Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011

CHECKLIST FOR SCORING GRADE A IN CHEMISTRY SPM 2011

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Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011

Chapter 2: The Structure of the Atom A. Knowledge (Definition, meaning and facts)
1) State the kinetic theory of matter. State one example to support the kinetic theory of matter 2) What are atom, molecule and ion?

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3) What is melting point?
4) Define proton number and nucleon number. 5) State the meaning of isotopes. 6) State the uses of isotopes such as carbon-14 and cobalt-60.

1. The kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particle which can collide among the particle.For an example,the diffusion of gas particle is faster than the diffusion of liquid particles. 2.- An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction. -A molecule is a group of two or more atoms which are chemically bonded together. -An ion is positively-charge or negatively-charge particle. 3. Melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid at a particular pressure. 4. Proton number defined as the number of proton in its atom,while nucleon number defined as the total number of proton and neutron in its atom. 5. The meaning of isotopes are atoms of the same element with same proton number but different number of neutrons. 6. The uses of carbon-14 is to estimate the age of fossil,while cobalt-60 is used in radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

B. Understanding / Application / Analysis
7) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the melting process. 8) Explain why the temperature remains unchanged during the freezing process. 9) A solid compound is heated until it converts into gas. Explain the changes in energy content, forces of attraction between the particles, and arrangement of particles. 10) State the main subatomic particles of an atom. Compare and contrast the relative atomic mass and the relative charge of the subatomic particles of the atom. 11) 7. The temperature remain unchanged during the melting process because the heat energy absorbed by the particles is used to overcome the forces between particles so that the solid can turn into liquid. 8. The temperature remain unchanged during the freezing process because the heat loss to the surrounding is exactly balanced by the heat energy liberated as the particles attract to one anotherto form solid. 9. When solid is heated,the more heat energy absorbed by the particles to overcome the force of attraction between the particle.Then,the arrangement of particle become random and move freely. 10.- The main subatomic particle are proton,neutron and electron. - Relative atomic mass of the subatomic particles most are concentrated in the nucleus,while the relative charge of the subatomic particles are overall positive charge due to the positivechargedof protons in the nucleus. 11. (a) The number of neutron = 27-13 = 14 (b)

Al is the symbol of aluminium. (a) Determine the number of neutron of aluminium. (b) Draw the electron arrangement of aluminium.

27 13

Al

C. Synthesis (Experiment)
12) Solid Z has a melting point of 65oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the

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Your answer should show how the melting point of Z is determined.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 melting point of Z. Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the freezing point of W. 13) Compound W has a freezing point of 82oC. 3 .

B. This is because the reactivity of copper(ll) oxide is too low.12. (a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction. 11. 4.16] Aim : To determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide Material : 10 cm of magnesium ribbon and sandpaper.Bunsen burner. (a) Find the empirical formula of ethanoic acid. meaning and facts) 1) State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale. 8.The method of heating a metal in a crucible is only for other high reactivity metal. O.tripod stand.1] 7. Apparatus : Crucible with lid.6 g of carbon reacted with 0. Molar mass means the mass of a substance that contains one mole of the substance. [Relative atomic mass: C . (b) Find the percentage composition by mass of carbon in ethanoic acid. 2) Define a mole. Molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in one molecule of the compound. 9. Knowledge (Definition. 1] 11) Hydrogen Gas is reacted with 20 g of hot copper(II) oxide powders to produce solid copper and water. 64. atoms and . [Relative atomic mass: Mg.tongs. (b) Calculate the maximum mass of solid copper formed.Ethane . O. 2.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and Equations A. find its molecular formula. pipe-clay triangle and 4 . Empirical formula is the simplest ratio of atoms of each element that present in the compound. 3. Your answer should include all the precautions and calculations involved. 3) State the meaning of molar mass 4) State the meaning of molar volume of gas. combine with 3 moles of hydrogen atoms.Each mole consists of of ethane carbon and contains 2 hydrogen moles of atom at the carbon ratio of 1:3. [Relative atomic mass: Cu. (a) Determine the empirical formula of the compound formed. Understanding / Application / Analysis 7) Explain why we couldn’t determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide by heating copper powder in a crucible. (b) Given that the relative molecular mass of the compound is 88 g. 24. 5.68% 10.(a) H2 + Cu2O Cu2 + H2O (b) Maximum mass of solid copper form = 64(2) = 128 g C. Molar volume of gas defined as the volume of one mole of gas. Empirical Formula Molecular Formula Ethane.16.Therefore.(a) CH2O (b) 40. H. 6) State the meaning of molecular formula. Check 1.one 6 moles of mole of hydrogen carbon atoms atoms.8 g of hydrogen to form a compound. 8) Compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula using ethane as an example. The relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale is the average mass of one atom of the element per ½ of the mass of carbon-12 atom. Mole defined as the amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atom is exactly 12 g of carbon-12. H. 5) State the meaning of empirical formula. 9) Vinegar is a dilute ethanoic acid with a molecular formula of CH3COOH. 10) 3. 6. Synthesis (Experiment) 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.C2H6 .

Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 balance. 5 .

13) Chlorine gas is dissolved in water. Explain why. the electronegativity increases. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) State the position of element 20 X in Periodic Table.Period 4. Explain your answer.the electronegativity of element increase. 14) W is an element from Group 1. Explain why. 10) The reactivity of Group 17 decreases when going down the group. meaning and facts) 1) State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from its proton number. 4) State the changes in the atomic size and electronegativity of elements across Period 3. 9) The reactivity of Group 1 increases when going down the group. X in burnt in oxygen and the product is dissolved in water. 6 . What is the property of the solution formed? Explain Why. C. 16) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of chlorine.Therefore. the atomic size decreases. 5. The atomic size decrease across period 3 from left to right. 8) When across Period 3 from sodium to argon. 11) Why helium gas is not reactive? 12) X is an element from Group 1. 2. 39 Check 1. Knowledge (Definition.can form complex ions and act as catalyst. What can you observe if a piece of blue litmus paper is immersed into the solution formed? Explain why. Explain why. Explain why.in the periodic table. Group 2. 3) State the physical properties of Group 17. b) Oxygen.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 4: Periodic Table of Elements A. The physical properties of Group 17 elements are the element do not conduct electricity and have low densities. 2) State the physical properties of Group 1. Predict the chemical reaction of W with: a) water. 6. 3. 7) When across Period 3 from sodium to argon. Synthesis (Experiment) 15) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of elements in Group 1: lithium.from 1 to 113. Elements are arranged horizontally ascending order of their proton number. 5) State three special properties of transition elements? B. sodium and potassium. State the observation and write the chemical equation involve. The three special properties of transition elements are transition element can form coloured ion. 4. The physical properties of Group 1 elements are the element have dull surface and have low melting and boiling point.

Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 bromine and iodine in the reaction with iron wool. 7 . State the observation and write the chemical equations involve in reactions.

Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain why sodium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous state but cannot conduct electricity in solid state.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds A. Synthesis 9) Draw electron arrangement of the compound formed from the following elements. C. d) Carbon and hydrogen. e) Hydrogen and chlorine. Check 1. Anion is negatively-charge ion. 4. The physical properties are covalent compound are volatile and do not conduct electricity in the solid or liquid states. NaCl. Cation is positively-charge ion. c) Magnesium and chlorine. 2. Because the aqueous state have the present of water. 6. 7) Describe the formation of ionic bond in sodium chloride. The physical properties are ionic compound are non-volatile and can conduct electricity in molten state or aqueous solution. At room condition. 4) State two physical properties of covalent compounds. 8) By using example. Explain why. magnesium chloride exists as a solid but hydrogen chloride exists as a gas. B. f) Sodium and oxygen. Knowledge (Definition. 8 . 6) Magnesium chloride and hydrogen chloride are two compounds of chlorine. meaning and facts) 1) What is anion? 2) What is cation? 3) State two physical properties of ionic compounds. 3. describe the formation of covalent bond between element from Group 14 and element from Group 17. b) Carbon and oxygen. a) Nitrogen and hydrogen. 5.

magnesium nitrate solution. 7) Describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis. copper plate. copper(II) sulphate solution. connecting wires with crocodile clips. 6) Describe the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide. 12) You are given magnesium ribbon. Electrolyte are substance that can conduct electricity either in molten state or in aqeuous solution and undergo chemical changes. Understanding / Application / Analysis 4) Explain why solution of hydrogen chloride in water can conduct electricity but solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene cannot conduct electricity? 5) By using example. 250 cm3 beaker. Electrolysis is the process whereby compound is decomposed into constiuent elements when an electric current passes through an electrolyte. Your answer must include observation and half equations for reaction at anode and 9 . meaning and facts) 1) State the meaning of electrolyte. explain how the following factors can determine the selective discharge of ions at the electrodes. .The types of electrodes used in the electrolysis. C. 9) Draw the structure of a dry cell and explain how it can produce electricity. 8) Draw the structure of Daniell cell and explain how it can produce electricity. – The position of the ion in he electrochemical series. Synthesis 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to extract lead from lead(II) oxide by using electrolysis. voltmeter and porous pot. 3. 2) State the meaning of electrolysis. b) Concentration of the ions. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that types of electrodes affecting the selective discharge of ions in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution. 2. . a) Types of electrodes. Knowledge (Definition. Construct a voltaic cell by using the above materials.The concentrationof ions in the electrolysis. B. Check 1. 3) State three factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 6: Electrochemistry A. Explain how the voltaic cell can produce electricity.

10 .Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 cathode. 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to construct the electrochemical series of magnesium. zinc and lead. copper.

Explain why. 20 cm3 of nitric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution but only 10 cm3 of sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 20 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. 40 cm3 of 0.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 7: Acids and Bases and Chapter 8: Salts A. 9) Given dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid have the same concentration of 0. You are given 0. Synthesis 10) Describe a chemical test to determine a given solution is an acid solution.5 moldm-3. Find the molarity of the dilute solution. C. . Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid.A base is a sustance which ionises in water to produce hydroxide ions. Salt is a compound form when the hydrogen ion is replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion. Strong acid is an acid which dissociates completely to produce high concentration of hydrogen ions. 3. KOH solution is needed to neutralise 20 cm3 of nitric acid. 4. Knowledge (Definition. meaning and facts) 1) State the meaning of acid and alkali. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by using titration process. 5.while weak alkali is a base which ionises partially to produce low concentration of hydroxide ions.0 moldm-3 solution of HCl. Explain why the pH values of the two solutions are different. 2) What is the meaning of strong acid and weak alkali? 3) What is neutralisation? 4) What is salt? Check 5) What is precipitate reaction? B. 2. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) The pH value of solution ammonia in water is 9 but the pH value of solution of ammonia in trichlomethane is 7.2 11 . 1. 8) In a titration. Precipitate reaction is a reaction which cause the colour of ion can change into other colour of ion. HNO3. 7) 80 cm3 of distilled water is added to 20 cm3 of 2.An acid is a substance which dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions.25 moldm-3 potassium hydroxide. In a neutralisation experiment. HNO3. Neutralisation is the reaction of an acid and a base. .

Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 moldm-3 of dilute sulphuric acid. lead(II) ions. 12 . pipette and conical flask. Describe how you would prepare lead(II) chloride salt from the given materials. phenolphthalein. 15) Describe the preparation of potassium nitrate. 12) You are given solid sodium chloride. . 16) Solid W is a salt. 14) Describe the preparation of lead(II) chloride. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the presence of zinc ions and nitrate ions in the salt? 17) Solid X is a metal carbonate. 20) You are given dilute sulphuric acid. copper(II) nitrate solution and sodium carbonate solution. lead(II) oxide powder and dilute nitric acid. burette. Describe how to prepare sodium chloride solution of 0. 19) You are given potassium chloride solution. 13) Describe the preparation of zinc sulphate . Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm that X consists of carbonate ions besides heating. Describe how you would prepare copper(II) sulphate salt from the given materials.2 moldm-3 in laboratory by using 250 cm3 volumetric flask. 18) You are given four test tubes filled with solution consist of zinc ions. aluminium ions and magnesium ions respectively. Describe the tests you would carry out to confirm the ion that present in each test tube.

Fused glass is used in lenses and telescope mirrors. Knowledge (Definition.Lead crystal glass is used in tableware and crystal. b) Superconductor. .Monomer of polythene is ethene. 3) State the catalyst.Inert and non-compressible ceramic is used in medical and dental apparatus. Understanding / Application / Analysis 7) Bronze is an alloy consists of copper and tin.Electrical insulator ceramic is used in insulating parts in electrical appliances.ceramics. Ceramics are made up from clay and composed of aluminium silicate mixed with sand. .Good insulator of heat ceramic is used in insulation.to increase the resistanceto corrosion of a pure metal and to improve the appearance of a pure metal. (d) Plastic and glass.Attractive and easily moulded ceramic is used in decorative pieces and household items. Describe how acid rain causes environmental pollution. (b) Yitrium oxide. (b) The catalyst used is iron powder at temperature of 450C to 500C ̊ ̊ and at a pressure of 200 to 300 atm in the presence of molybdenum as a promoter.Chemically inert and non-corrosive ceramic is used in kitchenware. e) Photochromic glass.An alloy is a mixture of two or more element at fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. 8) Explain how acid rain is formed. 2) What is the meaning of composite materials? State the components of the following composite materials: a) Reinforced concrete. . . Check 1. 6) What is ceramics? State the properties and list the uses of ceramics. . 10) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of ammonia gas. Write all the chemical 13 . .Polymers are long chained formed by joining up many identical repeating sub-units called monomers.while the monomer of polyvinyl chloride is chloroethene.glass and polymers.copper(ll) oxide. . (a) Concrete and steel. B. 5) State four types of glass and their compositions. . Composite materials are strutural material that is formed by combining two or more different substance like metals.silver chloride and silver bromide. 6.The aims are to increase the strength and hardnessof a pure metal. List the uses of each glass. – Soda-lime glass is used in mirror and light bulbs.alloy. 2. . Explain why bronze is harder than copper. 9) Explain the industrial process involved in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. . 4.Hard and strong ceramic is used in building material. (c) Glass and plastic. c) Fibre optic. . 5. 3. .Borosilicate glass is used in cookware and glass pipelines. Write all the chemical equations involve. d) Fibre glass. (e) Glass. temperature and pressure of the following process: a) (a) Contact process b) (b) Haber process 4) What is the meaning of polymers? Name the monomer of polythene and polyvinyl chloride. meaning and facts) 1) What is the meaning of alloy? State the aims of making alloys.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 9: Manufactured Substance in Industry A. (a) The catalyst used is vanadium(V) oxide at a temperature of 480C ̊ and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. .barium carbonate.

14 . Synthesis 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ammonium sulphate (ammonium fertiliser) 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of brass and copper.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 equations involve. C.

15 . the higher the rate of reaction. The collision theory states that only those collisions which achieve a minimum amount of energy.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 10: Rate of Reaction A.Effective collision is the collisions which achieve a minimum amount of energy and with the correct orientation.5 moldm-3 . 7) Explain how catalyst can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory. Knowledge (Definition. C. 10) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that the presence of catalyst will increase the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to show that an increase in temperature will increase the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid. 2.0 moldm-3 is reacted faster with zinc compare to hydrochloric acid of 0. Understanding / Application / Analysis 5) Explain how surface area (size of reactant) can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory. Activation energy is a barrier that must be overcome by the colliding particle of reactant so that the reaction can occur. 4. 6) Explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction based on collision theory. 3) What is activation energy? 4) What is effective collision? B.called activation energy and with the correct orientation. meaning and facts) 1) What is rate of reaction? 2) What is stated in the collision theory? Check 1. Rate of reaction measured the speed of reactant are converted into product in a chemical reaction. Describe a laboratory experiment to confirm the hypothesis by using the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.will result in reaction. 8) Explain why hydrochloric acid of 2. 3. Synthesis 9) Hypothesis: The smaller the size of reactant.

Polymers are long chained formed by joining up many identical repeating sub-units called monomers. 5. 5) What are saturated and unsaturated fats? Check 1. Saturated fats are the fatty acid that has all carbon atoms joined together by carbon-carbon single bond. . 11) Explain the coagulation process of latex. 10) Propanol and propanoic acid are dissolved in water.Isomerism in butane starts with four carbon atoms.but dfifferent strutural formula. 7. . 12) Explain how to prevent coagulation of latex. C. . 4) What is polimer? State an example of polymer and its monomer. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane. 2.while example for unsaturated hydrocarbon is propene. 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethane 16 .but dfifferent strutural formula. 7) Explain why ethene gas can decolourises the acidified potassium mangante(II) solution but ethane can not decolourises acidified potassium mangante(II) solution.The example of polymer is polythene and its monomer is ethene. Synthesis 13) Describe a test to differential hexene and hexane.Isomers are the molecules with the same molecular formula. meaning and facts) 1) What is homologous series? 2) What is saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon? State an example of each of them. 3) Explain what is isomers and isomerism by using butane as an example. B.Saturated hydrocarbon is compound that has single carbon-carbon bond. . 8) Explain why both hexane and hexane have six carbon atoms but hexene burns with a more sooty flame. . 4. Homologous series is a group or family of organic compound that has certain characteristics. 9) Pentane and propane are members from alkane family. . 3. Explain why the melting point of pentane is higher than propane.while unsaturated fats are the carbon chain has one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. It is found that propanol solution is a neutral but propanoic acid is an acid solution.Isomers are the molecules with the same molecular formula. Knowledge (Definition.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 11: Carbon compounds A.while unsaturated hydrocarbon is compound that has at least carbon-carbon double or triple bond.Isomerism in butane starts with four carbon atoms. .Example for saturated hydrocarbon is propane. 6. .

17) Explain how to prepare propanoic acid from propene. (a) State two physical properties of ethylpropanoat. 17 . Your answer must include the drawing of the setupapparatus and the chemical equation involve. 15) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare ethanoic acid gas from ethanol. (b) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare Ethylpropanoat. 16) Ethylpropanoat is a product from reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 gas from ethanol.

12) Chlorine water is added to potassium iodide solution in a 18 . 5) What is oxidising agent and reducing agent? State an example of oxidising agent and reducing agent. 9) When bromine water is added to the potassium iodide solution. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number. 11) A mixture of copper(II) oxide and aluminium powder is heated strongly. 7) Determine whether the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and copper(II) is a redox reaction.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 12: Oxidation and Reduction A. Explain why. the solution changes colour from colourless to brown. Explain the observation. 8) The reaction between zinc and copper(II) sulphate solution is a redox reaction. Knowledge (Definition. Explain this observation based on oxidation and reduction. Check B. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) Determine whether the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is a redox reaction. 10) Describe the rusting of iron. Explain your answer based on changes in oxidation number. meaning and facts) 1) What is oxidation and deduction based on loss or gain of oxygen? 2) What is oxidation and deduction based on transfer of electrons? 3) What is oxidation and deduction based on changes in oxidation number? 4) What are redox reactions? State an example of redox reactions. The mixture burns brightly.

1. Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the reactivity of these metals toward oxygen. The colour of 1. copper and their oxides.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 test tube. Explain the observation. C. How would you confirm that iron(III) is formed? 14) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +3 to +2 by using zinc. 15) Describe the extraction of iron. 19 . 2 cm3 of 1. zinc.1trichloroethene is added to the test tube and the mixture is shaken thoroughly. Synthesis 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to change the oxidation number of iron from +2 to +3. 16) You are given lead.1.1-trichloroethene changes from colourless to purple.

that is -57kJmol-1? 9) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between ethanoic acid and sodium hydroxide is less than -57kJmol-1? 10) 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol. meaning and facts) 1) What is exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction? State an example for each reaction. propan-1-ol. b) If 50 cm3 of 1 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. The temperature increases t oC. c) If 50 cm3 of 4 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 4 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 12: Thermochemistry A. predict the increase in temperature. 8) Explain why the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis is a constant. predict the increase in temperature. the higher is the heat of combustion” Describe a laboratory experiment to prove that the above statement is true by using methanol. predict the increase in temperature. 2) What is heat of precipitation? 3) What is heat of displacement? 4) What is heat of neutralisation? 5) What is heat of combustion? Check B. 14) “The higher the number of carbon atoms per molecule. Synthesis 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of copper by zinc. 20 . 13) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of methanol. 7) Explain why the heat of combustion of butanol is higher than ethanol. Understanding / Application / Analysis 6) Explain how exothermic reaction and endothermic are formed based on energy change during formation and breaking of chemical bonds. ethanol. 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation between strong acids and strong alkalis. Knowledge (Definition. a) If 100 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 100 cm3 of 2 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid. C.

10) Explain why the cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than a soap in hard water. Aspartame) d) Stabilisers e) Thickeners 7) State the functions of the following modern medicines. Antipsychotic) 8) State the side effects of paracetamol and aspirin. meaning and facts) 1) What is soap? 2) What is saponification process? 3) What is detergent? 4) State the functions of each of the following additives in detergent. Streptomycin) c) Psychotherapeutic medicine ( Stimulant. Understanding / Application / Analysis 9) Describe the cleansing action of soap. sodium benzoate) b) Antioxidants (Ascorbic acid) c) Flavourings (Monosodium glutamate (MSG). 12) Describe a laboratory experiment to investigate the cleansing action of a soap and a detergent in hard water. Knowledge (Definition. C. 21 . a) Analgesics ( Aspirin. Codeine) b) Antibiotics ( Penicilin. Paracetamol. Synthesis 11) Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare soap from palm oil using the saponification process. Antidepressant. Check B. lipases. proteases and cellulases) d) Fragrance 5) What is hard water? 6) State the function of each of the following food additives: a) Preservatives ( Sodium nitrite.Checklist for Scoring “A” In Chemistry 2011 Chapter 13: Chemicals for Consumers A. a) Whitening agent(example: sodium perborate) b) Optical whitener(fluorescent dyes) c) Biological enzyme (Example: amylases.