together (Radio bearer control. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 26 . RLC RRC already in the nodeB+ Ciphering and compression already in NodeB+ (with decision of PDCP in LTE eNodeB) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

indoor Single device for home/ on the move Special billing plans (e. DSL) Small power (~100mW) to only provide coverage inside/ close to the building Advantages Improved coverage esp.g. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 27 .Home NodeB – Background Home NodeB (aka Femtocell) located at the customers premise Connected via customers fixed line (e g S ) (e. home zone) Gateway UE IP Network Challenges Interference Security Costs Operator CN UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.g.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 28 .Home NodeB architecture principles based on extending Iu interface down to HNB (new Iuh interface) RAN Gateway Approach with new “Iuh” Interface Approach A h Mobile CS/PS Core Iu-CS/PS CS/ S Leverage Standard CN Interfaces (IuCS/PS) / ) Minimise functionality within Gateway Move RNC Radio Control Functions to Home NodeB and extend Iu NAS & RAN control layers over IP network Features Security architecture Plug-and-Play approach Femto local control protocol CS User Plane protocol PS User Plane protocol FMS interface RNC CN Interface RAN GW Iuh NodeB HNB UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.

-7 & 8 E-DCH Rel 7 Investment protection for HSPA operators Fill the gap before deployment of LTE Provide alternative to LTE in some selected scenarios Improvements on capacity and performance Higher peak data rates Signaling improvements Architecture evolution A hi l i HSPA+ features were designed to provide a smooth evolution from Rel-99 or g p Rel-5/Rel-6 HSPA by enabling: Backwards compatibility Legacy Rel 99/Rel 5/Rel 6 terminals can be supported on an HSPA+ carrier Rel-99/Rel-5/Rel-6 simultaneously with HSPA+ traffic New HSPA+ terminals likely with support Rel-99 and/or Rel-5/Rel-6 HSPA Simple upgrade of existing infrastructure (for both HW & SW) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Summary Enhancements for HSDPA & E DCH suggested for UMTS Rel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 29 .

L2 enh.0 Mbps UL: 384 Kbps HSUPA DL: 14. SW upgrade to support HSPA+ HSPA+.0 Mbps UL: 11. CPC Enhanced CELL_FACH/ RACH/ Paging. availability expected 2008-2009 Enhanced performance on W-CDMA/HSPA through radio improvements and W CDMA/HSPA architecture evolution.74 Mbps HSPA+ DL: 28.A Smooth Evolution to HSPA+ 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 W-CDMA DL: 2 Mbps UL: 384 kbps HSDPA DL: 14.2 Mbps UL: 11. MIMO. 35-40% improvement in VoIP capacity Saves 100s of ms of setup delay Coexistence with Rel99/HSDPA/HSUPA.5 Mbps DL: 42. smooth migration to LTE UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 30 . Architecture Enhancements HSPA+ Key Takeaways Higher Bit Rates & Increased Capacity Reduced Delay Smooth Evolution t HSPA S th E l ti to HSPA+ More than 2x HSPA peak rates.5 Mbps HSPA+ IMPLEMENTATION 64-QAM DL/16-QAM UL..0 Mbps UL: 5.

-8) “3G Home NodeB Study Item Technical Report” 58 0( 8) 3G o od udy a po UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. October 2004. pp.xxx series: RAN Aspects TR 25.820 (Rel. Toskala et al: “High-Speed Packet Access Evolution (HSPA+) in 3GPP.308 “HSDPA: UTRAN Overall Description (Stage 2)” TR 25. Wiley 2007 R.” Chapter 15 in Holma/ Toskala: WCDMA for UMTS. Soni et al: “Intelligent Antenna Solutions for UMTS: Algorithms and Simulation Results.999 “HSPA Evolution beyond Release 7 (FDD)” TR 25.319 “Enhanced Uplink: Overall Description (Stage 2)” 25 319 TR 25.” Communications Magazine. 28–39 Standards TS 25.HSDPA References Papers: A.903 “Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users” TR 25. Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 31 .876 “Multiple-Input Multiple Output Antenna Processing for HSDPA” TR 25.

Jens Mückenheim WS 2008 32 .Abbreviations AICH AMR BPSK CLTD CPC CQI DSL E RACH E-RACH F-DPCH GW HNB HOM HSPA IA LTE MAC-ehs MAC-i/is MIMO Acquisition Indicator Channel Adaptive Multi-Rate Binary Phase Shift Keying Closed Loop Transmit Diversity Continuous Packet Connectivity Channel Quality Information Digital Subscriber Line Enhanced Random Access Channel Fractional Dedicated Physical Control Channel Gateway Home NodeB Higher Order Modulation High-Speed Packet-Access Intelligent Antenna Long Term Evolution enhanced high-speed Medium Access Control improved E-DCH Medium Access Control Multiple-Input Multiple-Output p p p p Mux PARC PCI PDU Rx RTT SDU SAE S-CPICH SDMA SINR SISO SM Tx VoIP 64QAM Multiplexing Per Antenna Rate Control Precoding Control Information Protocol Data Unit Receive Round Trip Time Service Data Unit System Architecture Evolution Secondary Common Pilot Channel Spatial-Division Multiple-Access Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratio Single-Input Single-Output Spatial Multiplexing Transmit Voice over Internet Protocol 64 (state) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.