ENGINEERING DESIGN Introduction

Introduction The definition of engineering design is: Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. The primary way that engineers utilize the forces and materials of nature for the benefit of mankind is through new and innovative designs. Engineering is that profession in which the energy, forces and materials of nature are made useful to mankind. The engineer is known for his ideas that employ natural science, mathematics, computer analysis, art and his overall experiences in order to produce or improve a product or service useful to humans or to enrich their lives. What is Engineering Design? · Process of inventing a device or improving on an existing device to meet human needs or to solve problems. · Analysis problems have complete definitions, which lead to a single correct solution. Design problems are usually vaguely defined and have more than one solution. · Design is an iterative process. As the solution to the design problem develops, the details of the chosen solution, the choice among the solution options or the definition of the problem itself may change. · Good design requires a defined methodology or process for a arriving at the problems solution. · Design is simultaneously a creative, analytical, and cumulative process. While a certain amount of design can be taught in a lecture format, design is often best learned by hands- on experience. The Importance of the Engineering Design Processes Two quotes emphasize the importance of design in the product realization process: “After all, 70%of a product’s total cost is determined by its design, and that cost includes material, facilities, tooling, labor, and other support costs.” “Studies have shown that 50 to 80 percent of the life cycle cost of products is influenced in engineering design.”

The first quote not only indicates the large impact that the engineering design processes have on product cost but also some of the other considerations that go into the product realization process, (PRP), such as tooling, facilities, and labor. These other considerations dictate that certain members of the engineering design team must be knowledgeable in these other areas. Many authors have developed a “framework” or “structure” to help describe engineering design. Most of these “structures” have been developed in the European design community. Studying the engineering design processes became necessary only after WWII when the products which were being developed became more complex. When the companies which had been involved in the war effort reverted to peacetime producers, the associated design processes and development techniques carried over into their peacetime products. Greater use of physical laws, mathematics, information theory, materials selection, and systematic design techniques was required. Perhaps the “king” of these complicated peacetime projects was the landing of a man on the moon. This required a concept, a lot of calculations, preliminary layouts, much prototype testing great deal of detail designing and specifying the shape of the parts and recording this in a document (drawing), production, and finally the “moon shot.” Selection of Material Introduction The selection of the proper material is a key step in the design process because it is the crucial decision that links computer calculations and lines on an engineering drawing with a real or working design. The enormity of this decision process can be appreciated when it is realized that there are over 40,000currently useful metallic alloys and probably close to that number of nonmetallic engineering materials. An improperly chosen material can lead not only to failure of the part or component but also to unnecessary cost. Selecting the best material for a part involves more than selecting a material that has the properties to provide the necessary service performance; it is also intimately connected with the processing of the material into a finished part. Thus, a poorly chosen material can add to manufacturing cost and unnecessarily increase the cost of the part. Also, the properties of the part may be changed by processing, and that may affect the service performance of the part. When we realize that material selection should be based on both material properties and material processing, the number of possible combinations is almost without bound. Performance Characteristics of Materials The performance or functional requirements of a material usually are expresses in terms of physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, or chemical properties. Material

properties are the link between the basic structure and composition of the material and the service performance of the part We can divide structural engineering materials into metals, ceramics and polymers. Today the range of materials available to the engineer is much larger and growing rapidly. We usually rely on material properties that are reasonably cheap and easy to measure, are fairly reproducible and are associated with a material response that is well defined and is related to some fundamental response. The Materials Selection Process The selection of materials on a purely rational basis is far from easy. The problem is not only often made difficult by insufficient or inaccurate property data but is typically one of decision making in the face of multiple constraints without a clear-cut objective function. A problem of materials selection usually involves one of two different situations. 1. Selection of the materials for a new product or new design. 2. Reevaluation of an existing product or design to reduce cost, increase reliability, improves performance, etc. It generally is not possible to realize the full potential of a new material unless the product is redesigned to exploit both the properties and the manufacturing characteristics of the material. In other words, a simple substitution of a new material without changing the design provides optimum utilization of the material. Most often the essence of the materials selection process is not that one material competes against another for adoption; rather, it is that the processes associated with the production or fabrication of one material competes with the processes associated with the other. For example, the pressure die casting of a zinc-base alloy may compete with the injection molding of a polymer. Or a steel forging may be replaced by sheet metal because of improvements in welding sheet-metal components into an engineering part. Materials selection, like any other aspect of engineering design, is a problem-solving process. The steps in the process can be defined as follows: 1. Analysis of the materials requirements. Determine the conditions of service and environment that the product must withstand. Translate them into critical material properties. 2. Screening of candidate materials. Compare the needed properties with a large materials property database to select a few materials that look promising for the application.

3. Selection of candidate materials. Analyze candidate materials in terms of trade-offs of product performance, cost, fabric ability, and availability to select the best material for the application. 4. Development of design data. Determine experimentally the key material properties for the selected material properties for the selected material to obtain statistically reliable measures of the material performance under the specific conditions expected to be encountered in service. Design data properties are the properties of the selected material in its fabricated state that must be known with sufficient confidence to permit the design and fabrication of a component that is to function with a specified reliability. The extent to which this phase is pursued depends upon the nature of the problem. Methods of Material Selection There is no method or small number of method of materials selection that have evolved to a position of prominence. Partly, this is due to the complexity of the comparisons and trade-offs that must be made. Often the properties we are comparisons cannot be placed on comparable terms so a clear decision can be made. Partly it is due to the fact that little research and scholarly efforts have been devoted to the problem. In a general sense designers and materials engineers follow a variety of approaches to materials selection. A Common path is to examine critically the service of designs in environments similar to the one of the new design. Information on service failures can be very helpful. The results of accelerated laboratory screening tests or short time experience with a pilot plant can provide valuable input. Often a minimum innovation path is followed and the material is selected on the basis of what worked before or what is used in the competitor’s product. Some of the more common and more analytical methods of materials selected are: 1. Cost vs. performance indices 2. Weighted property indices 3. Value analysis 4. Failure analysis 5. Benefit-cost analysis Cost is so important in selecting material; it is logical to consider cost at the outset of the materials selection process. Considerable effort is being given to developing computerbased methods of estimating manufacturing cost that can be employed in the conceptual stage of design. If this is not available it is usually possible to set a target cost

and eliminate the materials that are too expensive. Since the final choice is a trade off between cost and performance (properties), it is logical to attempt to express that relation as carefully as possible. The cost of substituting lightweight materials to achieve weight saving(fuel economy) in automobiles. The horizontal axis shows the reduction made possible by each substitution and vertical axis shows the cost of the lightweight material relative to its conventional counterpart. In most cases the lightweight materials lie above the breakeven curve where the cost of the substitute part equals the cost of the conventional part, because less materials by weight needs to be purchased for the substitute. The exception is high-strength steel substituted for mild steel. Note that this plot dose not considers possible saving in processing and assembly for the lightweight material.
ENDURANCE LIMIT Endurance limit may be defined as the maximum reversed stress which may be repeated an indefinite number of times of a polished standard (7.5mm dia) specimen in bending without causing failure. The number of stress repetitions required to determine the endurance limit is very large as compared to the stress.

ENGINEERING DESIGN Limits, Fits, Tolerances, Surface Finish, Shafts And Springs
Limits As you in a design a little consideration will show that in order to maintain the sizes of the part within a close degree of accuracy, a lot of time is required. But even then there will be small variations. If the variations are within the certain limits, all parts of equivalent size will be equally fit for operating in machines and mechanisms. Therefore certain variations are recognized and allowed in the sizes of the mating parts to give the required fitting. These facilities to select at random from a large no. of parts for an assembly and results in a considerable saving in the cost of production. In order to control the size of finished part with due allowance for error for interchangeable parts is called limit system. Limit System There are the terms used in limit system which are described as follows: 1. Nominal size-It is the size of a part specified in the drawing as a matter of convenience. 2. Basic size –It is the size of a part to which all limits of variation are applied to arrive at final dimensioning of the mating parts. The nominal or basic size of a part is often the same. 3. Actual size-It is the actual measured dimension of the part. The difference between the basic size and the actual size should not exceed a certain limit; otherwise it will interfere with the interchangeability of the mating parts. 4. Limits sizes-There are two extreme permissible sizes for a dimension of the part as shown below. The largest permissible size for a dimension of the part is called upper or high or maximum limit where as the smallest size of the part is known as lower or minimum limit. 5. Allowance-It is the difference between the basic dimensions of the mating parts. The allowance may be positive or negative. When the shaft size is less than the hole size, then the allowance is positive and when the shaft size is greater than the hole size, then the allowance is negative.

6. Tolerance-It is the difference between the upper limit and lower limit of a dimension. We have already discussed this with examples above. 7. Zero Line-It is a straight line corresponding to basic size. The deviations are measured from this line. The positive and negative deviations are shown above and below the zero line.

8. Upper deviation-It is the algebric difference between the maximum size and the basic size. The upper deviation of a hole is represented by a symbol ES and of a shaft, it is represented by es. 9. Lower Deviation-It is the algebric difference between the minimum size and the basic size. The lower deviation of a hole is represented by a symbol EI and of a shaft, it is represented by ei. 10. Actual Deviation-It is the algebric difference between an actual size and the corresponding basic size. 11. Mean Deviation-it is the arithmetical mean between the upper and lower deviations. 12. Fundamental Deviation-It is one of the two deviations, which is conventionally chosen to define the position of the tolerance zone in relation to zero line as shown in figure. Fits degree of tightness between two parts – – Clearance Fit – tolerance of mating parts always leave a space Interference Fit – tolerance of mating parts always interfere

– Tolerances

Transition Fit – sometimes interfere, sometimes clear

1. Tolerances can be defined as the magnitude of permissible variation of dimension or other measured or control criterion from the specified value. 2. Tolerances have to be allowed because of the inevitable human failings and machine limitations, which prevent ideal achievements during fabrication. 3. In order to maintain economic production and facilitate the assembly of components it is necessary to allow a limited deviation from the designed size. 4. Due to its inevitability, tolerances constitute an engineering legality for deviation from the ideal value, and like any other legal matter, formulation of tolerances must also be given due consideration, and much thought and planning should go into it. 5. The various factors affecting the choice of tolerances should be given due consideration, as the setting of tolerances is not an arbitrary matter. 6. Though functional requirement is the primary consideration, i.e., the permitted deviation in size must permit the assembly to function correctly for its designed life, there are other factors like standardization, manufacturing needs etc. which also influence the choice of tolerances and primary consideration of functional requirement sometimes requires compromise with these factors. 7. The primary purpose of tolerance is to permit variation in dimensions without degradation of the performance beyond the limits established by the specification of the design. 8. Where high performance is the criterion, there the functional requirements will be the domination factor in setting tolerances. 9. However, where the functional performance provides some latitude, then tolerance choice may be influenced and determined by factors like standardization, method of tooling and available manufacturing equipment. 10. The numerical values of tolerances may range across the entire spectrum of measurements and if in all the cases, the functional requirement is taken as the only criterion to decide the value of tolerance then there may be serious disadvantages like too many different tolerances which mean excessive amount of special tooling, complications in inspection, etc.

11. If a limited no. of standard tolerances are established, and the tolerances are chosen from these so that these are slightly closer than the function dictates, then we get the advantages of fewer variations of tooling, few calculations and increased unit quantities because of repeated use of the same designs. Tolerances must be placed on the dimensions of a part to limit the permissible variations in size because it is impossible to manufacture a part exactly to given dimensions. A small tolerance results in greater ease of interchangeability of parts, but it also greatly adds to the cost of manufacture. Tolerances can be expressed in either of the two ways. A bilateral tolerance is specified as a plus or minus deviation from a basic dimension, e.g., 2.000 + 0.004in. This system is being replaced by the unilateral tolerance, in which the deviation in one direction from the basic dimension is given. For example, 2.000 + 0.008 or -0.000 5.005 + 0.000 -0.005

In the case of bilateral tolerance, the dimension of the part would be permitted to vary between 1.996 and 2.004 in for a total tolerance of 0.008 in. If unilateral tolerance is specified, the dimension could vary between 2.000 and 2.008, and again the total tolerance is 0.008 in. Unilateral tolerances have the advantages that they are easier to check on drawings and that a change in the tolerance can be made with the least disturbance to the other dimensions. Surface Roughness The surface roughness of the manufactured part must be specified and controlled because of fatigue failure, wear, or the need to produce a certain fit. However like this situation with tolerances, over refinement of surface finish costs money. Therefore we need a way to measure and specify surface roughness. No surface is absolutely smooth and flat; on a highly magnified scale. Several parameters are used to describe the state of surface roughness. Rt is the height from maximum peak to deepest trough. Ra is the centerline average (CLA), the arithmetic average based on the deviation from the mean surface Ra = y1+y2+y3+…+ yn / n Rrms is the root mean-square value of height.

Rrms =(y12+y22+y32+…..+yn2/n) 1/2 Surface roughness measurements typically are expressed in micro inches (1min=0.025mm=0.000001 in). Until recently, surface roughness was characterized by the rms value, but currently the CLA value is preferred. The rms value is about 11percent greater than the value based on the arithmetic average. There are other important characteristics of a surface besides the height of the roughness. Surfaces may exhibit a directionality characteristic called lay. Surfaces may have a strong directional lay(e.g., from machining grooves), a random lay, or a circular pattern of marks. Another characteristic of the surface is its waviness, which occurs over a longer distance than the peaks and valleys of roughness. It is important to realize that specifying a surface by average roughness height is not an ideal approach. Two surfaces can have the same value of Ra (or Rrms) can vary considerably in the details of surface profile. There is much yet to be learned about the control and specification of surfaces.