SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF HUNGARY'S

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
- Abstract -
Author:
Cvula Slmonvl and krlsLóf Slmonvl
8CCS loundaLlon
Szekesfehervár, 2010
This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document
are the sole responsibility of BOCS Foundation and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position
of the European Union, HAND or members of HAND.
1ab|e of content
1. Lxecut|ve 5ummary.......................................................................................................................3
2. Ana|ys|s.........................................................................................................................................4
2.1. ÞrevenLlon.................................................................................................................................. 4
3. 5ummary of proposa|s.................................................................................................................10
3.1. SusLalnablllLv assessmenLs.......................................................................................................10
3.2. ÞrevenLlon................................................................................................................................ 10
3.3. LnvlronmenLal speclalLles ........................................................................................................12
2
1. Executive Summary
Cfflclal uevelopmenL AsslsLance (CuA) ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL and mosL effecLlve answer
posslble Lo Lhe alobal challenaes when lL comes Lo such a small counLrv as Punaarv. uue Lo Lhe
baslcallv ecoloalcal naLure of Lhe alobal crlsls, CuA pollcv has Lo be connecLed Lo ecoloalcal pollcv.
1hls sLudv ls parLlcularlv acLual, as we are ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe Punaarlan CuA law.
Þroposals sLlll can be lmplemenLed.
1he presenL research analvses seven annual reporLs made beLween 2003-2009 and Lhe four counLrv
sLraLeales (Serbla, vleLnam, 8osnla, Moldova) publlshed so far. We use 23 analvLlcal aspecLs, dlvlded
lnLo four aroups: assessmenL on susLalnablllLv, prevenLlon, envlronmenLal speclallLles and local
communlLles.
1he appended Lable remarkablv shows Lhe proaress vear bv vear. 1he number of relevanL references
found ln Lhe seven annual reporLs ls slanlflcanLlv lncreaslna vear bv vear. 1hls Lendencv can also be
observed ln Lhe four counLrv sLraLeales. 1wo ouL of Lhe 23 aspecLs are hlahlv emphaslzed ln Lhe
documenLs: Lhe conslderaLlon of Lhe demands of parLner counLrles boLh on aovernmenLal and local
level. Some aspecLs are promlslna recenLlv: cllmaLe, waLer, soll and foresLs, and blodlverslLv. CLher
aspecLs have [usL appeared: local markeL, enerav savlna, wasLe, equal rlahLs for women,
envlronmenLal educaLlon, famllv plannlna and sanlLarv prevenLlon. LvenLuallv, some aspecLs are
almosL enLlrelv mlsslna e.a. four ouL of Lhe seven polnLs of Lhe local communlLles, as well as
renewable enerales, envlronmenLallv consclous Lechnoloalcal Lransfer and all Lhe Lhree polnLs of
assessmenL on susLalnablllLv.
1o sum lL up, lL can be sald LhaL susLalnablllLv ls noL a declslve aspecL of Lhe Punaarlan Cfflclal
uevelopmenL AsslsLance (CuA) veL - lL ls [usL a more or less consldered one. 1hls ls Lhe reason whv
Lhese proposals urae a paradlam shlfL. 1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should noL LaraeL
economlc arowLh ,Laklna ecoloalcal aspecLs lnLo conslderaLlon", buL Lhe conservaLlon of our baslcs for
Lhe exlsLence (soll, foresLs, waLer, cllmaLe, blodlverslLv eLc.) lnsLead. As alobal economv ls ln a arowlna
overshooL for decades, lL erodes lLs own bases, whlch leads Lo collapse - savs Lhe svsLem Lheorv.
LradlcaLlna poverLv remalns an llluslve aoal unLll our cllmaLe, blosphere, waLers, foresLs, solls
conLlnue Lo deLerloraLe henceforward.
ApparenLlv Lhere ls no wav ouL of Lhe Lrap as poverLv deepens wlLhouL economlc arowLh, buL
conLlnuous economlc arowLh demoLes our baslcs for Lhe exlsLence (soll, foresLs, waLers, cllmaLe,
blodlverslLv eLc.), consequenLlv we fall lnLo a deeper, worldwlde mlserv.
Cur onlv chance (bv qulck moblllzaLlon) ls Lo auaranLee on Lhe one hand famllv plannlna posslblllLles
for evervone and ellmlnaLe Lhe aenerallv exlsLlna famllv plannlna-llllLeracv (even ln Lhe developed
counLrles), Lurn Lo such clvlllzaLlon models and llfesLvles on Lhe oLher hand LhaL are adapLable for Lhe
envlronmenL.
1he CuA ls noL a charlLv, and lLs alm ls noL Lo make Lhe underdeveloped cauahL up wlLh an
unsusLalnable ,developmenL". Cn Lhe Lurnlna polnL of hlsLorv (when manklnd overburdened our onlv
3
home, our planeL LarLh) Lhe alm of CuA should be Lo lnvenL a susLalnable clvlllzaLlon, bv common
work of developed and developlna counLrles.
2. AnaIysis
2.1. Prevention
21. Does the deve|opment po||cy promote prevent|on |n the hea|th system?
1he healLh svsLem ln aeneral ls ofLen menLloned buL speclflc menLlons whlch could be connecLed Lo
prevenLlon are onlv Lhe followlna:
- drua prevenLlon pro[ecL ln Serbla ln 200S,
- Lhe analvsls of Lhe Moldovan and vleLnamese counLrv sLraLeales lndlcaLes, LhaL prevenLlon of
Lhe spread of Plv/AluS ls weak, and Lhe analvsls of Lhe 8osnlan counLrv sLraLeav menLlons an
lncrease ln Lhe number of sexuallv LransmlLLed dlseases,
- promoLlon of 18C prevenLlon acLlvlLles ln ukralne ln 2009,
- WPC membershlp fee pavmenL of Lhe MlnlsLrv of PealLh also counLs here (assumlna LhaL Lhe
pracLlce of Lhe World PealLh CraanlsaLlon emphaslzes prevenLlon).
lo sommotv.
1he facL LhaL Lhese menLlons appear ln Lhe pasL Lwo-Lhree vears ls a aood slan. 8uL ln splLe of Lhe
analvzes, Lhe sLraLealc parLs sLlll noL menLlon LhaL prevenLlon should be emphaLlc ln Lhe Punaarlan
lnLernaLlonal uevelopmenL CooperaLlon (luC) acLlvlLv, even Lhouah lL could relaLe Lo Lhe needs of
parLner counLrles verv well, alven for example LhaL º1he aovernmenL of Moldova accepLed a naLlonal
proaram for Lhe prevenLlon of Lhe spread of Plv/AluS and oLher sexuallv LransmlLLed dlseases ln
200S"
Þroposo/:
1he Punaarlan CuA law and counLrv sLraLeales should emphaslze, and Lhe annual reporLs should
assess Lhe prevenLlon ln Lhe healLh svsLem. ÞrevenLlon ls alwavs much more cosL effecLlve and resulLs
ln a beLLer llfe quallLv.
22. Does the deve|opment po||cy promote fam||y p|ann|ng, sexua| and reproduct|ve |nformat|on
and prevent|on of un|ntended concept|ons?
Alreadv Lhe flrsL Lwo Punaarlan documenLs: ConcepL from 2002 and Þollcv from 2003 refer Lo blrLh
conLrol aL Lhe healLh svsLem.
4
1he analvsls of Lhe vleLnamese counLrv sLraLeav wrlLes: ºWe manaaed Lo reduce populaLlon arowLh
raLe Lo 1° ln Lhe lasL decade, buL Lhe populaLlon ls sLlll 8S mllllon, of whlch 44.S mllllon people are ln
worklna aae. 1hree quarLers of Lhls mass ls wlLhouL quallflcaLlon. More Lhan Lhe half of Lhe LoLal
populaLlon ls under 30 vears, 37° are vounaer Lhan 20. Annuallv abouL 1.S mllllon vouna people
appear ln Lhe workforce markeL, Lhe securlna of emplovmenL ls a serlous burden Lo Lhe economv and
Lhe sLaLe admlnlsLraLlon. ... 1he wars, Lhen Lhe subsequenL rapld lndusLrlallzaLlon alona wlLh Lhe rapld
populaLlon arowLh resulLed ln serlous envlronmenLal dearadaLlon."
uesplLe Lhls, Lhe lssue onlv appears ln Lhe reporL of vear 2007: Lo Lhe lnlLlaLlon and wlLh Lhe supporL
of Lhe neLherlands a conference was oraanlsed bv Lhe MlnlsLrv of lorelan Affalrs ln 8udapesL for Lhe
new Lu member sLaLes.
Popefullv famllv plannlna, sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon and prevenLlon of unlnLended
concepLlons were also sub[ecLs of Lhe mldwlfe Lralnlna ln AfahanlsLan, buL Lhe reporL does noL
menLlon lL. lL ls Lhe same wlLh Lhe sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon pro[ecL for vouLh ln Serbla.
8elaLed senLences form Lhe 8osnlan and Moldovan counLrv sLraLeales (ºWomen's healLh sLaLus ls
characLerlzed bv deLerloraLlon ln ferLlllLv raLes." and ºlerLlllLv raLe dropped back from 2.3 ln 1991 Lo
1.2 ln 2003.") ralse Lhe followlna quesLlons:
- Can Lhe decrease of Lhe ferLlllLv raLe be classlfled as deLerloraLlon or seLback wlLhouL an
ecoloalcal [usLlflcaLlon? (lurLhermore: when and on whaL basls can Lhe decrease of
populaLlon be classlfled as deLerloraLlon?)
- ls lL noL posslble, LhaL Lhe decrease of Lhe ferLlllLv raLe lndlcaLes Lhe lmprovemenL of women's
healLh sLaLus and Lhe beLLer accesslblllLv of famllv plannlna opporLunlLles (MuCSb)?
1he analvsls of Lhe Moldovan counLrv sLraLeav refers Lo Lhe reducLlon of maLernal morLallLv
(MuCSa), so famllv plannlna (MuCSb) whlch plavs a kev role ln Lhls should be emphaslzed here.
Lspeclallv because lL could be closelv llnked Lo Lhe alreadv menLloned proaram: ºln 200S Lhe
aovernmenL accepLed a naLlonal proaram for prevenLlna Lhe spread of Plv/AluS and oLher
sexuallv LransmlLLed dlseases."
Popefullv Lhere ls a famllv plannlna compeLence educaLlon ln Lhe educaLlon cenLre ln kenva from
2008, because ºLhe reservaLlon of Lhe proLecLed area alona wlLh such populaLlon arowLh raLe ...
can onlv be posslble wlLh consclous envlronmenLal educaLlon", however Lhe reporL does noL
menLlon lL.
1he reporL from 2009 menLlons neaoLlaLlons abouL a populaLlon realsLraLlon svsLem ln vleLnam,
whlch cosLs 10 mllllon Luros. 1here are no deLalls buL hopefullv Lhe provlded daLa covers
maLernal healLh, Lhe number of unlnLended concepLlons, Lhe unmeL need for famllv plannlna
means, and Lhe supplles whlch address Lhls unmeL need. 1he LerrlLorv of vleLnam could onlv
supporL half of lLs currenL populaLlon wlLhouL ecoloalcal dearadaLlon, even Lhouah Lhe
vleLnamese ecoloalcal fooLprlnL per caplLa ls less Lhen one Lhlrd of Lhe Punaarlan.
[CverpopulaLlon lndex (2009)]
S
lo sommotv.
AfLer a aood sLarL, Lhe lssue seems Lo smoulder, even Lhouah - as Lhe reporL of Lhe menLloned
MlnlsLrv of lorelan Affalrs (MlA) Conference savs - ºLhe lssue of sexual and reproducLlve healLh
whlch ls oLherwlse approached dlfferenLlv ln manv aspecLs, has more dlmenslons (Lhe flahL aaalnsL
AluS, sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon) where collecLlve Lhlnklna ls needed, because Lhev deserve
aLLenLlon noL onlv ln Lhe furLher LaraeL counLrles of developmenL, buL also ln Lhe nearbv realons
(8alkan Þenlnsula, LasLern Lurope)"
1he annuallv reporLs don'L even menLlon LhaL mlnlmal Punaarlan unlÞA pavmenL, whlch ls shown ln
Lhe annual reporLs of unlÞA. 1he flrsL reporL whlch menLlons such pavmenL - onlv S.8 mllllon
Punaarlan lorlnLs - ls from 2009. ln Lhe ÞopulaLlon AsslsLance column of Lhe annuallv LuroMapplna
aldwaLch reporL Lhere ls almosL no daLa. [Luromapplna (2010)]
1he MlA Conference has also shown LhaL perhaps Lhe blaaesL aap ln Lhe publlc oplnlon of Lhe new Lu
member sLaLes ls ln Lhls lssue. 8uL Lhe ecoloalcal crlsls and wlLhln LhaL Lhe cllmaLe chanae causes an
lncreaslna economlcal and wlLhln LhaL waLer and food crlsls, Lhus lL forces LhaL chanae of aLLlLude
whlch ls shown ln Lhe followlna quoLaLlons:
º1he burden, whlch ls placed on socleLv bv Lhe lack of famllv plannlna, ls mavbe alreadv more Lhan
bearable. 1he mosL uraenL polnL of Lhe alobal acLlon plan ls Lhe ellmlnaLlon of Lhe lack of famllv
plannlna servlces. lL has enormous beneflLs and mlnlmal cosL." [8rown (2009)]
º1he Mlllennlum uevelopmenL Coals, especlallv Lhe eradlcaLlon of exLreme poverLv and hunaer,
cannoL be achleved lf populaLlon and reproducLlve healLh lssues are noL addressed." (kofl Annan,
lormer un SecreLarv-Ceneral)
ºlamllv plannlna could brlna more beneflLs Lo more people aL less cosL Lhan anv oLher slnale
Lechnoloav now avallable Lo Lhe human race" (!ames CranL, unlCLl)
lamllv plannlna, as Lhe mosL areen and mosL cosL effecLlve Lechnoloav ls appearlna more and more
ofLen ln Lhe backaround maLerlals of Lhe lnLernaLlonal neaoLlaLlons whlch alm Lhe allevlaLlon of
cllmaLe chanae. [Lnaelman (2010)]
lL ls areaLlv needed, LhaL cllmaLe proLecLlon funds also sLarL Lo supporL famllv plannlna proarams,
because whlle Lhe number of people ln reproducLlve aae ls rapldlv arowlna ln Lhe developlna
counLrles, Lhe CuA fundlna of famllv plannlna proarams ls sLeadllv decreaslna.
6
Source: un ÞopulaLlon ulvlslon (2009)
Þroposo/:
a) ln Lhe splrlL of ConcepL and Þollcv, Lhe annual reporLs should speclflcallv assess lf Lhe
Punaarlan CuA acLlvlLv promoLes famllv plannlna, sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon and
Lhe prevenLlon of unlnLended concepLlons.
b) 1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales emphaslze Lhe [usLlflcaLlon of Lhe MuCSb: Lhe lack of
famllv plannlna opporLunlLles undermlne Lhe feaslblllLv of all oLher Mlllennlum uevelopmenL
Coals. unlÞA, un WCMLn and lÞÞl should recelve slanlflcanL Punaarlan supporL.
c) 1he 1ehran un World Conference ln 1968 recoanlsed famllv plannlna as a human rlahL. lamllv
plannlna compeLence educaLlon and Lhe accesslblllLv of famllv plannlna means should be
LreaLed as baslc human rlahL Lasks of Lhe CuA acLlvlLv.
d) ln order Lo allevlaLe Lhe ecoloalcal crlsls and ensure Lhe human rlahLs, counLrv sLraLeales
should alwavs use Lhe un lndlcaLor unmeL need for famllv plannlna. Means of conLracepLlon
and Lhe compeLence ln and human rlahL of famllv plannlna are unaLLalnable for hundreds of
mllllons of couples.
e) Ald effecLlveness calculaLlons should Lake lnLo accounL LhaL proarams for reproducLlve healLh
and rlahLs are Lhe mosL foreLhouahLful and mosL effecLlve CuA acLlvlLles of solldarlLv.
7
23. Is there susta|nab|||ty and env|ronmenta| awareness educat|on |n the know|edge shar|ng
program?
LnvlronmenLal consulLancv ls amona Lhe alms of Lhe ConcepL.
1he reporL from 200S wrlLes LhaL Lhe Punaarlan unLSCC CommlLLee Lakes parL ln Lhe naLlonal
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe LducaLlon for SusLalnable uevelopmenL uecade lnlLlaLed bv Lhe un.
1he reporL from 2007 wrlLes: ºA pro[ecL ls ln proaress ln 8osnla Perzeaovlna, whlch alms Lhe
empowermenL of Lhe clvll socleLv Lhrouah Lhe developmenL and lmplemenLaLlon of envlronmenLal
educaLlon meLhods"
lL's a aood slan LhaL ln 2008 Lhere are alreadv more menLlons:
- Lhe educaLlon cenLre ln kenva
- unLSCC pavmenL
- and naLlonal alobal educaLlon pro[ecLs of non aovernmenLal oraanlsaLlons: un Academv,
Punaarlan AssoclaLlon of nCCs for uevelopmenL and PumanlLarlan Ald, Mlrror Lo Lhe World
LxhlblLlon, awareness ralslna abouL Afrlca.
1he reporL from 2009 wrlLes ln connecLlon wlLh vleLnam: ºLxchanae of experlences concernlna ...
alobal cllmaLe chanae." And Lhere ls unLSCC pavmenL aaaln.
Amona Lhe pavmenLs of Lhe MlnlsLrv of LducaLlon Lhere ls abouL 74S mllllon Pul wlLh Lhe LlLle
ºScholarshlp, educaLlonal exchanae, advanced sLudles" ln connecLlon wlLh 38 parLner counLrles, buL
Lhere are no furLher deLalls abouL Lhls. We can onlv hope LhaL aL leasL parLlv we can speak abouL
susLalnablllLv and envlronmenLal educaLlon here.
lo sommotv.
1he documenLs menLlon knowledae sharlna manv Llmes, Lhls ls one of Lhe maln areas of Punaarlan
CuA. 8uL Lhev almosL never wrlLe abouL susLalnablllLv educaLlon, even Lhouah lL should be Lhe baslc
approach of everv CuA knowledae sharlna.
Þroposo/:
a) Clven LhaL more Lhan one Lhlrd of Lhe LducaLlon for SusLalnable uevelopmenL un uecade ls
sLlll ahead us, Lhe annuallv reporLs should be concerned wlLh lL (whlch has noL happened
beLween 2006 and 2009)
b) 1he pro[ecLs whlch run ln parLner counLrles or whlch are for parLner counLrles should alwavs
have a alobal educaLlon elemenL.
24. Is the equa||ty of women (e.g. the educat|on opportun|t|es for g|r|s) a fundamenta| aspect |n
every deve|opment?
1he role of women appears flrsL onlv ln Lhe annual reporL of 2006: ºWlLh Lhe coordlnaLlon of our
Lmbassv accredlLed ln kvravzsLan flve dlfferenL poverLv reducLlon proarams sLarLed, dellvered bv Lhe
Women of Lravlm Soclal AssoclaLlon".
8
1he vleLnamese analvsls wrlLes abouL ºLhe llmlLaLlons of Lhe accesslblllLv of educaLlon for alrls from
mlnorlLles".
Accordlna Lo Lhe 8osnlan analvsls ºln Lhe case of parLlclpaLlon ln prlmarv educaLlon aender equallLv ls
reallzed, buL ln Lhe economlcal and pollLlcal llfe lnequallLv ls dramaLlc." ºln Lhe case of 8osnla
Perzeaovlna unuÞ hlahllahLs Lhe ellmlnaLlon of exLreme poverLv, Lhe reallzaLlon of aender equallLv,
and Lhe developmenL of alobal parLnershlp amona Lhe elahL mlllennlum developmenL aoals."
ln Moldova ºbeLween 2002 and 2006 unuÞ spenL abouL 19 mllllon uSu on developmenL: ...
supporLlna ... aender equallLv ..."
º1he MlnlsLrv of !usLlce and law LnforcemenL ln Lhe pollce Lralnlna ln AfahanlsLan ... aeneral Lralnlna
of female pollce" ln 2007 could also promoLe aender equallLv.
1here ls one speclflc pro[ecL and one plan ln Lhe reporL from 2008:
- Soclal closlna up of 8omanv women and chlldren llvlna ln SuboLlca, Serbla.
- 1asks for 2009: AfahanlsLan ... promoLlna women's soclal sLaLus ...
ln Lhe reporL of 2009 Lhe number of relevanL menLlons has been rlslna rapldlv - showlna a poslLlve
Lendencv. MosLlv ln connecLlon wlLh AfahanlsLan:
ºPunaarlan 8apLlsL Ald ... almed Lhe capaclLv bulldlna of Lhe ulrecLoraLe of Women, conLrlbuLlna Lo
Lhe promoLlon of women's sLaLus (21 mllllon Pul)"
ºln 2009 Creece supporLed non aovernmenLal developmenL pro[ecLs on Lhe flelds of healLh,
educaLlon and lmprovemenL of women's sLaLus wlLh alLoaeLher 300.000 Luros. 1he pro[ecLs wlll be
lmplemenLed ln 2010 bv PlA and Punaarlan 8apLlsL Ald."
º1he compleLlon of" a frulL Lree planLlna pro[ecL cosLlna 2S mllllon uSu funded bv Lhe World 8ank
ºwlLh Punaarlan asslsLance elemenLs makes lL posslble for Lhe women members of more Lhan Lwo
Lhousand famllles (abouL 20000 people) Lo pav Lhe conLrlbuLlon requlred bv Lhe World 8ank".
ln 2009 Lhe 'aender speclflc scholarshlp' of Lhe MlnlsLrv of uefence wlLh Lhe value of 2 mllllon Pul
was won bv an offlcer of Lhe MlnlsLrv of lorelan Affalrs of keovo. º1he proaram supporLs Lhe
parLlclpaLlon of women ln Lhe reform of Lhe securlLv secLor."
lurLhermore, Lhe mulLllaLeral pavmenLs of Lhe MlnlsLrv of lorelan Affalrs and Lhe MlnlsLrv of Soclal
Affalrs and Labour Lo Lhe oraanlsaLlons unllLM (3.4 mllllon Pul), unuÞ (10 mllllon Pul), and CPCP8
(3.4 mllllon Pul) can also be menLloned.
lo sommotv.
1he aspecL appearlna ln Lhe vleLnamese, 8osnlan and Moldovan analvses ls noL followed bv anv plan
ln Lhe sLraLeales ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe Punaarlan CuA acLlvlLv.
AlLhouah aender equallLv ls one of Lhe Lhree fundamenLal prlnclple of Lhe lnLernaLlonal donor
communlLv, lL ls menLloned rarelv and onlv ln some cases ln Lhe Punaarlan CuA pollcv (buL lL's a aood
slan, LhaL Lhls happens ln Lhe lasL Lwo-Lhree vears.) Lcoloalcal susLalnablllLv appears a llLLle more
ofLen (aL leasL as an ad[ecLlve, alLhouah someLlmes ln a false sense), and Lhe Lhlrd fundamenLal
prlnclple Lhe aood aovernance occurs much more ofLen.
9
Þroposo/:
a) 1he CuA law, Lhe counLrv sLraLeales, Lhe annual reporLs eLc. should LreaL aender equallLv as a
prlnclple, whlch ls as lmporLanL and pervadlna ln all CuA acLlvlLles as aood aovernance.
b) Amona Lhe mulLllaLeral oraanlsaLlons Punaarv should perform a slanlflcanL pavmenL Lowards
unlÞA, un WCMLn and lÞÞl.
c) ln close connecLlon wlLh Lhe Mlllennlum uevelopmenL Coals (wlLh Lhe deadllne 201S) Lhe
Punaarlan CuA law should lnLearaLe Lhe Calro lCÞu Þroaramme of AcLlon (wlLh Lhe deadllne
2014) as well.
3. Summary of proposaIs
3.1. SustainabiIity assessments
11. Are Lhere envlronmenLal assessmenLs prepared for developmenL pollcles of Lhe alven LaraeL
areas?
12. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv requlre Lhe reclplenL counLrv Lo prepare an envlronmenLal lmpacL
assessmenL for Lhe developmenL pro[ecLs?
13. uoes developmenL pollcv have such follow up monlLorlna, whlch ls able Lo follow Lhe
susLalnablllLv and envlronmenLal successes or anv posslble fallures of Lhe pollcv?
ltoposol fot tbe 1st otoop.
AL Lhe end of 2007 Punaarv [olned Lhe Þarls ueclaraLlon, Lhus Lhe CuA law should alreadv lnclude Lhe
appllcaLlon of LlA:
- envlronmenLal assessmenL durlna Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe developmenL pollcv
- envlronmenLal aspecLs durlna monlLorlna
- counLrv sLraLeales should requlre LlA from Lhe parLner counLrles for Lhose Punaarlan
developmenL pro[ecLs and proarams, whose slze and naLure allows Lhls,
durlna Lhe Lralnlnas onlv LhaL educaLlon and sklll Lransfer can be consldered accepLable, whlch
lncludes Lhe lnLearaLlon of ecoloalcal susLalnablllLv prlnclples and crlLerla.
3.2. Prevention
21. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe prevenLlon ln Lhe healLh svsLem?
ltoposol.
1he Punaarlan CuA law and counLrv sLraLeales should emphaslze, and Lhe annual reporLs should
assess Lhe prevenLlon ln Lhe healLh svsLem. ÞrevenLlon ls alwavs much more cosL effecLlve and resulLs
ln a beLLer llfe quallLv.
10
22. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe famllv plannlna, sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon and
prevenLlon of unlnLended concepLlons?
ltoposol.
a) ln Lhe splrlL of ConcepL and Þollcv, Lhe annual reporLs should speclflcallv assess lf Lhe
Punaarlan CuA acLlvlLv promoLes famllv plannlna, sexual and reproducLlve lnformaLlon and
Lhe prevenLlon of unlnLended concepLlons.
b) 1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales emphaslze Lhe [usLlflcaLlon of Lhe MuCSb: Lhe lack of
famllv plannlna opporLunlLles undermlne Lhe feaslblllLv of all oLher Mlllennlum uevelopmenL
Coals. unlÞA, un WCMLn and lÞÞl should recelve slanlflcanL Punaarlan supporL.
c) 1he 1ehran un World Conference ln 1968 recoanlsed famllv plannlna as a human rlahL. lamllv
plannlna compeLence educaLlon and Lhe accesslblllLv of famllv plannlna means should be
LreaLed as baslc human rlahL Lasks of Lhe CuA acLlvlLv.
d) ln order Lo allevlaLe Lhe ecoloalcal crlsls and ensure Lhe human rlahLs, counLrv sLraLeales
should alwavs use Lhe un lndlcaLor unmeL need for famllv plannlna. Means of conLracepLlon
and Lhe compeLence ln and human rlahL of famllv plannlna are unaLLalnable for hundreds of
mllllons of couples.
e) Ald effecLlveness calculaLlons should Lake lnLo accounL LhaL proarams for reproducLlve healLh
and rlahLs are Lhe mosL foreLhouahLful and mosL effecLlve CuA acLlvlLles of solldarlLv.
23. ls Lhere susLalnablllLv and envlronmenLal awareness educaLlon ln Lhe knowledae sharlna
proaram?
ltoposol.
a) Clven LhaL more Lhan one Lhlrd of Lhe LducaLlon for SusLalnable uevelopmenL un uecade ls
sLlll ahead us, Lhe annuallv reporLs should be concerned wlLh lL (whlch has noL happened
beLween 2006 and 2009)
b) 1he pro[ecLs whlch run ln parLner counLrles or whlch are for parLner counLrles should alwavs
have a alobal educaLlon elemenL.
24. ls Lhe equallLv of women (e.a. Lhe educaLlon opporLunlLles for alrls) a fundamenLal aspecL ln everv
developmenL?
ltoposol.
a) 1he CuA law, Lhe counLrv sLraLeales, Lhe annual reporLs eLc. should LreaL aender equallLv as a
prlnclple, whlch ls as lmporLanL and pervadlna ln all CuA acLlvlLles as aood aovernance.
b) Amona Lhe mulLllaLeral oraanlsaLlons Punaarv should perform a slanlflcanL pavmenL Lowards
unlÞA, un WCMLn and lÞÞl.
11
c) ln close connecLlon wlLh Lhe Mlllennlum uevelopmenL Coals (wlLh Lhe deadllne 201S) Lhe
Punaarlan CuA law should lnLearaLe Lhe Calro lCÞu Þroaramme of AcLlon (wlLh Lhe deadllne
2014) as well.
3.3. EnvironmentaI speciaIties
31. 1o whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv supporL Lhe lnLearaLlon of envlronmenLal (e.a.
cllmaLe proLecLlon) aspecLs lnLo Lhe dlfferenL pollcles ln Lhe LaraeL counLrles?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should enforce Lhe prlnclple, LhaL ln Lhe ecoloalcal crlsls of
our Llme onlv Lhose Lhlnas can be consldered as developmenL, whlch reduce Lhe ecoloalcal fooLprlnL.
1he annual reporLs should assess, LhaL Lo whaL exLenL Lhe Punaarlan CuA pracLlce supporLs Lhe
lnLearaLlon of envlronmenLal aspecLs lnLo Lhe dlfferenL pollcles ln Lhe LaraeL counLrv.
ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe Copenhaaen CllmaLe SummlL Punaarv should also [oln Lhe fund seL up bv Lhe
uanlsh aovernmenL, whlch supporLs Lhe provlslon of famllv plannlna opLlons as Lhe mosL effecLlve
efforL for cllmaLe proLecLlon.
32. uoes Lechnoloav LransporL have anv envlronmenLallv responslble crlLerla?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should requlre and Lhe annual reporLs should assess, LhaL
Lechnoloav and knowledae Lransfer should ln no case be LechnocraLlc, buL speclflcallv
envlronmenLallv responslble. We shouldn'L Lransfer Lhose paLLerns of clvlllsaLlon, whlch are alreadv
unsusLalnable ln Punaarv.
33. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv help susLalnable resource manaaemenL? L.a. Lransfer of knowledae
reaardlna Lo Lhls, encouraaemenL of research, lnsLlLuLlonal developmenL, eLc.
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should enforce and Lhe annual reporLs should assess, LhaL ln
Lhe escalaLlna ecoloalcal crlsls, Lhe baslc funcLlon of developmenL pollcv ls Lhe promoLlon of
susLalnable resource manaaemenL. 1hls ls also a condlLlon of vlolence and poverLv reducLlon.
34. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv address Lhe conservaLlon and Lhe susLalnable use of blodlverslLv?
uoes lL promoLe Lhe conservaLlon of specles, hablLaLs and aeneLlc resources? uoes lL supporL naLure
proLecLlon and aene preservaLlon?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should requlre, and Lhe annual reporLs should assess Lhe
coherence of Lhe Punaarlan CuA pracLlce wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlves of mulLllaLeral oraanlsaLlons. ln Lhe
parLner counLrles Punaarlan CuA work should promoLe ln lLs own wav Lhose lnLernaLlonal ob[ecLlves,
whlch are supporLed bv Punaarlan pavmenLs.
3S. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe Lhe rehablllLaLlon of damaaed areas, soll proLecLlon and
foresLaLlon?
12
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should alm Lhe conservaLlon of Lhe bases of llfe (soll, foresLs,
eLc.) lnsLead of economlcal arowLh ºwlLh Lhe conslderaLlon of ecoloalcal aspecLs".
World economv has been lncreaslnalv ºovershooLlna" for decades: lL dearades lLs own bases of llfe,
whlch leads Lo collapse accordlna Lo svsLems Lheorv. CuA ls noL charlLv, and also noL Lhe lncluslon of
Lhose ºlaaalna behlnd" lnLo an unsusLalnable ºdevelopmenL". CuA ls Lhe [olnL lnvenLlon of a
susLalnable clvlllsaLlon.
36. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv address Lhe conservaLlon of waLer supplles, proper waLer
manaaemenL and Lhe proLecLlon of waLer resources?
Þroposal:
WaLer wlll also be a fundamenLal lssue of Lhe 2011 Lu presldencv. 8ecause of Lhls, Lhe adopLlon of
Lhe ecoloalcal perspecLlve lnsLead of Lhe LechnocraLlc approach ls of parLlcular lmporLance, alven LhaL
Lhe LechnocraLlc approach ln Lhe CuA pro[ecLs leads Lo Lhe slnklna of waLer Lables, and Lhe overuse
and conLamlnaLlon of waLer resources.
37. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe wasLe prevenLlon, mlnlmlzaLlon, re-use and recvcllna?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should emphaslze wasLe prevenLlon, mlnlmlzaLlon, re-use
and recvcllna lnsLead of wasLe manaaemenL.
38. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe Lhe use of renewable enerales?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should emphaslze, and annual reporLs should assess, LhaL ln
Lhe era of oll peak and cllmaLe chanae, Lhen Lhe rapld decllne of Lhe abundance of fossll enerav,
LranslLlon Lo renewable enerales ls of kev lmporLance.
39. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe enerav savlna and efflclencv proarams?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should emphaslze, and Lhe annual reporLs should assess, LhaL
ln Lhe era of oll peak and cllmaLe chanae, Lhen Lhe rapld decllne of Lhe abundance of fossll enerav,
enerav savlna and efflclencv are of kev lmporLance.
4. Local communlLles
41. 1o whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv supporL or even dearade local culLure, especlallv Lhe
survlval of Lhe LradlLlonal svsLem of relaLlons of Lhe envlronmenLallv adapLed communlLles?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law should lnclude Lhe rlahLs of lndlaenous and Lrlbal aroups and peoples close Lo naLure,
and LhaL CuA acLlvlLv musL noL dearade Lhe envlronmenLallv adapLed culLures, as Lhese keep Lhe
13
knowledae, whlch ls essenLlal for Lhe paradlam shlfL, Lhe dlscoverv of a susLalnable clvlllsaLlon, also
for us.
42. 1o whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe local and communlLv plannlna and
communlLv parLlclpaLlon ln declslon maklna?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should speclfv LhaL Lhe developmenL of clvll socleLv lncludes
supporL ln accesslna envlronmenLal lnformaLlon, and ln Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe Aarhus prlnclples.
43. 1o whaL exLenL do alds LaraeL Lhe needs expressed bv Lhe LaraeL counLrv?
44. 1o whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe access Lo envlronmenLal lnformaLlon and
enforcemenL of Lhe Aarhus prlnclples ln Lhe LaraeL counLrv?
4S. ln whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv LransporL a forelan culLure, knowledae and
Lechnoloav?
ltoposol.
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should draw aLLenLlon Lo Lhls danaer.
46. uoes Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe Lhe developmenL and susLalnmenL of Lhe local markeL?
Þroposal:
Clven, LhaL local markeL, whlch meeLs Lhe needs of people wlLh local resources and local workforce, ls
an lmporLanL characLerlsLlc of susLalnable clvlllsaLlon: Lhe CuA law should emphaslze Lhe
relnforcemenL of Lhe local markeL.
47. 1o whaL exLenL does Lhe developmenL pollcv promoLe Lhe efflclenL and local use of local
resources?
Þroposal:
1he CuA law and Lhe counLrv sLraLeales should llsL Lhls also amona Lhe fundamenLal characLerlsLlcs of
CuA acLlvlLles.
Acronyms:
EIA: environmental impact assessment
HIA: Hungarian Interchurch Aid
ICPD: International ConIerence on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994
IPPF: International Planned Parenthood Federation
MDG: Millennium Development Goal
ODA: OIIicial Development Assistance (beIore: Overseas Development Aid)
OHCHR: United Nations OIIice oI the High Commissioner Ior Human Rights
14
UNDP: UN Development Program
UNFPA: UN Population Fund
UN WOMEN: United Nations Entity Ior Gender Equality and the Empowerment oI Women
UNIFEM: UN Development Fund Ior Women
WHO: World Health Organisation
1S