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JAPAN

Modeling-Based Design of Intelligent Control

Paradigms for Modern Wind Generating Systems

by

MUHANDO, Billy Endusa

A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of Engineering and

Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Engineering

in

Interdisciplinary Intelligent Systems Engineering

March 2008

Copyright by

MUHANDO, Billy Endusa

March 2008

Preface

G

ERMAN physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who fancied himself as a violinist, was re-

hearsing a Haydn string quartet. When he failed for the fourth time to get his entry in the

second movement, the cellist looked up and said, “The problem with you, Albert, is that you sim-

ply can’t count—what is your occupation anyhow?” to which he answered that he (Einstein) was an

artist’s model, reﬂecting his feeling that he was constantly posing for sculptures and paintings.

Einstein’s conundrum aside, modeling has been embraced by engineers of various persuasion in

systems’ design, and forms the basis of control design for wind generating systems in this research.

The dissertation has been submitted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor

of Engineering in Interdisciplinary Intelligent Systems. It has been prepared in Japan at the Power

Energy System Control (PESC) Laboratory of the Electrical & Electronics Department, Faculty of

Engineering, University of the Ryukyus. The project has been carried out as a harmonization between

the Laboratory’s core research areas (Power Systems, Power Electronics, and Control Systems) with

Sustainable Energy. The dissertation is a condensed report based on investigation of generator torque

control for optimal performance of a three-bladed, variable-speed wind generating system with active

pitch regulation. It is based on articles published or submitted to peer-reviewed journals during the

period of the PhD project. The problem deﬁnition, methodology and steps leading to solutions to the

problems, and ﬁnally the results, are presented in a concise manner outlined in two parts.

The ﬁrst part of the dissertation is concerned with modeling the aerodynamic conversion system.

As an introduction, a brief rundown is offered on recent trends in world energy demand, the integration

of wind energy in the global energy mix, challenges to the wind industry, and the problems thereof.

Modeling the various wind turbine subsystems — wind speed and power train system (comprising

the electrical and mechanical parts) — aims to provide an argumentative framework for a prototype

that can be independently evaluated for validation. The main contribution is the harmonization of the

various state-space models with varying dynamics to facilitate multiobjective controller design.

The second part deals with optimal controller design based on some deﬁned control strategies.

It discusses the potential of several advanced intelligent control paradigms for meeting the two con-

tradictory control objectives: power conversion maximization and active attenuation of structural-

dynamic load-oscillations as well as static loads of the drive-train. Computer simulations executed

in C-programming and MATLAB

**/Simulink™ environments conﬁrm the efﬁcacy of the paradigms
**

(albeit often in amalgamated conﬁgurations) when applied to the developed performability models.

i

ii

In 1985 I came across A. F. Abbott’s book: Ordinary Level Physics, at my brother Clyde’s room.

Unaware of the fact that I would not return it for two years and only then under threat of severe

penalty, Clyde let me borrow it. I am glad he did. Around the same time I was enrolled in junior high

at the Alliance High School. Physics at this level was an interesting and at the same time frustrating

experience. Looking back, the book was elemental in arousing my thinking about machines and

very deeply inﬂuenced me in pursuing a career in engineering. My time in studying and practising

engineering has been intellectually stimulating, thought-provoking, challenging and above all, fun,

mostly thanks to practising engineers I have met in the ﬁeld including Kenya, Belgium, and Japan.

Thanks are due ﬁrst to Prof Tomonobu Senjyu — my doctoral studies supervisor — for his great

insights, perspectives, and sense of humor. Prof Senjyu, as always, both challenged me and guided

me throughout my thesis work, kept me abreast of current work in wind turbine research and helped

put this work on a strong foundation by facilitating presentation of our research results in various

colloquiums across the globe. My sincere thanks go to both Prof Hiroshi Kinjo and Prof Tetsuhiko

Yamamoto (formally) of Mechanical Systems Engineering who dedicated their time in seeing me

through the two-year masters course leading to an M.Eng degree. They particularly inducted me to

life in Japan, showed me the essence of research in control engineering, and encouraged me to publish

and make presentations at national and international symposia.

Special thanks go to dissertation committe member, Prof Koji Kurata for his time in reviewing

this manuscript. Sincere gratitude is also extended to members of the academia at the University

of the Ryukyus who have inﬂuenced my work and made this educational process a success, notably

Prof R. M. Alsharif, Dr N. Urasaki, Dr K. Nakazono, Ms A. Kelly (for Japanese language tutorship),

and members of the PESC laboratory who offered a conducive environment for research. I have been

humbled by the altruistic commitment of Messrs. S. Murata and H. Arizono who were instrumental in

my expertise in C-language, GNU-Plot, and (typesetting in) L

A

T

E

X2

ε

—the scientiﬁc word processor

that effortlessly couples magniﬁcent layout with user-unfriendliness of varying degrees!

Of course none of this would have been possible without support from the following. Firstly,

my parents: my Mom and dad’s loving encouragement (may your souls rest in peace) and inspira-

tion (dad’s) at a young age to be a scientist. Secondly, my partner Senta Judy Haron, whom I can

never thank enough for her endless love, company and encouragement. Last but not least, the Japan

Ministry for Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ( ) for advancing me the

Monbukagakusho (MEXT) scholarship for my 5-year graduate (master and doctoral) studies.

Okinawa, Japan. March 2008 Muhando, B. E.

Abstract

A

GAINST the backdrop of increasing awareness of the effects of global warming due to green-

house gas emissions and with fossil-fuel prices on the rise and their supply increasingly un-

stable, the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a critical part of the new

thrust of engineering for sustainability. To address security of supply and energy diversiﬁcation, wind

energy is regarded the most attractive vanguard of the world’s energy challenges as it is clean, fuel-

free (produces no CO

2

), and a renewable source of power. Wind plants have beneﬁted from steady

advances in technology, and much of the advance has been made in the components dealing with the

utility interface, the electrical machine, the power electronic converter, and the control capability.

Wind turbines have become the most cost-effective renewable energy systems available today and

are now completely competitive with essentially all conventional generation systems. However, the

major problemis the wind’s unpredictable nature that forces utility operators to think differently about

power generation, with the main challenge being to provide governor functions and controlled ramp-

down during high wind speed events. Additionally, wind turbines present nonlinear dynamic behav-

ior and lightly damped resonant modes. This thesis examines design of advanced control paradigms

geared toward lessening the negative impact of wind stochasticity on modern MW-class wind en-

ergy conversion systems (WECS) during high turbulence. The main control design objectives are to

maximize power conversion throughout the operating envelope for steady output power as well as to

actively attenuate structural-dynamic load-oscillations of the drive-train.

The proposed advanced paradigms include the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), artiﬁcial neural

networks (ANNs) in form of neurocontrollers, the self-tuning regulator (STR), and a model-based

predictive control (MBPC) scheme. These yield, singly or in combination, digital systems whereby

control is exercised through regulation of generator torque. Their design is enhanced by modeling:

the plant and its environment are structured as a system of interacting subsystems that constitute an

equivalent model deﬁned in state space. The disturbance (input) signal is the wind that is modelled

as a stochastic process constituted by the seasonal mean wind speed and the instantaneous turbulence

component, while drive-train components (turbine, gearing and generator subsystems) are represented

as a series of inertias linked by ‘soft’ shafts without friction.

Computer simulations conducted using the MATLAB

**/Simulink™ software, with the generator
**

model as an interface between the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the WECS reveal that

achieving the objectives of optimal operation for reliability by the proposed multiobjective schemes

becomes more attractive vis-` a-vis the classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.

iii

Glossary

I. Acronyms and Abbreviations

(A)NN (artiﬁcial) neural network

ARMA auto-regressive moving average

CF capacity factor

COE cost of energy

CSS constrained stochastic simulation

DOIG double output induction generator

FSIG ﬁxed speed induction generator

GHGs greenhouse gas emissions

GSC grid side converter

HAWT horizontal axis wind turbine

LQ linear quadratic

LQG linear quadratic Gaussian

MBPC model-based predictive control

MPPT maximum power point tracking

NC neurocontroller

OP operational point

PI proportinal-integral (controller)

PID proportinal-integral-derivative

RSC rotor side converter

Std The IEC61400-1 Standard

STR self-tuning regulator

VAWT vertical axis wind turbine

VSIG variable speed induction generator

WECS wind energy conversion system

iv

v

II. Nomenclature

Notation for various symbols is deﬁned as they occur in the text, however, the following are the

common ones encountered across chapters:

α stator ﬁring angle σ standard deviation

β rotor collective pitch τ actuator time constant

Γ torque ϕ hidden neuron output

θ torsional angular twist Ψ ﬂux

λ tip-speed ratio (TSR) ω rotor speed

µ

w

seasonal mean wind speed ∆ deviation from reference

ξ Gaussian noise ∆t simulation time step

ρ air density Λ area of rotor disk

c Weibull scale parameter A state matrix

c

P

power coefﬁcient B control input gain matrix

c

T

torque coefﬁcient C relates plant output to states

f

0

mechanical eigenfrequency C(s) controller transfer function

f

n

grid nominal frequency D

s

drive-train torsional damping coefﬁcient

i

rd,rq

rotor d- and q-axis current G gain in full state feedback law

i

sd,sq

stator d- and q-axis current J quadratic cost function

k Weibull shape parameter J

g

generator mass moment of inertia

k

ω

partial derivative of Γ

t

w.r.t. rotor speed J

t

rotor mass moment of inertia

k

vw

partial derivative of Γ

t

w.r.t. wind speed K

s

drive-train torsional spring stiffness

k

β

partial derivative of Γ

t

w.r.t. pitch angle K

p

classical controller proportional gain

r

r

rotor resistance K

i

classical controller integral gain

r

s

stator resistance P weighting on the states x

t time P

e

WECS electrical power

u control input P

m

WECS mechanical power

u

rd,rq

rotor d- and q-axis voltage P

r

WECS rated power

u

sd,sq

stator d- and q-axis voltage Q weighting on the input u

v

r

rated (design) wind speed for WECS R rotor radius

v

t

perturbed wind disturbance V

hub

wind speed at hub height

v

w

free-stream wind speed X

m

mutual reactance

x state vector X

r

rotor reactance

y control (or measured) output X

s

stator reactance

Notes:

1. The subscript OP is used to denote the operating point (value of respective quantity at control

design point).

2. The superscripts ˙ x and ¨ x denote the ﬁrst and second derivatives of x w.r.t. time, i.e. d/dt and

d

2

/dt

2

respectively, while ˆ x represents the estimated value of x, an arbitrary dynamic quantity.

Contents

I Analytic Models for Wind Energy Conversion Systems 1

1 Introduction 2

1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.2 WECSs Generation Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.2.1 WECS Siting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.2.2 WECS Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.2.3 WECS Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.3 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.4 Problem Identiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.6 Goals and Scope of Present Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.6.1 Aim of the Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.6.2 Scientiﬁc and Technological Contribution of this Work . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.6.3 Outline of Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2 Aerodynamic Conversion Modeling 18

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.2 Theoretical Development for Aerodynamic Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.2.1 Energy Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.2.2 Power Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.2.3 Electrical Output Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.2.4 Capacity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.3 Turbine Linearization for Steady-state Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.4 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

vi

vii

3 Drive-train Modeling 29

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.2 Power train Modeling Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.3 Mechanical State Space System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.4 Drive-train Torque Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.4.1 Steady-state Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.4.2 Operation under High Turbulent Inﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.5 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4 Electrical System Modeling 38

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.2 Detailed Model of DOIG Unit with Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.2.1 Construction and Operation Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.2.2 DOIG: Electrical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4.2.3 DOIG: a Mechanical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.3 DOIG Operation under Steady-state and Fault Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.3.1 Steady-state Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.3.2 Transient Response and Fault-ride-through Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.4 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5 Modeling Wind Field Dynamics 52

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

5.2 Determination of Mean Wind Speed, v

m

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5.3 CSS Model for Wind Turbulence, v

t

(t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

5.3.1 Formulating the Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

5.3.2 Setting the Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

5.4 Real-time Wind Speed Proﬁle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5.5 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

viii

II Control Strategies and Design for Wind Energy Conversion Systems 62

6 Control Philosophy 63

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

6.2 Control Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.2.1 Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.2.2 Control Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

6.3 Control Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.3.1 Active Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.3.2 Power-train Torsional Load Alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.4 Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.4.1 Assigning the Control Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.4.2 Pitch Actuator and Blade Servo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

6.4.3 Generator Torque Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

7 Full-State Feedback Digital Control by LQG 78

7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

7.2 State Development for the Power-train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

7.3 LQG Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7.3.1 State Estimation and LQG Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7.3.2 Choice of Weighting Matrices for LQG Cost Function, J . . . . . . . . . . 84

7.3.3 Solution of the Stochastic Linear Regulator Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

7.4 Hybrid Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7.4.1 NC Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7.4.2 NC Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

7.5 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7.5.1 Tracking Performance by Proposed Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7.5.2 Optimization of Power Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

7.5.3 Minimization of Shaft Torsional Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

7.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

ix

8 Predictive Control I: STR 97

8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

8.2 WECS Multi-objective Control Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

8.3 STR Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

8.3.1 Outer Loop: Parameter Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

8.3.2 Inner Loop: Control Law, Γ

g,ref

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

8.4 Simulation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

8.4.1 Control for Energy Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

8.4.2 Control for Load Alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

8.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

9 Predictive Control II: MBPC 111

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

9.2 Control Concept for Power Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

9.3 Generator Torque Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

9.3.1 Γ

g,ref

by MBPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

9.3.2 Γ

g,ref

by PI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

9.4 Simulation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

9.4.1 Aerodynamic Power Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

9.4.2 Drive-train Torque Variation Minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

9.4.3 Comparison: MBPC and Classical PID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

9.4.4 Evolution of Electrical Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

9.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

10 Analysis, Perspectives, and Conclusions 128

10.1 Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

10.2 Modeling: an Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

10.3 WECS Modeling: Assessment of Approach and Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

10.4 Control: an Appraisal of Classical and Advanced Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

10.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Part I

Analytic Models for Wind Energy

Conversion Systems

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background

Wind Energy: Basis for Investment

R

ESOLVING the world’s growing demand for energy, minimizing related impacts on the envi-

ronment and reducing the potential geopolitical tensions associated with increased competition

for energy supplies represent some of the greatest technical and policy challenges of the next several

decades. These global energy and environmental challenges require a multidisciplinary systems ap-

proach that integrates policy design and technology development.

Fossil fuels supply more than 80 percent of the world’s primary energy [1] but they are ﬁnite

resources and major contributors to global climate change. The ways and means for their ultimate

replacement with clean, affordable and sustainable energy sources at the scale required to power the

world are not yet fully obvious, readily available or, in many instances, technically feasible. Also,

these alternative sources are not all benign and their impacts on the environment, particularly when

deployed at scale, are not fully understood. Turning off the carbon spigot is the ﬁrst step, and many

of the solutions are familiar: windmills, solar panels, nuclear plants. All three technologies are part

of the energy mix, although each has its issues, including noise from windmills and radioactive waste

from nukes. Moreover, existing energy infrastructures around the world are complex and very large,

represent enormous capital investment and have operational life spans of 50 years or more. Wholesale

or even piecemeal replacement of these infrastructures will be costly, will take time and will be fre-

quently resisted by entrenched interests. In addition, the local, regional and global impacts of climate

change require unique understanding of the scientiﬁc and technical underpinnings of the problems in

order to formulate informed and timely responses at unprecedented national and international levels.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3

(a) Early windmill design, Denmark (b) Modern WECS integrate well in urban environments

Figure 1.1: Evolution of WECS through the decades: structure inﬂuenced by purpose.

Meeting dramatic increases in energy demand, particularly in the developing world, will com-

pound these problems at the same time that it enables opportunities for enhanced national stability,

economic development and improved quality of life. To meet the energy, environmental, and security

imperatives of the 21

st

century, it is essential that energy policy, technology development, regulatory

and diplomatic decisions and actions be coordinated and based on the strongest, most informed and

integrated scientiﬁc, economic and social analyses to:

◦ avoid or minimize the stranding of assets,

◦ optimize the investment in research,

◦ minimize potential economic dislocation during the transition to a sustainable energy future,

◦ preserve fundamental drivers of free markets by internalizing environmental stewardship, and

◦ maximize the opportunities for successful transformation of global energy systems.

Wind Energy: Decades of Technological Development

In windmills (a much older technology), wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do

physical work; historically, windmills were used traditionally for grinding grain or spices, pumping

water, sawing wood or hammering seeds (Fig. 1.1(a)). The evolution of modern turbines is a remark-

able success story of engineering and scientiﬁc skill, coupled with a strong entrepreneurial spirit. The

progress of wind energy around the world in recent years has been consistently impressive, with the

main engineering challenge to the wind industry being to design an efﬁcient wind turbine to harness

that energy and turn it into electricity. Fig. 1.1(b) shows a modern wind turbine — structural design

has been inﬂuenced by need to be a good neighbor!

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 4

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Nominal power (kW)

Rotor diameter (m)

Hub height (m)

Annual energy yield (kWh) 35,000 95,000 400,000 1,250,000 3,500,000 17,000,000

30 80 250 600 1,500 5,000

15 20 124 46 74 30

30 40 50 78 100 120

Figure 1.2: Upscaling: size increased 100, and energy yield grew 500-fold in just 25 years.

In the last 25 years turbines have increased in power by a factor of 100, the cost of energy has

reduced (from $0.80/kWh in 1980 to $0.03 − 0.06/kWh in 2005 (in 2005 dollars) [2]), and the in-

dustry has moved from an idealistic fringe activity to the edge of conventional power generation.

The cumulative global wind power production capacity has expanded rapidly, with global installed

capacity standing at over 74 GW of electricity generating wind turbines that are operating in over 50

countries by the end of 2006, almost 4.5 times greater than in 2000 [3]. Further, future prospects are

very promising: it is envisaged the total wind power installed world-wide could rise to 160 GW by

2012 [4], due to a broadening of the global wind energy market to engage a spread of new countries

across all continents. Fig. 1.2 illustrates the growth in size of commercial wind turbines since 1980.

There are, however, several impediments to truly large-scale deployment, including intermittency

[5]-[7], the location of high-quality wind resources far from large demand centers, and public oppo-

sition to siting of WECS facilities [8]-[10]. The major concerns can be summed up as follows:

• It is commonly held that the introduction of intermittent sources of electricity such as wind

energy into a utility network causes operational problems and necessitates the provision of

energy storage.

• Reliability and durability of the structural assembly, based on O&M costs.

• Wind power sceptics have raised questions on the conceivable environmental aspects, consid-

ering both physical and biological receptors as well as socio-economic impacts.

• First-hour critics argued that with continued upscaling, the huge dimensions would limit the

number of suitable potential locations.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 5

Regarding integration of the output into the grid, in practice, most utility networks are able to

maintain grid stability with penetrations of wind energy above 10% without any change to their op-

erating procedures. In typical grid systems there may be an adverse economic impact for penetration

levels above 20%, but there is no overriding technical difﬁculty that would limit wind energy pene-

tration to very low values. Advances in energy-storage technologies can address intermittency issues.

The modernization of the power network and increased efﬁciency of the grid will enable the integra-

tion and transmission of wind energy over longer distances. The point that is overlooked is the fact

that there are numerous uncertainties in the electricity supply and demand balance; the variability as-

sociated with wind energy only causes problems once wind energy raises the statistical error margin.

Local reinforcement of grids and the ability of variable speed turbines to contribute to grid stability

counteract concerns about variability of supply, mismatch with demand, and the need for storage.

Concerning reliability, most manufacturers peg the lifetime of a wind turbine at 20-25 years [11],

and technological advances in the control system coupled with pertinent materials for blade strength

have ensured long maintenance-free operation times, and reduced overheads. The last two arguments

focus not so much on technological challenges but on aesthetics (visual impact), landscape integra-

tion and transport logistics. Public opposition to facility siting can be addressed, in part, through

development of novel wind power technologies. Mechanical noise has practically been eliminated

and aerodynamic noise has been vastly reduced (a WECS installation at 350m emits a noise level of

35–40 dB, which is comparable to a quiet indoor room. Wind itself is noisy!). Careful siting can avoid

potential interference with electromagnetic radiation for communication. Besides, there is evidence

from independent studies suggesting wind farms do not have a signiﬁcant adverse effect on AM radio,

navigation systems, mobile phone transmission, and military radar operation, with the exception of

low level air-defence radar. On the brighter side, there has been considerable potential created for

employment in all aspects of the wind industry (manufacture, project design, installation, and O&M),

though there are different ways of estimating the personnel employed in the wind energy sector.

Overall, the trend towards lower costs for wind-generated electricity has driven manufacturers

to less conservative, more optimized machine design at an increasingly large scale

1

. Now industry

insiders are talking about next-generation offshore turbine giants of 7.5 to 12 MWwith rotor diameters

of up to 200 metres. But how realistic are these plans? Is bigger better, and are there limits to wind

turbine upscaling? Regarding these, the jury is still out.

1

The pace of upscaling can only be described as breathtaking. The world’s ﬁrst commercial 4.5 MW prototype was

created in 2002 and two 5 MW prototypes developed in 2004, with one installed in the North Sea 15 miles off the East

coast of Scotland near the Beatrice Oil Field (assembly/commissioning in 2006). Currently, the world’s most powerful

wind turbine — the E112 manufactured by Enercon GmbH of German — delivers up to 6 MW, has an overall height of

186 m and a diameter of 114 m. Interestingly, this is not the world’s largest wind turbine, it just produces the most power!

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 6

1.2 WECSs Generation Technologies

1.2.1 WECS Siting

WECSs have traditionally been installed on land, but recent trends favor offshore siting because wind

speeds are higher (may be 25% higher than at the coast) and less turbulent than onshore winds [12],

and there is reduced social imapact.

1.2.2 WECS Conﬁgurations

I. HAWT/VAWT

Turbine development over the years has experimented with both horizontal-axis wind turbine

(HAWT) and verical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) types. Due to their expected advantages of

omni-directionality and having gears and generating equipment at the tower base, vertical axis

designs were considered. However, several disadvantages have caused the vertical axis design

route to disappear from the mainstream commercial market, including:

• reduced aerodynamic efﬁciency — much of the blade surface is close to the axis

• albeit usually at ground level, it is not feasible to have the gearbox of large VAWT at ground

level because of the weight and cost of the transmission shaft

• invariably have a lot of structure per unit of capacity (catenary curve loaded only in tension).

II. Variable-speed, Pitch-regulated

Variable speed is facilitated by pitch regulation that involves turning the blades about their

lengthwise axes (pitching the blades) to regulate the power extracted by the rotor.

• Advantages:

(i) ability to supply power at a constant voltage and frequency while the rotor speed varies

(ii) control of the active and reactive power, thus enhancing grid integration [13]

(iii) variable-speed capability allows the turbine to operate at ideal tip-speed ratios over a

larger range of wind speeds; peculiarly, the most dramatic increase in performance is

realized at lower wind speeds.

• Disadvantages:

(i) require some active protection system to keep the turbine connected to the network but

also protected against any over-current in the case of short-term grid disturbances [14]

(ii) the alternating current (ac) they produce has a variable frequency that cannot be safely

delivered to existing power transmission grids without conditioning [15],[16].

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 7

III. Fixed-speed, Stall-regulated

As wind speed increases, the blades become increasingly stalled to limit power to accept-

able levels without any additional active control. The rotor speed is held essentially constant,

achieved through the connection of the electric generator to the stiff grid frequency.

• Advantage: simple and robust construction, hence lower capital cost.

• Disdvantages:

(i) do not have the capability of independent control of active and reactive power

(ii) offer no inherent means of torque oscillation damping which places a greater load and

cost on their gearbox.

Industry has been shifting toward variable speed for reasons related to overall wind turbine perfor-

mance: they take full advantage of variations in the incident wind speed, encounter lower mechanical

stress and less power ﬂuctuations, and provide 10–15% higher energy output compared with constant

speed operation [17],[18]. They are routinely connected “indirectly” to the grid to allow for power

conditioning to occur (at the wind farm). The majority of modern turbines include transmissions,

clutches, and rotor shaft braking systems or aerodynamic stall features that act on the rotor blades to

maintain the variations in a rotor shaft’s rotation within prescribed design limits. Such turbines are

also equipped with SCADA

2

systems [19],[20] that can adjust operating conditions (e.g., aerodynamic

stall and blade pitch) to changing wind conditions.

1.2.3 WECS Control

Recent research concentrates on improving the technological advantage of wind plants over exist-

ing conventional power generating systems. Such research has seen various proposals for the wind

industry to embrace novel digital control systems geared toward low installation and maintenance

costs while ensuring maximum energy extraction efﬁciency. The most common strategies incorpo-

rate the linear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller [21]-[23] that has been tested in the

ﬁeld environment. Recently, multivariable control paradigms have been gaining prominence as they

are multiobjective hence several control goals can be met simultaneously. Such robust schemes in-

clude sensorless techniques [24]-[26], adaptive control that incorporates gain-scheduling by the linear

quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller [27]-[31], the self-tuning regulator (STR) [32]-[34], and fuzzy

control systems [35]-[37] that may be considered an extension of maximum power-point tracking

(MPPT) schemes and yield more ﬂexible but quite context-dependent controllers.

2

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition — a system that collects data from various sensors at a plant or in other

remote locations and then transmits this data to a central computer that manages and controls the data.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 8

1.3 Motivation

Enviromental and technological considerations form the conceptual framework for the essence and

the design of modern WECS that incorporate sophisticated control paradigms, a theme for this thesis.

Motivation for this work stems from, ﬁrstly, the need for stabilization of greenhouse-gas (GHG)

emissions, which requires that annual emissions be brought down to the level that balances the Earth’s

natural capacity to remove such gases fromthe atmosphere. Though prediction of the extent of climate

change with complete certainty has not been established, the risks can be envisaged. Mitigation —

taking strong action to reduce emissions — must be viewed as an investment, a cost incurred now

and in the coming few decades to avoid the risks of very severe consequences in the future. The

stocks of hydrocarbons that are proﬁtable to extract (under current policies) are more than enough

to take the world to levels of GHGs concentrations well beyond 750ppm CO

2

e, with very dangerous

consequences

3

. GHGs emissions contributed by the power sector can be cut by switching to lower-

carbon technologies for electricity, to be at least 60%, and perhaps as much as 75%, decarbonized by

2050 to stabilize at or below 550ppm CO

2

e. While a portfolio of technologies to achieve this already

exist, the priority is low-cost abatement so that they are competitive with fossil-fuel alternatives under

a carbon-pricing policy regime. Most countries have formulated policies to support the wind industry,

which is a powerful motivation that has seen wind turbine innovation across the globe.

Secondly, computer processing power and available memory have increased at a phenomenal rate

over the 20 years that the modern wind turbine industry has existed. Coupled with the possibilities

for extremely user-friendly software environments, sophisticated design calculations can be executed

in a straightforward and convenient manner by the wind turbine designer, using standard desktop PC

hardware. Simulation — the time domain approach to calculating the response of a system subject to

some disturbance — forms the basis of all current, state-of-the-art wind turbine design calculations.

Computer simulation is a most powerful tool to investigate the means and capabilities of different

technologies for integrating WECSs to the power network. When incorporation of large amount of

wind power into electric power systems takes place, a number of technical problems will be encoun-

tered that need innovative solutions. The approach relies on computer modeling and simulations to

develop effective control schemes to ensure reliability of the WECS and smooth integration of wind

power into the grid. In this report, calculations are run on Intel

**Celeron™ CPU, 128 MB RAM,
**

Unix compiler (C–programming) and Windows 2000 OS (MATLAB

/Simulink™ environment) to

develop computational tools for modeling.

3

CO

2

e designates CO

2

-equivalent

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 9

1.4 Problem Identiﬁcation

There are two intrinsic issues common to wind power systems that are explored in this thesis, relating

to the operating environment, and robustness of the installed control scheme, viz:

I Stochastic Operating Environment

Control design in this rersearch focuses mainly on what will happen when grid-connected wind

power plants experience large amounts of highly-ﬂuctuating wind. The issues relate to ensuring

steady electrical power output, alleviation of cyclic (torsional) loads on the power train compo-

nents, and maintaining transient voltage stability, speciﬁcally, to avoid voltage collapse in the

power system.

II Limitation of Linear Control Systems

For a long period in the wind industry, controller design has centered mainly on simple, lin-

ear, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers that are easily implemented in the ﬁeld

environment. Conventional PID controllers must be conservatively tuned in order to ensure

closed–loop stability over the full range of operating conditions. Gain selection for these con-

trollers has generally been a trial-and-error process relying on experience and intuition from the

engineers. Unfortunately, this means that the plant can not operate at high efﬁciency, since the

wind turbine is a highly nonlinear process [38], [39].

1.5 Methodology

The aforementioned objectives and control problem stem from wind stochasticity that impacts on

both power quality and drive-train fatigue life for a WECS, and the nonlinearity in the system respec-

tively. The WECS under consideration is an onshore, HAWT, variable speed, pitch-regulated type. Its

electrical part is comprised by the double output induction generator (DOIG) — a conﬁguration that

employs a wound-rotor induction machine and a rotor converter cascade consisting of a back-to-back

double-bridge inverter conﬁguration based on IGBTs. The approach, as detailed below, entails two

fundamentals: modeling of the various WECS dynamic components, and design of advanced control

paradigms to enhance optimal operation geared toward low cost of energy (COE).

The generality of the developed models strongly depends on the modeling requirements, i.e. time

scale (transient and 120-second simulations), and nature of the phenomena to be reproduced (power

quality and power train loading), as follows:

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 10

I Modeling Aspects

No general model can be introduced that would represent with sufﬁcient accuracy the dynamic

behavior of all variable speed WECS schemes. In this report dynamic models are presented

for a variable speed WECS conﬁguration that uses an induction generator and stator or rotor

AC/DC/AC converter cascade, for representing the behavior of the output power in both rel-

atively slow wind variations, and also for calculating its stability margin during above rated

turbulent inﬂow. In the sequel the modeling equations for each subsystem that constitute the

WECS are presented and the main assumptions outlined. The following main subsystems are

modelled independently:

• Rotor aerodynamics, (includes a wind speed model)

• Power-train, i.e. the torsional subsystem of the axes, gearbox and elastic couplings

linking the turbine rotor to the electrical generator

• Electrical and control subsystem, consisting of the electrical generator, the power

electronics converters, and the associated controls, and

• Blade-pitch regulation system and speed controller.

II Advanced Control Design

Although industry has embraced the PID controller, researchers have begun to investigate the

capabilities of more sophisticated control designs [40]-[43]. The fundamental concept common

to these designs is that they are both adaptive and depend on state feedback (often with state

estimation to render full-state feedback). This study proposes several control schemes and

evaluates their design and performance, notably:

• Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) — this converts control system design problems to an

optimization problem with quadratic time-domain performance criteria; disturbances and

measurement noise are modelled as stochastic processes.

A hybrid scheme is also mooted, based on augmenting the LQG with a neurocontroller

(NC), whereby the control load is shared such that the LQG handles the linear part while

the NC utilizes the intrinsic properties of NNs to handle the nonlinearities inherent in the

WECS system, to execute generator torque control.

• Self-Tuning Regulator (STR) — control is exercised through a self-tuning regulator, and

incorporates a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm to estimate plant parameters.

• Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC) — control algorithm based on solving an online

optimal control problem via a receding horizon policy.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 11

1.6 Goals and Scope of Present Work

1.6.1 Aim of the Work

The objective of this work is to develop advanced control techniques for variable-speed, pitch-regulated

WECS by a modeling approach and validate their performance. This study is focused mainly on:

• An investigation of the capabilities of advanced control paradigms for wind-electrical energy

conversion performance.

• Reduction of power train fatigue loads by enhanced damping through generator torque control.

• An investigation on the impact of detailed DOIG wind turbine modeling on the accuracy of

electrical system performance analysis.

• The transient and steady-state analysis of a wind-power DOIG operating under high turbulence

wind inﬂow using the developed power-train and ﬁeld-circuit simulator models.

1.6.2 Scientiﬁc and Technological Contribution of this Work

1. Applying the developed methodology of combining detailed wind turbine subsystems’ model-

ing with a Matlab-Simulink environment for the analysis of the whole electric drive system and

electric part of a wind energy conversion system, and validation of the developed simulator.

2. Comparative study of different variable speed wind turbine control approaches from the point

of view of transient simulation accuracy, gauged upon the classical PID.

3. Veriﬁcation of the method for coupling the magnetic ﬁeld and circuit equations of the electrical

machine with the drive-train dynamic equations.

Adverse climatic change and hence the need for ‘green’ energy in contemporary times aside, global

energy demand is consistently exponential, and wind energy is becoming a signiﬁcant player in the

energy mix. This research focuses on the need to design control systems that properly account for

the ﬂexible modes of the turbine, and maintain the stable closed-loop behavior of the WECS. Overall,

this research contributes to advancement in wind technology geared toward lower cost of energy

(COE), by proposing advanced control paradigms whose stock-in-trade is robustness. In addition,

they are easily implemented in a microprocessor matrix. Most of the research has been published in

peer-reviewed journals, establishing permanent reference value.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 12

Aer o

dynamics

model

Dr ive

t r ain

model

Wind

speed

model

Cont r ol concept

(Gen. t or que

&

pit ch angle)

DOIG

model

Gr id

&

Conver t er

Chapt er 4

Chapt er 2 Chapt er 3 Chapt er 5 Chapt er 6

STR

cont r ol

Chapt er 8 Chapt er 9

MBPC

cont r ol

Chapt er 10

WECS

Backgr ound: Chapt er 1

Elect r ical syst em Mechanical syst em

Cont r ol syst em Chapt er 11

Analysis

&

conclusions

LQG

cont r ol

Chapt er 7

(H /H &

Fuzzy cont r ol)

2 inf

Fut ur e wor k

Figure 1.3: Outline of presentation of the work in this thesis.

1.6.3 Outline of Presentation

This project is a multi-task work; it contains elements of electric machinery theory, shaft system rep-

resentation, aerodynamic relations, control features and controller design, and the overall interaction

of the wind energy conversion system (wind turbine and power system), as depicted in Fig. 1.3. The

content of the work is separated into two parts:

• Part I deals with development of WECS subsystems’ dynamic models. State-space representa-

tion of the mechanical and electrical subsystems are harmonized as a foundation for the control

design in the sequel. The models are discretized to enable sampling during the simulations, and

the various time constants associated with the subsystems are deﬁned.

• Part II analyzes design, for optimality and stability in operation, of several advanced controllers

applied to the perfomability models developed in Part I.

Furthermore, the thesis is divided into eleven chapters, including the Introduction (Chapter 1) that

has given a background check on the development of wind power through the decades, status of wind

power today, the challenges, future trends, and the various WECS conﬁgurations. Motivation for this

thesis has been presented, as well as the statement of the problem, the objectives, and the methodology

employed in addressing the problems. The rest of the work is detailed in the following fashion.

Chapter 2 validates the economic viability of WECSs by a theoretical development of a model for

the energy conversion as well as the concept of turbine linearization that is essential for the control

formulation in the steady-state analysis. The research work presented in this chapter appears in IET

Proc. Renewable Power Generation. (Accepted for publication, 2007).

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 13

Chapter 3 deals with the mechanical dynamics of the WECS with regard to torsional loading. A

spring-mass-damper model for the mechanical construction of the drive-train as a series of elastically

coupled frictionless shafts is developed, and analysis of the system reliability is tackled. This concept

is developed in most of the published works by the author as detailed in Appendix C.

Chapter 4 describes the DOIG as the interface between the wind turbine and grid, with the con-

verter control mentioned with a generic scheme. The work is based on DOIG modeling as presented

in the author’s work: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, (Forthcoming).

Chapter 5 presents in detail the model for generating a real-time wind speed proﬁle for the simula-

tions, with particular emphasis on modeling of gust events for the turbulent inﬂow. This work is pub-

lished in Renewable Energy, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2407-2423, and Wind Energy, doi:10.1002/we.236.

Chapter 6 elucidates on the control philosophy, and describes the global model detailing inter-

action of the WECS subsystems. Description of controller formulation is presented. The chapter

examines maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) schemes as well as their demerits, and suggests

the necessary shift in controller design: use of multivariable schemes for generator torque control.

These are handled in subsequent chapters. This research is published in Renewable Energy, vol. 31,

no. 11, pp. 1764-1775, and Int. J. of Emerging Electric Power Systems, vol. 8, no. 2, Art. 3, pp. 1-19.

Chapter 7 presents the ﬁrst of several advanced control paradigms — the LQG in combination

with a nuerocontroller (NC). Investigations are carried out on the suitability of the proposed con-

trollers in meeting the two objectives at above rated wind speeds: output power leveling and drive-

train load mitigation. This research is published in Renewable Energy, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2407-2423,

and Renewable Energy, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.001.

Chapter 8 proposes the self-tuning regulator (STR). This research work is published in IET Procs.

Control Theory & Applications, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1431-1440.

Chapter 9 develops the model-based predictive control (MBPC) as an alternative control scheme

that relies on prediction to minimize errors in control design and performance. This work appears in

the paper submitted to IET Procs. Renewable Power Generation.

Chapter 10 renders the analyses and perspectives — a crispy discussion on the implications of

advanced control paradigms to the wind industry from the dual techno-economic viewpoint, as well

as a conclusion of the thesis.

Chapter 11 gives directions for future research, based on an on-going study of several schemes:

H

2

/H

∞

and neurofuzzy logic, as a foundation for viable alternatives, albeit only qualitatively.

The Appendix serves to provide important features regarding the modeling, in respect of WECS

parameters and mathematical derivations for supporting various concepts developed therein.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 14

References

[1] The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), “The current status of the wind industry —

Industry overview, market data, employment, policy,” Available online, http://www.ewea.org

[2] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “RLS-based self-tuning regu-

lator for WTG dynamic performance enhancement under stochastic setting,” Proc. The Interna-

tional Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE 2007, Hong Kong, 8-12 July 2007.

[3] American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), “The economics of wind energy,” Available on-

line, http://www.awea.org/pubs/factsheets/EconomicsOfWind-Feb2005.pdf

[4] International Energy Agency (IEA), “Key world energy statistics 2007,” Available online,

http://www.iea.org/statistics

[5] K. Stunz, and J. Nedrud, “Multilevel energy storage for intermittent wind power conversion:

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[6] R. Piwko, D. Osborn, R. Gramlich, G. Jordan, D. Hawkins, and K. Porter, “Wind energy delivery

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[7] J. P. Barton, and D. G. Inﬁeld, “Energy storage and its use with intermittent renewable energy,”

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 15

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 16

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Chapter 2

Aerodynamic Conversion Modeling

2.1 Introduction

A

LL the successful megawatt-class wind technology developments to date are results of rather

conventional evolutionary design efforts whose basis is the premise that control can signiﬁ-

cantly improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in a WECS [1],[2]. As wind turbines grow

in size, their components will be subjected to additional wind loading associated with complex en-

vironments of their installation. Indeed, rotor structural dynamics signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the wind

turbine response during electrical faults. To provide industry with the support it needs to develop

technologies capable of cost-effective operation in stochastic wind speed resource areas, it is impor-

tant for researchers to understand drive train design for effective power conversion through advanced

power electronic components. Because blades and rotor comprise up to 25% of the WECS’s total

capital cost, and the rotor captures 100% of the energy, technology improvements in these areas can

provide as much as 50% of the cost reduction. Typically, when power rating goes up, rotor diameter

increases too. Maintaining an optimum ratio between rated power and rotor swept area is essential,

but the optimal value depends to a large extent on average wind speed at hub height. One implication

of increasing rotor diameters is increased aerodynamic noise, hence rotor speed, as a rule, has to come

down to curb these emissions.

Beginning with simple calculations based largely on engineering intuition, the approach to wind

turbine design has been transformed to the point where sophisticated computer-based analysis is now

performed routinely throughout the industry. This chapter develops both aerodynamic and electrical

models for power production based on empirical formulations. These assist in visualizing the con-

cept of control design as a philosophy geared toward achieving near-ideal performance within the

technological constraints that abound in the wind industry.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 19

WINDMILL DRIVE

TRAIN

AC

generator

Torque

control

AC

AC

Gearbox

Grid

vw

Γ

ref

Γg

Γt

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Figure 2.1: Generalized block diagram of the WECS’s main subsystems.

2.2 Theoretical Development for Aerodynamic Conversion

Fig. 2.1 depicts the interconnection of the main drive train components. The windmill comprises the

blades and the hub. The working principle of the WECS encompasses two conversion processes that

are executed by its principle subsystems. The wind turbine generates torque from the wind pressure,

which is transmitted via the shaft and gearing to the generator rotor. The generator converts this

torque into electric power. The control system serves to regulate the rotor speed and damp out torque

ﬂuctuations at the shaft by pitch and torque controllers respectively, as explained in Part II.

2.2.1 Energy Extraction

With regard to energy production, the wind power, P

w

, available from the turbine blades’ rotation is

a derivative of the kinetic energy, E

w

, of the wind with respect to time

P

w

=

∂E

w

∂t

=

1

2

∂(mv

2

w

)

∂t

=

1

2

∂(ρΛv

3

w

t)

∂t

=

1

2

ρΛv

3

w

(2.1)

where m is the mass of the air (Kg) in the area swept by the blades, v

w

is the wind speed at the centre

of the rotor (m/s), ρ is the air density (kg/m

3

), and Λ = πR

2

is the frontal area of the wind turbine

(m

2

), R being the rotor radius (m). The portion of the extracted wind power converted to mechanical

power by the rotor can be simulated by the static relation obtained according to the Rankine-Froude

theory [3] of propellers in incompressible ﬂuids

P

m

= c

P

(λ, β)

ρΛ

2

v

3

w

(2.2)

where P

m

is the mechanical power (W), and c

P

(λ, β) denotes the performance coefﬁcient of the

turbine, determined by the pitch angle, β, of the blades and the tip-speed ratio (TSR), λ.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 20

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

c

p

(λ,β)

β

λ

c

p

(λ,β)

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

c

P

λ

β=−2

β=0

β=3

β=5

β=7

β=10

(a) c

P

(λ, β) according to (2.3) (b) Variation of c

P

with λ and β

Figure 2.2: Performance curves for a 3-bladed WECS. Negative c

P

values have been set to zero.

2.2.2 Power Curve

Research in advanced control for development of efﬁcient production tools is in line with the frame-

work that aims to improve performance of WECS to get the best beneﬁt from the wind energy source.

With the primary objective of maintaining steady electrical power, reducing rotor speed ﬂuctuations,

and minimizing control actuating loads, controller design requires a formulation of the power curve

of the WECS. One common way to control the active power of a wind turbine is by regulating the

c

P

value. Information on the power coefﬁcient for commercial wind turbines is not readily given by

turbine manufacturers [4]. Several numerical approximations have been developed to compute c

P

[5]-[8]. This chapter analyzes an achetype for modeling c

P

, approximated using a nonlinear function

based on the turbine characteristics, according to [9]. It is modelled as

c

P

(λ, β) = 0.5176

116

λ

i

−0.4β −5

e

−21

λ

i

+ 0.0068λ (2.3)

where the TSR is computed from the blade tip-speed and wind speed

λ =

ω

t

R

v

w

(2.4)

with ω

t

designating the rotor angular velocity, in rad/sec. Further, the value λ

i

is determined from

1

λ

i

=

1

λ + 0.08β

−

0.035

β

3

+ 1

. (2.5)

For practical purposes c

P

may be determined using a graphical method; the power coefﬁcient is

illustrated as a three-dimensional mesh surface in Fig. 2.2(a). The proﬁle in Fig. 2.2(b) shows that

c

P

= 0.48 for β = 0

◦

and λ = 8.1. This tip-speed value is assigned as the optimum tip-speed

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 21

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

5 10 15 20 25

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

ωt

λ

β

(a) Rotor speed (rpm), TSR, and pitch angle (deg.)

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

5 10 15 20 25

P

o

w

e

r

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

c

P

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(b) Performance coefﬁcient c

P

(λ, β)

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

5 10 15 20 25

T

o

r

q

u

e

c

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

,

c

T

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(c) Torque coefﬁcient c

T

(λ, β)

Figure 2.3: Steady power curve calculations: performance coefﬁcients variation with wind speed.

ratio, λ

opt

, and the optimum turbine speed curve at any given wind speed can be obtained based on

this value. This curve is then used as a reference in the active power control. c

P

can be thought of

as a correction factor, introduced into the above power equation to reﬂect the reality that the rotor’s

power-capturing efﬁciency is less than perfect.

It is noteworthy that WECSs are now highly efﬁcient with less than 10% thermal losses in the

system transmission. The aerodynamic efﬁciency of turbines has gradually risen from the early 1980s

with c

P

rising from 0.44 to about 0.50 for state-of-the-art technology, which is near the theoretical

maximum value of 16/27≈0.593, called the Lancaster-Betz limit [3]. This value is based upon the

physical reality that even the most aerodynamically efﬁcient turbine blade disrupts the airﬂow of

incident wind before the wind front reaches the rotating blade. In actuality, the air molecules within

the cross-sectional area swept by the rotor slowdown as they approach rotating turbine blades and thus

lose kinetic energy proportional to the cube of that velocity loss. Note that the maximumtheoretical c

P

value in Fig. 2.2(b) from the empirical formulation in (2.3) is about 0.59, corresponding to β = −2

◦

and λ = 14. Fig. 2.3(a) shows variation in ω

t

, λ, and β while Figs. 2.3(b) and (c) show, respectively,

the desired variations in c

P

(λ, β) and torque coefﬁcient c

T

(λ, β) for the WECS over a range of wind

speeds, for optimum power production.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 22

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0 5 10 15 20 25

P

o

w

e

r

,

[

p

u

]

u

w

(t), [m/s]

c

P

=1.0 (Eqn 2.1)

Actual (Eqn 2.2)

Linearized (Eqn 2.6)

Figure 2.4: Ideal and actual shaft power, and linearized electrical output power.

2.2.3 Electrical Output Model

The electrical power output is a function of various parameters including wind speed, rotor speed,

efﬁciencies of the drive train components, type of turbine, system inertias, and the gustiness of the

wind. By deﬁning a model for the output electrical power P

e

, more accurate energy estimates can be

attained. A closed form expression [10] for energy production is obtained by assuming that P

e

varies

as v

k

w

between cut-in, v

c

, and rated, v

r

, wind speeds, where k is the Weibull shape parameter:

P

e

= 0 for (v

w

< v

c

)

P

e

= a + bv

k

w

for (v

c

≤ v

w

≤ v

r

)

P

e

= P

r

for (v

w

> v

r

)

(2.6)

where P

r

is the rated electrical power, and the coefﬁcients a and b are given by

a =

P

r

v

k

c

v

k

c

−v

k

r

and b =

P

r

v

k

r

−v

k

c

.

Fig. 2.4 shows the power curve for the variable speed, pitch-regulated WECS. The ﬁrst curve

(c

P

=1.0) gives the maximum wind power available, while the second one (‘Actual’) is the mechanical

power (including all the generator and transmission losses) for production of useful electrical power.

For the linearized plot of P

e

versus v

w

in (2.6) for k = 2, the electrical power varies as v

2

w

between

the cut-in and rated wind speeds, rising above zero at a wind speed of 5.6 m/s and then assumes a

constant value at and above rated wind speeds. It is noteworthy that other turbines, transmissions, and

generators will produce somewhat different curves with approximately the same shape.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 23

2.2.4 Capacity Factor

Average power output, P

avg

, of a turbine is a much better economical indicator of the total energy

production as compared to the rated power P

r

, as the latter is chosen by the manufacturer with less

accurate regard to wind speed at a site. P

avg

may be computed as a product of the power produced

at each wind speed and the fraction of the time that wind speed is experienced, integrated over all

possible wind speeds

P

avg

=

∞

0

P

e

f(v

w

)dv

w

(2.7)

where f(v

w

) is the Weibull probability density function

f(v

w

) =

k

c

v

w

c

k−1

exp

¸

−

v

w

c

k

(2.8)

with c as the scale parameter. Generally, c is about 12% larger than the mean wind speed, and since

most good wind regimes will have the shape parameter k in the range 1.5 ≤ k ≤ 3.0, the estimate

c = 1.12µ

w

sufﬁces, where µ

w

designates the long term mean wind speed at the site. Thus the

optimum design for energy production is a rated speed of about twice the mean speed. Substituting

(2.6) and (2.8) into Eq. (2.7) yields

P

avg

=

vr

vc

(a + bv

k

w

)f(v

w

)dv

w

+ P

r

∞

vr

f(v

w

)dv

w

. (2.9)

The Rayleigh distribution [11] is a χ

2

density function with 2 DOF, a subset of the Weibull distribution

when k = 2 and is sufﬁciently accurate for analysis of wind power systems when statistics at a given

site are unknown. Substituting the limits of integration in (2.9) and neglecting small terms

P

avg

= P

r

exp[−(v

c

/c)

2

] −exp[−(v

r

/c)

2

]

(v

r

/c)

2

−(v

c

/c)

2

. (2.10)

The quantity inside the brackets in (2.10) is the Capacity Factor (CF), thus

P

avg

= P

r

(CF). (2.11)

The CF may be envisaged as a correction factor that reﬂects the turbine’s technical availability. CFs

of at least 25% are considered minimally necessary for a site to be considered economically viable

[12]. In practice, the most efﬁcient wind farms exhibit individual turbine CFs of 30 to 35% [13],[14].

However, values as high as 45% have been observed [12],[13],[15].

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 24

2.3 Turbine Linearization for Steady-state Analysis

Linear controller design requires that the nonlinear turbine dynamics be linearized about a speci-

ﬁed operating point (OP). The linearization process, carried out by numerical simulation, determines

an optimal OP that yields maximum energy extraction. Once stability is attained, observation of

the system response to step inputs provides direction in choosing gain values that provide adequate

performance [16]. The assumption is that the plant dynamics are adequately described by a set of

ordinary differential equations in state-variable form. For small-signal approximations, stationarity is

assumed i.e. variables do not change signiﬁcantly from their initial values at the operating point [4].

The wind turbine is driven by a rotor torque, Γ

t

, extracted from the wind, and delivered through a

gearbox to the DOIG, expressed as

Γ

t

= R

ρΛv

2

w

2

c

T

(λ, β) . (2.12)

This continuous function, Γ

t

= f (ω

t

, v

w

, β), possesses nonlinearity, being a function of the third

power of wind speed. At the OP, Γ

t

[

OP

= Γ

g

[

OP

, and the turbine may be linearized along the optimal

trajectory by considering a small signal value, ∆Γ

t

Γ

t

= Γ

t,OP

+ ∆Γ

t

(2.13)

that may be expanded as a Taylor series with respective values ω

t,OP

, v

w,OP

and β

OP

at the OP:

Γ

t

= f(ω

t,OP

, v

w,OP

, β

OP

) +

¸

∂f

∂ω

∆ω

t

+

∂f

∂v

∆v

w

+

∂f

∂β

∆β

+

1

2!

¸

∂

2

f

∂ω

2

(∆ω

t

)

2

+

∂

2

f

∂v

2

(∆v

w

)

2

+

∂

2

f

∂β

2

(∆β)

2

+ 2

∂

2

f

∂ω∂v

∆ω

t

∆v

w

+ 2

∂

2

f

∂v∂β

∆v

w

∆β + 2

∂

2

f

∂ω∂β

∆ω

t

∆β

+ hots (2.14)

where partial differentials are computed around the OP. ∆ indicates instantaneous change, while ∆ω

t

,

∆v

w

and ∆β designate deviations from the chosen OP i.e. (ω

t

−ω

t,OP

), (v

w

−v

w,OP

) and (β −β

OP

),

respectively, and “hots” refers to “higher order terms”, which are neglected. Thus

Γ

t

−Γ

t,OP

=

∂f

∂ω

∆ω

t

+

∂f

∂v

∆v

w

+

∂f

∂β

∆β . (2.15)

Adopting a local convention and denoting the respective slopes as

k

ω

=

∂f

∂ω

OP

, k

v

=

∂f

∂v

OP

, and k

β

=

∂f

∂β

OP

(2.16)

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 25

-3500

-3000

-2500

-2000

-1500

-1000

-500

0

5 10 15 20 25

∂

Γ

t

/

∂

ω

t

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(a) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w.r.t. rotor speed

50000

100000

150000

200000

250000

300000

350000

5 10 15 20 25

∂

Γ

t

/

∂

v

w

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(b) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w.r.t. wind speed

-15000

-10000

-5000

0

5 10 15 20 25

∂

Γ

t

/

∂

β

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(c) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w.r.t. pitch angle

Figure 2.5: Variation in linearization coefﬁcients with wind speed.

then (2.15) becomes

∆Γ

t

= k

ω

∆ω

t

+ k

v

∆v

w

+ k

β

∆β (2.17)

and this linearizes the turbine torque around the OP. Since the torque coefﬁcient c

T

(λ, β) c

P

(λ, β)/λ

the aerodynamic torque in (2.12) may be determined from the modelled c

P

(λ, β) in (2.3) to yield the

respective aerodynamic (linearization) coefﬁcients in (2.16), as follows [17]

k

ω

=

∂Γ

t

∂ω

t

OP

=

ρΛ

2ω

2

t

v

2

w,OP

−c

P

OP

v

w,OP

+ ω

t

R

∂c

P

∂λ

OP

(2.18)

k

v

=

∂Γ

t

∂v

w

OP

=

ρΛ

2ω

t

v

w,OP

3c

P

OP

v

w,OP

−ω

t

R

∂c

P

∂λ

OP

(2.19)

k

β

=

∂Γ

t

∂β

OP

=

ρΛ

2ω

t

v

3

w,OP

∂c

P

∂β

OP

. (2.20)

Figs. 2.5(a)–(c) show the respective partial derivatives of aerodynamic torque with rotor angular

frequency, wind speed, and pitch angle, representing the linearization coefﬁcients in (2.18)–(2.20),

and are computed from the c

P

(λ, β) surface according to the OP loci.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 26

2.4 Remarks

In rotor design, an operating speed range is normally selected ﬁrst, having regard to issues such as

acoustic noise emission. With the speed chosen it then follows that there is an optimum total blade

area for maximum rotor efﬁciency. Energy capture improves with increasing turbine size, and it is

often asserted that component mass and costs increase less than cubically with scale. However, the

underlying physics is often confused with the effects of technology development and the inﬂuence of

volume on production cost.

Most modern WECSs have three blades. The two-bladed rotor design is technically a little less

efﬁcient aerodynamically than the established three-bladed design, though both are at par in the over-

all cost beneﬁt. In general, there are some small beneﬁts from increasing blade number, relating to

minimizing losses that take place at the blade tips. In aggregate, these losses are less for a larger

number of narrow blade tips than for fewer, wider ones. Two-bladed rotors generally run at a much

higher tip speed than three-bladed rotors so most historic designs would consequently have noise

problems. There is, however, no fundamental reason for the higher tip speed, and this should be dis-

counted in an objective technical comparison of the design merits of two versus three blades. Thus,

the one-bladed rotor is, perhaps, more problematic technically whilst the two-bladed rotor is basi-

cally acceptable technically. The decisive factor in eliminating the one-blade rotor design from the

commercial market and in almost eliminating the two-bladed design has been visual impact.

Although the power curve is an accurate measure of the turbine’s ability to generate electricity

from incident wind, it does not adequately describe expectations of real-world power production. For

a more realistic analysis, the average power, P

avg

, that is dependent on both the Rayleigh probability

density function as well as the Capacity factor, is utilized. Since the Rayleigh density function is

dependent only on the mean wind speed, all its statistics to describe a measurement site are imme-

diately available without massive amounts of additional computation. Indeed the Rayleigh is very

easy to use and will yield quality, acceptable results in most cases, as conﬁrmed by various studies

[18]-[20]. Capacity factors are normally represented as annualized values to account for seasonal

variations in wind regimes, thus are considered as the most realistic and reliable predictors of the

energy yield for a given candidate site. Because it is rooted in the real world, the capacity factor

becomes a much more valuable tool for supporting decisions about wind farm development than the

turbine’s power curve alone. CFs are dimensionless, expressed as a ratio in which the WECS’s annual

predicted energy production is divided by the energy it would produce if it operated at its nameplate

rating continuously.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 27

References

[1] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “RLS-based self-tuning regulator

for WTG dynamic performance enhancement under stochastic setting,” Proc. The International

Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE 2007, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 1-8.

[2] A. D. Wright, and M. J. Balas, “Design of state-space-based control algorithms for wind turbine

speed regulation,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 386-395, June

2003.

[3] T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, and E. Bossanyi, Wind Energy Handbook, New York: Wiley,

2001. ISBN:978-0471489979.

[4] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Disturbance rejection by dual

pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty compen-

sation,” IET Procs. Control Theory and Applications, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1431-1440, Sept. 2007.

doi:10.1049/iet-cta:20060448.

[5] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, “Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising

switching devices without energy storage components,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Applications, vol.

IA-20, no. 3, pp. 625-630, May/June 1984.

[6] N. W. Miller, W. W. Price, and J. J. Sanchez-Gasca, “Dynamic modeling of GE 1.5 and 3.6

wind turbine-generators,” GE Power Systems Energy Consulting, GE WTG Modeling-v3.0.doc,

October 27, 2003.

[7] O. Wasynczuk, D. T. Man, and J. P. Sullivan, “Dynamic behavior of a class of wind turbine

generators during random wind ﬂuctuations,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 100, pp. 2837-

2845, 1981.

[8] P. M. Anderson, and A. Bose, “Stability simulation of wind turbine systems,” IEEE Trans. Power

App. Syst., vol. 102, pp. 3791-3795, 1983.

[9] S. Heir, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1998,

ISBN 0-471-97143-X.

[10] W. R. Powell, “An analytical expression for the average output power of a wind machine,” Solar

Energy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 77-80, 1981.

CHAPTER 2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 28

[11] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Gain scheduling

control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading,” Renewable Energy,

vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2407-2423, 2007.

[12] J. G. McGowan, and S. Connors, “Windpower: A turn of the century review,” Annual Review of

Energy and the Environment, vol. 25, pp. 147-197, 2000.

[13] EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute), “Big Spring Wind Power Project, Second-Year Op-

erating Experience: 2000-2001,” Final Report, DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Veriﬁcation Program,

Dec. 2001.

[14] DOE/TVA/EPRI (DOE, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Electric Power Research Institute),

“Tennessee Valley Authority Buffalo Mountain Wind Power Project, First- and Second-Year Op-

erating Experience: 2001-2003,” DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Veriﬁcation Program, Dec. 2003.

[15] J. F. Manwell, A. Rogers, and J. G. McGowan, Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design, and Ap-

plication, Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2002. ISBN:978-0471499725.

[16] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Online WTG dynamic

performance and transient stability enhancement by evolutionary LQG,” Proc. IEEE Power En-

gineering Society General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/PES.2007.385499.

[17] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, O. Z. Siagi, and T. Funabashi, “Intelligent optimal control of wind

power generating system by a complemented linear quadratic Gaussian approach,” Proc. IEEE

Power Engineering Society Conference and Exhibition, PowerAfrica 2007, 16-20 July 2007, pp.

1-8.

[18] R. B. Corotis, “Stochastic modeling of site wind characteristics,” ERDA Report, September

1977, RLO/2342-77/2.

[19] R. B. Corotis, A. B. Sigl, and J. Klein, “Probability models of wind velocity magnitude and

persistence,” Solar Energy, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 483-493, 1978.

[20] J. Asmussen, D. Manner, G. L. Park, and E. L. Harder, “An analytical expression for the speciﬁc

output of wind turbine generators,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1295-1298, Oct.

1978. ISSN: 0018-9219.

Chapter 3

Drive-train Modeling

3.1 Introduction

V

ARIABLE speed wind turbine systems provide better dynamic performance characteristics

than ﬁxed speed conﬁgurations. The power train components are subject to highly irregular

loading input from turbulent wind conditions, and the number of fatigue cycles experienced by the

major structural components can be orders of magnitude greater than for other rotating machines. A

modern wind turbine operates for about 13 years in a design life of 20 and is almost always unat-

tended [1],[2]. Thus, considering challenges posed by the severity of the fatigue environment, wind

technology has a unique technical identity and R&D demands, and repeated loadings need to be taken

into account in wind generating system design. In the sequel, the relevance of detailed representations

of the structural dynamics of variable speed WECS on transient stability studies is assessed.

Most of the DOIG wind turbine models used in dynamic stability studies include a drive-train

model. Due to the increased compliance of the drive-train of almost every wind turbine (usually

achieved by “soft” axes or special elastic couplings), suitable multimass equivalents must be em-

ployed in order to represent the low frequency torsional modes that dominate the dynamic behavior

of the wind turbine. Such multimass equivalents for modeling the drive-train fall in either of two

categories: the so-called two-mass model [3]–[6], or the frequently used lumped model approach,

which assumes that all the rotating masses can be treated as one concentrated mass [7]–[9]. However,

simpliﬁcation of the drive-train model may have a negative impact on the accuracy of wind-generator

modeling [10],[11]. Particularly, the lumped model approach may be insufﬁcient in the case of tran-

sient analysis. In this thesis the model of the wind turbine drive-train is represented by means of a

three-mass model considering an equivalent system with an equivalent stiffness and damping factor

on the wind turbine rotor side [12].

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 30

Wind

Wind

t ur bine

Low-speed

shaft

Gear box

Rat io 1:n

High-speed

shaft Gener at or

Gr id

Tor que

cont r ol Conver t er

AC

AC

Pit ch

cont r ol

CONTROL SYSTEM

(a) Main components of the WECS

Gener at or

Tur bine r ot or

J

t

J

g

J

1

J

2

Γ

g

Γ

t Γ

1

Γ

2

ω

g

ω

t

ω

1

ω

2

D

g

D

t

K

t

K

g

K

gr

(b) 3-inertia system

Figure 3.1: Dynamic drive-train equivalenced by a 3-inertia system interlinked by a ﬂexible shaft.

3.2 Power train Modeling Concept

The physical diagram of the variable speed WECS system is shown in Fig. 3.1(a). The mechanical

part of the wind turbine consists of a shaft system and the rotor of the wind turbine itself. The torque

induced by the aerodynamics on the rotor disk is transmitted to the generator by a series of turbine

structures: blades, hub, low-speed shaft, gearbox, and high-speed shaft. The torque applied to the

generator shaft is not the same as the aerodynamic torque in the blades because of the ﬂexibilities of

these rotor structures. During a transient event torque oscillations may be introduced in addition to

the aerodynamic torque due to the rotor structural dynamics. These torque oscillations are associated

with the torsional ﬂexibility of the shafts. When the shafts are assumed rigid, the drive-train can

be represented by a single-mass model. If the torsional ﬂexibility of the shafts is included, then the

drive-train is represented as a multimass model where the blade bending dynamics are neglected.

Variable speed WECS show large inertias and low shaft stiffness, and the interaction between the

wind turbine and electrical generator could give rise to low frequency oscillations that can limit the

transient stability of the system. Representing the mechanical system as a lumped mass may give

optimistic results especially for ﬁxed speed induction generators (FSIGs), but an elaborate model is

necessary for a variable speed WECS, as the mechanical and electrical frequencies are decoupled.

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 31

To enhance design of a suitable controller for damping the torsional oscillations, a multimass

model is adopted in this study to formulate the state space for analyzing system response to distur-

bances at steady state. Fig. 3.1(b) illustrates the mechanical equivalent 3

rd

-order model of the WECS

drive-train, consisting of rotating masses (rotor with the asynchronous generator) elastically coupled

to each other by a linear torsional spring and a linear torsional damper. The nomenclature is ex-

plained as follows. J

t

, J

g

are the wind turbine and generator moments of inertia, J

1,2

represents the

inertia of the gearwheels, ω

t

, ω

1,2

, ω

g

are the wind turbine, gearbox wheels, and generator mechanical

speeds, K

t

, K

g

are the spring constants indicating the torsional stiffness of the shaft on wind turbine

and generator parts, and D

t

, D

g

are respective damping constants on turbine and generator sides (K

represents the elastic properties of the shaft element while D models internal viscous friction).

The wind turbine is driven by a rotor torque Γ

t

extracted from the wind, which is delivered, through

a gearbox with gear ratio K

gr

, to the generator that yields a generator torque Γ

g

. As a consequence,

the gearbox experiences a torsional torque, Γ

d

. The shaft system gives a soft coupling between the

heavy turbine and the light generator rotor, thus the effective shaft stiffness, K

s

, is reduced by the

ratio 1/K

2

gr

. In modern turbines K

gr

is normally in the range 50 – 70, thereby rendering the shafts

extremely soft, with K

s

typically in the range 0.15 – 0.40 pu. This may be compared with shafts in

conventional power plants incorporating synchronous generators, where 20 ≤ K

s

≤ 80 pu [13].

Considering the model with a single dominant resonant mode, the dynamic response of the rotor

driven at a speed ω

t

by the aerodynamic torque Γ

t

written on the generator side has the expression

Γ

t

= J

t

dω

t

dt

+ D

t

ω

t

+ K

t

(θ

t

−θ

1

). (3.1)

Similarly, the generator is driven by the high speed shaft torque Γ

2

and braked by Γ

g

−Γ

g

= J

g

dω

g

dt

+ D

g

ω

g

+ K

g

(θ

g

−θ

2

). (3.2)

The torsional torque experienced by the low speed shaft is comprised by the torques developed at the

gearbox, resulting from the torsional effects due to the difference between θ

t

and θ

g

:

Γ

1

= J

1

dω

1

dt

+ D

t

ω

1

+ K

t

(θ

1

−θ

t

) (3.3)

Γ

2

= J

2

dω

2

dt

+ D

g

ω

2

+ K

g

(θ

2

−θ

g

) (3.4)

where θ

t

, θ

g

are the angular positions of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides, Γ

1

is torque that

goes in the gearbox, Γ

2

(= Γ

1

/K

gr

) is torque out from the gearbox, and ω

2

= K

gr

ω

1

.

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 32

H

t

H

gb

Γ

t

Γ

g

d

t

d

gb

d

g

D

gbg

D

hgb

ω ,θ

t

t

K

hgb

K

gbg

ω ,θ

gb gb

ω ,θ

g g

H

g

Γ

d

Figure 3.2: Schematic representation of the drive-train as a series of elastically coupled inertias.

3.3 Mechanical State Space System

Fig. 3.2 illustrates the mechanical equivalent. The interconnecting axes, disc brakes etc, are incor-

porated in the lumped inertias of the model. The elasticity and damping elements between adjacent

inertias correspond to the low and high speed shaft elasticities and internal friction, whereas the exter-

nal damping elements represent the torque losses. Adopting the per unit (pu) system (see Appendix

B.1), a Hamiltonian matrix [14],[15] may be generated by the state equations for the drive train me-

chanical equivalent, obtained using the inertias’ angular positions and velocities as state variables

d

dt

θ

ω

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

[0]

3×3

.

.

. [I]

3×3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

−[2H]

−1

[K]

.

.

. −[2H]

−1

[D]

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

θ

ω

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+

[0]

3×3

. . . . . .

[2H]

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Γ (3.5)

where [0]

3×3

and [I]

3×3

are the zero and identity 3 3 matrices, respectively. Further, [2H] is the

diagonal 3 3 inertia matrix of turbine, gearbox and generator inertias, [K] is the 3 3 stiffness

matrix, where K

hgb

and K

gbg

are the hub to gearbox and gearbox to generator stiffness coefﬁcients,

while [D] is the 33 damping matrix, where D

hgb

and D

gbg

are relative dampings of elastic couplings,

and d

t

, d

gb

, d

g

are the external damping coefﬁcients. These are expressed as follows:

2H

=

diag(2H

t

, 2H

gb

, 2H

g

)

K

=

K

hgb

−K

hgb

0

−K

hgb

K

hgb

+ K

gbg

−K

gbg

0 −K

gbg

K

gbg

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

D

=

d

t

+ D

hgb

−D

hgb

0

−D

hgb

d

gb

+ D

hgb

+ D

gbg

−D

gbg

0 −D

gbg

d

g

+ D

gbg

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 33

Additionally, θ

T

and ω

T

are the vectors of the angular positions and angular velocities of the rotor,

gearbox and generator respectively, while Γ

T

is the vector of the external torques acting on the turbine

rotor and on the generator rotor, conventionally accelerating, viz.

θ

T

= [θ

t

, θ

gb

, θ

g

], ω

T

= [ω

t

, ω

gb

, ω

g

], and Γ

T

= [Γ

t

, Γ

d

, Γ

g

].

In the steady state condition, the input aerodynamic torque Γ

t

applied on the turbine rotor should

be counter-balanced by an opposing electromagnetic torque developed inside the induction machine.

Due to high turbine inertia relative to J

g

, and low shaft stiffness, this subjects the elastic shaft element

to a torsional twist, causing a point on the circumference of one end of the shaft to shift by a large

electrical twist angle θ

tg

, in electrical radian, from the corresponding point on the other end of the

shaft. The angle generated per unit applied torque is computed as

dθ

tg

dt

= ω

b

(ω

t

−ω

g

) (3.6)

where ω

b

= 2πf

n

is the base angular frequency and f

n

is nominal grid frequency (Hz). The resonance

lies in the most ﬂexible part of the rotational system. Neglecting damping, the natural frequency of

vibration of the three mass model is given as [16],[17]

f

1

=

1

2π

−

b

2

−

√

b

2

−4c

2

1

2

(3.7)

f

2

=

1

2π

−

b

2

+

√

b

2

−4c

2

1

2

(3.8)

where

b = −

¸

K

t

1

J

t

+

1

J

gb

+ K

g

1

J

gb

+

1

J

g

and c = K

t

K

g

J

t

+ J

gb

+ J

g

J

t

J

gb

J

g

.

The ﬁrst-mode mechanical frequency of a typical wind turbine is in the 0 to 10 Hz range [18],

which is also the range for electromechanical oscillations. Consequently, the mechanical vibrations

of the WECS interact with the electromechanical dynamics. Therefore, in order to create an accurate

model of a wind generator for transient stability analysis, the ﬁrst-mode mechanical turbine dynamics

must be accurately represented. By conducting a spectral analysis of the low-speed shaft torque for

the 2 MW WECS (wind turbine data is given in Appendix A), the frequencies of vibration of the rotor

structure are: f

1

= 2.7 Hz, and f

2

= 11 Hz.

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 34

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

5 10 15 20 25

Γ

t

[

M

N

m

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(a) Aerodynamic torque

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

5 10 15 20 25

Γ

d

[

M

N

m

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(b) Gearbox torque

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

5 10 15 20 25

Γ

g

[

k

N

m

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(c) Generator torque

Figure 3.3: Steady state variation in aerodynamic, gearbox and generator torques with wind speed.

3.4 Drive-train Torque Dynamics

3.4.1 Steady-state Operation

The WECS system considered in this thesis employs a frequency converter to decouple the generator

from the ﬁxed frequency of the grid, and uses pitch control to limit the power above rated wind speed.

The steady-state operating curve can be described with reference to the torque-speed characteristic:

• below rated the operating curve resembles a stall-regulated variable speed case

• above rated, blade pitch is adjusted to maintain the chosen OP.

Figs. 3.3(a)–(c) showthe steady-state calculation results for aerodynamic, low-speed shaft, and gener-

ator torques, respectively. Fig. 3.3(a) shows how the aerodynamic torque increases with wind speed.

At high wind speeds (above rated) changing the pitch alters the trajectory of constant wind speed,

constraining it to the OP locus. Fig. 3.3(b) represents development of the low-speed shaft torque —

the shaft should experience reduced ﬂuctuations to avoid cyclic fatigue stresses. From Fig. 3.3(c) it

can be observed that the torque demand is kept constant at rated value for all higher wind speeds (to

actively damp shaft torsional oscillations). Pitch control then regulates rotor speed.

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 35

3.4.2 Operation under High Turbulent Inﬂow

Controller design in this thesis deals particularly with operation under high turbulence. Focus is on

the need to design control systems that properly account for the ﬂexible modes of the turbine, and

maintain the stable closed-loop behavior of the WECS, mainly because

• under turbulent wind conditions, the power train components of a WECS are subject to highly

irregular loading input, and the number of fatigue cycles experienced by the major structural

components can be orders of magnitude greater than for other rotating machines;

• control that optimizes energy capture in medium to high wind speed regimes can also cause

undesirable torque ﬂuctuations that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control

attempts to follow the wind.

The torque applied to the generator shaft is not equivalent to the aerodynamic torque due to ﬂexibilities

of the drive train structures. During a transient event torque oscillations associated with the torsional

ﬂexibility of the shafts are introduced in addition to the aerodynamic torque. A twisted shaft contains

potential energy; when a wind gust strikes the turbine, part of the extra power goes into shaft potential

energy rather than instantly appearing in the electrical output. This stored energy will then go from the

shaft into the electrical system during a wind lull. Thus a shaft helps to smooth out power ﬂuctuations.

3.5 Remarks

An appropriate model of systembehavior is the heart of control design. It is appreciated, however, that

a challenge is introduced in deﬁning the level of detail required for each study (modeling, analysis,

and control design). In some situations representation of certain details of structural dynamics may not

be necessary if they have no impact on the electrical performance during the time frames of interest in

a particular study. At present, there are models that accurately represent the aerodynamic, mechanical

and electrical systems of WECS [19]-[22]. However, these models are normally developed in different

simulation platforms and the availability of reliable studies that investigate the dynamic interaction

that exists between the electrical and structural systems is limited.

In this study the importance of a detailed representation of the power train is assessed. Although

a nonlinear model is required for the simulation, a simple linear model is preferred for control design

purposes. Controller design is enhanced by the 3

rd

−order model developed in this Chapter, by devis-

ing effective control algorithms that reﬂect the plant dynamic characteristics as well as the anticipated

working environment.

CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 36

References

[1] W. D. Jones, “I’ve Got the Power,” IEEE Spectrum Magazine, vol. 43, no. 10 (INT), October

2006. Available online, http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/oct06/4661.

[2] W. D. Kellogg, M. H. Nehrir, G. Venkataramanan, and V. Gerez, “Generation unit sizing and cost

analysis for stand-alone wind, photovoltaic, and hybrid wind/PV systems,” IEEE Trans. Energy

Conversion, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 70-75, Mar. 1998. DOI: 10.1109/60.658206.

[3] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Augmented LQG controller

for enhancement of online dynamic performance for WTG system,” Renewable Energy,

doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.001.

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izing doubly-fed induction wind turbines in power system dynamic models,” IEE Procs. Genera-

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CHAPTER 3. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 37

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Chapter 4

Electrical System Modeling

4.1 Introduction

T

HE increasing integration of the double-output induction generator (DOIG) systems controlled

by static converters for wind generation into power grids is currently a generalized tendency

in numerous countries. This fact is directly related with the control ﬂexibility offered by static con-

verters that enhance maintaining the terminal voltage at a constant value when the IG operates with

variable speed as well as to allow independent active and reactive power control exchanged between

the machine and the grid with better use of the available wind energy. In addition to constant volt-

age, the grid-connected DOIG provides several attractive features during variable speed operation,

for instance: constant frequency, generation above the machine rated power, and relatively cheaper

and smaller converter as compared with squirrel cage or synchronous machines [1]–[3]. Nowadays

one of the most widely used generator types for units above 1 MW (installed either offshore or on-

shore), both for reasons of network compatibility and reduction in mechanical loads, is the DOIG for

effective variable speed operation [4].

Several studies undertaken on the DOIG as a mainstream conﬁguration for large wind turbines

have shown that it is possible for the wind turbines to remain grid-connected during grid faults so that

they can contribute to the stability of the power transmission system [5],[6]. The main advantage of

the DOIG concept is that only a percentage of the power produced in the generator has to pass through

the power converter. Typically this is only 20%–30% compared with full power (100%) for a syn-

chronous generator-based wind turbine concept, and thus it has a substantial cost advantage compared

with the conversion of full power [7],[8]. The control performance of the DOIG is excellent under

normal grid conditions, allowing active and reactive power changes in the range of few milliseconds

owing to the presence of power electronics.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 39

Turbine

ω

t

Drive train

gearbox

Rotor side

converter

Grid side

converter

=

=

~

~

p ,q

s s

Crowbar

Power converter control

(voltage or PF)

Control mode selection:

- normal operation

- fault operation

Fault detection

Torque control

p ,q

r r

k p

c

r

P

r ef

Q

r ef

Pitch angle

control

DOIG

Figure 4.1: General schematic of the WECS: DOIG, converters and controllers.

4.2 Detailed Model of DOIG Unit with Converters

4.2.1 Construction and Operation Principle

Fig. 4.1 illustrates the wind turbine coupled to a grid connected 2 MW asynchronous DOIG. The

DOIG is a brushless wound-rotor electric machine incorporating the most optimum electromagnetic

core structure of any electric machine, but without the traditional Achilles’ Heel of the wound-rotor

doubly-fed electric machine (DIFG), which is the multiphase slip ring assembly with potential control

instability [9],[10]. By eliminating the multiphase slip ring assembly and guaranteeing stability at any

speed, the theoretical attributes of the wound-rotor DOIG are acquired: upto 50% reduction in system

cost, system electrical loss, and system physical size. Nothing approaches the brushless wound-rotor

DOIG machine, if cost, efﬁciency, and power density, combined, are the deciding factors.

The rotor in the generator has three pole pairs while the three phase stator winding is connected

directly to the grid synchronous frequency, ω

0

. Since the simulation of the fundamental power system

dynamic behavior does not require a detailed modeling of power electronics, the converters are mod-

elled as voltage source and/or current source. The rotor side converter (RSC) is assumed as a voltage

source injected into the rotor, whereas the grid side converter (GSC) is assumed to be a controlled

current source. As the RSC can provide reactive power control, the GSC may offer additional voltage

support capabilities in conditions of excessive speed ranges or in transient operations. Crowbar pro-

tection is included: in the event of excessive rotor current, this disconnects the converter and connects

the rotor circuit to a crowbar resistor instead. When the current drops back below a set value, the

crowbar disengages and the converter is reconnected.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 40

DOIG

Generator

Power

system

f

ref

U

dc

I

dc

Figure 4.2: Main components of the frequency converter.

Fig. 4.2 shows the main components of the frequency converter. The DOIG connects to the

grid with a back-to-back voltage source converter that controls the excitation system. The main

components are an AC/DC converter, a DC-link and a DC/AC converter. When power is ﬂowing

from the generator, the AC/DC converter acts like a rectiﬁer, and the DC/AC converter acts like an

inverter. The DC-link can be used to attenuate voltage ﬂuctuations. Control of the converter ﬁring

angle makes it possible to control the electrical torque in the generator, allowing the turbine to be run

at variable speed. The frequency converter is used to transform the constant frequency and constant

voltage of the grid to variable frequency and voltage on the generator side, thereby maintaining the

frequency out of the generator on a stable level independent of the generator’s angular speed.

The stator active and reactive power (p

s

and q

s

) are fed directly to the network, while the rotor

active and reactive power (p

r

and q

r

) pass through the power converter. The converter efﬁciency, k

c

,

results in a loss of active power. The converter is controlled by two main control loops:

• a torque control loop that works by injecting a quadrature-axis voltage into the rotor circuit, and

• a voltage or power factor control loop, which works by injecting a direct-axis voltage.

The stator is directly coupled to the electrical power supply network, thus the generator stator voltage

always equals the grid voltage. By utilizing the converter, the network frequency is decoupled from

the mechanical speed of the machine and variable speed operation is possible, permitting maximum

absorption of wind power. A great advantage of the DOIG wind turbine is that it has the capability to

independently control active and reactive power. Moreover, the mechanical stresses on a DOIG wind

turbine are reduced in comparison to a ﬁxed speed induction generator (FSIG). Due to the decoupling

between mechanical speed and electrical frequency that results fromDOIG operation, the rotor can act

as an energy storage system, absorbing torque pulsations caused by wind gusts. Other advantages of

the DOIG include reduced ﬂicker and acoustic noise in comparison to FSIGs. The main disadvantage

of DOIG wind turbines is their increased capital cost.

The fundamental dynamics of the frequency converter are very complex and nonlinear, albeit

considerably faster than the fundamental drive train dynamics and therefore can be neglected in the

modelling. This means that the generator torque will be equal to its reference value, Γ

g

= Γ

g,ref

.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 41

Diode rectifier

α

Line-commutated

inverter

Grid

Turbine

Gearbox

Generator

Step-down

transformer

I

i

U

i

I

d

U

d1

U

d2

U

r

I

r

I

s

I

T

R

d

L

d

η =

T

U

s

U

i

U

s

Figure 4.3: Simpliﬁed schematic of the electrical system. For purposes of formulating the system

equations, the diode rectiﬁer represents the RSC while the line-commutated inverter models the GSC.

4.2.2 DOIG: Electrical Model

Fig. 4.3 is the functional scheme of the WECS with DOIG, detailing the frequency converter system

with dc–link. Finding an operational point of the DOIG in steady-state operation corresponds to

initialization [11]. Initialization of the DOIG model is essential prior to starting dynamic simulations,

and the following considerations are taken into account: the DOIG consists of a wound rotor IG with

a converter feeding into the rotor circuit, and it has a symmetrical three-phased winding distributed

around the uniform air-gap. Additionally, the voltage in the stator, U

s

, is applied from the grid while

the voltage in the rotor, U

r

, is induced by the converter.

At initialization, the electric power operation point is deﬁned by the incoming wind. The reactive

power initialized is in accordance with the control strategy chosen. In this research, the electric power

and the reactive power are initialized independently, and the generalized reduced order DOIG model

is developed based on the following conditions and assumptions:

1. The stator current is positive when ﬂowing toward the machine.

2. The equations are derived in the synchronous reference frame ﬁxed to the stator ﬂux, using

direct (d) and quadrature (q) axis representation [12].

3. The q-axis is 90

◦

ahead of the d-axis in the direction of rotation.

4. The q component of the stator voltage is chosen to be equal to the real part of the generator

busbar voltage obtained from the load ﬂow solution that is used to initialize the model.

5. The dc component of the stator transient current is ignored, permitting representation of only

fundamental frequency components. Similarly, the higher order harmonic components in the

rotor injected voltages are neglected.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 42

The DOIG can be simulated by the standard 4

th

order dq model, described by the following

equations against an arbitrary reference frame [13],[14]

u

sd

= −r

s

i

sd

−ωΨ

sq

+

1

ω

b

.

d

dt

Ψ

sd

(4.1)

u

sq

= −r

s

i

sq

+ ωΨ

sd

+

1

ω

b

.

d

dt

Ψ

sq

(4.2)

u

rd

= −r

r

i

rd

−(ω −ω

t

)Ψ

rq

+

1

ω

b

.

d

dt

Ψ

rd

(4.3)

u

rq

= −r

r

i

rq

+ (ω −ω

t

)Ψ

rd

+

1

ω

b

.

d

dt

Ψ

rq

(4.4)

where u

sd

, u

sq

are the stator voltage d and q components, u

rd

, u

rq

are the rotor voltage d and q com-

ponents, i

sd

, i

sq

, i

rd

, i

rq

are the stator and rotor d and q windings currents, and r

s

, r

r

are the stator and

rotor windings resistances. The inputs u

sd

and u

sq

of the model are directly available from the known

stator voltage, while the rotor voltages u

rd

and u

rq

are computed from the converters and dc ﬁlter

equations. Additionally, ω is the arbitrary dq frame electrical angular speed, ω

b

= 2πf

n

is the base

angular frequency, and f

n

is the nominal grid frequency in Hz. The ﬂux equations are obtained as

Ψ

sd

= −X

s

i

sd

+ X

m

i

rd

(4.5)

Ψ

sq

= −X

s

i

sq

+ X

m

i

rq

(4.6)

Ψ

rd

= −X

m

i

sd

+ X

r

i

rd

(4.7)

Ψ

rq

= −X

m

i

sq

+ X

r

i

rq

(4.8)

where X

s

, X

r

are the stator and rotor windings reactance, and X

m

is the magnetizing reactance. The

state-space modelling of the induction machine considers the voltage equations (4.1)–(4.4) and ﬂux

equations (4.5)–(4.8) in the arbitrary d–q synchronous reference frame. The space model for the ﬂux

can be written using ﬂuxes as state variables [4], as

d

dt

Ψ

sd

Ψ

sq

Ψ

rd

Ψ

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= −

1

B

r

s

X

r

−ωB −r

s

X

m

0

ωB r

s

X

r

0 −r

s

X

m

−r

r

X

m

0 r

r

X

s

−(ω −ω

t

)B

0 −r

r

X

m

(ω −ω

t

)B r

r

X

s

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Ψ

sd

Ψ

sq

Ψ

rd

Ψ

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+

u

sd

u

sq

u

rd

u

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(4.9)

where B = X

s

X

r

− X

2

m

and ω = pω

0

, with p being the number of pole pairs of the machine, and

ω

0

being the synchronous mechanical speed obtained as ω

0

= 2πf

0

, where f

0

is the mechanical drive

train eigenfrequency (Hz).

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 43

For convenience, (4.9) is rewritten with the currents as inputs to the system model, achieved by

substituting (4.5)–(4.8) in (4.1)–(4.4) and solving for the derivatives of the currents. This yields the

state equations with the currents as state variables, expressed in the arbitrary dq reference frame:

d

dt

i

sd

i

sq

i

rd

i

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

ω

b

B

−r

s

X

r

(ωB + ω

t

X

2

m

) −r

r

X

m

−ω

t

X

r

X

m

−(ωB + ω

t

X

2

m

) −r

s

X

r

ω

t

X

r

X

m

−r

r

X

m

−r

s

X

m

ω

t

X

s

X

m

−r

r

X

s

(ωB −ω

t

X

s

X

r

)

−ω

t

X

s

X

m

−r

s

X

m

−(ωB −ω

t

X

s

X

r

) −r

r

X

s

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

sd

i

sq

i

rd

i

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+

ω

b

B

−X

r

0 X

m

0

0 −X

r

0 X

m

−X

m

0 X

s

0

0 −X

m

0 X

s

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

sd

u

sq

u

rd

u

rq

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

. (4.10)

The inputs to the model u

sd

, u

sq

are directly available from the known stator voltage, while the rotor

voltages u

rd

, u

rq

are computed from the converters and dc ﬁlter equations. The generator electromag-

netic torque, Γ

g

, can be expressed in terms of stator and rotor ﬂuxes as

Γ

g

= Ψ

sd

i

sq

−Ψ

sq

i

sd

≡ Ψ

rd

i

rq

−Ψ

rq

i

rd

(4.11)

which may be set in terms of the reactances and currents as

Γ

g

= X

m

(i

sq

i

rd

−i

sd

i

rq

) (4.12)

and from (3.2), assuming generator convention

−J

g

dω

g

dt

= −

K

g

(θ

2

−θ

g

) + D

g

ω

g

+ Γ

g

(4.13)

whence

dω

g

dt

=

1

J

g

Γ

d

−X

m

(i

sq

i

rd

−i

sd

i

rq

)

. (4.14)

By controlling the ﬁring angle of the converter, it is possible to control the electrical torque in the

generator. The torque control using the frequency converter allows the wind turbine to run at variable

speed and thereby makes possible a reduction of the stress on the drive train and the gearbox [15].

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 44

The following relations hold for the diode rectiﬁer (RSC) and thyristor inverter (GSC) in Fig. 4.3:

U

d1

=

3

√

3

π

U

r

(4.15)

I

r

=

2

√

3

π

I

d

(4.16)

U

d2

=

3

√

3

π

U

i

cosα ≡

1

η

T

3

√

3

π

U

s

cosα (4.17)

I

i

=

2

√

3

π

I

d

(4.18)

where U

d1

, U

d2

are the rectiﬁer and inverter dc voltages, I

d

the dc current, U

r

, I

r

the peak phase rotor

voltage and current, U

i

, I

i

the peak phase values of inverter output voltage and current, α the inverter

ﬁring angle, U

s

the bus voltage peak phase value, and η

T

= U

s

/U

i

is the rotor transformer ratio. The

dc link RL ﬁlter differential equation is obtained from

U

d1

−U

d2

= R

d

I

d

+ L

d

dI

d

dt

(4.19)

where R

d

and L

d

are the choke resistance and inductance, and all quantities are in absolute values (i.e.

V, A, Ω, and H). Expressing (4.19) in p.u., eliminating U

d1

and U

d2

by (4.15) and (4.17) respectively,

and substituting I

r

for the dc current I

d

from (4.16):

U

r

+ U

c

= R

d

I

r

+

X

d

ω

0

dI

r

dt

(4.20)

where U

c

is the voltage of the inverter cosine ﬁring angle controller:

U

c

=

η

M

η

T

U

s

cosα (4.21)

while R

d

and X

d

are the dc ﬁlter resistance and reactance, referred to the stator of the DOIG:

R

d

= η

2

M

π

2

18

R

d

Z

s

B

and X

d

= η

2

M

π

2

18

ω

0

L

d

Z

s

B

(4.22)

with Z

s

B

the stator base resistance and η

M

the equivalent stator/rotor turn ratio of the DOIG. The rotor

voltage and current, U

r

and I

r

, are related to the respective d and q components by:

U

r

=

u

2

rd

+ u

2

rq

(4.23)

I

r

=

i

2

rd

+ i

2

rq

. (4.24)

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 45

q

d

U

u

rd

r

i

rq

i

rd

u

rq

I

r

~

~

Figure 4.4: Relative position of rotor fundamental voltage and current phasors.

Ignoring the harmonics and the commutation phenomena of the diode rectiﬁer, its reactive power

consumption is zero and therefore the rotor voltage and current are displaced by 180

◦

as shown in

Fig. 4.4 (the rotor current conventionally enters the rotor terminals). Hence

¯

U

r

= −

¯

I

r

I

r

U

r

⇔

u

rd

=

i

rd

I

r

U

r

, u

rq

=

i

rq

I

r

U

r

. (4.25)

Differentiating (4.24)

dI

r

dt

=

i

rd

di

rd

dt

+ i

rq

dirq

dt

I

r

=

Re¦

d

e

Ir

dt

¯

I

∗

r

¦

I

r

(4.26)

where the complex representation

¯

F of a dq quantity f (voltage, current or ﬂux) and its derivatives

are deﬁned respectively as

¯

F = f

d

+ jf

q

and

d

¯

F

dt

=

df

d

dt

+ j

df

q

dt

(4.27)

and its complex conjugate is denoted by the superscript “∗”. Substituting the derivatives of the rotor

current from (4.11) in (4.26), the following expression is obtained

dI

r

dt

= −

ω

b

BI

r

X

m

P

1

+ r

r

X

s

I

2

r

−X

s

(u

rd

i

rd

+ u

rq

i

rq

)

= −

ω

b

BI

r

X

m

P

1

+ r

r

X

s

I

2

r

−X

s

U

r

I

r

(4.28)

where the quantity P

1

is given by

P

1

= Re

¯

U

s

+ (r

s

+ jω

r

X

s

)

¯

I

s

¯

I

∗

r

¸

. (4.29)

Combining (4.28) with (4.20) and solving for the rotor voltage, U

r

, yields the following relation

U

r

=

(r

r

X

s

X

d

−BR

d

)I

r

+ BU

c

+ X

m

X

d

P

1

/I

r

B + X

s

X

d

. (4.30)

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 46

4.2.3 DOIG: a Mechanical Perspective

The asynchronous DOIG has mechanical properties that render it very suitable for WECS applica-

tions, including good overload handling and ability to accommodate changes in the torque applied by

the wind turbine’s rotor shaft (via the transmission), thereby reducing overall mechanical wear and

tear over the generator’s service life. A modern variable speed drive is capable of accepting a torque

demand and responding to this within a very short time to give the desired torque at the generator

air-gap, irrespective of the generator speed (as long as it is within speciﬁed limits). A ﬁrst order lag

model is provided for this response

Γ

g

=

Γ

g,ref

1 + τ

e

s

(4.31)

where Γ

g,ref

is the demanded torque, Γ

g

is the air-gap torque, and τ

e

is the time constant of the

ﬁrst order lag. Note that the use of a small time constant may result in slower simulations, without

much effect on accuracy. A variable speed WECS requires a controller to generate an appropriate

torque demand, such that the turbine speed is regulated appropriately. Additionally, the minimum

and maximum generator torque must be speciﬁed; motoring may occur if a negative minimum is

speciﬁed. The phase angle between current and voltage, and hence the power factor, is speciﬁed

on the assumption that, in effect, both active and reactive power ﬂows into the network are being

controlled with the same time constant as the torque, and that the frequency converter controller is

programmed to maintain constant power factor.

An option for drive-train damping feedback is provided. This represents additional fuctionality

that may be available in the frequency converter controller, which adds a term derived from measured

generator speed onto the incoming torque demand. This term is deﬁned as a transfer function acting

on the measured speed. The transfer function is supplied as a ratio of polynomials in the Laplace

operator, s. Thus the equation for the air-gap torque becomes

Γ

g

=

Γ

g,ref

1 + τ

e

s

+

Num(s)

Den(s)

ω

g

(4.32)

where, in this study, Num(s) and Den(s) are the following polynomials

Num(s)

Den(s)

=

15.123s

0.002643s

2

+ 0.0257s + 1.0

. (4.33)

The transfer function represents a tuned bandpass ﬁlter designed to provide additional damping for

the drive-train torsional vibrations, which in the case of variable speed operation may otherwise be

very lightly damped, sometimes causing severe gearbox loads.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 47

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

5 10 15 20 25

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

o

r

s

p

e

e

d

,

[

r

p

m

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(a) Generator speed

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

5 10 15 20 25

Γ

g

[

k

N

m

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

(b) Generator torque

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

5 10 15 20 25

P

o

w

e

r

,

[

M

W

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

P

m

P

e

(c) Shaft power, P

m

, and electrical output power, P

e

Figure 4.5: Steady-state generator parameters’ variation with wind speed.

4.3 DOIG Operation under Steady-state and Fault Conditions

4.3.1 Steady-state Analysis

Below rated wind speeds, the steady-state (Γ

g

—ω

g

) operating curve is determined by the target of

maximizing energy capture by following a constant TSR load line that corresponds to operation at the

maximumc

P

. Pitch control is used to limit the power above rated wind speed. Blade pitch is adjusted

to maintain the chosen OP by altering the lines of constant wind speed and constraining the WECS

to the OP locus. Once rated torque is reached, the torque demand is kept constant for all higher wind

speeds, and pitch control regulates the rotor speed. The parameters needed to specify the steady state

operating curve are: the minimum speed, ω

g,min

, the maximum speed in constant TSR mode, ω

g,max

,

the maximum steady-state operating speed, and above-rated torque set-point.

Figs. 4.5(a)–(c) show results of steady state calculations for variation in generator speed and

generated powers with wind speed. Electric power, P

e

, is generated when ω

t

> ω

0

, where ω

0

denotes

the system synchronous speed.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 48

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.09

1.1

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.14

1.15

1.16

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

S

p

e

e

d

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(a) Generator speed

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

R

o

t

o

r

c

u

r

r

e

n

t

,

I

r

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

d-Axis

q-Axis

(b) Rotor current: d-axis and q-axis

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

P

o

w

e

r

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(c) Turbine power, P

m

Figure 4.6: DOIG single phase fault.

4.3.2 Transient Response and Fault-ride-through Analysis

Analysis of voltage restoration capability with various controllers is dealt with in Part II of the

thesis. However, Fig. 4.6 serves to illustrate the relatively fast recovery of the DOIG when subjected

to a single phase fault. Time t = 0 is the time immediately after a fault. It is seen in Fig. 4.6(a)

that the fault causes the speed to rise from 1.08 pu to a high of 1.14 pu at 0.14 seconds. More

importantly, severe ﬂuctuations in both d- and q-axis currents are attenuated within 0.4 seconds after

the fault, as observed in Fig. 4.6(b). In this case, the fault is not signiﬁcant to trigger the over-current

protection, and thus the DOIG is able to ride through the incurred voltage dip. The implication is that

approximately 60 ms after the fault is cleared the terminal voltage is recovered (back to the steady

state value) and the currents resume their respective variation. Fig. 4.6(c) shows the generated power.

The fast voltage recovery is a plus with respect to the DOIG’s capability to control the reactive

power. For a serious fault, the current ﬂowing through the power converter may be too high, which

may cause damage to the RSC. Thus the DOIG is equipped with an over-current protection — in

case the rotor current magnitude reaches the setting value of the protection relay, the converter is

subsequently blocked. The setting point of the protection relay is set at 1.5 pu.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 49

4.4 Remarks

Variable speed WECS utilize the available wind resource more efﬁciently especially during light wind

conditions. The effect of wind power integration in the grid depends on both the power system de-

sign to which the WECS is connected and the turbine control ability to fulﬁl the grid requirements.

This fact has challenged different wind turbine manufacturers regarding the ability of different wind

turbine concepts to comply with high-power system operator requirements [16]-[18]. Model simula-

tion studies to understand the impact of system disturbances on wind turbines and consequently on

the power system itself abound [19]-[21]. The presence of power electronics inside modern WECS

provides large potential for control capability and provides a versatile electronic interface for the grid

connection. The doubly outage induction machine is a wound-rotor type and is directly connected to

the grid with little additional conditioning. Due to the relatively constant operating conditions, the

DOIG has several advantages over conventional induction machines in wind power applications:

1) Ability to control reactive power — since the rotor voltage is controlled by a power electronics

converter, the DOIG is able to both import and export reactive power; this has important conse-

quences for power system stability and allows the machine to remain connected to the system

during severe voltage disturbances.

2) Ability to control the rotor voltage — this enables the induction machine to remain ‘synchro-

nized’ with the grid while the wind turbine varies in speed.

3) Decoupling of the electric and the reactive power control with independent control of torque

and rotor excitation current.

By decoupling (item 3), the DOIG can be excited from the rotor circuit by the rotor converter, but not

necessarily from the power grid. Thus there exist two distinct principal situations:

• When connected to a strong power system where the voltage is (or about) 1 pu, the DOIG

will be excited from the rotor circuit by the rotor converter; however, the DOIG does not ex-

change reactive power with the power system (i.e., the DOIG will produce electric power and

be reactive-neutral with the power network).

• When connected to a weak power system characterized by ﬂuctuating voltages, the DOIG can

be ordered to produce or absorb an amount of reactive power to control voltage; the DOIG

will produce electric power and exchange some reactive power with the grid to reach a desired

voltage in the vicinity of the connection point.

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 50

References

[1] H. de Battista, P. F. Puleston, R. J. Mantz, and C. F. Christiansen, “Sliding mode control of wind

energy systems with DOIG – power efﬁciency and torsional dynamics optimization,” IEEE Trans.

Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 728-734, May 2000. doi:10.1109/59.867166.

[2] M. Ermis, H. Ertan, M. Demirekler, B. M. Saribatir, Y. Uctug, M. E. Sezer, and I. Cardici, “Var-

ious induction generator schemes for wind-electricity generation,” Electric Power Systems Re-

search, vol. 23, pp. 71-83, 1992.

[3] Z. M. Salameh, and L. F. Kazda, “Analysis of the steady-state performance of the double output

induction generator,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 26-32, 1986.

[4] S. Muller, M. Deicke, and R. W. de Doncker, “Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind

turbines,” IEEE Industrial Applications Magazine, pp. 26-33, May/June 2002.

[5] I. Cadirei, and M. Ermis, “Performance evaluation of a wind driven DOIG using a hybrid model,”

IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 148-155, June 1998. doi:10.1109/60.678978.

[6] M. Y. Uctug, I. Eskandarzadeh, and H. Ince, “Modeling and output power optimization of a wind

turbine driven double output induction generator,” IEE Procs. Electric Power Applications, vol.

141, no. 2, pp. 33-38, March 1994.

[7] Z. M. Salameh, and L. F. Kazda, “Commutation angle analysis of a double-output induction

generator using a detailed d-q model,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-104,

no. 3, pp. 512-518, March 1985. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1985.318966.

[8] Z. M. Salameh, and S. Wang, “Microprocessor control of double output induction generator I:

inverter ﬁring circuit,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 172-176, June 1989.

[9] Z. Fengge, T. Ningze, H. Wang, W. Li, and W Fengxiang, “Modeling and simulation of variable

speed constant frequency wind power generation system with doubly fed brushless machine,” Int.

Conf. Power System Technology, PowerCon 2004, 21-24 Nov. 2004, vol. 1, pp. 801-805.

[10] R. Krishnan, and G. H. Rim, “Modeling, simulation, and analysis of variable-speed constant

frequency power conversion scheme with a permanent magnet brushless DC generator,” IEEE

Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 291-296, Aug. 1990. June 1989.

[11] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, H. Kinjo, Z. O. Siagi, and T. Funabashi, “Intelligent optimal control

of nonlinear wind generating systemby a modeling-based approach,” IET Proc. Renewable Power

Generation, (Forthcoming).

CHAPTER 4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 51

[12] R. Pena, J. C. Clare, and G. M. Asher, “Doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back

PWM converters and its applications to variable speed wind-energy generation,” IEE Proc. Elec-

tric Power Applications, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 231-241, May 1996.

[13] J. B. Ekanayake, L. Holdsworth, W. XueGuang, and N. Jenkins, “Dynamic modeling of doubly

fed induction generator wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 803-809,

May 2003. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2003.811178.

[14] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, and H. Kinjo, “Disturbance rejection by stochastic inequality con-

strained closed-loop model-based predictive control of MW-class wind generating system,” in

Proceedings of the Joint IEEJ and IEICE Conference, 19 Dec. 2007, pp. 91-99.

[15] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Disturbance rejection by

dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty

compensation,” IET Procs. Control Theory and Applications, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1431-1440, Sept.

2007. doi10.1049/iet-cta:20060448.

[16] L. Yazhou, A. Mullane, G. Lightbody, and R. Yacamini, “Modeling of the wind turbine with a

doubly fed induction generator for grid integration studies,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.

21, no. 1, pp. 257-264, Mar. 2006. doi.10.1109/TEC.2005.847958.

[17] J. L. Rodriguez-Amenedo, S. Arnalte, and J. C. Burgos, “Automatic generation control of a

wind farm with variable speed wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 17, no. 2,

pp. 279-284, June 2002. doi:10.1109/TEC.2002.1009481.

[18] J. Kabouris, and C. D. Vournas, “Application of interruptible contracts to increase wind-power

penetration in congested areas,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1642-1649, Aug.

2004. doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2004.831702.

[19] V. Akhmatov, and P. B. Eriksen, “A large wind power system in almost island operation –

a Danish case study,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 937-943, Aug. 2007.

doi:10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901283.

[20] J. G. Slootweg, H. Polinder, and W. L. Kling, “Representing wind turbine electrical generating

systems in fundamental frequency simulations,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 18, no. 4,

pp. 516-524, Dec. 2003. doi:10.1109/TEC.2003.816593.

[21] E. Muljadi, C. P. Butterﬁeld, B. Parsons, and A. Ellis, “Effect of variable speed wind turbine

generator on stability of a weak grid,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29-36,

Mar. 2007. doi:10.1109/TEC.2006.889602.

Chapter 5

Modeling Wind Field Dynamics

5.1 Introduction

W

INDS come about as a consequence of the differential heating that powers a global atmo-

spheric convection system reaching from the Earth’s surface to the stratosphere that acts as

a virtual ceiling, leading to global circulation patterns. Globally, the wind energy resource is plentiful,

renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces toxic atmospheric and greenhouse gas emissions if

used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity. However, wind speed — certainly the most signiﬁcant

wind energy parameter — is considered as one of the most difﬁcult meteorological phenomena due

to its non-predictability [1]. Though the intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using

wind power at low to moderate penetration levels, such intermittency has reportedly caused problems

for grid stability in areas where penetration is greatest.

In an effort to eliminate the need for measured data acquired over long periods of time, the IEC

61400-1 Standard [2] allows the use of statistical methods to generate turbulent wind ﬁelds. Current

design standards and certiﬁcation rules accept the use of standard spectral models of turbulence such

as von Karman [3],[4] and Kaimal [5]. The importance of turbulent loading is now universally rec-

ognized, and it is now common practice to base load calculations on a model of the three turbulent

velocity components [6]. A considerable body of research has been undertaken for reliable prediction

and/or simulation of real-time wind speeds for analyzing WECS response to wind gusts [7]–[11].

Several models have been proposed, including the point source Box-Muller algorithm [12], the au-

toregressive moving average (ARMA) model [13],[14], among others. All these methods use, as a

starting point, auto-spectral and coherence descriptions of the turbulence. In this thesis, a constrained

stochastic simulation (CSS) approach [15],[16] is adopted. The method can be applied to generate

wind gusts from time series around events deﬁned by means of a linear condition (constraint).

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 53

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

R

a

y

l

e

i

g

h

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

Wind speed [m/s]

k=1.0

k=2.0

k=3.0

k=4.0

k=5.0

Figure 5.1: Rayleigh distribution for annual wind speed. k is the shape parameter.

5.2 Determination of Mean Wind Speed, v

m

In the absence of manufacturer speciﬁcations with regard to turbine rated wind speed, the Rayleigh

distribution [17],[18] may be utilized in determining the average annual wind speed, µ

w

. The Rayleigh

is a probability density function that describes the annual wind speed distribution and is used for

estimating the energy recovery from a wind turbine. The annualized energy output, E, for the WECS

is obtained as (see Appendix A.2.4)

E = 8760

v

f

vc

Pf(v

w

)dv

w

(5.1)

where 8760 is the number of hours in a 365-day year and P is the non-zero power captured corre-

sponding to wind speed v

w

, in the range from cut-in speed (v

c

) to furling-speed (v

f

). The Rayleigh

function f(v

w

) is derived from the general Weibull function in (2.8) for k = 2. It has the form

f(v

w

[α) =

v

w

α

2

exp

¸

−

v

w

√

2α

2

¸

(5.2)

where α is the mode of the distribution, and v

w

is the instantaneous wind speed. This expression is

analogous to (2.8), with α related to the scale parameter c as α = c/

√

2.

Fig. 5.1 shows annual Rayleigh distribution curves for a range of shape parameters; the area

under each curve is unity, with a standard deviation σ = α

4−π

2

. Due to physical reasons, the

seasonal wind speed, µ

w

, cannot change abruptly, but instead only continuously. Once the Rayleigh

distribution is established, the turbulence level, σ

∗

, may be obtained and utilized in determining the

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 54

hub height average wind speed for simulations. Since

σ

∗

'σ

2

`

µ

w

(5.3)

then using the the IEC 61400-1 Standard (ed. 3) for the representative turbulence intensity as detailed

in Appendix A.2.3

σ

∗

= I

ref

¸

(15m/s + 3V

hub

)

3

+ 1.28 1.44m/s

(5.4)

the average wind speed, V

hub

, at hub height is empirically determined, which, to all intents and pur-

poses, is the effective mean wind speed v

m

. In this study, the seasonal mean wind speed at site,

µ

w

= 7 m/s, and v

m

≡ V

hub

= 12.205 m/s.

5.3 CSS Model for Wind Turbulence, v

t

(t)

CSS imposes a set of linear constraints on a turbulent wind ﬁeld — the speed increases with a certain

amount over a certain period in time and space. The simulated Gaussian ﬁeld is the sum of a de-

terministic and a stochastic part. The deterministic part is time series given the speciﬁed constraints,

formulated as a variational problem where the constraints are introduced by means of Lagrange multi-

pliers. The starting point for the stochastic part is an ordinary Gaussian, homogeneous simulation that

is subsequently projected onto the orthogonal complement of the subspace spanned by the constraints.

For operation under turbulent wind, the following assumptions are made in the modeling:

a) at t < 0 the power system is under steady-state conditions (almost constant wind speed) so that

the load ﬂow algorithm can be used to evaluate the initial conditions;

b) no wind shear, either vertical or horizontal, is taken into account;

c) variations in the horizontal direction of wind speed are not considered thus ensuring perfect

tracking in the yaw direction (in practice this is not possible and causes 1–2% energy loss and

additional stress on components [16]).

In the model the turbulent wind ﬁeld is represented by an expression for the temporal and spatial

cross correlation of wind speed ﬂuctuations which is transformed to a frame of reference moving with

the rotor blades. In order to compute the dynamic response and loading of the wind turbine, this cross

correlation function is integrated with the linear model of the rotor aerodynamics model.

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 55

Signal shaping

filter

τ

w

σ

G

w

v (t )

w

v

m

White noise Colored

noise

k

σ

Rayleigh distribution

Mean wind speed

v (t )

t ξ(t )

Simulated

wind speed

v

m

Noise generator

w

w

+

+

Figure 5.2: Model for simulating wind speed behavior with CSS.

5.3.1 Formulating the Turbulence

In the sequel a concise outline is given of CSS as a probabilistic method to determine a suitable wind

speed proﬁle as input for a wind turbine simulation tool. The design tool is for analyzing the extreme

response as well as determining the internal loads of the WECS as a function of time. CSS presents

a comprehensive method that may be applied for any event that can be expressed as a linear function

of the involved random variables. A basic assumption in applying CSS for this purpose is that the

extreme response is driven by wind turbulence and that the turbulence is Gaussian.

Fig. 5.2 shows the model for executing CSS in simulating wind speed behavior. The driving force

of the wind is normally distributed white noise produced by a random number generator. The discrete

signal produced has mean value zero and unit variance. The sequential signal values with the sample

time, T, are thus independent of each other.

The stochastic component of the wind ﬁeld is modeled as follows. The linear model of the turbu-

lence component (wind gust), v

t

(t), is comprised by a ﬁrst order ﬁlter disturbed by Gaussian noise

˙ v

t

(t) = −

1

τ

w

v

t

(t) + ξ(t) (5.5)

where ξ(t) is white noise from the noise generator. The white noise is smoothed by a signal shap-

ing ﬁlter with transfer function G

w

(jω) and time constant τ

w

, thereby transforming it into colored

noise. The k

σw

block serves to standardize the colored noise by the standard deviation, σ

w

, of v

m

(obtained statistically from the Rayleigh distribution) to yield v

t

(t), which is ideally the summation

of independent harmonics with random phases φ

k

uniformly distributed over [0, 2π] that follow from

v

t

(t) =

√

2

K

¸

k=0

2G

w

(ω

k

)∆ω

1

2

cos(ω

k

t + φ

k

) (5.6)

where ∆ω = ω

max

/K, and ω

k

= k∆ω, while ω

max

is an upper cut-off of the noise spectrum. ω

k

a set

of K equidistant frequencies.

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 56

The ﬁlter takes the form

G

w

(jω) =

Ξ

w

(1 + jωτ

w

)

5

6

(5.7)

where Ξ

w

is the ampliﬁcation factor. Selection of ﬁlter parameters depends on the long term mean

wind speed, µ

w

, and the characteristic turbulence length scale Lthat corresponds to the site roughness.

These parameters are obtained as

Ξ

w

≈

2π

Γ(

1

2

,

1

3

)

τ

w

T

and τ

w

=

L

µ

w

(5.8)

where Γ designates the beta function. The turbulence component (5.6) may be rewritten as

v

t

(t) =

K

¸

k=0

A

k

cos(ω

k

t + φ

k

) (5.9)

where the amplitude, A

k

, of each discrete frequency component represents the power in a speciﬁc

frequency band

A

k

(ω

k

) ≈

2

∞

ω

0

2

S

k

(ω

k

) dω . (5.10)

The integral in (5.10) may be discretely approximated thus:

A

k

(ω

k

) =

√

2

[S

k

(ω

k

) + S

k

(ω

k+1

)][ω

k+1

−ω

k

]

2

(5.11)

where the frequencies ω

k

are chosen to be logarithmically spaced to adequately represent the fre-

quency content. A

k

is based on the area under a density function S — the power spectral density of

the turbulence — represented by the ﬁlter. Substituting (5.8) in (5.7) yields the von Karman distribu-

tion [19]

S

k

(ω

k

) =

0.475σ

2

w

L

vm

1 +

ω

k

L

µw

5

6

(5.12)

and thus (5.9) becomes

v

t

(t) =

K

¸

k=0

2S

k

τ

w

cos(ω

k

t + φ

k

). (5.13)

where t is the discretized time.

It is noteworthy that the development of v

w

(t) assumes normal distribution. Non-Gaussianity of

wind turbulence and how to incorporate it in constrained simulation may be addressed by variational

calculus, as suggested by Nielsen et al. [20].

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 57

5.3.2 Setting the Constraints

Applying the Fourier transform to the wind gust component in (5.9) yields the series of the form:

v

t

(t) =

K

¸

k=1

a

k

cosω

k

t + b

k

sinω

k

t (5.14)

where, for normally distributed wind speed ﬂuctuations, the Fourier coefﬁcients a

k

and b

k

will also

be normal. Their means are zero, they are mutually uncorrelated, and their variances are 2S

k

/τ

w

= 1.

Selecting gusts with amplitude A at time t = t

0

corresponds to applying the following constraints:

v

w

(t

0

) = A (5.15)

˙ v

w

(t

0

) = 0 (5.16)

where the constraint (5.16) ensues from the fact that the ‘reference trajectory’ for the mean wind

speed, v

m

, is a constant. The desired gusts are automatically selected by a combination of (5.14) and

(5.15), leading to:

Gc = a (5.17)

with

G

=

¸

cosω

1

t

0

cosω

2

t

0

cosω

K

t

0

sinω

1

t

0

sinω

K

t

0

−ω

1

sinω

1

t

0

−ω

2

sinω

1

t

0

−ω

K

sinω

K

t

0

ω

1

cosω

1

t

0

ω

K

cosω

K

t

0

,

c

=

a

1

a

2

a

K

b

1

b

2

b

K

T

, and

a

=

(A 0)

T

.

To obtain the desired wind gust, the Fourier coefﬁcients a

k

, b

k

, which are normally distributed, should

satisfy the above conditions. The covariance matrix Mof c is the diagonal with elements 2S

k

/T

w

:

M = E[cc

T

]

=

2

τ

w

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

S

1

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 S

2

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 S

K

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 S

1

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 S

K

. (5.18)

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 58

The constraint is that there is a peak of given height A at time t

0

, expressed in (5.17). The constraint

may be conveniently expressed in terms of the unconstrained simulation time function:

A−Gc

=

¸

A−v

w

(t

0

)

−˙ v

w

(t

0

)

(5.19)

and thus the constrained Fourier coefﬁcients (5.14) are obtained as

a

k,c

= a

k

+

S

k

cosω

k

t

0

¸

S

k

(A−v

w

(t

0

)) +

S

k

ω

k

sinω

k

t

0

¸

ω

2

k

S

k

˙ v

w

(t

0

) (5.20)

and

b

k,c

= b

k

+

S

k

sinω

k

t

0

¸

S

k

(A−v

w

(t

0

)) −

S

k

ω

k

cosω

k

t

0

¸

ω

2

k

S

k

˙ v

w

(t

0

) . (5.21)

Thus having made an unconstrained simulation of the wind velocity, (5.20) and (5.21) determine the

Fourier coefﬁcients that satisfy the gust constraints in (5.15) and (5.16).

5.4 Real-time Wind Speed Proﬁle

For analysis of wind turbine loading, it is appreciated that the rotor interacts with a complex spatially

and temporally varying wind-ﬁeld. However, the wind ﬁeld may be represented by an effective wind

speed, v

w

(t), over the rotor disk. This wind speed is modelled as a stochastic process with two compo-

nents: the seasonal, slowly variable component, µ

w

, and the rapidly variable turbulence component,

v

t

(t). Over short periods the wind speed can be approximated as the superposition of the mean wind

speed and the instantaneous turbulence component

v

w

(t) = v

m

+ v

t

(t) (5.22)

where v

m

V

hub

is obtained from (5.4) that is based on µ

w

determined by the Rayleigh distribution

while v

t

(t) is computed via CSS. Gaussian white noise and typical wind speed proﬁles are shown in

Figs. 5.3(a) and (b), respectively. It should be noted that the spectral characteristic of this effective

wind speed is very different from that of a point source. In order to obtain the distribution of the

extreme loading caused by a gust with arbitrary amplitude (for a given v

m

), the different distributions

should be convoluted (weighed) with the occurrence probability of the individual gusts. Furthermore,

using the load distribution and resistance distribution of the structure the probability of failure can be

estimated. Together they constitute the tools leading to a more efﬁcient and reliable WECS design.

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 59

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

W

h

i

t

e

n

o

i

s

e

s

i

g

n

a

l

,

Z

t, [s]

(a) Gaussian white noise signal of zero mean, unit variance.

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

0 20 40 60 80 100

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

,

v

(

t

)

[

m

/

s

]

t, [s]

v

m

=12,I

t

=16%

v

m

=12,I

t

=18%

v

m

=16,I

t

=16%

(b) Wind speed proﬁles. Red line is v

m

= v

r

at a turbulence intensity of 16%, green line represents v

m

= v

r

at a

turbulence intensity of 18%, and blue line is proﬁle at v

m

= 16 m/s and turbulence intensity of 16%.

Figure 5.3: White noise and typical generated wind speed proﬁles by CSS at various mean wind

speeds and turbulence intensities.

5.5 Remarks

Time domain simulations of wind gust events are of practical interest for wind turbine design calcula-

tions. Until relatively recently, calculations of the loading and behavior of wind turbines were based

on grossly simpliﬁed models of the wind: a steady wind speed, constant power or logarithmic law

model of wind shear, a constant ﬂow inclination, and a dominant longitudinal component of turbu-

lence. Although such input enables a satisfactory calculation of the periodic loading, it provides no

basis for evaluating the random loads due to turbulence.

The current IEC-Standard considers extreme wind events as extreme load conditions that must

be considered as ultimate load cases when designing a wind turbine. Within the framework of the

IEC 61400-1 Std (ed. 3) [2],[21], these load situations are deﬁned in terms of two independent site

variables — a reference mean wind speed and a characteristic turbulence intensity.

In this research CSS generates a spatial turbulent wind ﬁeld at ﬁxed points at the rotor disc, based

on a Class A turbulence site. For the seasonal mean wind speed of 7 m/s, cut-in wind speed of 4.0 m/s,

and operation at rated wind speed of the turbine equipment (12.205 m/s), the prevailing turbulence

intensities (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) are obtained as 16.0108%, 12.5465%, and 8.92472%,

respectively (see Appendix A.2.2, A.2.3).

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 60

References

[1] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Online WTG dynamic per-

formance and transient stability enhancement by evolutionary LQG,” IEEE Power Engineering

Society General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/PES.2007.385499.

[2] International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 61400-1: Wind Turbines Part 1: Design Re-

quirements. IEC 2005-08, 3

rd

edition, 2005. Available online, http://www.iec.ch.

[3] B. G. Rawn, P. W. Lehn, and M. Maggiore, “A control methodology to mitigate the grid impact

of wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 431-438, 2007.

[4] W. E. Leithead, S. de la Salle, and D. Reardon, “Role and objectives of control for wind turbines,”

IEE Procs. Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 135-148, March 1991.

[5] T. Ekelund, “Speed control of wind turbines in the stall region,” Procs. 3rd IEEE Conference on

Control Applications, 24-26 Aug. 1994, vol. 1, pp. 227-232. doi:10.1109/CCA.1994.381194.

[6] W. Bierbooms, “A gust model for wind turbine design,” JSME International Journal, Series B,

Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 378-386, 2004.

[7] F. Iov, F. Blaabjergg, A. D. Hansen, and Z. Chen, “Comparative study of different im-

plementations for induction machine model in Matlab/Simulink for wind turbine simula-

tions,” Procs. IEEE Workshop on Computers in Power Electronics, 3-4 June 2002, pp. 58-63.

doi:10.1109/CIPE.2002.1196716.

[8] R. A. Schlueter, G. L. Park, R. Bouwmeester, L. Shu, M. Lotfalian, P. Rastgoufard, and A.

Shayanfar, “Simulation and assessment of wind array power variations based on simultaneous

wind speed measurements,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-103, no. 5, pp.

1008-1016, 1984. doi:10.1109/TPAS.1984.318705.

[9] R. Karki, P. Hu, and R. Billinton, “Reliability evaluation of a wind power delivery system using

an approximate wind model,” IEEE Procs. 41st International Universities Power Engineering

Conference, UPEC ’06, 6-8 Sept. 2006, vol. 1, pp. 113-117. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2006.367726.

[10] P. Flores, A. Tapia, and G. Tapia, “Application of a control algorithm for wind speed prediction

and active power generation,” Renewable Energy, vol. 30, pp. 523-536, 2005.

[11] G. N. Kariniotakis, G. S. Stavrakakis, and E. F. Nogaret, “Wind power forecasting using ad-

vanced neural networks models,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 762-767,

1996.

CHAPTER 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 61

[12] G. E. P. Box, and M. E. Muller, “A note on the generation of random normal deviates,” Ann.

Math. Stat., vol. 29, pp. 610-611, 1958.

[13] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, and T. Funabashi, “Robust predictive control of

variable-speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator,” IEEE Power Engineering Society

General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/PES.2007.385885.

[14] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “RLS-based self-tuning regu-

lator for WTG dynamic performance enhancement under stochastic setting,” Proc. The Interna-

tional Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE 2007, 8-12 July 2007, pp. 1-6.

[15] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, Z. O. Siagi, and T. Funabashi, “Intelligent optimal control of wind

power generating system by a complemented linear quadratic Gaussian approach,” IEEE Power

Engineering Society Conference and Exposition, PowerAfrica 2007, 16-20 July 2007, pp. 1-8.

[16] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Gain scheduling

control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading,” Renewable Energy,

vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2407-2423, 2007.

[17] R. B. Corotis, “Stochastic modeling of site wind characteristics,” ERDA Report, RLO/2342-

77/2, September 1977.

[18] R. B. Corotis, A. B. Sigl, and J. Klein, “Probability models of wind velocity magnitude and

persistence,” Solar Energy, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 483-493, 1978.

[19] C. Nichita, D. Luca, B. Dakyo, and E. Ce˘anga, “Large band simulation of the wind speed for

real time wind turbine simulators,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 523-529,

Dec. 2002.

[20] M. Nielsen, G. C. Larsen, J. Mann, S. Ott, K. S. Hansen, and B. J. Pedersen, “Wind simulation

for extreme and fatigue loads,” Risø-R-1437(EN), 2003.

[21] IEC 61400-1 Standard: Wind Turbine Safety and Design Ed 3. Available online,

http://www.awea.org/standards

Part II

Control Strategies and Design for Wind

Energy Conversion Systems

Chapter 6

Control Philosophy

6.1 Introduction

C

ONTROL can signiﬁcantly improve the energy capture by a wind turbine. Part II of this thesis

reviews techniques for the control of wind turbines during power production. Particularly, as

turbines become larger and more ﬂexible, there is increasing interest in designing controllers with

load reduction as part of the primary objective, to mitigate loads as far as possible. Terms can be

introduced into the controller to help damp resonances, such as drive train torsion in variable-speed

turbines. Classical methods based on proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative

(PID) algorithms are a good starting point for many aspects of closed-loop controller design for ﬁxed-

and variable-speed turbines.

With regard to energy extraction efﬁciency of WECs, controller design has centered mainly on

simple, linear, PID controllers [1]-[6] that are easily implemented in the ﬁeld environment. Although

industry has embraced the PID controller, researchers have begun to investigate the capabilities of

more sophisticated control designs for ensuring efﬁcient power conversion, especially multivariable,

multiobjective paradigms. Several advanced controllers are proposed and analyzed in this research,

including the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) [7]-[10] that has been shown to effectively optimize

power conversion for a wind power system across a whole range of operating regions [11], the self-

tuning regulator (STR) scheme [12]-[15], and model-based predictive control (MBPC) [16],[17].

These have an advantage over the PID since they can incorporate multiple inputs and multiple

outputs. However, in order to convince industry to invest in more complicated controllers it is nec-

essary to show that they are potentially able to guarantee long service life of the WECS, ensure low

maintenance and above all, maintain a high level of energy conversion. It is important to be able to

quantify the beneﬁts of any new controller with particular regard to the variability of the real wind.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 64

Advanced controller design methods can offer an explicit mathematical formulation for the de-

sign of controllers with multiple objectives, including load reduction. Such controllers have been

used on commercial turbines to a limited extent. For variable speed turbines, attention to detail in

the interaction of pitch and torque controllers can signiﬁcantly improve energy capture without any

compromise on loads. Individual pitch control has potential for very signiﬁcant load reduction but is

not yet commercially proven. The design of the control algorithms is clearly of prime importance.

Additional sensors such as accelerometers and load sensors can also help the controller achieve its

objectives more effectively.

As the size of wind turbines increases, and as cost reduction targets encourage lighter and hence

more ﬂexible and dynamic structures, these aspects of controller design become increasingly im-

portant. A very basic controller might consist of a classical PI or PID algorithm acting on a single

measured signal (generator speed or power output) to generate a pitch demand. For variable-speed

turbines a torque demand is generated independently from a speed–torque look-up table. This basic

scheme can be greatly improved in a number of ways. This thesis covers the following possibilities:

• joint control of pitch and torque to improve the trade-off between energy and loads;

• using torque control to damp out torsional resonances, especially in the drive train.

These strategies are now routinely used in the industry.

Blade pitch control is primarily used to limit the aerodynamic power in above-rated wind speeds

in order to keep the turbine within its design limits, but it also has an important effect on structural

loads. Some optimization of energy capture below rated is also possible. Generator torque control

in variable-speed turbines is used primarily to maximize energy capture below rated wind speed by

controlling rotor speed, and to limit the transmission torque above rated, but it can also be used to

reduce certain loads. The algorithms used for controlling pitch and torque need careful design. In

addition to their effectiveness in meeting these primary objectives, the control algorithms can also

have a major inﬂuence on the loads experienced by the wind turbine. Clearly the algorithms must be

designed so as to prevent excessive loading, but it is possible to go further by designing them with

load reduction as an explicit objective — the main theme for Part II of this report.

This thesis illustrates the ﬁnding that, with careful design, more robust multiobjective and adaptive

controllers can be developed that can achieve better performance levels relative to classical linear

controllers and are much more likely to be adopted in practice. Finally, the importance of modeling

for controller design is stressed. Although ﬁeld trials are useful, computer simulations are also vital,

and are utilized to evaluate performance.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 65

Opt imal

cont r ol

Wind speed

model

Wind

t ur bine

r ot or

Dr ive-t r ain

dynamics

Act ive/

r eact ive

power

(P&Q)

cont r ol

Q

ω

t

v

w

ref

P

ref

β

cmd

β

v

w

ω

t

Γ

t

Γ

g

ω

g

ω

t

DOIG

Q

ref

P

ref

i

dq_r

i

dq_s

u

dq_s

ω

g

u

dq_r

u

dq_s

u

dq_r

i

dq_s

i

dq_r

u

dq

ω

g

St at or

volt age

Γ

g

Γ

t

1

2

6

3 4

5

Figure 6.1: Relational schematic of the WECS with DOIG, converters and controllers.

6.2 Control Concept

6.2.1 Model Overview

The most signiﬁcant dynamics of the wind turbine have been modelled in Part I with emphasis on

control design. An entire nonlinear simulation model of the wind turbine can then be derived by

connecting the individual sub-models. Fig. 6.1 is the block diagram of the dynamic WECS model

that is applied to investigate power output performance, power train reliability, and transient voltage

stability in the sequel. The interconnections between the different dynamic components are depicted

as the respective blocks:

1) The aerodynamic model of the turbine rotor

2) The shaft system model — represents possible torsional oscillations in the shaft system

3) The electric generator model — it is a transient model

4) The converter and its control

5) The blade-angle (pitch) control and the servo model, and generator torque reference.

5) The wind model

1

.

The work presented in Chapters 2–5 has been to develop subsystem models as part of a simulation

platform project in which the main idea is to extend the ability of the existing wind turbine design

tools to simulate the dynamic behavior of the wind turbines and the wind turbine–grid interaction.

One of the main targets is to improve the generator models used in advanced aeroelastic tools and

to add the electrical part of the wind turbine. In these aeroelastic tools the focus is on the frequency

scale between 0 and 20 Hz, because the main contribution to fatigue loads is in this frequency range.

1

The wind model, strictly speaking, is not a component of the wind turbine model, but the output power calculation

for the WECS requires the knowledge of instantaneous wind speed. The instantaneous wind speed v

w

(t) is described by

(5.1) in Chapter 5.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 66

P

ω

t

ω

g

β

θ

t g

Q

i

ds

i

qs

i

dr

i

qr

β

cmd

ω

g,r ef

v

t

u

ds

u

qs

Outputs y States x Inputs u

Γ

g,r ef

Figure 6.2: Complete dynamic model of inputs, state variables, and outputs.

Fig. 6.2 illustrates the complete WECS dynamic model, characterized by six inputs ¯ u, two outputs

¯ y, and eight state variables. The inputs include pitch angle reference, β

cmd

, wind speed disturbance

v

t

, and adjustable control variables of the converter. State variables comprise 8 nonlinear equations:

(3.5) for the drive-train states from Chapter 3, and (4.11) for the induction machine (Chapter 4).

The active (P), and reactive (Q) powers injected into the grid are taken as model outputs.

Based on the state-space form of the induction machine dynamic model, the complete linearized

model is obtained, and then the reduced-order model that neglects the stator transients, and the steady-

state model are easily extracted. After that, the required transfer functions between the desired input–

output pair can be obtained. These transfer functions are useful in the linear design of the control

loops as well as in the analysis of the stability and response of the system under different operating

conditions. Based on the steady-state model, an analysis of the control variables is performed in order

to obtain the operational points of the DOIG. The developed models are used in controlling the DOIG

with a power electronic converter in the WECS. The focus is on analysis of the state-space modeling

of a 2 MW DOIG used in WECS applications, and the mechanical and aeroelastical aspects must be

considered to visualize the dynamic behavior.

Before the models can be used with conﬁdence, they should have been validated by compar-

ing model results to measurements. To highlight the importance that an accurate representation of

the structural dynamics has for purposes of model validation of IG wind turbines, this study com-

pares the performance of the proposed modeling and control to the actual prototype values detailed

in Appendix A. The real advantage of the method is visible in the chosen highly turbulent wind

environment, presenting a noisy signal to the system. The simulation model is implemented in a

MATLAB/Simulink environment with the control target of ensuring response geared toward optimum

power conversion and minimizing shaft torsional torque variations without additional ﬁltering.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 67

Baseline

controller

WECS

Wind

speed

Electric

power

v

TURBULENCE

SEASONAL

DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION

STEADY STATE OPTIMIZATION

m

v

t

Γ

bc

Γ

prp

Γ

g,ref

Σ

∆ω

ω

Proposed

multivariable

controller

Key:

Generator command signal by

proposed controller

Generator command signal by

baseline controller

Γ

bc

Γ

prp

Figure 6.3: Control strategy by the frequency separation principle. Γ

g,ref

=

¸

Γ

bc

+ Γ

prp

.

6.2.2 Control Objectives

In this study the control problem is conveniently divided into two time scales corresponding to slow

mean wind speed changes and rapid turbulent wind speed variations. The mean speeds are treated

as steady state operating points. Fig. 6.3 illustrates the frequency separation principle utilized in

analyzing the system: steady state optimization assumes operation at the optimal wind speed while

with dynamic optimization the OP is bound to shift hence the need for an adaptive controller to

regulate the aerodynamic effects on the system. The WECS can be started at the wind speed of 4 m/s

and operated in the wind area up to 25 m/s. The control design objectives are:

◦ To optimize power production in low to medium wind speeds, and to regulate turbine speed in

the above-rated region thereby maintaining rated power.

◦ To specify the demanded generator torque to maintain stable closed-loop behavior over the

entire turbine operating envelope, which includes enhancing the damping to the drive train

torsion and mitigating the effects of wind speed disturbances.

The overall objective of the controller is to maximize energy production, whilst working within the

operational limits of the turbine, and minimizing the peak loadings experienced. While the wind is

highly stochastic, initial insight into this requirement can be gained by considering the situation when

the wind is steady and the turbine is in equilibrium. Three operating modes can be identiﬁed:

1. Energy capture limited by available wind energy

2. Energy capture limited by rotor speed constraints

3. Energy capture limited by generator rating

Overall, effectiveness of each proposed control scheme is evaluated based on the objectives, and

subject to operating constraints. A further, deterministic, extreme gust is employed to conﬁrm the

ability of the controllers to maintain operation within the allowed rotor speed limits.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 68

6.3 Control Strategy

The devised strategy is twofold: active power control for optimal conversion throughout the WECS

operating envelope, and generator torque control for alleviation of torsional loads on the power train.

6.3.1 Active Power Control

The control objectives of the active power control loop are achieved by speed control, based on the

following control strategies:

(a) Power optimization strategy — utilized for below rated wind speed, where the energy capture

is maximized by tracking the maximum power coefﬁcient.

• The power reference is the wind turbine available power

• The speed reference is the optimal speed.

The turbine has to produce the optimum power corresponding to the maximum tracking power

point look-up table. The difference between the generator speed and its reference value is neg-

ative and, therefore, the generator torque controller’s output, Γ

g,ref

, is increased systematically

thereby driving the TSR to its optimal value by varying the rotational speed. In this operational

regime, the pitch angle is kept constant at the lower limit (optimal value).

(b) Power limitation strategy — for above rated wind speed; power is limited to rated power, P

r

.

• The power reference is the rated power

• The speed reference is the rated speed.

Speed controller keeps the generator speed limited to its rated value by acting on the pitch

angle. The difference between the generator speed and its rated value is positive, thus the pitch

controller kicks in and drives the pitch angle to positive values until the rated generator speed is

reached. The WECS has to produce less than it is capable of at a given wind speed. This action

implies both a larger dynamical pitch activity and a larger steady-state pitch angle.

6.3.2 Power-train Torsional Load Alleviation

In above rated wind regimes, generator torque control is utilized exclusively for overload prevention,

whereas blade pitch control is used for power limitation. The inverter controller holds the electrical

power constant at rated power, thus the turbine is prevented from following the c

P,opt

trajectory and

constrained to operate at lower values of TSR and c

P

. The power that the inverter injects into the grid

is completely independent of both the grid frequency and the DOIG speed. Γ

g,ref

is for damping only.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 69

Wind

speed

Γ

aero

ω

gen

Optimal

speed

PI

Gain

scheduling

τ

Rate

limiter

Angle

limiter

Turbine

rotor

Transmission

system

Generator

frequency

converter

ref

ω

gen

meas

PI

+

_

i

qref

P

mq

PI

+

_

i

dref

P

md

PI

+

_

PI

+

_

MPTP

ω

P

el

Speed controller

Power controller Rotor current controller

Active

power

reference

Reactive

power

reference

Available

power

+

_

∆ω

K

pi

β

ref

+

_

β

β

Γ

mech

ω

gen

meas

Control

signals

ACTIVE CURRENT CONTROL

REACTIVE CURRENT CONTROL

ACTIVE POWER CONTROL LOOP

REACTIVE POWER CONTROL LOOP

i

qmeas

i

dmeas

P

el

MPTP

Q

grid

meas

Q

grid

ref

P

grid

meas

P

grid

ref

Figure 6.4: WECS control level.

6.4 Controller Design

6.4.1 Assigning the Control Tasks

As illustrated in Fig. 6.4, the WECS’s power capability is expressed in terms of instantaneous (short-

term) available power. This is based on the maximum power tracking point (MPTP) as a function of

the optimal speed. The wind turbine control level contains

• a slow control level (speed controller and a power controller), and

• a fast control level (frequency converter-rotor current controller).

In implementation, the converter controls the power of the WECS through two controllers in cascade:

1. The power controller (the external controller in the cascade controllers) provides a reference

rotor current to the rotor current controller (the internal controller in the cascade controllers),

which further controls the generator current and thus the generator torque.

2. The speed controller — controls generator speed to its reference value by acting on pitch angle.

The power controller ensures the power reference by acting on the current reference of the rotor

current controller and thus on the generator current/torque; this is achieved via two control loops:

(i) the active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis component of the rotor current

(in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame), while

(ii) the reactive power control is achieved by controlling the d-axis component of the rotor current

(the magnetizing current) collinear with the stator ﬂux.

Note: rotor current controller generates rotor voltage components as control variables of the converter.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 70

β

s

1

min

max

β

β

cmd P

r ef

Gain

scheduling

+

_

PI

K +

pp

s

K

ip

K

PI

P

e

+

_

Figure 6.5: Pitch control system.

6.4.2 Pitch Actuator and Blade Servo

The actuator dynamics and implementation of the pitch control are depicted in Fig. 6.5. The pitch

angle controller is only active during high wind speeds. By varying the pitch angle β, the aerodynamic

torque input to the rotor is altered and hence the output power. Because the inertia of the blades is

large and the actuator should not consume a great deal of power, the actuator has limited capabilities.

The goals of pitch control include:

◦ Total active power, P

e

, as high as possible subject to the condition P

e

< P

r

; this implies holding

the pitch angle at a mechanical limit: β = −2

◦

.

◦ P

e

remains at WECS rating, P

r

, in the region of higher wind speeds; thus β has to be modiﬁed

between −2

◦

and 30

◦

to reduce c

P

(λ, β).

Controller dynamics are nonlinear with saturation limits on both pitch angle and pitch rate. When

the pitch angle and pitch rate are less than the saturation limits, the pitch dynamics exhibit linear

behavior, thus the dynamics of the servo with the blades may be described by a ﬁrst order transfer

function with a time constant τ

β

˙

β = −

1

τ

β

β +

K

β

τ

β

β

cmd

. (6.1)

The desired pitch command, β

cmd

, is the output of the pitch controller, and is fed to the pitch actuator

to regulate the pitch angle of the turbine blades. The desired pitch angle is selected so that the

generated power, P

e

, follows P

ref

. The command β

cmd

is the integral sum of the small changes of

pitch command (∆β

cmd

) over the sampling intervals, and can be represented as

β

cmd

=

¸

−sgn¦∆P¦[∆β

cmd

[ (6.2)

where ∆P = P

e

− P

ref

, and ∆β

cmd

is derived by gain scheduling in the PI block. Output power P

e

is smoothed by a hydraulic servo system that drives the blades around their lengthwise axes.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 71

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

5 10 15 20 25

P

i

t

c

h

a

n

g

l

e

,

β

[

d

e

g

]

Wind speed, v

w

[m/s]

Figure 6.6: Variation of pitch angle with wind speed in steady state conditions.

Fig. 6.6 is a typical variation in pitch angle with wind speed at steady state conditions for the

WECS in this study. Gain scheduling serves to compensate for the large changes in the sensitivity of

aerodynamic torque to pitch angle over the operating range, since the WECS aerodynamic character-

istics vary according to the OP, and hence v

w

. Thus the proportional and integral gains are scaled by

the gain scheduling constant, K

PI

, in order to ensure suitable control loop characteristics are attained

at all wind speeds. Additionally, the rate limiter is applied to the output with instantaneous integrator

desaturation to prevent wind-up. The transfer function C(s) between the power error and β

cmd

is:

C(s) =

β

cmd

(s)

∆P

e

(s)

=

sK

pp

+ K

ip

s

. (6.3)

Selection of K

pp

, K

ip

, and K

PI

is by trial and error, based on minimizing deviations from the set-

point without excessive control action and without causing any instabilities. The proportional and

integral constants are respectively K

pp

= 0.0246 s and K

ip

= 0.01025. K

PI

is given as follows:

K

PI

=

1, for −2

◦

< β ≤ 0

◦

β

15

+ 1, for 0

◦

< β ≤ 30

◦

3, for β > 30

◦

(6.4)

The servomotor, modeled as a ﬁrst order system with time constant τ

β

= 0.05 s can operate

very fast, but allowance has been made for servo system delay, and possibility of other delays e.g.

communication delay, computational delay and conditional delay (to overcome Coulomb friction).

Thus the response of the pitch actuation system is not instantaneous. The pitch rate commanded by

the actuator is physically limited to maximum ±8

◦

/s while the saturation level of the pitch angle is

from –2

◦

to 90

◦

. These limits should not be reached during the normal operation in order to avoid not

only the fatigue damage and wear of the pitch actuator, but also the loss of performance. It should

be mentioned that in power control mode lower values of pitch rate are desirable, however, for speed

control mode the larger pitch rate value shows better transient performance.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 72

6.4.3 Generator Torque Controller

6.4.3.1 Baseline Controller

The choice of generator torque as a control input is motivated by the fact that when connecting the

generator to the grid via the frequency converter, the generator rotational speed, ω

g

, will be indepen-

dent of the grid frequency. This decoupling enables variable speed operation, and a control strategy

based on wind speed regime may be formulated:

I. At low and moderate wind speeds generator speed, ω

g

, is controlled to maximize energy capture

by operating continuously at the TSR that results in the maximum power coefﬁcient. The target

is to track the OP locus (λ

opt

, c

P,opt

) by regulating the generator torque to yield the optimum

power conversion, P

m,opt

:

P

m,opt

=

1

2

ρΛc

P,opt

R

λ

opt

3

ω

3

t

. (6.5)

A standard baseline controller is then designed to keep the turbine operating at the peak of its

c

P

-TSR-pitch surface, executed in accord with the expression

Γ

ref

= K

T

ω

2

t

where K

T

=

1

2

ρΛc

P,opt

R

λ

opt

3

(6.6)

Γ

ref

being the reference torque signal and K

T

the torque control gain. The gain algorithm is

derived from the non-adaptive case presented in (6.6)

Γ

ref

=

0, for ω < 0

ρΓ

∗

ω

2

, for ω ≥ 0

(6.7)

where Γ

∗

incorporates all the non-adaptive gain (K

T

) parameters apart from air density ρ that

is time-varying and thus uncontrollable. Most turbines have separate control mechanisms to

prevent reverse operation; in this study the control law (6.6) assumes positive regions of ω.

II. When the wind speed exceeds its nominal value, the control objective shifts from maximiz-

ing power capture to regulating power to the WECS’s rated output while reducing rotor speed

ﬂuctuations and minimizing both control actuating loads and shaft torsional moments. Hence

in above rated wind regimes, both generator torque control and blade pitch control are used

for overload prevention and power limitation. The generator torque controller utilizes only the

local generator speed to produce appropriate control signals for meeting the control objectives.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 73

Opt imum

char act er ist ic

PI

P

r ef

ω

r ef

Γ

g,r ef

ω

g

K +

pt

s

K

it

+

_

Tor que t o

cur r ent

t r anslat ion

i

r q,r ef

+

_

i

r q

Rot or

inject ed

volt age

u

r q

K +

pv

s

K

iv

Figure 6.7: Generator torque and speed control.

6.4.3.2 PI Controller for Γ

g,ref

The PI controller consists of a cascade speed and torque control-loop. The inner loop is the torque

control that compares the electric torque and the output signal from the speed proportional plus in-

tegral controller, shown in Fig. 6.7. The speed controller compares the actual rotor speed and the

reference rotor speed. The output signal from the cascade controllers is the q-axis rotor current.

I. Current Control

The stator current is regulated through control of the rotor current, and, by applying both d- and

q-components, the reference values for the rotor current are calculated as

i

rq,ref

=

U

s

X

s

X

m

−i

sq,ref

X

s

X

m

. (6.8)

where the reference stator current is calculated with the reference values for torque, Γ

g,ref

i

sq,ref

= Γ

g,ref

ω

0

U

s

. (6.9)

The rotor currents are controlled with a PI controller, equipped with anti-windup and decoupling

terms to optimize the dynamic behavior [18].

II. Speed Control

The speed controller in Fig. 6.7 is a PI regulator that gives the relationship between the input,

∆ω

g

, and the output, Γ

g,ref

Γ

g,ref

= K

pt

∆ω

g

+ K

it

t

0

∆ω

g

dt (6.10)

where the proportional and integral constants are K

pt

= 500 Nms/rad and K

it

= 250 Nm/rad,

respectively. The output is Γ

g,ref

, that is used to deﬁne i

sq,ref

in (6.9). The reference generator

speed is a function of wind speed: below rated wind speed the reference generator speed is

proportional to the wind speed, above, it is constant at rated value.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 74

6.4.3.3 Multiobjective Controllers for Γ

g,ref

Two signiﬁcant problems abound with the standard control in (6.7):

1. inaccuracies in determining Γ

∗

due to changing blade aerodynamics over time;

2. wind speed ﬂuctuations force the WECS to operate off the peak of its power curve much of the

time, resulting in less energy capture.

Besides, control with PI (6.10) that optimizes energy can also cause undesirable torque ﬂuctuations

that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control attempts to follow the wind. Indeed,

tracking of TSR = λ

opt

at high frequency is not desirable because it would induce sudden variations

of turbine rotational speed and thus high mechanical loads on the drive train. Moreover, the converter

in the variable speed turbine neither adds inherent damping to the power system, nor is its speed

inherently damped by the power system.

To address these issues, adaptive controllers are proposed that reduce the negative effects of both

the uncertainty regarding Γ

∗

and the change in optimal OP due to turbulence. These paradigms in-

clude: LQG, STR and MBPC, as detailed in Chapters 7–9. These controllers seek the gain that

maximizes power capture regardless of whether this gain corresponds to the maximum of the power

curve for the WECS. Mechanical stress and strain reduction are met by reducing the vibrations be-

tween the rotating parts. The several multivariable, multiobjective schemes that are proposed generate

the appropriate generator torque signals respectively to compensate for the above contigencies as well

as add damping to the drive-train.

Although it may be possible to provide some damping mechanically, for example by means of

appropriately designed rubber mounts or couplings, there is a cost associated with this. Another

solution, which has been successfully adopted on many turbines, is to modify the generator torque

control to provide some damping. Instead of demanding a constant generator torque above rated, a

small ripple at the drive train frequency is added on, with its phase adjusted to counteract the effect

of the resonance and effectively increase the damping. A highpass or bandpass ﬁlter of the form

G

2ζωs(1 + sτ)

s

2

+ 2ζωs + ω

2

(6.11)

acting on the measured generator speed can be used to generate this additional ripple. The frequency

ω must be close to the resonant frequency which is to be damped. The time constant τ can sometimes

be used to compensate for time lags in the system, or to adjust the phase of the response.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 75

6.5 Conclusions

The overall objective of the controller is to maximize energy production, whilst working within actua-

tor operational limits and minimizing the extreme loads and associated fatigue damage on the turbine

structure and drive-train — a disturbance rejection task. Within this framework the designed con-

trollers have the following measurements available

(i) the instantaneous power, P

e

= Γ

g

ω

g

, and

(ii) the generator speed, ω

g

.

The sensor dynamics can be assumed negligible, as is measurement noise. Note that the effective

wind speed, v

w

, cannot be measured. Additionally, the controllers are able to adjust these manipula-

ble variables:

(i) the blade pitch angle, and

(ii) the generator reaction torque.

In the case of grid faults the controllability of the WECS embraces both the control for preventing

rotor overspeed, and the control and protection of the power converter during and after the grid faults.

Several advanced controllers are proposed in the sequel whose commonality is full-state feedback

with state estimation and/or prediction. The greatest advantage of these paradigms over PID control

is the fact that they are multiobjective, hence can incorporate multiple inputs and multiple outputs.

Issues such as reducing shaft fatigue could be easily included in the control objectives. However, in

order to convince industry to shift toward more sophisticated controllers, it is necessary to compare

their functionality with PID controllers. Against the limitations of PID control, the aim is to establish,

through systematic design methods, that these elaborate controllers offer greater beneﬁt in form of

robustness, efﬁciency, and eventual reduction in cost of energy.

Of the analyzed multiobjective, multivariable controllers, no scheme is clearly favored against the

others; the various paradigms are being tested and evaluated with respect to the classical PID con-

troller. The design and development of the various multiobjective control paradigms is undertaken in

the time domain, based on modeling the WECS components as discrete systems. Although the fre-

quency domain approach has the advantage that it provides for a very rapid analysis of wind turbine

loading, it suffers from the disadvantage that it cannot take account of system non-linearities associ-

ated, for example, with the rotor aerodynamics, structural dynamics and/or control system dynamics.

For this reason in particular, the frequency domain approach is generally not utilized as the basis of

ﬁnal, detailed wind turbine design calculations. The method is, nevertheless, of some value in the

very early stages of wind turbine design for optimization studies.

CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 76

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[4] R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, “Flexible control of small wind turbines with grid failure detec-

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32, no. 14, pp. 2407-2423, 2007.

[8] W. E. Leithead, S. de La Salle, and O. Reardon, “Role and objectives of control of wind turbines,”

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[10] E. S. Abdin, and W. Xu, “Control design and dynamic performance analysis of a wind turbine-

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CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 77

[11] I. Munteanu, N. A. Cutululis, A. I. Bratcu, and E. Ce˘anga, “Optimization of variable speed wind

power systems based on a LQG approach,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 13, pp. 903-912,

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[12] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, and T. Funabashi, “Robust predictive control

of variable speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator,” 2007 IEEE Power Engineering

Society General Meeting, 24-28 June, 2007, pp. 1-8.doi:10.1109/PES.2007.385885.

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dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty

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[17] E. Gallestey, A. Stothert, M. Antoine, and S. Morton, “Model predictive control and the opti-

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Chapter 7

Full-State Feedback Digital Control by LQG

7.1 Introduction

Meeting the world’s growing demand for energy is a challenge that requires heavy investment in

power sources that minimize related impacts on the environment. Renewables, particularly wind

power, have an important part to play in widening the diversity of the energy mix. However, with high

wind penetration levels, the need for grid operators to quickly assess the impacts of the wind gener-

ation on system stability has become critical. With regard to power production, industry has been

shifting toward variable speed WECSs as they encounter lower mechanical stress, less power ﬂuc-

tuations, and provide 10–15% higher energy output compared with constant speed operation [1],[2].

However, variable speed WECs present nonlinear dynamic behavior and lightly damped resonant

modes. When the frequency range of the disturbances matches one of the resonant modes, the life of

the turbine components is reduced, and the generated power quality is deteriorated [3].

A sophisticated control strategy incorporating a standard baseline controller and the LQG — a

multi-objective, full state feedback with state estimation scheme — for generator torque control is

proposed to meet the following objectives:

1. Ensure operation geared toward optimal power conversion

2. Ensure system reliability by enhancing reduction of stresses on the drive-train; achieved by

regulating large torque variations at the shaft to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems.

In the above rated wind speeds, the LQG’s main purpose is to add damping to the drive-train, thereby

minimizing cyclic fatigue, while a pitch control mechanism prevents rotor overspeed thus ensuring

the maximum power constraint is respected. However, the power generated may change rapidly

due to continuous ﬂuctuation of wind speed and direction: the baseline controller tracks wind speed

variations with the target of optimizing aerodynamic efﬁciency during below rated wind speed events.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 79

The ﬁrt part of this chapter explores the LQG [4],[5] as a control scheme for WECS. The acronym

refers to Linear Quadratic Guassian — Linear systems with Quadratic performance criteria that in-

clude Gaussian white noise in the LQ paradigm. By including Gaussian white noise in the LQ

paradigm linear optimal feedback systems based on output feedback rather than state feedback may

be found. LQG design methods convert control system design problems to an optimization problem

with quadratic time-domain performance criteria. Disturbances and measurement noise are modeled

as stochastic processes. MIMO problems can be handled almost as easily as SISO problems. Several

studies have shown the efﬁcacy of LQG in WECS control [6]-[10]. A practical implementation is

reported by Lescher et al. [11], where the LQG is incorporated in intelligent micro-sensors placed on

the wind turbine blades and tower to monitor fatigue loads during above rated wind speed operation.

The second part of this chapter proposes a hybrid control paradigm, as developed in [12],[13], to

ensure maximum power capture and regulation of shaft load variations via generator torque control.

The neurocontroller (NC) is introduced to work in tandem with the LQG since the turbine system is

dynamically nonlinear. The scheme takes advantage of the qualities of the NC, made up of an artiﬁcial

neural network (ANN). The basis for including the NC is inﬂuenced by two properties of ANNs:

1. Computational speed, and

2. Ability to learn and generalize even in cases where full information for the problem at hand

is absent [14].

With either control strategy, the main control objective is the regulation of turbine speed. Other

objectives include maintaining stable closed-loop behavior as well as enhancement of damping in

various ﬂexible modes of the turbine. Overall, the designed control scheme should achieve a trade-off

between two contradictory demands:

• maximization of energy capture from the wind by operating at the optimum power coefﬁcient

• alleviation of mechanical dynamical loads due to very lightly damped resonant modes of the

system [15].

The controller utilizes feedback from just one output variable, generator speed, to achieve stability,

performance, and robustness. State estimation is employed in modeling the unknown states to attain

full-state feedback, a process undertaken by a Kalman ﬁlter [16]-[18]. The WECS is dynamically

nonlinear; to aid in the design synthesis of the controllers and gain insight into approximate behavior

of the WECS, the system has to be linearized as explained in Section 2.3. Once this is established,

the generator torque line can be controlled by the LQG (or hybrid), and the generator loading of the

WECS made to follow the desired optimum shaft power locus.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 80

Gener at or

Tur bine r ot or

J

t

J

g

J

1

J

2

Γ

g

Γ

t Γ

1

Γ

2

ω

g

ω

t

ω

1

ω

2

D

g

D

t

K

t

K

g

K

gr

ω

J

K

D

J

t

g

θ

t g

ω

t

g

N

gr

e

(a) 3-inertia model (b) 2-inertia model

Figure 7.1: Dynamic drive-train equivalent system: rotating masses interlinked by a ﬂexible shaft.

7.2 State Development for the Power-train

Fig. 7.1 illustrates the multimass model of the drive-train, simpliﬁed to a spring-mass-damper me-

chanical representation. The moments of inertia of the shafts and the gearbox wheels can be neglected

when assumed to be small compared with either J

t

or J

g

. Thus there is justiﬁcation for model reduc-

tion prior to realizing a simpler LQG controller design: the McMillan degree

1

should be minimal

for practical implementation to avoid complex control laws. Further, external damping is assumed

negligible, and the moments of inertia of the shafts and the gearbox wheels can be neglected because

they are small compared with that of the wind turbine or generator. Therefore the resultant model is

essentially a two-mass system connected by a ﬂexible shaft of equivalent stiffness and damping factor

(Fig. 7.1(b)). Only the gearbox ratio has inﬂuence on the new equivalent system.

Generally, the drive-train modiﬁes the dynamics of the system because they include torsional

modes that relate to the aerodynamic rotor mass swinging with the induction generator mass through

the ﬂexible transmission shaft. In the event that a strong gust is experienced, the system would be

subjected to an instantaneous speed change, ∆ω

t

. The dynamics of the drive train are

J

t

dω

t

dt

= Γ

t

−Γ

d

(7.1)

J

g

dω

g

dt

= Γ

d

−Γ

g

. (7.2)

The low speed shaft torque, Γ

d

, acts as braking torque on the rotor; it results from the torsion and

friction effects due to the difference between ω

t

and ω

g

and may be modelled to represent the torsional

moments that relate to the cyclic twist of the shaft during operation

Γ

d

= K

e

(θ

t

−θ

g

) + D

( ˙ ω

t

− ˙ ω

g

) (7.3)

1

This is the model order, and refers to the dimension of the state vector.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 81

where D represents the damping index and K

e

is the equivalent shaft compliance, given by

1

K

e

=

1

K

t

/N

2

gr

+

1

K

g

(7.4)

and further, from (7.3) and Fig. 7.1(b),

θ

tg

= (θ

t

−θ

g

),

dθ

t

dt

= ω

t

, and

dθ

g

dt

= ω

g

(7.5)

where θ

t

, θ

g

are the angular positions of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides. In the analysis, Γ

d

is the torsional torque experienced by the ﬂexible shaft that couples the two rotating inertias.

The linearized model locally valid around the OP may be developed on an equivalent mathematical

state-space representation of the form

˙ x = A

i

∆x + B∆u + B

w

ξ

y = Cx (7.6)

where x ∈ 1

N

is a vector consisting of the system states, u ∈ 1

M

represents the command signals,

ξ(≡ m

w

) ∈ 1

O

is the disturbance input vector, A ∈ 1

N×N

is the systemmatrix while the inputs affect

the state dynamics through the control input gain distribution matrix B ∈ 1

N×M

, and B

w

∈ 1

N×O

is

the disturbance input matrix. The output variable y ∈ 1

P

, which is the measured output (generator

speed), is constructed from the states and the inputs through matrix C ∈ 1

P×N

. Model orders are

deﬁned in ¦M, N, O, P¦. Note that friction of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides is implied in

D, since the elasticity and damping elements between the adjacent inertias correspond to the low- and

high-speed shaft elasticities and internal friction, respectively. The vector x ∈ 1

N

in (7.6) consists of

the system states deﬁned respectively as follows:

x

1

is the perturbed turbine rotor speed, ∆ω

t

x

2

is the perturbed generator speed, ∆ω

g

x

3

is the perturbed shaft torsional torque, ∆Γ

d

x

4

is the perturbed actuator pitch rate, ∆β, and

x

5

is the wind disturbance over the rotor disk, ∆v

w

.

The states x

1

–x

5

are obtained from (7.1), (7.2), (7.3), (6.1), and (5.5) respectively. For each t ≥ 0 the

state x(t) and input u(t) are dimensional vectors. The output y(t) is the controlled output. The signal

ξ models the wind disturbances on the plant, and is a vector-valued Gaussian white noise process.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 82

Turbine

dynamics

Correction

Cost function

J =x Px + u Qu

Optimal

state

feedback

T T

State estimator

u(k)

x(k)

x’(k) x(k-1)

u(k-1)

y’(k-1)

y(k-1)

Figure 7.2: Schematic of the proposed LQG controller with state estimator.

7.3 LQG Controller Design

7.3.1 State Estimation and LQG Design

Fig. 7.2 is a schematic of the proposed control paradigm. Unknown states are determined from just

one measured variable — generator speed. In the ﬁgure, y

**represents the predicted measurements
**

and x

**the predicted states. By estimating the aerodynamic torque, Γ
**

t

, from v

w

, ω

ref

and β by the

relation in (2.17), the state estimator makes a one-step-ahead prediction of the states, and a correction

updates the state estimates, taking into account the prediction error. Thus

x

k+1

= x

k+1

+ M(y

k

−y

k

) (7.7)

where, assuming the stochastic disturbances acting on the system are Gaussian, the matrix M is

computed from the system dynamics and the disturbances, subject to minimization of the expected

sum of squares of the prediction error, (y

k

−y

k

).

The initial state x(0) is assumed to be a random vector. At any time t the entire past measurement

signal y(s), s ≤ t, is assumed to be available for feedback. The system states are generated using

the estimated aerodynamic torque, Γ

t

in (2.17) with respective aerodynamic coefﬁcients k

ω

, k

v

, k

β

in

(2.19)–(2.21). With generator speed being the only measurement, C = (0 1 0 0 0) in (7.6), thus the

state-space mathematical equivalent becomes

˙ ω

t

˙ ω

g

˙

Γ

d

˙

β

˙ v

w

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

kω

Jt

0 −

1

Jt

k

β

Jt

kv

Jt

0 0

1

Jg

0 0

K

e

+

Dkω

Jt

−K

e

−(

D

Jt

+

D

Jg

)

Dk

β

Jt

Dkv

Jt

0 0 0 −

1

τ

β

0

0 0 0 0 −

1

τw

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ω

t

ω

g

Γ

d

β

v

w

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+

0 0

−

1

Jg

0

Ke

Jg

0

0 −

1

τ

β

0 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Γ

g,ref

β

cmd

¸

+

0

0

0

0

−

1

τw

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ξ

**CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 83
**

So, why the LQG?

Generally, control that optimizes energy by tracking λ

opt

(as formulated in (6.6) and (6.7)) at high

frequency can be undesirable

a) torque ﬂuctuations that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control attempts to

follow the wind would induce sudden variations of rotor speed and thus high mechanical loads

on the drive train

b) the converter in the variable speed turbine neither adds inherent damping to the power system,

nor is the turbine speed inherently damped by the power system.

To address these issues, the proposed LQG seeks the gain that maximizes power capture regardless of

whether this gain corresponds to the maximum of the power curve for the WECS. The LQG, designed

using the state-space model, takes into account stochastic properties of the system disturbances. The

problem of controlling the system is the stochastic linear regulator problem, and the target is to

control the WECS plant from any initial state x(0) such that the output y(≡ ω

g

) is regulated to the

desired value as quickly as possible without making the input u(≡ Γ

g,ref

) unduly large. To this end,

the system is discretized and a performance index . introduced, with the following formulation:

. =

∞

0

E[x

T

Qx(t) + u

T

(t)Ru(t)]dt ≈

∞

¸

t=0

x(t)

T

Qx(t) + Γ

T

g,ref

(t)RΓ

g,ref

(t)

(7.8)

where Q and R are symmetric weighting matrices, that is, Q = Q

T

and R = R

T

. The LQG is

synthesized for each linearization point S

i

(x

i

; u

i

), composed by the state estimator for linear system

state vector estimation ∆x

= (x

−x

i

) and by state feedback ∆u

= G∆x

**. Static state feedback G
**

is calculated in order to minimize the quadratic function . depending on control objectives, which

are dependent on operating zone:

I. when (v

w

≤ v

r

), the system has to operate at λ = λ

opt

to extract the maximum of energy

. =

∞

¸

t=0

q

1

∆

¯

λ(t)

2

+ q

2

∆

¯

Γ

d

(t)

2

+ r∆Γ

g,ref

(t)

2

(7.9)

where ∆λ(t) = λ(t) −λ

opt

and ∆Γ

d

(t) = Γ

d

(t) −Γ

d,i

.

II. when (v

w

> v

r

), the produced electric power has to be regulated to its nominal value

. =

∞

¸

t=0

q

1

∆

¯

P

e

(t)

2

+ q

2

∆

¯

Γ

d

(t)

2

+ r

1

∆Γ

g,ref

(t)

2

+ r

2

∆β

cmd

(t)

2

. (7.10)

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 84

7.3.2 Choice of Weighting Matrices for LQG Cost Function, .

Often it is adequate to let the two matrices simply be diagonal. The two terms, x

T

(t)Qx(t) and

Γ

T

g,ref

(t)RΓ

g,ref

(t), are quadratic forms in the components of the output, ω

g

, and the input signal,

Γ

g,ref

, respectively. The ﬁrst term in the integral criterion (7.8) measures the accumulated deviation

of the states from their references. The second term measures the accumulated amplitude of the

control input. It is most sensible to choose the weighting matrices Q and R such that the two terms

are nonnegative, that is, to take Q and R nonnegative-deﬁnite

2

. If the matrices are diagonal then

this means that their diagonal entries should be nonnegative. The cost function, ., has no physical

signiﬁcance; it provides a means to trade-off opposing objectives: state regulation versus control

usage.

The choice of the weighting matrices Q and R is a trade-off between control performance (Q

large) and low input energy (R large). Increasing both Q and R by the same factor leaves the optimal

solution invariant. Thus, only relative values are relevant. The Q and R parameters generally need to

be tuned until satisfactory behavior is obtained. An initial guess is to choose both Q and R diagonal

Q

=

Q

1

0 0 0 0

0 Q

2

0 0 0

0 0 Q

3

0 0

0 0 0 Q

4

0

0 0 0 0 Q

5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(7.11)

R

=

R

1

0

0 R

2

¸

¸

(7.12)

where Q and R have positive diagonal entries such that

Q

i

=

1

y

max

i

, i = 1, 2, , m ;

R

i

=

1

u

max

i

, i = 1, 2, , k (7.13)

where the number y

max

i

denotes the maximally acceptable deviation value for the ith component of

the output y. The other quantity u

max

i

has a similar meaning for the ith component of the input u.

Starting with this initial guess the values of the diagonal entries of Q and R may be adjusted by

systematic trial and error.

2

An n n symmetric matrix R is nonnegative-deﬁnite if x

T

Rx ≥ 0 for every n-dimensional vector x. R is positive-

deﬁnite if x

T

Rx > 0 for all nonzero x.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 85

7.3.3 Solution of the Stochastic Linear Regulator Problem

The stochastic linear regulator problem consists of minimizing . for the system in (7.6). For the case

when there is no state noise (ξ = 0) and the state x(t) may be directly and accurately accessed for

measurement, then for T →∞the performance index is minimized by the state feedback law

Γ

g,ref

(t) = −Gx(t) (7.14)

with the G being the k n state feedback gain matrix (k=1, n=5), given by

G = R

−1

B

T

X (7.15)

and the matrix X is the nonnegative-deﬁnite solution of the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) [19],[20]

A

T

X + XA+ D

T

QD −XBR

−1

B

T

X = 0. (7.16)

However, for the WECS under consideration, white noise disturbance ξ is present, but some of

the states cannot be accessed for measurement, but may be optimally estimated with the help of the

Kalman ﬁlter. Then the solution of the stochastic linear regulator problem with output feedback

(rather than state feedback) is to replace the state x(t) in the state feedback law (7.14) with the

estimated state ˆ x(t). Thus, the optimal controller is given by

˙

ˆ x = Aˆ x(t) + BΓ

g,ref

(t) + K

ω

g

(t) −Cˆ x(t)

Γ

g,ref

(t) = −Gˆ x(t). (7.17)

The controller minimizes the steady-state mean square error

lim

T→∞

E

ω

T

g

(t)Qω

g

(t) + Γ

T

g,ref

(t)RΓ

g,ref

(t)

(7.18)

under output feedback. The signal ˆ x is meant to be an estimate of the state x(t). It satisﬁes the

state differential equation of the system (7.6) with an additional input term K

ω

g

(t) − Cˆ x

on the

right-hand side. K is the observer gain matrix that needs to be suitably chosen. The observation error

ω

g

(t)−Cˆ x(t) is the difference between the actual measured output ω

g

(t) and the output ˆ ω

g

(t) = Cˆ x(t)

as reconstructed from the estimated state ˆ x(t). The extra input term K

ω

g

(t) − Cˆ x(t)

on the right-

hand side of (7.17) provides a correction that is active as soon as the observation error is nonzero.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 86

Observer

WECS

Plant

Gain

ω

Γ

x

_

g

g,ref

Figure 7.3: Observer based feedback control.

Figure 7.3 shows the arrangement of the closed-loop system. By certainty equivalence (using the

estimated state as if it were the actual state), state estimation is divorced from control input selection,

which in effect is the separation principle. The closed-loop system that results from interconnecting

the plant (7.6) with the compensator (7.17) is stable, and may be recognized as follows. By connecting

the observer

˙

ˆ x = Aˆ x(t) + BΓ

g,ref

(t) + K[ω

g

(t) −Cˆ x(t)], t ∈ 1 (7.19)

to the noisy system in (7.6), then differentiation of e(t) = ˆ x(t) − x(t) leads to the error differential

equation

˙ e(t) = (A−KC)e(t) −B

w

ξ(t), t ∈ 1. (7.20)

Substitution of u(t) = −Gˆ x(t) into ˙ x(t) = Ax(t)+Bu(t)+B

w

ξ(t) yields with the further substitution

ˆ x(t) = x(t) + e(t)

˙ x = (A −BG)x(t) −BGe(t) + B

w

ξ(t). (7.21)

Together with (7.20) then

˙ x(t)

˙ e(t)

¸

¸

=

A−BG −BG

0 A−KC

¸

¸

x(t)

e(t)

¸

¸

+

B

w

ξ(t)

−B

w

ξ(t)

¸

¸

(7.22)

The eigenvalues of this system are the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system. Inspection shows

that these eigenvalues consist of the eigenvalues of A − BG (the regulator poles) together with the

eigenvalues of A−KC (the observer poles). If the plant (7.6) has order n then the compensator also

has order n. Hence, there are 2n closed-loop poles.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 87

LQG

NC

+

+

u

LQ

u

NC

Augment ed syst em

GA

Dr ive-t r ain

damper

Dr ive-t r ain

dynamics

WECS

aer odynamics

Wind speed

model

Pit ch

cont r oller

β

cmd

Γ

g, r ef

Γ

t

ω

g

DT loads

Ot her loads

Plant

X

r ef

Input layer , I

Hidden layer , H

Out put layer , O

w

i j

∆ω

∆ω

∆ β

g

t

u

NC

∆Γ

d

w

j i

∆v

w

l

j

i

(a) Simulation block diagram for the hybrid control scheme (b) Feedforward ANN architecture

Figure 7.4: Hybrid control scheme illustrating the augmented LQG with NC.

7.4 Hybrid Controller Design

The main goals of the control system are to control the power interchange within the WECS system,

and accommodating the ﬂuctuations in wind speed for reliability, by controlling large torque varia-

tions at the shaft to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems. Instabilities would be obtained at high

wind speeds if the only controller utilized is a linear one. By introducing a hybrid control system

comprised by a LQG and a neurocontroller (NC) acting in tandem, the nonlinearities in the system

are handled by the latter. Fig. 7.4(a) shows the simulation block diagram. To ensure optimal operating

conditions, the hybrid controller effects minimization of errors between actual and reference states,

and outputs the generator torque command signal

Γ

g,ref

= u

LQ

+ u

NC

(7.23)

where u

LQ

is the control contribution by the LQG and u

NC

is the NC control component. GA denotes

the genetic algorithm procedure that serves to train the NC.

7.4.1 NC Architecture

In its formulation, the NC is constructed from artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) units — a radial-basis

feedforward neural network whose hidden layer is nonlinear whereas the output layer is linear. A

relatively compact design having a 4:5:1 conﬁguration is employed, and its architecture is shown in

Fig. 7.4(b). Deﬁning u

i

(k) and I

I

i

(k) as input and output of the ith input neuron at time k, H

I

j

(k)

as output of the jth neuron of the hidden layer at time k, O

I

l

(k) as output of the lth neuron of the

output layer at time k, f(x) as the activation function, and w

(1)

ji

, w

(2)

j

, w

(3)

lj

as the connection weights

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 88

from the input layer to the hidden layer, between hidden layers and from hidden layer to output layer

respectively, the structure of the 3-layered recurrent NN has the following mathematical description:

Input layer : I

I

i

(K) = u

i

(K), i = 1, 2, ..., n

I

I

(7.24)

Hidden layer : H

I

j

(k) = f

¸

n

I

I

¸

i=1

w

(1)

ji

u

i

(k) + w

(2)

j

H

I

j

(k −1)

, j = 1, 2, ..., n

I

H

(7.25)

Output layer : O

I

l

(k) =

n

I

H

¸

j=1

w

(3)

lj

H

I

j

(k), l = 1, 2, ..., n

I

O

(7.26)

First Layer

Consists of input nodes. Each neuron model receives 5 inputs: ∆ω

t

, ∆ω

g

, ∆Γ

d

, ∆β, and ∆v

w

.

Associated with each input are scalar weights w

i

(i = 1, 2, ..., n) that multiply the inputs, x

i

.

Hidden layer

Composed of the kernel nodes whose effective range is determined by their center and width.

The argument of the activation function of each hidden unit computes the Euclidean distance

between the input vector and the center of that unit. The combined inputs from the ﬁrst layer

are fed into an activation function of the second layer that produces the output, y, of the neuron:

y = k

n

¸

i=1

w

i

x

i

+ b

(7.27)

where k is a logistic logarithmic function with sigmoidal nonlinearity, deﬁned by

f

j

(x

j

(n)) =

a

1 + e

−bx

j

(n)

, ¦for −∞< x

j

(n) < ∞, and b > 0¦ (7.28)

where x

j

(n) is the weighted sum of all synaptic inputs of neuron j, f

j

is the output of the neu-

ron, with the gain a set to 1.0 and b = 1.0, both chosen by trial and error. Such an asymmetric

activation function typically learns faster [14], and is differentiable everywhere.

Third layer

Consists of the output node that simply computes the weighted sum of the hidden node outputs.

It is a linear mapping

u

n

= φx

i

(7.29)

where φ = 0.1 and x is the input vector.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 89

7.4.2 NC Training

Training of the NC by the GA is undertaken during preprocessing. The weight vectors along the

interconnection paths between layers are determined with an algorithm so that the signals are scaled

down to the range of [0,1]. The real-coded GA ensures fast training with good representational

accuracy, thereby yielding the desired input-output mapping. The evaluation function, E, of the

NC represents the mean square errors between the WECS output and the reference values

E =

¸

i

Q

i

x(t) − ´ x(t)

2

(7.30)

where the factor Q

i

= 1.0, chosen by trial and error, denotes the weight associated with the squared

error function and adjusts the importance of the control variables, ´ x(t) is the actual output and x(t)

is the desired state variable. After the identiﬁer neural network is trained, outputs of the nonlinear

system are same as those of the NN when the plant is controlled. Adjustment of the connection

weights for training the NN is as follows:

w(k + 1) = w(k) −η(k)

∂E

I

(k)

∂w

+ α∆w(k) (7.31)

E

I

(k) =

1

2

n

I

O

¸

l=1

(x

1

(k) − ˆ x

l

(k))

2

(7.32)

∂E

I

(k)

∂w

(3)

lj

= −

n

I

O

¸

l=1

(x

l

(k) − ˆ x

l

(k))H

I

j

(k) (7.33)

∂E

I

(k)

∂w

(2)

j

= −

n

I

O

¸

l=1

(x

l

(k) − ˆ x

l

(k))w

(3)

lj

δ

j

(k) (7.34)

∂E

I

(k)

∂w

(1)

ji

= −

n

I

O

¸

l=1

(x

l

(k) − ˆ x

l

(k))w

(3)

lj

β

ji

(k) (7.35)

(7.36)

where w(k) and ∆w(k) are connection weights and change of connection weights at time k respec-

tively, η and α are learning rate and momentum factor. Further, δ

j

(0) = 0, and β

ji

(0) = 0, where

δ

j

(k) = f

¸

n

I

l

¸

i=1

w

(1)

ji

u

i

(k) + w

(2)

j

H

I

j

(k −1)

(H

I

j

(k −1) + w

(2)

j

δ

j

(k −1)) (7.37)

β

ji

(k) = f

¸

n

I

l

¸

i=1

w

(1)

ji

u

i

(k) + w

(2)

j

H

I

j

(k −1)

(u

i

(k) + w

(2)

j

β

ji

(k −1)). (7.38)

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 90

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

v

w

(

t

)

[

m

/

s

]

t [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Γ

t

[

p

u

]

t [s]

Γ

t

Γ

ˆ

t

(b) Bold line shows the actual aerodynamic torque Γ

t

while the dotted line represents the estimated value

ˆ

Γ

t

Figure 7.5: Aerodynamic torque tracking with the proposed hybrid scheme.

7.5 Simulation Results

7.5.1 Tracking Performance by Proposed Technique

Fig. 7.5(a) shows a wind proﬁle generated for a 42-second simulation. The prevailing mean wind

speed is 12.205 m/s under gusty conditions, with turbulence intensity of 19%. For the most part

v

w

> v

r

and the target for the LQG controller is to mitigate against torsional loading on the drive

train. Pitch control assures rated power.

The philosophy of LQG control is ability to estimate plant states so as to generate the command

signal necessary to compensate for parameter variations. This is the essence of turbine linearization

about an OP. Fig. 7.5(b) shows good tracking performance of the aerodynamic torque as estimated

by the Kalman ﬁlter. The apparent deviations from actual values may be explained as follows. The

controller is designed using one set of gains appropriate for a particular wind speed and blade pitch

angle. As the OP deviates from the design point of the WECS, the nonlinear aerodynamics of the

turbine cause the estimator to get less accurate. However, overall, the estimation of Γ

t

is achieved

with appreciably signiﬁcant precision.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 91

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

v

w

(

t

)

[

m

/

s

]

t [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed

0

5

10

15

20

25

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

T

S

R

,

P

i

t

c

h

a

n

g

l

e

t [s]

λ

β

(b) TSR (bold line) and pitch angle (dotted line)

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

c

P

t [s]

(c) Coefﬁcient of performance, c

P

(λ, β)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

P

o

w

e

r

,

[

p

u

]

t [s]

IG real power

Aerodynamic power

(d) IG real power (bold line) and aerodynamic power (dotted line) with the proposed method

Figure 7.6: Evolution of plant parameters for power conversion.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 92

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

v

w

(

t

)

[

m

/

s

]

t [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed

0.96

0.98

1

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

V

e

,

[

p

u

]

t [s]

Proposed method

LQG

(b) Bold line shows V

e

with the proposed hybrid controller while dotted line represents V

e

with LQG

Figure 7.7: Variation in phase voltage V

e

with either controller for the 42 s simulation.

7.5.2 Optimization of Power Output

It is observed from Fig. 7.6 that wind turbulence considerably affects the evolution of the various

power parameters. With the progression of the wind speed beyond the rated value, power conversion

has to be checked to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems, by systematically decrementing c

P

.

From Fig. 7.6(b) it is seen that pitch angle β rises in direct relation to the wind speed, since the

demanded pitch signal, β

cmd

, is large. This results in pitching the blades to regulate aerodynamic

conversion. Further, increase in wind speed results in a decrease in the TSR (λ ∝ 1/v

w

). Since both

the TSR and β determine the value of c

P

, the overall effect is that as wind speed increases, the power

coefﬁcient is lowered appropriately, thereby limiting harvested aerodynamic power (Fig. 7.6(c)). The

IG real power is maintained at a steady output (rated) value in wind speed regimes beyond nominal,

as seen in Fig. 7.6(d), by the action of the pitch controller.

It is noteworthy that above nominal wind speed, an initial mean wind speed value has to be given

for the simulations since there is no unique relation between wind speed and generated power. This

relates to the initialization procedure for above rated wind speed analysis.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 93

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

v

w

(

t

)

[

m

/

s

]

t [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Γ

g

,

c

m

d

,

[

p

u

]

t [s]

Proposed method

LQG

(b) Demanded generator torque command signal, Γ

g,ref

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Γ

d

[

p

u

]

t [s]

Proposed method

LQG

(c) Drive-train torque, Γ

d

.

Figure 7.8: Variation in torque parameters with either controller for the 42 s simulation. Bold and

dotted lines represent quantities under the proposed hybrid controller and LQG, respectively.

The phase voltage response is shown in Fig. 7.7(b). Though both controllers achieve steady V

e

over the simulation period, it is seen that in instances when v

w

< v

r

e.g. at 3.2 s from beginning of

simulation, the system is destabilized somewhat, and the LQG takes longer to regain stability (large

V

e

ﬂuctuations for longer). This is an instance of voltage recovery after a transient fault.

As a whole it is seen that the proposed hybrid controller can enhance voltage transient stability of

the wind turbine generator during high turbulence when wind ﬂuctuations around v

m

are severe, and

maintain the output voltage and power at rated levels when wind speed is over the rated speed.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 94

7.5.3 Minimization of Shaft Torsional Torque

At high wind speeds the generator torque serves only to add damping to the drive train thus should

be maintained at a fairly constant value to ensure rated power output. Fig. 7.8(b) shows that Γ

g,ref

is more steady with the proposed method relative to the LQG. This is attributable to the learning

and generalization-ability of the neural network in the NC system. By use of Γ

g,ref

both the speed

set-point and damping of excess aerodynamic torque are effected, alleviating undue loads on the

shaft. Fig. 7.8(c) depicts the torsional torque variations experienced by the ﬂexible shaft, with either

controller. It can be seen that the objective of ensuring the drive train is cushioned from severe torque

ﬂuctuations is attained more readily with the proposed hybrid controller.

7.6 Conclusion

The control objective aims to robustly stabilize the system while maintaining good disturbance atten-

uation and small tracking error despite actuator saturation. More speciﬁcally, the requirement is to

design a controller to trade-off minimizing the control usage due to the penalty thereof, deﬁned in

the cost function, while also reducing the deviations from reference input ω

g,ref

i.e., tracking error e

(tracking performance). This involves disturbance attenuation to guarantee robust stability.

In this chapter a sophisticated control strategy is presented to compensate for the complicated ef-

fects of a stochastic operating environment and nonlinearities inherent in WECS dynamics that cause

parametric uncertainties. To meet the objectives, the approach involves designing an adaptive con-

troller and applying it to a performability model. The essence of the NC is to handle the nonlinearities

in the system and alleviate part of the control load on the LQG. Pitch control determines the power

coefﬁcient, while the generator torque command is used to compensate for variations in parameters.

Inﬂuence of the torsional dynamics on the grid through delivered active power is eliminated by

using the generator torque command to achieve damping. The energy required to regulate these

variations is exchanged with the turbine hub rather than the grid. Comparisons are made between the

proposed controller and the LQG with regard to robustness to the evolution of plant parameters with

changing operating conditions. By utilizing either control scheme, a trade-off is imposed between the

contradictory objectives of maximizing energy capture from the wind and minimizing both the stress

on the mechanical parts of the WECS and power ﬂuctuations in the grid. Though both the LQG and

the proposed hybrid controller show good conversion performance and robustness, simulation results

validate the effectiveness of the latter scheme in satisfying both objectives relative to the former.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 95

References

[1] Q. Wang, and L. Chang, “An intelligent maximum power extraction algorithm for inverter-based

variable speed wind turbine systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1242-

1249, 2004.

[2] K. Tan, and S. Islam, “Optimum control strategies in energy conversion of PMSG wind turbine

system without mechanical sensors,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 392-399,

June 2004.

[3] P. Novak, T. Ekelund, J. Jovik and B. Schmidtbauer, “Modeling and control of variable-speed

wind turbine drive system dynamics,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 28-38,

1995.

[4] J. M. Maciejowski, Multivariable Feedback Design, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishers

Limited, 1990.

[5] J. C. Doyle, and G. Stein, “Multivariable feedback design: concepts for a classical/modern syn-

thesis,” IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. AC-26, pp. 4-16, Feb. 1981.

[6] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Gain scheduling

control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading,” Renewable Energy,

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[7] A. Ben-Abdennour, K. Y. Lee, and R. M. Edwards, “Multivariable robust control of a power plant

generator,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 123-129, 1993.

[8] E. S. Abdin, and W. Xu, “Control design and dynamic performance analysis of a wind turbine

induction generator unit,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 91-96, 2000.

[9] C. Y. Kuo, C. L. Yang, and C. Margolin, “Optimal controller design for nonlinear systems,” IEE

Proc. Control Theory and Applications, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 97-105, 1998.

[10] I. Munteanu, N. A. Cutululis, A. I. Bratcu, and E. Ceanga, “Optimization of variable speed wind

power systems based on a LQG approach,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 13, pp. 903-912,

2005.

[11] F. Lescher, H. Camblong, R. Briand, and R. O. Curea, “Alleviation of wind turbines loads with

a LQG controller associated to intelligent micro sensors,” Presented at the IEEE International

Conference on Industrial Technology, 15-17 Dec. 2006. doi:10.1109/ICIT.2006.372245.

CHAPTER 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 96

[12] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Regulation of WTG

dynamic response to parameter variations of analytic wind stochasticity,” Wind Energy,

doi:10.1002/we.236. 2007.

[13] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Augmented LQG controller

for enhancement of online dynamic performance for WTG system,” Renewable Energy,

doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.001.

[14] S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, 1999.

ISBN:978-0132733502.

[15] T. Petru, and T. Thiringer, “Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies,” IEEE Trans.

Power Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1132-1139, 2002.

[16] R. E. Kalman, “A new approach to linear ﬁltering and prediction problems,” ASME Trans. Jour-

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[17] Z. Xin-Fang, X. Da-Ping, and L. Yi-Bing, “Adaptive optimal fuzzy control for variable speed

pitch wind turbines,” 5

th

World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, WCICA 2004,

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[18] L. Shuhui, D. C. Wunsch, E. O’Hair, and M. G. Giesselmann, “Wind turbine power es-

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[20] S. Boyd, and C. Barratt, Linear Controller Design: Limits of Performance, Prentice-Hall, 1991.

ISBN-13:978-0135386873.

Chapter 8

Predictive Control I: STR

8.1 Introduction

R

ENEWABLE energy systems that take advantage of energy sources that will not diminish over

time and are independent of ﬂuctuations in price and availability are playing an ever-increasing

role in modern power systems. Low cost, plentiful, clean, and, in all other respects, “green” — these

words describe wind power in a nutshell. To ensure smooth integration of the wind power into the grid,

modern control techniques for WECS have become a prerequisite, often centred around various types

of self-tuning control. Such adaptive control interfaces include Minimum Variance Control (MVC)

[1]-[4], Generalized Minimum Variance (GMV) [3],[5]-[8], Pole Assignment (PA) [5],[9],[10], and

optimal predictors [11]. MVC generally gives very lively control and can be highly sensitive to

nonminimum phase plants. GMV, albeit more robust and generalized, is vulnerable to unknown or

varying plant dead time and can have difﬁculty with dc offsets. PA aims to locate the closed-loop

poles of the system at pre-speciﬁed locations leading to ‘smooth’ controllers, but the algorithm can

show numerical sensitivity when the plant model is overparameterized. In this Chapter a self-tuning

algorithm based on principles of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) [12] has been selected.

One of the most commonly used and well studied adaptive controllers is the Self-tuning regulator

(STR) [13]–[15]. STRs consist of two parts: an estimator and a control law, which are usually invoked

at every sample period. The most commonly used estimator in STR is recursive least-squares (RLS)

[16],[17]. The purpose of this estimator is to dynamically estimate a model of the system relating the

measured metrics with the actuation. The control law will then, based on this model, set the actuators

such that the desired performance is achieved. The ability of the controller to achieve the performance

goals is explicitly tied to how well the model represents the system at that instant. Use of STR for the

adaptive control of WECSs has been shown to offer considerable promise [18]–[20].

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 98

The development of a control system involves many tasks such as modeling, design of the control

law, implementation, and validation. The STR attempts to automate several of these tasks. In the

proposed paradigm, control is exercised through the STR that incorporates a recursive least squares

(RLS) algorithm to predict the process parameters and update the states. The STR design is carried

out as a nonlinear stochastic problem and is incorporated into the dynamical system, where the struc-

ture comes from tracking error. Variations in parameters are identiﬁed by a Kalman ﬁlter and their

inﬂuence is compensated by generating a control signal to minimize output error. A gradient-based

tuning algorithm guarantees the boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals. Motivation for the

choice of STR is attributable to advances in microcomputer technology that has made more sophis-

ticated algorithms feasible. The STR has been selected for control of generator torque of the WECS

for these practical reasons:

1) Capability: can control difﬁcult systems such as wind turbines without special adjustments.

2) Multi-step prediction: control signal can be inﬂuenced by future system output bounds, giving

robustness.

3) Tuning knobs: enable customized performance and give ﬂexibility.

4) Future target reference: adjustable setting to enhance control during scheduled changes.

5) Versatility: simple or complex controller structure as necessary.

The RLS is one of the most widely used estimation algorithms in adaptive controllers due to its

robustness against noise, and its proven convergence speed — factors elemental in effecting stability

of the whole control loop. In its implementation, on-line recursive parameter estimation is employed

to evaluate the time-varying or unknown parameters of a discrete time model of the WECS. Changes

in the system dynamics are slow and the estimator should be and is able to track parameter variations

well. Any concerns over the STR controller ranging too far can be met in the software by imposing

limits or ‘jacketing’ the control.

Below rated wind speeds, operation is executed on a trajectory that guarantees optimal energy

conversion, by reference tracking. To prevent large torque and power peaks during high wind speeds,

the turbine speed is regulated by the action of a pitch controller. In this case the output of the STR,

Γ

g,ref

, is used to add damping to the drive train torsional modes. In performing generator torque

control, the scheme dictates the reference generator speed, which is a function of wind speed: below

rated wind speed the reference generator speed is proportional to the wind speed, above, it is constant

at rated value.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 99

Opt imum

char act er ist ic

P

r ef

ω

r ef

Γ

g,r ef

ω

g

+

_

Tor que t o

cur r ent

t r anslat ion

i

r q,r ef

+

_

i

r q

Rot or

inject ed

volt age

u

r q

K +

pv

s

K

iv

PI

K +

pt

s

K

it

STR

Figure 8.1: Choice of STR or PI for generator torque control.

8.2 WECS Multi-objective Control Concept

To achieve rotor speed and current control, the rotor side converter operates in a stator-ﬂux oriented

reference frame and executes control via the generator torque controller consisting of a cascade speed

and torque control-loop, as shown in Fig. 8.1. In the simulations, generator torque control command,

Γ

g,ref

, is generated by the STR controller. Its performance in meeting the objectives of optimizing

power conversion and alleviating power train loads is gauged against that of a PI set up in the same

fashion. The inner loop is the torque control that compares the electric torque and the output signal

from the speed controller. The speed controller compares the actual rotor speed and the reference

rotor speed. The output signal from the cascade controllers is the q-axis rotor current. The d-,q-axis

rotor currents are transformed to 3-phase currents prior to being applied to the rotor side converter.

Current Control

The reference stator current is calculated from the reference torque, Γ

g,ref

, and is regulated by

applying both d- and q-components; the reference values for the rotor current are calculated as

i

rq,ref

= Γ

g,ref

ω

0

U

s

. (8.1)

Generator Torque Control

The output of the generator torque controller, Γ

g,ref

, is used in determining the current in (8.1).

This is accomplished by either control:

I. PI controller — the PI regulator in Fig. 8.1 gives the relationship between the input, ∆ω

g

, and

the output, Γ

g,ref

Γ

g,ref

= K

pt

∆ω

g

+ K

it

t

0

∆ω

g

dt. (8.2)

where the proportional and integral gains are K

pt

= 500 Nms/rad, and K

it

= 250 Nm/rad.

II. STR — this is explained in Section 8.3.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 100

WGS

plant

Opt imal t r acking

cont r oller design

RLS model

Est imat or

Syst em

r esponse

Cont r oller

par amet er s

Plant par amet er s, θ(k) Design specificat ions

Cont r ol signal

SELF-TUNING REGULATOR

Cont r ol

law

ω (k)

g Γ (k)

g,ref

Tar get /Refer ence

set t ing

_

+

Figure 8.2: Self-tuning regulator block diagram.

8.3 STR Design and Implementation

Fig. 8.1 shows the STR — a type of adaptive control system composed of two parts: an estimator

and a control law. These constitute two loops that are executed to yield a generator torque command

signal for stabilizing the WECS during operation under high turbulent inﬂow, viz.

• an outer loop composed of a recursive parameter estimator and design calculations that adjusts

the parameters of the controller, and

• an inner loop that consists of the WECS plant and an ordinary linear feedback controller.

An indirect adaptive algorithm is utilized for the overall execution of the WECS control in two steps:

1. estimate plant model parameters

2. update controller parameters as if estimates were correct (The Certainty Equivalence Principle)

1

.

Out of the several possible parameter estimation techniques, the RLS algorithm is selected to perform

the above tasks; additionally, of the several possible controller design methods, a LQ tracking optimal

control using state space models, is adopted.

For the STR control, LQ tracking optimal control design employs the RLS algorithm based on

an equivalent non-minimal state space realization of the WECS model as prior developed in Part I.

Simulations assume the complete dynamic model is set on an equivalent mathematical state-space

representation as ˙ x(k) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + B

v

w(k) and ω

g

(k) = Cx(k). Note that the state vector

at time k is simply formed using past values of the input variables. No state observer is required.

In contrast, if minimal state space realizations are used, then a state observer is usually required.

Development and execution of the RLS algorithm and the control law are presented in Sections 8.3.1

and 8.3.2, respectively.

1

The outcome of even an ideal measurement of a system is not deterministic, but instead is characterized by a prob-

ability distribution, and the larger the associated standard deviation is, the more “uncertain” that characteristic is for the

system — The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) in quantum physics.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 101

8.3.1 Outer Loop: Parameter Estimation

The following notation is used in Fig. 8.1 for the least-squares estimation: Γ

g,ref

(k) is the vector of

the M

th

actuator setting during sampling interval k, where

Γ

g,ref

(k) = [Γ

g,ref

1

(k), Γ

g,ref

2

(k) , Γ

g,ref

N

]

T

(8.3)

and ω

g

(k) is the vector of the performance measurements of the N workloads, measured at the begin-

ning of interval k

ω

g

(k) = [ω

g,1

(k), ω

g,2

(k), , ω

g,M

]

T

. (8.4)

The relationship between ω

g

(k) and Γ

g,ref

can be described by the following MIMO model:

ω

g

(k) =

N

¸

i=1

A

i

ω

g

(k −1) +

N

¸

i=1

B

j

Γ

g,ref

(k −1). (8.5)

Note that A

i

∈ 1

N×N

, B

j

∈ 1

N×M

, 0 < i ≤ n, 0 < j ≤ n, and ¦n = 8¦ ∈ N is the order of the

model. This linear model is chosen for tractability since the relationship will indeed, in all but the

most trivial cases, be nonlinear. However, it is a good local approximation of the nonlinear function

and ample enough for the controller since it only makes small changes to the actuator settings. The

plant model (8.5) can be written explicitly as

ω

g

(k) = −a

1

ω

g

(k −1) −a

2

ω

g

(k −2) − −a

n

ω

g

(k −n)

+ b

0

Γ

g,ref

(k −d

0

) + + Γ

g,ref

(k −d

0

−m). (8.6)

where ¦m = 8¦ ∈ N is a system model order and d

0

= 1 is the dead time. For notational conve-

nience, the system model may take the following form, noting that this process is linear in the plant

parameters:

ω

g

(k) = ϕ

T

(k −1)θ(k −1) (8.7)

where

ϕ

T

(k −1) =

−ω

g

(k −1), , −ω

g

(k −n), Γ

g,ref

(k −n), , Γ

g,ref

(k −d

0

−m)

θ

T

=

a

1

, a

2

, , a

n

, b

0

, , b

m

**with ϕ(k) being the regression vector and θ(k) the parameter matrix.
**

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 102

The estimation block that utilizes the RLS algorithm is the heart of the STR. It recursively es-

timates the unknown process parameters for each measurement based on minimization of the least-

square error. The whole RLS algorithm involves the following matrix computations:

1) new data ω

g

(k) and ϕ(k) are acquired, and the prediction error vector, ε(k), is computed from

the old estimated parameter

ε(k) = ω

g

(k) −ϕ(k)

T

ˆ

θ(k −1) (8.8)

2) new parameter

ˆ

θ(k) is calculated

ˆ

θ(k) =

ˆ

θ(k −1) +

ϕ(k)

T

P(k −1)ε(k)

λ + ϕ(k)

T

P(k −1)ϕ(k)

(8.9)

3) data in the covariance matrix, P(k), is updated for the next sample

P(k) =

P(k −1)

λ

−

ϕ(k)

T

P(k −1)ϕ(k)P(k −1)

λ

1 + ϕ(k)

T

P(k −1)ϕ(k)

(8.10)

where

ˆ

θ(k) = [ˆ a

1

, ˆ a

2

, , ˆa

n

,

ˆ

b

0

, ,

ˆ

b

m

] is the estimated process parameter vector, ε(k) ∈ 1

N×1

is the

error in predicting the signal ω

g

(k) one step ahead based on the estimate

ˆ

θ(k), P(k) ∈ 1

NMn×NMn

is

the error covariance, k is an integer discrete time index, and λ is the forgetting factor: (0 < λ ≤ 1). A

high forgetting factor means that RLS remembers a lot of old data when it computes the new model.

Conversely, a low forgetting factor means that it largely ignores previous models and only focuses on

producing a model from the last few samples.

The intuition behind these equations is quite simple. (8.8) computes the error between the latest

performance measurements and the performance prediction (8.7) of the model. This is the RLS error,

ε(k). The model parameters are then adjusted in (8.9) according to the RLS error and another factor

dependent on the covariance matrix P computed in (8.10). P contains the covariances between all

the measurements and the actuators. The model

ˆ

θ is then used by the control law described in the next

section to set the actuators correctly.

The RLS algorithm enables the adaptive ﬁlter to ﬁnd the ﬁlter coefﬁcients that relate to producing,

recursively, the least squares of the difference between the desired and actual signal. The beneﬁts of

using the RLS algorithm is that there is no need to invert extremely large matrices, thereby saving

computation time, and that through it some intuition behind such results as the Kalman ﬁlter is gained.

Note that the recursion for P follows a Riccati equation and thus draws parallels to the Kalman ﬁlter.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 103

In practice, implementation of plain RLS algorithms may lead to numerical problems, and a fac-

torization of the covariance matrix should be considered to overcome this drawback. In calculating

the parameter estimates, the stability of the RLS method is improved by means of LD decomposition

(L = lower triangular matrix; D = diag(d

1

, ..., d

n

)), while adaptation is supported by directional for-

getting [21]. Since the task of recursive identiﬁcation consists of searching for a parameter estimate

vector θ

T

(k) that minimizes the given criterion in (8.5), then the vector of the parameter estimates is

computed according to the square root version (LD decomposition) of the recursive relations

ˆ

θ(k) =

ˆ

θ(k −1) +

P(k −1)ϕ(k −1)

1 + ζ(k −1)

ˆ ε(k −1) (8.11)

where ζ is an auxiliary scalar in step k such that

ζ(k −1) = ϕ

T

(k −1)P(k −1)ϕ(k −1).

Case I: If ζ(k−1)>0, a rectangular covariance matrix is computed by the recurrent algorithm

P(k) = P(k −1) −

C(k −1)ϕ(k −1)ϕ

T

(k −1)P(k −1)

δ

−1

(k −1) + ζ(k −1)

(8.12)

where

δ(k −1) = λ(k) −

1 −λ(k)

ζ(k −1)

with the adaptive directional forgetting factor, λ(k), computed at each sampling period.

Case II: When ζ(k −1) = 0, then

P(k) = P(k −1). (8.13)

The most complex situation is in the continuous-time domain since the straight differentiation of

data must be avoided. The approach entails descretizing the continuous system to enable sampling

and digital control analysis, thus the k

th

sampling (or at time kT) represents a sample at the instant

t in the continuous system. Owing to the uniﬁed approach of the control synthesis, the same set of

control calculations can offer four types of control costs and two types of identiﬁed models. Each

self-tuner of a given structure has two main “knobs” — the ﬁrst is for model option (RLS applied to

a regression (ARX) model), the second selects the performance criterion (LQ in this case).

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 104

8.3.2 Inner Loop: Control Law, Γ

g,ref

The concept behind the RLS ﬁlter is to minimize a weighted least squares error function in the relation

between input and output ¦Γ

g,ref

(k), ω

g

(k)¦ for k = 1...N based on the prediction error ε(k); this

error function may be conceptualized as a performance index, PI()

PI(θ) =

1

N

N

¸

k=1

[ε(k)[

2

=

1

N

N

¸

k=1

ω

g

(k) −ϕ

T

(k)θ

2

. (8.14)

From (8.7), for θ

0

= (a

1

, , a

n

, b

0

, , b

m

)

T

then

PI(θ

0

) = 0, ∀ input, Γ

g,ref

(k). (8.15)

To stay within the adaptive ﬁlter terminology, this performance index is the Cost Function, .(k), that

evaluates the performance of the control unit, and the task of the recursive identiﬁcation consists of

searching for a parameter estimate vector

ˆ

θ

T

(k) that minimizes the criterion

.(θ) = ω

g

(k)

T

Qω

g

(k) +

Γ

g,ref

(k) −WΓ

g,ref

(k −1)

T

R

Γ

g,ref

(k) −WΓ

g,ref

(k −1)

(8.16)

where Q is the weighting on the output, and R, W are the weights associated with the control signal.

To minimize .(θ) along all possible trajectories of the system, a trade-off between control perfor-

mance (Q large) and low input energy (R large) is desirable. The weight parameters are tuned until

satisfactory behavior is obtained. As an initial guess, the two terms are chosen to be nonnegative-

deﬁnite, and their values adjusted by systematic trial and error.

The proposed performance index also takes into account the prevention of excessive control. Due

to the fact that the cost function is square in the parameter θ, then .(θ) ≥ 0 with only one minimum.

Because .(θ

0

) = 0, this minimum is θ = θ

0

. The implication is that for suitable excitation of the

system these parameters may be found by solution to the equations

∂

∂θ

.(θ) = 0 (8.17)

with respect to θ. This deﬁnes the control law that governs the plant:

Γ

g,ref

(k) = −

R+B

T

i

QB

i

¸

B

T

i

Q

¸

i=1

NA

i

ω

g

(k+1−i)+

¸

i=2

NB

i

(k+1−i)

−RWΓ

g,ref

(k−1)

¸

.

(8.18)

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 105

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

,

R

o

t

o

r

s

p

e

e

d

Time, t [s]

Wind speed (m/s)

Rotor speed (rpm)

(a) Nominal wind speed at hub position and rotor speed

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Γ

g

,

r

e

f

[

k

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(b) Demanded generator torque, Γ

g,ref

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2

2.1

2.2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

P

m

[

M

W

]

Time, t, [s]

(c) Shaft mechanical power

Figure 8.3: Evolution of control and controlled parameters.

8.4 Simulation Analysis

8.4.1 Control for Energy Extraction

Fig. 8.3(a) shows the generated wind speed signal, as well as variation in rotor speed for the 1-minute

simulation. Fig. 8.3(b) demonstrates, as expected, how the demanded generator torque is kept very

nearly constant at above rated wind speeds so as to provide damping to the drive train. For above

rated wind speeds the turbine operates at full load and the output electric power has to be regulated at

nominal generator power. The inverter controller holds the electrical power constant, thus the turbine

is prevented from following the c

P,opt

trajectory and constrained to operate at lower values of λ and

c

P

. The turbine rotational speed is maintained around nominal generator speed and β is controlled in

order to reduce c

P

(λ, β). Control is thus multivariable in this zone, because it acts on both generator

torque and pitch angle. It is observed from Fig. 8.3(c) that the mechanical power extracted from the

wind is successfully kept steady in cases of wind speeds above rated to guarantee the electric power

output is kept within the allowable ±5% of the WECS’s rating.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 106

8

10

12

14

16

18

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

,

v

w

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Nominal wind speed at hub position, v

m

=12.205 m/s

11.0012

11.0013

11.0014

11.0015

11.0016

11.0017

11.0018

11.0019

11.002

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

k

V

]

Time, t, [s]

(b) Line voltage (rms)

70

80

90

100

110

120

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

[

A

]

Time, t, [s]

(c) WECS current

150

200

250

300

350

400

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

p

o

w

e

r

,

[

V

A

r

]

Time, t, [s]

(d) WECS reactive power

Figure 8.4: Electrical parameters.

With regard to network compliance, Figs. 8.4(b)–(d) depict variations in electrical parameters: the

grid voltage, current and reactive power, respectively. It is observed from Fig. 8.4(b) that the network

voltage is virtually undisturbed by variations in operating conditions. Fig. 8.4(c) shows variation in

the rotor current; for the current loop, the active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis

component of the rotor current (in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame). The assumption that the dc

link voltage remains constant is valid if the dc link capacitor and converters are designed to enable

continued operation of the DOIG with low generator busbar voltages caused by close-up faults. The

available reactive power, shown in Fig. 8.4(d), depends on the active power. The fast-acting reactive

power control (applied through either converter) improves the stability of the generator.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 107

8

10

12

14

16

18

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

,

v

w

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Nominal wind speed at hub position, v

w

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Γ

t

[

M

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(b) Aerodynamic torque, Γ

t

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Γ

d

[

M

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(c) Low speed shaft torque, Γ

d

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Γ

g

[

k

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(d) Generator torque, Γ

g

Figure 8.5: Variation in various WECS torques.

8.4.2 Control for Load Alleviation

Figs. 8.5(b)–(d) show evolution of various torques during the 1-minute simulation. Fig. 8.5(b) gives

the corresponding aerodynamic torque developed by the turbine that is a function of v

w

. Fig. 8.5(c)

depicts the low speed shaft torque, Γ

d

, that acts as a braking torque on the rotor. It results from the

torsional and frictional effects due to the difference between ω

t

and ω

g

and is modelled to represent

the torsional moments that relate to the cyclic twist of the shaft during operation. It is seen that

at above rated wind speeds, severe shaft torsional moments that may cause mechanical stress and

strain are prevented by reducing vibrations between the rotating parts. The control is very effective in

maintaining generator torque control — it is observed from Fig. 8.5(d) that the generator torque does

not exceed Γ

g,max

despite the turbulence that occassionally drives the wind speed above rated.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 108

8.5 Conclusion

The two core problems that face wind energy conversion systems today include grid integration issues

and reliability of the turbine structure, both attributable to the stochasticity of the wind. This study is

set against the background of need for modern digital controls to ensure optimum power conversion

in all operating ranges as well as alleviation of drive train loads that occur due to highly turbulent

wind environments that cause cyclic fatigue on the mechanical components.

A self-tuning regulator is proposed for the coordinated active power control and shaft torsional

moments reduction for a variable speed WECS that is incorporated into the grid. In implementing the

control topology, the considered constraints imposed on the control input signal are the rate, ampli-

tude and energy types. The control philosophy of the proposed paradigm relies on feedback, including

state estimation to approximate unmeasured plant states using the single turbine parameter, ω

g

, to sig-

niﬁcantly enhance dynamic compensation and response of the closed loop system. For the nonlinear

WECS system, the fundamental concept of feedback is tremendously compelling as it enhances sta-

bility, improves the steady-state error characteristics, enables state estimation for unmodelled states,

and provides disturbance rejection due to a stochastic wind.

The appeal of the proposed STR is that the RLS algorithm is easy to implement and does not re-

quire massive processing power. Once designed, execution of the STR is reduced to a set of difference

equations connecting the measured outputs, ω

g

, to the new control signals, Γ

g,ref

. The power of the

mathematical model lies in the fact that it can be simulated in hypothetical situations, be subject to

highly stochastic states due to large turbulence that would be dangerous in reality, and it can be used

as a basis for synthesizing controllers.

With regard to drive-train load mitigation capability, the STR performs well in attenuating drive-

train vibrational magnitudes at the rated wind speed. Effectiveness of the generator torque control

is gauged on capacity to improve damping for suppression of torsional vibration. Relative to the

classical PI controller, the STR control scheme shows considerable improvement in achieving the dual

objectives of maximization of energy capture and regulation of torsional dynamics under turbulent

wind conditions, and also guarantees that uncertainties in the WECS and wind models are explicitly

taken into account, resulting in a reduction in pitch activity.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 109

References

[1] T. Senjyu, R. Sakamoto, N. Urasaki, T. Funabashi, H. Fujita, and H. Sekine, “Output power

leveling of wind turbine generator for all operating regions by pitch angle control,” IEEE Trans.

Energy Conversion, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 467-475, 2006. doi:10.1109/TEC.2006.874253.

[2] R. Sakamoto, T. Senjyu, T. Kinjo, N. Urasaki, and T. Funabashi, “Output power level-

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doi:10.1109/ICPST.2004.1460109.

[3] H. S. Ko, T. Niimura, and K. Y. Lee, “An intelligent controller for a remote wind-diesel power

system – design and dynamic performance analysis,” IEEE Power Engineering Society General

Meeting, 13-17 July 2003, vol. 4. doi:10.1109/PES.2003.1270948.

[4] F. Jurado, and J. R. Saenz, “Adaptive control for biomass-based diesel-wind system,” 11th

IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., MELECON 2002, 7-9 May 2002, pp. 55-60.

doi:10.1109/MELECON.2002.1014529.

[5] G. Fusco, and M. Russo, “Generalized minimum variance implicit self-tuning nodal volt-

age regulation in power systems with pole-assignment technique,” 9th IEEE Int. Conf.

on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV ’06, 5-8 Dec 2006, pp. 1-6.

doi:10.1109/ICARCV.2006.345452.

[6] W. T. Chung, and A. K. David, “Digital and laboratory implementation of a generalized minimum

variance controller for an HVDC link,” IEE Procs. Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol.

146, no. 2, pp. 181-185, Mar 1999. doi:10.1049/ip-gtd.19990039.

[7] W. Gu, and K. E. Bollinger, “A self-tuning power system stabilizer for wide range synchronous

generator operation,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1191-1199, Aug. 1989.

doi:10.1109/59.32617.

[8] J. Y. Fan, T. H. Ortmeyer, and R. Mukundan, “Power system stability improvement with multi-

variable self-tuning control,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 227-234, Feb. 1990.

doi:10.1109/59.49110.

[9] H. Camblong, G. Tapia, and M. Rodriguez, “Robust digital control of a wind turbine for rated-

speed and variable-power operation regime,” IEE Procs. Control Theory and Applications, vol.

153, no. 1, pp. 81-91, Jan. 2006. doi:10.1049/ip-cta:20045190.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 110

[10] C. Woei-Luen, and H. Yuan-Yih, “Controller design for an induction generator driven by a

variable-speed wind turbine,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 625-635, Sept.

2006. doi:10.1109/TEC.2006.875478.

[11] A. Chandra, K. K. Wong, O. P. Malik, and G. S. Hope, “Implementation and test results of a

generalized self-tuning excitation controller,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 6, no. 1, pp.

186-192, Mar 1991. doi:10.1109/60.73806.

[12] D. W. Clarke, C. Mohtadi, and P. S. Tuffs, “Generalized predictive control, the basic algorithm,

and extensions and interpretations,” Automatica, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 137-160, 1987.

[13] K. J.

˚

Astr¨om, and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control. Electrical Engineering: Control Engineer-

ing, 2 ed., Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995. ISBN 0-201-55866-1.

[14] R. Bitmead, M. Gevers, and V. Wertz, Adaptive Optimal Control. The Thinking Man’s GPC,

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990.

[15] P. E. Welstead, and M. B. Zarrop, Self-Tuning Systems: Control and Signal Processing, Chich-

ester: Wiley, 1991.

[16] M. Honig, and D. Messerschmitt, Adaptive Filters: Structures, Algorithms, and Applications,

Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1984. ISBN0-898-38163-0.

[17] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Disturbance rejection by

dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty

compensation,” IET Procs. Control Theory and Applications, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1431-1440, 2007.

doi:10.1049/iet-cta:20060448.

[18] E. B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, and T. Funabashi, “Robust predictive control of

variable-speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator,” IEEE Power Engineering Society

General Meeting, 24-28 June, 2007, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/PES.2007.385885.

[19] W. Ren, and P. R. Kumar, “Stochastic adaptive prediction and model reference control,” IEEE

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no. 5, pp. 586-600, 1987.

Chapter 9

Predictive Control II: MBPC

9.1 Introduction

I

F the Earth is choking on greenhouse gases, it is not hard to see why. Global carbon dioxide

output approached a staggering 32 billion tons in 2006. Turning off the carbon spigot is the

ﬁrst step, and many of the solutions are familiar: windmills, solar panels, nuclear plants. All three

technologies are part of the energy mix, although each has its issues, including noise from windmills

and radioactive waste from nukes. Greenhouse-gas-induced global-warming worries are not the only

reasons to consider a power-grid shift to wind power. With fossil-fuel prices on the rise and their

supply increasingly unstable, the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a

critical part of the new thrust of engineering for sustainability. Wind turbines have become the most

cost-effective renewable energy systems available today and are now completely competitive with

essentially all conventional generation systems. Wind plants have beneﬁted from steady advances

in technology, and much of the advance has been made in the components dealing with the utility

interface, the electrical machine, the power electronic converter, and the control capability [1].

However, the wind’s unpredictable nature forces utility operators to think differently about power

generation, and the main challenge is to provide governor functions and controlled ramp-down dur-

ing high wind speed events. Wind stochasticity results in ﬂuctuations in output power as well as

undesirable dynamic loading of the drive-train during high turbulence. The only advanced control

methodology that has made a signiﬁcant impact on industrial control engineering is Model Predictive

Control (MPC) [2]-[6]. The main reasons for this success in applications include:

• ability to handle multivariable control problems naturally,

• capacity to account for actuator limitations, and

• allows operation closer to constraints that frequently lead to more proﬁtable operation.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 112

Model predictive control, in the form of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), was ﬁrst proposed

by Clark et al. [7],[8] and the properties of GPC are further presented for a set of continuous linear

systems [9] and nonlinear problems [10]. Several researchers have reported the potential of GPC for

WECS control [11]-[13]. Nonetheless, these references apply predictive control for energy extraction

maximization, but do not consider the cyclic loading impact on the drive train due to high turbulence.

This chapter develops the Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC) strategy [14]-[17] for current

and speed control of the ﬁeld oriented induction machine drive as well as regulation of drive train

shaft torsional moments reduction through generator torque control. The idea of MBPC is based on

computing a control function for the future time in order to force the controlled system response to

attain the reference value. An optimization process generates the control sequence, and the system

response is based on future control action, model parameters, and the actual system state. A criterion

to regulate the costing horizon of the MBPC is deﬁned in the form of minimizing a quadratic cost

function. In its implementation, the plant is dynamically decoupled from the stiff grid frequency

since the mechanical dynamics are slower than the electrical ones. To execute the control, MBPC

requires an equivalent model deﬁned in state space for online estimation and prediction of future

states, including disturbances. The proposed controller associates the predictive control action and

ensures the smooth transition of control from region to region.

MBPC provides a systematic procedure for dealing with constraints (both input and state) in

MIMO control problems, and is widely used in industry. Remarkable properties of the method in-

clude global asymptotic stability provided certain conditions are satisﬁed (e.g. appropriate weighting

on the ﬁnal state). A remarkable property of MBPC is that stability of the resultant feedback system

(at least with full state information) can be established. This is made possible by the fact that the

value function of the optimal control problem acts as a Lyapunov function for the closed loop system.

The key elements in the design of the MBPC digital system for WECS control are:

• state space (or equivalent) model (developed in Part I),

• on-line state estimation (including disturbances),

• prediction of future states (including disturbances),

• implementation of ﬁrst step of control sequence, and

• on-line optimization of future trajectory subject to constraints using Quadratic Programming.

Simulations are conducted using the MATLAB/Simulink software to validate the MBPC technique

vis-` a-vis the classical PI controller. Computer simulations reveal that achieving the two objectives of

maximizing energy extraction and load reduction by the proposed control paradigm becomes more

attractive relative to the classical linear controller.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 113

Opt imum

char act er ist ic

P

r ef

ω

r ef

ω

g

+

_

PI Pit ch

cont r oller

MBPC

Above r at ed

Below r at ed

β

cmd

Γ

r ef

PI

Γ

r ef

Figure 9.1: Pitch regulated variable speed WECS speed control loops.

9.2 Control Concept for Power Regulation

Fig. 9.1 shows the overall control loops for the WECS. Control action to achieve both objectives of

conversion performance as well as drive-train load mitigation throughout the operating envelope is

undertaken by two controllers: generator torque control and pitch angle control, as follows:

• At low and moderate wind speeds, the rotor speed is controlled to maximize energy capture

by operating continuously at the TSR that results in the maximum power coefﬁcient. This

is achieved by regulating the generator torque via the torque reference, Γ

g,ref

, given by the

proposed MBPC. The target is to track the trajectory with c

P,opt

.

• When v

w

> v

r

, the rotor collective pitch controller kicks in and generates a pitch signal, β

cmd

,

for adjusting blade pitch to regulate c

P

(λ, β), thereby ensuring rated power output: P

e

= P

r

.

In this region generator torque control serves only to add damping to the drive train.

The proposed control scheme ﬁrst derives P

ref

throughout the operating region, and then the

corresponding generator torque control, Γ

g,ref

, and pitch command, β

cmd

, are computed to follow

the actual power along the P

ref

trajectory. Such regional control aims to maintain the desired power

command, P

ref

, at various wind speeds in different wind regimes by the control expression

P

ref

=

P

1

if P

1

≤ P

r

& (v

w

< v

c

)

P

2

if P

2

≤ P

r

& (v

c

≤ v

w

≤ v

r

)

P

r

if P

1,2

> P

r

& (v

w

> v

r

)

(9.1)

where P

r

is rated power, v

c

, v

r

are cut-in and rated wind speeds, P

1

is the maximum power command

calculated for the impressed wind speed in region 1 (safe operating region), and P

2

is the optimum

power command in region 2 of operation, at which priority is given to power system stability rather

than to producing maximum wind energy conversion. When v

w

> v

r

, the target is rated power output.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 114

Object ives

@t ime=t

k

Take pr ocess measur ement s

Const r aint s

WECS plant model =

Fut ur e plant

out put s

Cur r ent & fut ur e

Cont r ol act ions

Dist ur bances

@t ime=t

k+1

Solve above opt imizat ion pr oblem

Best cur r ent and fut ur e cont r ol act ions

Implement best cur r ent cont r ol act ion

Figure 9.2: MBPC scheme.

9.3 Generator Torque Control

9.3.1 Γ

g,ref

by MBPC

The ﬂow-chart in Fig. 9.2 illustrates the concept of MBPC applied to the WECS model. It utilizes

a control algorithm founded on solving an online optimal control problem, with the objective of

determining the control function for the future time in order to constrain the WECS response to attain

the reference values, which are known. A receding horizon approach is used, which involves the

following control algorithm:

(i) At time k and for the current states x

i

(k), solve, online, an open-loop control problem over

some future interval taking into account the current and future constraints.

(ii) Apply the ﬁrst step in the optimal control sequence.

(iii) Repeat the procedure at time (k + 1) using the current states, x

i

(k + 1).

The solution is converted into a closed loop strategy by using the measured value of x

i

(k) as the

current state. In this case only the generator speed is measurable; the rest of the states are obtained

by an observer (state estimation), and the closed loop policy is obtained by replacing the respective

states by the estimates.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 115

Prediction horizon Unpredicted future

k+N

k

Measured past

x - past state

x - actual future state

x - set-point

x - predicted state

_

Figure 9.3: Receding horizon control principle.

MBPC is based on iterative, ﬁnite horizon optimization of a plant model. At time k the current

plant state is sampled and a cost minimizing control strategy is computed (via a numerical minimiza-

tion algorithm) for a relatively short time horizon in the future: [k, k + N]. Speciﬁcally, an online

calculation is used to explore state trajectories that emanate from the current state and ﬁnd (via the

solution of Euler-Lagrange equations) a cost-minimizing control strategy until time k, k + N. Only

the ﬁrst step of the control strategy is implemented, then the plant state is sampled again and the cal-

culations are repeated starting from the now current state, yielding a new control and new predicted

state path. The prediction horizon keeps being shifted forward and for this reason MPC is thus called

receding horizon control. Fig. 9.3 demonstrates the receding horizon control principle, where the

reference values are assumed to be a constant sequence while the system response is based on future

control action, model parameters, and the actual system state.

MBPC algorithms have a greater “prediction horizon”, characterized by an explicit model of the

controlled system, which can be identiﬁed separately. The model is used for precalculating the future

behavior of the controlled systemas well as for the selection of optimal control values. With respect to

the wide prediction horizon MBPC algorithms need more calculation power relative to standard linear

controls. The calculation performance of microcontrollers, however, has been increasing steadily.

Although this approach is not optimal, in practice it has given very good results.

Fig. 9.4 deﬁnes the fundamental principles of the proposed control scheme. MBPC is a multivari-

able control algorithm that uses:

◦ an internal dynamic model of the plant

◦ a history of past control moves, and

◦ an optimization cost function . over the prediction horizon, to calculate the optimum control

moves.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 116

+

_

Model

Model

Predictor

Optimizer

dJ(Γ ,w,...)

dΓ

Cost function

Constraints

w

ω (k-i k)

Γ (k-i k)

Forced

response

Total

response

Future

reference

value

Future

error

Free

response

WECS plant

ω (=y)

g

Γ (=u)

g,ref

g,ref

g,ref

ω

g

g

g,ref

+

Figure 9.4: Structure of MBPC as applied to the WECS.

For a traditional MBPC formulation, consider a SISO plant with input u(≡ Γ

g,ref

), and output

y(≡ ω

g

). The MBPC online optimization problem is developed as follows. At time k ﬁnd

min

u[k|k],···,u[k+p−1|k]

p

¸

i=1

y[k + i[k] −y

SP

+

m

¸

i=1

r

i

∆u[k + i −1[k]

2

(9.2)

subject to

u

max

≥ u[k + i −1[k] ≥ u

min

, i = 1, , m (9.3)

u

max

≥ u[k + i −1[k] ≥ −∆u

max

, i = 1, , m (9.4)

y

max

≥ y[k + i −1[k] ≥ y

min

, i = 1, , p (9.5)

where p and m < p are the lengths of the plant output prediction and manipulated plant input horizons

respectively, and u[k +i −1[k], for i = 1, , p, is the set of future plant input values with respect to

which the optimization will be performed, where

u[k + i −1[k] = u[k + m−1[k], i = m, , p −1 (9.6)

and y

SP

is the set-point, while ∆ is the backward difference operator, i.e.

∆u[k + i −1[k] ≈ u[k + i −1[k] −u[k + m−2[k]. (9.7)

In typical MPC fashion, the above optimization problem is solved at time k, and the optimal input

u[k] = u

opt

[k[k] is applied to the plant. This procedure is repeated at subsequent times k+1, k+2, etc.

It is clear that the above problem formulation necessitates the prediction of future outputs y[k + i[k].

This, in turn, makes necessary the use of a model for the plant and external disturbances. Assuming

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 117

the following ﬁnite-impulse-response (FIR) model describes the dynamics of the controlled plant:

y[k] =

n

¸

j=1

h

i

u[k −j] + d[k] (9.8)

where h

i

are the model coefﬁcients (convolution kernel) and d is the disturbance. Then

y[k + i[k] =

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k + i −j[k] + d[k + i[k] (9.9)

where

u[k + i −j[k] = u[k + i −j], i −j < 0. (9.10)

The prediction of the future disturbance d[k + i[k] clearly can be neither certain nor exact. An ap-

proximation or simpliﬁcation has to be employed, such as

d[k + i[k] = d[k[k] = y[k] −

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k −j] (9.11)

where y[k] is the measured value of the plant output y at sampling point k and u[k −j] are past values

of the process input u. Substitution of (9.9) to (9.11) into (9.2) to (9.5) yields

min

u[k|k],···,u[k+p−1|k]

p

¸

i=1

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k +i −j[k] −

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k −j] +y[k] −y

SP

2

+

m

¸

i=1

r

i

∆u[k +i −1[k]

2

(9.12)

subject to

u

max

≥ u[k + i −1[k] ≥ u

min

, i = 1, , m (9.13)

∆u

max

≥ ∆u[k + i −1[k] ≥ −∆u

max

, i = 1, , m (9.14)

y

max

≥

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k + i −j[k] −

n

¸

j=1

h

j

u[k −j] + y[k] ≥ y

min

, i = 1, , p (9.15)

The above optimization problem is a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved at

each time k. The elaborate models developed for the drive train and electrical system in Part I are

appropriate to ensure the system behavior is calculable. For the WECS plant model,

x( + 1) = f(x(), Γ

g,ref

()), x(k) = x (9.16)

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 118

the MBPC at event (x, k) is computed by solving the constrained optimal control problem:

P

N

(x) : V

o

N

(x) = min

U∈u

N

V

N

(x, U) (9.17)

where

U = ¦Γ

g,ref

(k), Γ

g,ref

(k + 1), ..., Γ

g,ref

(k + N −1)¦ (9.18)

V

N

(x, U) =

k+N−1

¸

=k

L

x(), Γ

g,ref

()

+ F(x(k + N)) (9.19)

and U

N

is the set of U that satisfy the constraints over the entire interval [k, k + N −1], i.e.

Γ

g,ref

() ∈ U = k, k + 1, ..., k + N + 1 (9.20)

x() ∈ X = k, k + 1, ..., k + N (9.21)

together with the terminal constraint

x(k + N) ∈ W. (9.22)

Here, U ⊂ 1

m

is convex and compact, X ⊂ 1

n

is convex and closed, and the set W is appropriately

selected to achieve stability. With the constraint (9.17), the model and cost function are time invariant,

thus a time-invariant feedback control law is obtained by setting

U = ¦Γ

g,ref

(0), Γ

g,ref

(1), ..., Γ

g,ref

(N −1)¦ (9.23)

V

N

(x, U) =

N−1

¸

=0

L

x(), Γ

g,ref

()

+ F

x(N)

(9.24)

U

o

x

= ¦u

o

x

(0), u

o

x

(1), ..., u

o

x

(N −1)¦ (9.25)

then, the actual control applied at time k is the ﬁrst element of this sequence, i.e.

u = u

o

x

(0) where u Γ

g,ref

. (9.26)

The predictive control law in (9.26) generates a control sequence that forces the future system re-

sponse to be equal to the reference values. Expression (9.26) is a necessary condition for optimality:

Theorem 1 (Optimality Principle Bellman) For the above problem if ¦u(t) = u

o

(t), t ∈ [t

o

, t

f

]¦ is

the optimal solution, then u

o

(t) is also the optimal solution over the (sub)interval [t

o

+∆t, t

f

], where

t

o

< t

o

+ ∆t < t

f

.

Proof: See [18]. 2

The essence is that any part of an optimal trajectory is necessarily optimal in its own right [19],[20].

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 119

Opt imum

char act er ist ic

PI

P

r ef

ω

r ef

Γ

g,r ef

ω

g

K +

pt

s

K

it

+

_

Tor que t o

cur r ent

t r anslat ion

i

r q,r ef

Figure 9.5: Rotor speed and active power control by PI.

9.3.2 Γ

g,ref

by PI

In the steady state the generator torque is set to be proportional to ω

2

g

, and thus the required generator

torque demand, Γ

g,ref

, is obtained thus

Γ

g,ref

= K

opt

ω

2

g

(9.27)

where K

opt

is the optimal mode gain

K

opt

= πρR

5

c

P

(λ, β)

2λ

3

N

3

gr

. (9.28)

Thus below and around rated wind speeds, the variable speed WECS tries to stay at the desired

TSR wherever possible by tracking wind disturbances, achieved by using generator torque control

for regulating rotor speed in proportion to the wind speed. This maximizes c

P

(λ, β) and hence the

aerodynamic power available. Note that in steady state conditions, energy output may not necessarily

be maximized by maximizing aerodynamic efﬁciency (tracking optimum TSR, λ

opt

) since the energy

losses may also vary with the operating point (OP). It is therefore better to track a slightly different

TSR that yields c

P,opt

(λ, β), by computing K

opt

.

The generator torque controller in Fig. 9.5 (shown as dotted block in Fig. 9.1) is a PI regulator that

gives the relationship between the input, ∆ω

g

, and the output, Γ

g,ref

via the transfer function C(s)

C(s) =

Γ

g,ref

∆ω

g

= K

pt

+

K

it

s

(9.29)

where the proportional and integral gains of the PI controller are respectively: K

pt

= 500 Nms/rad,

and K

it

= 250 Nm/rad. PI tuning involves the long process of carefully adjusting the gains through

several simulations by trial and error in order to obtain minimum variations for the controlled vari-

ables. The reference generator speed is a function of wind speed: below rated wind speed it is

proportional to the wind speed, above, it is constant at rated value.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 120

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed, v

m

= 12.205 m/s

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 $

\

b

e

t

a

$

[

d

e

g

]

,

$

\

d

o

t

\

b

e

t

a

$

[

d

e

g

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

Pitch angle

Pitch rate

(b) Variation in pitch angle control variables, β

ref

and

˙

β

1440

1460

1480

1500

1520

1540

1560

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

o

r

s

p

e

e

d

[

r

p

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(c) Generator rotor speed

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

P

o

w

e

r

[

M

W

]

Time, t, [s]

Electrical Power

Mechanical Power

(d) Aerodynamical power, P

m

, and electrical power, P

e

Figure 9.6: Evolution of power parameters at rated speed (v

r

= 12.205 m/s).

9.4 Simulation Analysis

In the sequel the behavior of the output variables of the WECS system i.e. active and reactive powers

injected into the utility grid, and low speed shaft torque variations, in response to variations of the

input variables, is presented. In executing the MBPC, gain-scheduling is carried out to compensate

for non-linearities of the WECS characteristics. The effectiveness of the paradigm is validated against

two criteria: comparison in performance with a classical PI controller, and manufacturer’s data that

has been tested in the ﬁeld environment. The wind model provides a wind proﬁle for the rated wind

speed of 12.205 m/s with prevailing turbulence of 16%, as shown in Fig. 9.6(a).

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 121

9.4.1 Aerodynamic Power Production

The proposed MBPC controller associates the predictive control action and ensures the smooth tran-

sition of control from region to region. In low to medium speed winds the controller regulates the

TSR for optimal power extraction. At above rated wind speeds, the predictive controller ﬁrst derives

the desired power command, and the corresponding pitch command is computed to follow the actual

power along the trajectory of the desired power command.

9.4.1.1 Power Optimization Strategy (v

w

≤ v

r

)

The energy capture is maximized by tracking the maximum power coefﬁcient:

◦ the power reference is the wind turbine available power;

◦ the speed reference is the optimal speed.

The turbine has to produce the optimum power corresponding to the maximum tracking power point.

Thus the speed controller keeps the pitch angle constant to its optimal value, while the TSR is driven

to its optimal value by varying the rotational speed. Hence the demanded pitch angle command signal,

β

cmd

, is kept at –2

◦

as seen in Fig. 9.6(b). The mechanical power, P

m

, extracted from the wind and

the corresponding output electrical power, P

e

, are shown in Fig. 9.6(d).

9.4.1.2 Power Limitation Strategy (v

w

> v

r

)

The controllers limit P

e

and speed to the rated values of the WECS, thus

◦ the power reference is the rated power;

◦ the speed reference is the rated speed.

The speed controller keeps the generator speed, ω

g

, limited to its rated value, ω

r

, by acting the pitch

angle —β is driven to positive values so as to keep the generator speed around the rated value of 1500

rpm, as shown in Fig. 9.6(c). During instances when v

w

> v

r

, the WECS has to produce less than

it is capable of at a given wind speed. This action implies both a larger dynamical pitch activity and

a larger steady-state pitch angle of the wind turbine. This is observed in Fig. 9.6(b), around the 75

th

to the 95

th

seconds of simulation. A reduction of the power conversion when the mean wind speed

is over rated speed implies an increase in the demanded pitch angle. Fig. 9.6(d) illustrates the steady

state power curves at high wind speeds for the 2 MW wind turbine. It is easily noticed that at any

given moment when v

w

> v

r

, the deviation in power production from the optimum is satisfactorily

small, [P

e

−P

r

[ < 5%. It is noteworthy that pitch rates are kept within ±8

◦

/s, thereby lessening pitch

activity despite meeting control objectives (Fig. 9.6(b)), and that ω

g

is kept within ±3% of rated rpm

of 1500 (Fig. 9.6(c)).

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 122

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed at v

m

= 12.205 m/s

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

A

e

r

o

d

y

n

a

m

i

c

t

o

r

q

u

e

[

M

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(b) Aerodynamic torque, Γ

t

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

o

r

t

o

r

q

u

e

[

k

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

Γg,ref

Γg

(c) Generator torques, Γ

g,ref

and Γ

g

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

L

o

w

s

p

e

e

d

s

h

a

f

t

t

o

r

q

u

e

[

M

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

(d) Variation in low-speed shaft torque, Γ

d

Figure 9.7: Development of torques during 120 s simulation.

9.4.2 Drive-train Torque Variation Minimization

Fig. 9.7(a) shows the simulated turbulent wind speed at a mean of 12.205 m/s under a prevailing

turbulence intensity of 16%. Despite the high ﬂuctuations in the generated aerodynamic torque as

shown in Fig. 9.7(b), MBPC yields a good tracking of the reference generator torque, Γ

g,ref

, as seen

in Fig. 9.7(c). More importantly, Fig. 9.7(d) conﬁrms that variations in the drive-train torque, Γ

d

, are

kept to a minimum to ensure undue cyclic loads are not experienced.

Essentially, by implementing the MBPC scheme, generator torque control and current control are

used to limit shaft moments thereby put in check the cyclic fatigue stresses that may ensue thereof.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 123

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed at v

m

= 12.205 m/s

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

D

r

i

v

e

t

r

a

i

n

t

o

r

q

u

e

[

M

N

m

]

Time, t, [s]

MBPC

PID

(b) Drive train torque

70

80

90

100

110

120

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

o

r

p

o

w

e

r

l

o

s

s

[

k

W

]

Time, t, [s]

MBPC

PID

(c) Generator power loss

Figure 9.8: Comparison of performance in power conversion and alleviation of drive train loads by

MBPC (red line) and classical PID (green line).

9.4.3 Comparison: MBPC and Classical PID

The main objective of the generator torque controller in the above rated region is to enhance damping

in the ﬁrst drive train torsional mode. This ensures a smooth transition when gusts are experienced,

to avoid exciting ﬂexible turbine modes that increase dynamic loads. Fig. 9.8 serves to validate the

choice of the proposed MBPC when a comparison is made between the MBPC scheme and the PID

with regard to performance in meeting the objectives:

• During the two-minute simulation it is seen that the PID shows relatively higher ﬂuctuations

in the drive train torque as opposed to the MBPC (Fig. 9.8(b)). This is attributable to the fact

that the PID is a linear controller and is unable to handle the nonlinear WECS dynamics fully,

especially in regions of high wind speeds.

• The generated power is compromised by using the PID. It can be observed from Fig. 9.8(c)

that the generator power loss is higher with the linear PID than the MBPC, especially at critical

instances (v

w

< v

r

), when the objective is energy conversion maximization.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 124

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

[

m

/

s

]

Time, t, [s]

(a) Simulated wind speed at v

m

= 12.205 m/s

11.0012

11.0013

11.0014

11.0015

11.0016

11.0017

11.0018

11.0019

11.002

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

k

V

]

Time, t, [s]

(b) Voltage at connection point (line, rms)

70

80

90

100

110

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

[

A

]

Time, t, [s]

(c) Current

150

200

250

300

350

400

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

p

o

w

e

r

[

V

A

r

]

Time, t, [s]

(d) Reactive power

Figure 9.9: Variation in electrical parameters.

9.4.4 Evolution of Electrical Parameters

Figs. 9.9(b)–(d) show, respectively, the stator voltage, current, and reactive power for simulation at

the mean wind speed of 12.205 m/s. The power controller ensures the power reference by acting on

the current reference of the rotor current controller and thus on the generator current/torque. This

is achieved via two control loops: one for the active power control and the other for reactive power

control. The active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis component of the rotor current

(in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame), while the reactive power control is achieved by controlling the

d-axis component of the rotor current (the magnetizing current) collinear with the stator ﬂux. The

rotor current controller generates rotor voltage components as control variables of the converter.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 125

9.5 Conclusion

MBPC is a powerful methodology for solving challenging control problems, particularly the ones

where prescribed point-wise-in-time input and/or state constraints have to be satisﬁed. It relies on a

feedback-control methodology suitable to enforce efﬁciently hard constraints on the variables of the

controlled WECS system. It is shown that the method hinges upon a constrained open-loop optimal

control problem along with the adoption of the so-called receding-horizon control strategy. Being

a predictive control paradigm based on iterative, ﬁnite horizon optimization whose key elements

include a state space (or equivalent) model and online state estimation and prediction of future states

(including disturbances), MBPC is utilized successfully in meeting the control objectives of energy

maximization as well as regulation of drive-train torsional moments.

The control sequence is computed by solving online, over a ﬁnite control horizon, an open-loop

optimal control problem, given the WECS plant dynamical model and current state. Though this com-

putation relies upon an open-loop control problem, MBPC yields a feedback-control action. Indeed,

in a discrete-time setting only the ﬁrst control of the open-loop control sequence is applied to the

plant, and, according to the receding horizon control policy, the whole optimization cycle is repeated

at the subsequent time-instant based on the new plant-state. Because it involves a control horizon

made up by only a ﬁnite number of time-steps, MBPC can be often calculated online by existing

optimization routines so as to minimize a performance index in the presence of hard constraints on

the time evolutions of input and/or state.

MBPC’s ability of handling constraints is of paramount importance whenever constraints are part

of the control design speciﬁcations. In fact, constraints are typically present in WECS dynamics, as

they stem from actuators’ saturations and/or physical, safety or economical requirements. The main

reason for the interest of control engineers in MBPC is therefore its ability to systematically and

effectively handle hard constraints.

The nonlinear WECS model may be linearized to derive a Kalman ﬁlter or specify a model for

linear MBPC. The time derivatives may be set to zero (steady state) for applications of real-time opti-

mization or data reconciliation. Alternatively, the nonlinear model may be used directly in nonlinear

MBPC and nonlinear estimation (e.g. moving horizon estimation). Though MBPC has been applied

effectively in the chemical and process industries, there is great potential for its integration in the

control modules of modern wind turbines.

CHAPTER 9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 126

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Chapter 10

Analysis, Perspectives, and Conclusions

10.1 Preamble

T

HE debate on whether climate change is real is virtually over — the facts are in: the Earth

is heating up. Building on action taken by signatories of the Kyoto Protocol

1

, the Intergov-

ernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that this century, global temperatures will rise

between 1.8

◦

C and 4

◦

C, while some predictions for the next century are sobering, projecting this

ﬁgure to as much as 6.4

◦

C. Evidence of climate change is already here. A warmer and less stable

climate has potential for massive ecological and economic challenges. Unpredictable weather and

natural disasters — drought, ﬂoods, hurricanes and heat waves — are becoming more common. The

year 2007’s World Environment Day highlighted the consequences of the melting of the polar ice

caps, in an attempt to give a human face to environmental degradation. Commitment to the Kyoto

Protocol by some of the greatest GHGs emitters has been lukewarm. The US is a party to the UN

Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose Kyoto Protocol — a European Union-led effort

to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, primarily carbon dioxide associated with global warming — has

been reluctant to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, because it would unfairly hurt the American economy

2

.

The stalemate notwithstanding, most countries have turned to renewables to meet electricity de-

1

According to a press release fromthe United Nations Environment Programme: “The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement

under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the

year 1990” (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this

limitation represents a 29%cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane,

nitrous oxide, sulfur hexaﬂuoride, hydroﬂuorocarbons, and perﬂuorocarbons - averaged over the period of 2008-2012.

National limitations range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan,

0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.

2

An independent analysis showed that compliance with Kyoto would dramatically increase energy costs, substantially

reduce GDP growth and force energy-intensive industries overseas, taking with them 4 million jobs. As a result, Kyoto

would lead to an increase in associated emissions in countries without obligations under the treaty, such as China and In-

dia, and therefore produce no real environmental beneﬁt. Remarks atributed to Mr Michael Ranneberger, US ambassador

in Nairobi, and reported in the Kenyan newspaper, Daily Nation, of 26 May 2007.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 129

mand, and wind power is among the preferred sources of ‘green’ energy. Strong growth ﬁgures prove

that wind is now a mainstream option for new power generation. Wherever the wind speed exceeds

approximately 6 m/s there are possibilities for exploiting it economically, depending on the costs of

competing power sources. Numerous utility studies have shown that a unit of wind energy saves a

unit of energy generated from coal, gas or oil — depending on the utility’s plant — thereby saving

emissions of greenhouse gases, pollutants and waste products. The exact amount of emissions saved

depends on which fossil plants are displaced by wind energy.

Energy has since been established as a fundamental ingredient of socio-economic development

and economic growth. Renewable energy sources like wind energy are indigenous and can help in

reducing the dependency on fossil fuels. It has been estimated that roughly 10 million MW of energy

are continuously available in the earth’s wind. Wind energy provides a variable and environmental

friendly option and national energy security at a time when decreasing global reserves of fossil fuels

threatens the long-term sustainability of the global economy. The contribution of wind energy in

the global energy mix has been steadily increasing, thanks in part to remarkable advances in the

wind power design that has been achieved due to modern technological developments. The wind

turbine technology has evolved into a unique technical identity to meet unique demands in terms of

the methods used for design.

Growth in size and the optimization of WECSs has enabled wind energy to become increasingly

competitive with conventional energy sources. However, these developments raise a number of chal-

lenges. The penetration of wind energy in the grid raises questions about the compatibility of the wind

turbine power production with the grid. In particular, the contribution to grid stability, power quality

and behavior during fault situations plays therefore as important a role as the reliability. Regarding

installation and O&M costs, it is claimed that a wind turbine used for electricity generation will repay

the energy used in its manufacture within 6–9 months of its operation. Further, a modern wind turbine

operates for about 13 years in a design life of 20 and is almost always unattended. Development of

advanced power electronic components is integral to providing industry with the support it needs to

develop technologies capable of cost-effective operation.

It is against this backdrop that the research presented in this thesis explores advanced schemes for

control of wind power plants with regard to:

1. optimized power output, and

2. reliability assurance.

The methodology entailed modeling the various subsystems to derive mathematical state-space rep-

resentations for multiobjective controller design.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 130

10.2 Modeling: an Overview

I. Wind Speed Model for Simulations

Being the stock-in-trade for the WECS, real-time wind speed has been simulated by a reliable CSS

method, taking into consideration the annual average as well as the turbulence spectrum. The mean

wind speed is obtained from an annual Rayleigh probability density curve and the turbulence compo-

nent modelled as an instantaneous variation.

The problem is complicated and further work will undoubtedly be required before it will be pos-

sible to formulate reliable guidelines to assist the wind turbine designer. Turbulence models of the

form described above are now widely used for the calculation of fatigue loads for design purposes.

For calculation of extreme loads, however, it is standard practice to base calculations on deterministic

descriptions of extreme wind conditions. Current design standards and certiﬁcation rules specify ex-

treme events in terms of discrete gusts, wind direction changes and wind shear transients. The form,

amplitude and time period speciﬁed for these discrete events remain rather arbitrary and largely unval-

idated. The development of more reliable methods for the evaluation of extreme design loads, based

possibly on the use of probabilistic analysis, requires considerable effort but is crucially important in

the context of reﬁning wind turbine design analysis.

II. Drive-train Model

With larger or more ﬂexible wind turbine structures, other issues of concern during variable-speed

operation are drive train dynamics and avoiding operation at system resonant frequencies. More-

over, system losses must be dealt with. These can be incorporated with modiﬁcation to the control

methodology. Blade pitch can also be used to improve energy capture when the turbine is operating

at large errors in power output. The improvement in energy capture from these methods depends on

the turbine and operating environment.

However, use of variable-speed control increases the ﬂuctuation of output power and somewhat

increases the shaft fatigue cycles. These issues must be weighed against the increase in power output

obtained from use. Drive train dynamics, system losses, and avoiding resonant frequencies can be

incorporated using proper control system implementation, by modifying the reference value for the

aerodynamic torque near the resonant rotor speed. The proposed control schemes (LQG, LQG/NC,

STR, and MBPC) consistently show lower ﬂuctuations in shaft torsional torque when compared with

the classical PI(D). These advanced paradigms are a better alternative for the wind turbine industry.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 131

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

P

h

a

s

e

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(a) Phase voltage

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

P

h

a

s

e

c

u

r

r

e

n

t

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(b) Phase current

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.09

1.1

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.14

1.15

1.16

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

S

p

e

e

d

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(c) Rotor speed

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

P

o

w

e

r

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(d) Power output

Figure 10.1: DOIG single phase fault: results of the WECS system.

III. DOIG Model: Fault Current Contribution and Post-Fault Behavior

Fig. 10.1 shows the DOIG response to a single phase fault introduced at t = 0 s. The stator current,

speed and power output during the fault and after the fault is cleared is shown in Figs. 10.1(b)–(d).

The crowbar is designed to be triggered by the high rotor current when the fault is cleared. However,

normal operation of the machine is maintained once the fault clears, as seen in Fig. 10.1(b). All

the parameters (phase current, rotor speed and power) stabilize within ample time, meaning that the

power grid will still maintain transient voltage stability, attesting to the effectiveness of the control in

re-establishment after a short circuit fault. The assumption is that both converters continue to operate

normally during and after the fault. MBPC was utilized in generator torque control.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 132

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(a) Phase voltage

0

1

2

3

4

5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(b) Current phasor

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

S

p

e

e

d

,

[

p

u

]

t, [s]

(c) Generator speed

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

P

Q

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

,

P

t, [s]

(d) PQ control: active power, P

-3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

P

Q

c

o

n

t

r

o

l

,

Q

t, [s]

(e) PQ control: reactive power, Q

Figure 10.2: 3P fault: RMS simulation.

Similar results are obtained for a 3-phase fault, in Figs. 10.2(a)–(d). When the fault is applied, the

DOIG model shows a high current peak but the decay is rapid. When the fault clears the over-current

protection operates the crowbar circuit. During the fault, the speed of the generator is maintained

close to its prefault value and returns to normal operation. The simulation results demonstrate the

importance of the control system in limiting the generator current perturbations during a fault.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 133

10.3 WECS Modeling: Assessment of Approach and Validation

Limitations of Presented Modeling Concepts

Even using the medley of subcomponent models as presented in Part I, there are bound to be sig-

niﬁcant differences with expected results, suggesting unresolved deﬁciencies in the models, inconsis-

tencies in empirical input parameters to the models, and coupling issues between the subcomponent

models cannot be discounted. Other shortcomings include:

1. Use of lower ﬁdelity (reduced order) models – in a model-based control approach, increased

model accuracy implies reduced uncertainty. High-ﬁdelity physical models for WECS are usu-

ally developed during the design process of these components, but their dimensionality is ex-

cessive for current control architectures. As a consequence, model-based controls typically re-

course to lower ﬁdelity models that penalize the achievable performance. A systematic method-

ology for obtaining reduced order models directly from the design models as presented in this

thesis reduce the development cycle for high performance model-based controllers.

2. Neglecting tower shadow modeling – changes in pitch also have a major effect on the thrust

load, which in turn drives the fore-aft motion of the tower. This is turn affects the relative wind

speed seen by the blades, which then feeds back into the pitch control via the aerodynamic

torque — a strong feedback which has a major effect on the stability of the pitch control system.

While this has been neglected in the analysis, the tower shadow involves an unsteady wake

structure, and in a time-averaged sense it can be represented as a velocity deﬁcit in the ﬂow

behind the support tower. Therefore, to a ﬁrst level of approximation, it can be modelled as a

spatial variation in the ﬂow velocity normal to the chord of the blade section.

The emphasis is on two key areas that need continued serious consideration in WECS modeling:

• the representation of the rotor wake using dynamic inﬂow and vortex methods, and

• the representation of the unsteady aerodynamics of the blade sections.

Despite their limitations, the presented dynamic inﬂow models have attractive mathematical forms

and good computational efﬁciency that will always be appealing for certain types of rotor analyses.

However, it is in the area of vortex wake modelling and the incorporation of these models into wind

turbine analyses that many future challenges lie for the wind turbine analyst. Vortex wake methods

are attractive because of their appealing physical nature and ﬂexibility to handle a broad range of

steady and transient operating conditions.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 134

Model Validation

Many strides have been made in the understanding and modeling of wind turbine aerodynamics, as

evidenced by several publications [1]–[4]. Like all knowledge, however, this understanding of aero-

dynamics is not absolute and can be viewed as tentative, approximate and always subject to revision.

The presented models and control codes are yet to be validated: development of tools for wind turbine

analysis need veriﬁcation and validation before they can be tested in the ﬁeld environment [5]–[7]:

◦ Veriﬁcation: concerned with building the model right. It is utilized in the comparison of the

conceptual model to the computer representation that implements that conception. It asks the

questions: Is the model implemented correctly in the computer? Are the input parameters and

logical structure of the model correctly represented?

◦ Validation: concerned with building the right model. It is utilized to determine that a model

is an accurate representation of the real system. Validation is usually achieved through the

calibration of the model, an iterative process of comparing the model to actual system behavior

and using the discrepancies between the two, and the insights gained, to improve the model.

This process is repeated until model accuracy is judged to be acceptable.

Model veriﬁcation and validation are essential parts of the model development process if models are

to be accepted and used to support decision making. Both work together for model credibility — to

establish an argument that the model produces sound insights and comparable results to data from the

real system after a wide range of tests and criteria, to remove barriers and objections to model use.

Veriﬁcation is done to ensure that the model is programmed correctly, the algorithms have been

implemented properly, and that the model does not contain errors, oversights, or bugs. Veriﬁcation

does not, however, ensure the model solves an important problem, meets a speciﬁed set of model re-

quirements, or, correctly reﬂects the workings of a real wind turbine. Practical veriﬁcation recognizes

that no computational model will ever be fully veriﬁed, guaranteeing 100% error-free implementa-

tion. In principle, the end result is technically not a veriﬁed model, but rather one that has passed a

properly structured testing program that increases the level of statistical certainty to acceptable levels!

Practical validation exercises amount to a series of attempts to invalidate a model — explicitly

formulate a series of mathematical tests designed to “break the model”. Presumably, once a model

is shown to be invalid, the model is salvageable with further work and results in a model having a

higher degree of credibility and conﬁdence. The end result of validation is, technically, not a validated

model, but rather a model that has passed all the validation tests — offers a better understanding of the

model’s capabilities, limitations, and appropriateness for addressing a range of important questions.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 135

Init ial

model

Fir st r evision

of model

Second

r evision

of model

Act ual

Syst em

Compar e model

t o act ual

Compar e r evised

model t o act ual

Compar e 2nd

r evised model

t o act ual

Revise

Revise

Revise

Figure 10.3: Iterative process of calibrating the WECS model.

The constantly growing size of WECS and wind parks is today’s most challenging aspect in power

system analysis. It is thus imperative to compare developed codes with those that have been tested

on ﬂexible control structures of actual prototypes and whose long term simulation capability offer

conﬁdence to allow for an integrated analysis of fault response, control principles, blade and tower

dynamics, and stochastic wind model impact. As an aid in the validation process, Naylor and Finger

[8] formulated a three-step approach which has been widely followed:

1. Build a model that has high face validity.

2. Validate model assumptions.

3. Compare model input-output transformations to corresponding input-output transformations

for the real (‘Actual’) system (or prototype).

Fig. 10.3 illustrates this concept in the validation of the simulation models developed in this thesis.

Two of the commercially available software for validation purposes include:

1. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) Code [9] — a comprehensive

aeroelastic simulator capable of predicting both the extreme and fatigue loads of two- and three-

bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines, and

2. DIgSILENT PowerFactory [10] — incorporates extensive modelling capabilities with advanced

solution algorithms, to provide the analyst with tools to carry out the most complex power

system studies.

Both ﬁnd typical applications in wind park design studies, veriﬁcation of connection conditions, gen-

erator control design, harmonic penetration analysis, voltage stability analysis, fault recovery studies,

as well as integrated wind park modeling. Especially in wind power applications, both offer standard

tools, as all required models and simulation algorithms provide unmet accuracy and performance.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 136

10.4 Control: an Appraisal of Classical and Advanced Paradigms

Evolutionary Basis for Intelligent Control Design for Modern WECS

Several attempts have been made to integrate the inspiration, philosophy, history, mathematics, ac-

tualizations, and perspectives of evolutionary computation [9]–[16]. Intelligence and evolution are

intimately connected. Intelligence is a natural part of life. It is also, however, a mechanical process

that can be simulated and emulated. Intelligence is not a property that can be limited philosophi-

cally solely to biological structures. It must be equally applicable to machines. For the process of

intelligence to be understood, methods for its generation should converge functionally and become

fundamentally identical, relying on the same physics whether the intelligence occurs in a living sys-

tem or machine. Intelligence is deﬁned as the capability of a system to adapt its behavior to meet its

goals in a range of environments. The form of the intelligent system is irrelevant, for its functionality

is the same whether intelligence occurs within an evolving species, an individual, or a social group.

If intelligent decision making is viewed as a problem of optimally allocating available resources in

light of diverse criteria (environmental demands and goals), then machine intelligence can be achieved

by simulating evolution to effectively design controllers for modern WECSs. The process of adapta-

tion is one of minimizing surprise to the adaptive organism, and requires three basic elements:

(i) Prediction — operates as a mechanistic mapping from a set of observed environmental sym-

bols to another set of symbols that represents the expected new circumstance. The mapping is

essentially a model that relates previous experiences to future outcomes. Prediction is an essen-

tial ingredient of intelligence, for if a system cannot predict future events, every environmental

occurrence comes as a surprise and adaptation is impossible.

(ii) Control —an intelligent systemmust not simply predict its environment but must use its predic-

tions to affect its decision making to be able to allocate its resources (i.e., control its behavior)

with regard to the anticipated consequences of those actions to avoid relegating its future to

nothing but pure luck.

(iii) Feedback — the adaptive mechanism must act on the error in prediction and the associated cost

of inappropriate behaviors to improve the quality of its forecasting. Environmental adaptability

for the intelligent system relies on future event prediction, control of its actions in light of those

predictions, and revising its bases for making predictions based on feedback on the degree to

which it is achieving its goals.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 137

Linear Control Schemes

All complex power production applications nowadays, from gas and steam turbines, to wind turbines,

to integrated gasiﬁcation combined cycle, require some degree of closed-loop control, for stability

and performance. Classical designs (PI and PID) controllers are widely used throughout industry and

are a good starting point for many wind turbine control applications. A PID controller can be written

in terms of the Laplace variable s (similar to a differentiation operator) as

y =

K

i

s

+ K

p

+

K

d

s

1 + sτ

x (10.1)

where x is the input error signal to be corrected, y is the control action, and the time constant τ pre-

vents the derivative term from becoming large at high frequency, where it could respond excessively

to signal noise. The tuning parameters are

K

i

: Integral Gain – larger K

i

implies steady state errors are eliminated quicker. The trade-off

is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated

away by positive error before a steady state is reached.

K

p

: Proportional Gain – larger K

p

typically means faster response since the larger the error,

the larger the feedback to compensate. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to plant

instability.

K

d

: Derivative Gain – larger K

d

decreases overshoot, but slows down transient response and

may lead to instability (K

d

is zero in a PI controller).

For a variable speed pitch-regulated turbine, x is the difference between the measured generator ro-

tational speed and the demanded or rated speed and y is the demanded pitch angle. Above rated, the

pitch is used to regulate the rotor speed to the desired value, while the generator torque or power is

held constant. Below rated the pitch is forced to the ﬁne pitch limit, but the generator torque is varied

in order to control the generator speed.

A measure of ingenuity in selection of tuning parameters in (10.1) with respect to pitch control

design is a prerequisite. For example, a pitch controlled machine crossing rated wind speed may take

too long before the pitch starts acting. On the other hand, a very short time constant may result in

slower simulations. If the PI controller being modelled is actually implemented in discrete form, as is

usual, then the desaturation time constant should be chosen to be somewhat smaller than the discrete

controller timestep. Alternatively, specify a zero time constant for instantaneous desaturation.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 138

Typically, a well-tuned PID was sufﬁcient for the ﬁrst generation of control solutions where,

generally, the problems in complex plants were related to performance improvement of different local

loops. However, nonlinear limitations imposed by the actuators (magnitude, rate, duty cycle) limit

the achievable performance of the controllers, which is also coupled with the design of the different

components. The major limitations of PI(D) control for WECS applications include:

1. PID controllers, when used alone, can give poor performance when the PID loop gains must

be reduced so that the control system does not overshoot, oscillate or “hunt” about the control

setpoint value. The control system performance thus needs to be improved by combining the

PID controller functionality with that of a feed-forward control output. Since the feed-forward

output is not a function of the plant feedback, it can never cause the control system to oscillate,

thus improving the system response and stability.

2. PID controllers are linear, hence their performance in WECS systems that are non-linear is

variable. Thus practical application issues can arise from instrumentation connected to the con-

troller, such as need for high sampling rate, measurement precision, and measurement accuracy.

Often PID controllers need to be enhanced through methods such as gain scheduling or fuzzy

logic.

3. Integral windup during implementation — refers to the situation where the integral, or reset

action continues to integrate (ramp) indeﬁnitely. This usually occurs when the controller’s

output can no longer affect the controlled variable, which in turn can be caused by controller

saturation (the output being limited at the top or bottom of its scale), or if the controller is part

of a selection scheme and it is not the selected controller. This needs to be addressed by:

a) Initializing the controller integral to a desired value, commonly the process present value for

startup problems

b) Disabling the integral function until the plant has entered the controllable region

c) Limiting the time period over which the integral error is calculated

d) Preventing the integral term from accumulating above or below pre-determined bounds.

4. Due to the differential term in the PID, small amounts of measurement or process noise can

cause large amounts of change in the output. This requires the additional use of a low-pass

ﬁlter to ﬁlter the measurements. However, low-pass ﬁltering and derivative control cancel each

other out, so reducing noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. Alternatively,

the differential band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control — equivalent

to using the PID controller as a PI controller.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 139

Advanced Multiobjective Controllers

Starting from inability of classical PI or PID algorithms that act on a single input signal (to generate a

pitch demand), advanced controllers proposed in this thesis rely on a synthesis of both pitch regulation

and a torque demand to address the following objectives:

• controlling pitch and torque together to improve the trade-off between energy capture,

actuator duty, and loads;

• the use of higher-order controllers to tackle particular problems in the turbine dynamics;

• using the control algorithm to provide damping for lightly damped resonant responses;

• algorithm design using optimal feedback or other techniques in which the trade-off between

different design objectives can be included explicitly in the design.

None of these ideas is new and all of themhave been explored to some extent for wind turbines. In this

thesis the above are handled by the proposed control schemes, including the LQG, STR, and MBPC,

and all rely on an elaborate model of the WECS system. Problem formulation is normally the most

difﬁcult part of the process. It is the selection of design variables, constraints, objectives, and models

of the disciplines. A further consideration is the strength and breadth of the interdisciplinary coupling

in the problem. Once the design variables, constraints, objectives, and the relationships between them

have been chosen, the problem can be expressed in the following standard format:

ﬁnd x that minimizes .(x) subject to g(x) ≤ 0, h(x) = 0 and x

lb

≤ x ≤ x

ub

(10.2)

where . is an objective, x is a vector of design variables, g is a vector of inequality constraints,

h is a vector of equality constraints, and x

lb

and x

ub

are vectors of lower and upper bounds on the

design variables. Maximization problems can be converted to minimization problems by multiplying

the objective by -1. Constraints can be reversed in a similar manner. Equality constraints can be

replaced by two inequality constraints. This leads to the optimization cost function . generally used

to calculate the optimum control law, and is given by:

. =

¸

w

x

i

(r

i

−x

i

)

2

+

¸

w

u

i

∆u

2

i

(10.3)

without violating constraints (low/high limits). x

i

is the i-th control variable, r

i

is the i-th reference

variable, u

i

is the i-th manipulated variable, w

x

i

is weighting coefﬁcient reﬂecting the relative impor-

tance of x

i

, and w

u

i

is weighting coefﬁcient penalizing relative big changes in u

i

. This is the basis of

adaptive multiobjective control design that relies on state-estimation for full-state feedback.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 140

While moving towards larger wind turbine installations, more stringent requirements and system-

atic design of the plants to meet the speciﬁcations while minimizing cost, model-based multiobjective

control design is becoming more frequently the design method of choice. In power generation applica-

tions, model-based control design methods have to address typical problems associated with complex

applications such as large order models and actuator nonlinearities, but also speciﬁc issues – dynamic

nonlinearities, mode coupling or limitations due to conﬂicting control objectives. The performance

obtained by these controllers is crucial in wind power generation for which feedback control is a vital

component of the overall operation. The appeal of the proposed advanced schemes is that they are

multiobjective, and make use of the following concepts, singly or in combination:

• Observers – utilize a subset of the known dynamics to make estimates of a particular variable.

In this case, the estimated wind speed can then be used to deﬁne the appropriate pitch angle.

• State estimators – using a full model of the dynamics, a Kalman ﬁlter can be used to estimate

all the system states from the prediction errors. Thus it is possible explicitly to take account of

the stochastic nature of the wind input by formulating a wind model driven by a Gaussian input.

• Optimal feedback – the cost function approach means that the trade-off between partially com-

peting objectives is explicitly deﬁned by selecting suitable weights for the terms of ..

It is noteworthy that efﬁciency of a WECS does not scale simply by physical dimensions and control

plays a signiﬁcant role in increasing the size of the machine while decreasing the structural loads and

improving the rotor efﬁciency. Challenges in implementing advanced control paradigms include:

1. Most of these techniques require large numbers of evaluations of the objectives and the con-

straints. The disciplinary models are often very complex and can take signiﬁcant amounts of

time for a single evaluation. The solution can therefore be extremely time-consuming. For-

tunately, many of the optimization techniques are adaptable to parallel computing, and much

current research is focused on methods of decreasing the required time.

2. A vital aspect of the development of new control algorithms for the novel schemes is the as-

sessment of their effectiveness. This is difﬁcult because of the variability of the wind input.

Suitable approaches to the evaluation of controller performance is thus limited to simulations.

3. Field trials – despite the power and reliability of some of the simulation models now avail-

able, there is no substitute for ﬁeld trials in real wind conditions. The variability of the wind

makes it particularly difﬁcult to carry out ﬁeld trials repeatably and reliably, particularly if the

effectiveness of two or more alternative controllers is to be compared (or their cost beneﬁt!).

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 141

10.5 Conclusions

In Part I, various concepts are brought forth as a basis for modelling the various components of

the drive train in order to formulate the control objectives for controller design. Chapter 1 gives an

overview of wind energy as well as motivation for this study. The control objectives are determined

as twofold: the optimization of energy conversion and mitigation of shaft torque torsional moments to

check cyclic-stress-induced fatigue damage to mechanical subsystems. Chapter 2 details the essential

concepts in aerodynamic conversion modeling, and formulates a model for the expected output of the

WECS. The importance of turbine linearization in controller design is emphasized and developed.

Reliability of wind turbine system is based on the performance of its components under assigned

environment, manufacturing process, handling, and the stress and aging process. As part of the design

process, a wind turbine must be analyzed for aerodynamic loads, gravitational loads, inertia loads

and operational loads it will experience during its design life. Chapter 3 develops a mathematical

model for the mechanical drive train as a multi-inertial system coupled by elastic linkages. The

main idea is to examine stresses on the drive shaft as well as the gearbox — a source of failures and

defects in many wind turbines. The electrical system of the wind turbine includes all components

for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. A brief review of the generator has been

illustrated in Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 analyzes the simulation of a real-time wind speed (which is, invariably, the stock-in-

trade for the WECS) for a generic site. The mean wind speed is obtained from an annual Rayleigh

probability density curve and the turbulence component modelled as an instantaneous variation, ob-

tained via a constrained stochastic simulation scheme. The generated gusts have the desired properties

and are used as input for wind turbine design tools in order to assess the extreme loading. This is then

used to formulate a real-time wind proﬁle from Gaussian noise thus enabling the determination of the

response of the WECS under highly stochastic environmental conditions.

Part II develops a control strategy for WECS control based on harmonization between pitch angle

control and generator torque control. One of the main goals of control is to increase power produc-

tion and reduce loads with a minimum number of control inputs required for turbine measurement.

Chapter 6 describes the control philosophy and expounds on the classical linear PI(D) controllers

to regulate power. Several control conﬁgurations, whose common denominator is multiobjectivity,

are mooted for control of a 2-MW class WECS, based on subsystems’ modeling. The design of the

control schemes attempts to maximize performance (e.g. efﬁciency, throughput, speciﬁc energy con-

sumption) while maintaining stability and physical integrity under both wind and load disturbances.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 142

Chapter 7 reviews the LQG controller for generator torque control. For the nonlinear WECS

system, the basic idea of feedback is tremendously compelling as it enhances stability, improves the

steady-state error characteristics, and provides disturbance rejection due to a stochastic wind. The

LQG control objective for the WECS multivariable system has been to obtain a desirable behavior of

several output variables by simultaneously manipulating several input channels. A hybrid controller

is also mooted, based on the idea of augmenting the LQG with a neurocontroller, the latter to cater

for the nonlinearities in the system. The hybrid shows remarkable improvement in control.

Chapter 8 introduces the STR that consists of two parts: an estimator and a control law, that are

invoked at every sample period. The purpose of the RLS algorithm (estimator) is to dynamically

estimate the model of the WECS system relating the measured metrics with the actuation. For the

control law, LQ tracking optimal control design employs the RLS algorithm based on an equivalent

non-minimal state space realization of the WECS model. No state observer is required.

MBPC is conceptually a natural method for generating feedback control actions for linear and

nonlinear plants subject to pointwise-in-time input and/or state-related constraints. Chapter 9 pro-

poses the MBPC scheme for generator torque control. An important observation is made: in contrast

to MBPC, in feedback-control systems of more traditional type, e.g., LQG or H

∞

control, constraints

are indirectly enforced, by imposing, whenever possible, a conservative behavior at a performance-

degradation expense. Other instances where MBPC can be advantageously used comprise uncon-

strained plants for which off-line computation of a control law is a difﬁcult task as compared with

on-line computations via receding-horizon control.

Chapter 10 gives an overview of the modeling approach employed in the thesis, as well as an

evaluation of the merits and demerits of the various control paradigms proposed herein.

Remark

Classical methods based on PI(D) algorithms are a good starting point for many aspects of closed loop

controller design for variable speed turbines. However, as turbines become larger and more ﬂexible,

it is increasingly important not only to consider the effect that the controller has on component loads,

but even to design the controller with load reduction as part of the primary objective.

Of the proposed control techniques, clearly, no paradigm is extremely superior to the others: all

have inherent capabilities as well as shortcomings. The appeal is that they are able to capture the

nonlinearities in the turbine and devise the pertinent control signals for effective energy conversion

and mitigation of drive train loads. However, most commercial wind turbines still use fairly basic

control techniques, leaving a wide scope for improvement in the coming years.

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 143

References

[1] Y. Coughlan, P. Smith, A. Mullane, and M. O’Malley, “Wind turbine modeling for power system

stability analysis – a system operator perspective,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 3,

pp. 929-936, Aug. 2007. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901649.

[2] D. J. Trudnowski, A. Gentile, J. M. Khan, and E. M. Petritz, “Fixed-speed wind-generator and

wind-park modeling for transient stability studies,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 19, no. 4,

pp. 1911-1917, Nov. 2004. doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2004.836204.

[3] A. Rauh, and J. Peinke, “A phenomenological model for the dynamic response of wind turbines

to turbulent wind,” J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Dynamics, vol.92, pp. 159-183, 2004.

[4] V. Akhmatov, and H. Knudsen, “An aggregate model of a grid-connected, large-scale, offshore

wind farm for power stability investigations – importance of windmill mechanical system,” Elec-

trical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 24, pp. 709-717, 2002.

[5] M. Martins, A. Perdana, P. Ledesma, E. Agneholm, and O. Carlson, “Validation of ﬁxed speed

wind turbine dynamic models with measured data,” Renewable Energy, vol. 32, pp. 1301-1316,

2007.

[6] C. Eisenhut, F. Krug, C. Schram, and B. Klockl, “Wind turbine model for system simulations

near cut-in wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 414-420, June 2007.

doi: 10.1009/TEC.2006.875473.

[7] P. N. Finlay, and J. M. Wilson, “The paucity of model validation in operational research

projects,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 303-308, April 1987.

doi: 10.2307/2582053.

[8] T. H. Naylor, and J. M. Finger, “Veriﬁcation of computer simulation models,” Management

Science, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 92-101, Oct. 1967.

[9] J. M. Jonkman, and M. L. Buhl Jr, FAST User’s Guide, Technical Report, NREL/EL-500-38230.

A publication of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (A national laboratory of the U.S.

Department of Energy, Ofﬁce of Energy Efﬁciency & Renewable Energy). Aug. 2005. Available

online: http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/

[10] DIgSILENT PowerFactory. An Integrated Power System Analysis Software for Wind Power

Applications, from DIgSILENT GmbH. Homepage: http://www.digsilent.de

CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS, PERSPECTIVES, AND CONCLUSIONS 144

[11] C. Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservations of

Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, London: John Murray, 1859.

[12] J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artiﬁcial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with

Applications to Biology, Control and Artiﬁcial Intelligence, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

[13] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, MA:

Addison-Wesley 1989.

[14] A. Hoffman, Arguments on Evolution: A Paleontologist’s Perspective, New York: Oxford Uni-

versity Press, 1989.

[15] B. D. Fogel, Evolutionary Computation: Toward a New Philosophy of Machine Intelligence,

NY: IEEE Press, 1995.

[16] K. A. De Jong, An Analysis of the Behaviour of a Class of Genetic Adaptive Systems, Doctoral

Dissertation, Dept. of Computer and Communications Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann

Arbor, 1975.

[17] F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms,

Washington, DC: Spartan Books, 1962.

[18] R. Axelrod, “The Evolution of Strategies in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma,” In Genetic Algo-

rithms and Simulated Annealing, edited by L. Davis, London: Pitman, pp. 32-41, 1987.

Chapter 11

Future Work

11.1 Introduction

T

HERE are two approaches to allowfor uncertainty in systemmodels and disturbances: adaptive

versus robust control. The ﬁrst approach is to use an adaptive controller, which estimates

parameters and calculates the control accordingly. Self-tuning devices have been very successful,

but they involve online design computations and are therefore not as simple as a ﬁxed controller to

implement. The second approach is to allow for uncertainty in the design of the ﬁxed controller, thus

producing a robust control scheme — one which is insensitive to parameter variations or disturbances.

Future research is in the direction of control based on the following two concepts:

• H

2

/H

∞

— these formulations eliminate the stochastic element and permit a frequency

domain view by allowing the introduction of frequency dependent weighting functions; and

• (Neuro)Fuzzy controllers — rely on fuzzy logic to model imprecise concepts and

evolve context-dependent controllers via optimization.

The H

∞

design approach can be combined with self-tuning action to obtain a robust adaptive

controller [1]-[3]. The H

∞

concept is particularly appropriate when improving robustness, in the

face of WECS plant perturbations due to high wind turbulence, or parameter uncertainty.

Fuzzy controllers are implemented using fuzzy rules, which can reduce the number of computa-

tions in conventional controllers. It is also claimed that they can be implemented more easily than

conventional controllers. The most popular kind of fuzzy systems are based on either the Mamdami

fuzzy model, Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model, Tsukamoto fuzzy model or Singleton fuzzy

model. To deﬁne a fuzzy logic controller it is necessary to introduce IF-THEN rules to establish

how probable the process variable is. To evaluate the rules, the deﬁnition of fuzzy operations is also

needed. The application of the rules deﬁnes fuzzy set values of fuzzy output sets.

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 146

11.2 H

∞

-Optimization for WECS

Design by H

∞

-optimization as a design tool for linear multivariable WECS control involves the

minimization of the peak magnitude of a suitable closed-loop system function. It is very well suited to

frequency response shaping. Moreover, robustness against plant uncertainty is handled more directly.

Introducing µ-synthesis in the design aims at reducing the peak value of the structured singular value.

It accomplishes joint robustness and performance optimization. H

∞

-optimization amounts to the

minimization of the ∞-norm of the relevant frequency response function. The name

1

derives from

the fact that mathematically the problem may be set in the space H

∞

, which consists of all bounded

functions that are analytic in the right-half complex plane. An important aspect of H

∞

optimization

is that it allows to include robustness constraints explicitly in the criterion.

Properties of H

∞

Robust Control Design

There are several advantages of the H

∞

control design approach. The technique can be easily com-

puterised and formalized design procedures can be introduced. Design issues can be considered in

the frequency domain and classical design intuition can be employed. However, the most important

advantage is that stability margins can be guaranteed and performance requirements can also be sat-

isﬁed, in a uniﬁed design framework. The H

∞

design approach is distinguished by the following

features and properties:

• It is a design procedure developed speciﬁcally to allow for the modeling errors, which are

inevitable and limit high-performance control systems design.

• There is a rigorous mathematical basis for the design algorithms, which enables stability and

robustness properties to be predicted with some certainty.

• There are close similarities between state-space versions of H

∞

controllers and the well-known

Kalman ﬁltering or H

2

/LQG control structures.

• If the uncertainty lies within the class considered, stability properties can be guaranteed and

safe reliable systems can be assured. Note that the design procedures cannot be used blindly,

since poor information can still lead to controllers with poor performance properties.

• The trade-offs between good stability properties and good performance are easier to make in a

H

∞

context than with many of the competing designs.

1

Named after the British mathematician G. H. Hardy.

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 147

• The approach can be interpreted in terms of the stochastic nature of the system, but if distur-

bances and noise are important H

2

/LQG may still be the preferred solution.

• The H

∞

design technique is easy to use, since the algorithms are available in commercial

software.

The main disadvantage is that methods of handling parametric uncertainty are not handled so naturally

in the H

∞

framework. A high-performance robust design would take account of this structure, but the

basic H

∞

approach does not account for this type of information. However, there are several ways of

modifying the method to allow for parametric uncertainties, including µ-synthesis and H

∞

adaptive

control. The H

∞

design approach is a strong contender to provide a general purpose control design

procedure, which can account for uncertainties and is simple to use with computer-aided design tools.

Comparison of H

∞

and H

2

/LQG Controllers

The similarities and differences between the H

∞

and the H

2

/LQG approaches are detailed below:

1. Similarities

(a) Both H

2

and H

∞

optimal controllers are based on the minimization of a cost index.

(b) Some of the closed-loop poles of the LQG solution will be the same as those of the H

∞

solution

in certain limiting cases.

(c) The dynamic cost weights have a similar effect in both types of cost function, e.g. integral

action can be introduced via an integrator in the error weighting term in both cases.

(d) Closed-loop stability can be guaranteed, whether the plant be non-minimum phase, or unstable

(neglecting for the moment uncertainty and assuming controllers are implemented in full).

2. Differences

(a) The basic conceptual idea behind H

∞

design involves the minimization of the magnitudes of a

transfer function, which is quite different from the H

2

/LQG requirement to minimize a complex

domain integral representing error and control signal power spectra.

(b) The H

∞

design approach is closer to that of classical frequency response design in that the

frequency-response shaping of desired transfer functions is attempted.

(c) The calculation of H

∞

controllers is more complicated than the equivalent H

2

/LQG controllers,

whether this be in the time or frequency domains.

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 148

11.3 Fuzzy Logic Control

The Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) employs a set of N fuzzy linguistic rules. These rules may be provided

by experts or can be extracted from numerical data. In either case, engineering rules in FLS are

expressed as a collection of IF – THEN statements. Therefore a fuzzy rule base R containing N fuzzy

rules can be expressed as:

R = [Rule

1

, Rule

2

, ..., Rule

i

, ..., Rule

N

] (11.1)

where the i −th rule is:

Rule

i

: IFz(k) is

˜

A THEN u(k) is β

i

(11.2)

where k refers to the variable values at time t = k∆t. Moreover, the vector

z(k) = [z

1

(k), ..., z

l

(k)]

T

(11.3)

represents all the l fuzzy inputs to the FLS. On the other hand, u(k) represents the fuzzy output of the

FLS. In the antecedent of the i −th rule, the term

˜

A = [

˜

A

1

i

, ...,

˜

A

l

i

]

T

(11.4)

represents the vector of the fuzzy sets referring to the input fuzzy vector z(k). The membership

functions of both the input vector z(k) and the vector

˜

A of the fuzzy sets are Gaussian, and assume

the following expressions:

µ

zj

(k) = e

−1/2[(z

j

(k)−ˆ z

j

)/σ

zj

]

2

(11.5)

µ

˜

A

i

j

(k) = e

−1/2

»

(z

j

(k)−

ˆ

A

i

j

)/σ

˜

A

i

j

–

2

(11.6)

where ˆ z

j

and σ

zj

are the mean value and the variance of the Gaussian membership function of the

j − th input, z

j

(k). Likewise,

ˆ

A

i

j

and σ

˜

A

i

j

are the mean value and the variance of the Gaussian

membership function of the j − th fuzzy set referring to the i −th fuzzy rule,

ˆ

A

i

j

. The terms ˆ z

j

and

σ

zj

are known constants, while

ˆ

A

i

j

and σ

˜

A

i

j

represent the unknown parameters of the FLS. These

parameters will be adapted to the controlled wind system by minimizing an appropriate cost function.

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 149

y(k)

Fuzzy

cont r oller

z

-1

z

-1

WECS

Plant

u(k)

z(k)

y(k-1)

u(k-1)

r (k)

Figure 11.1: Layout of the fuzzy control system.

The output of the fuzzy controller, u(k), assumes the following expression [4]

u(k) =

¸

N

i=1

β

i

¸

l

j=1

µ

Q

i

j

[z

j,max

(k)]

¸

N

i=1

¸

l

j=1

µ

Q

i

j

[z

j,max

(k)]

(11.7)

where

µ

Q

i

j

[z

j

(k)] = µ

zj

(k)µ

˜

A

i

j

(k). (11.8)

Moreover,

z

j,max

(k) =

ˆ z

j

σ

2

zj

+

ˆ

A

i

j

σ

2

˜

A

i

j

σ

2

zj

+ σ

2

˜

A

i

j

(11.9)

is the value of the j −th input that maximizes (11.8). The maximization of Eq. (11.8) represents the

supremum operation in the sup-star composition of the i −th rule [4]. This fuzzy controller appears

to be parameterized by

θ(k) =

¸

ˆ

A

i

j

(K), σ

˜

A

i

j

(k), β

i

(k)i = 1, 2, ..., N; j = 1, 2, ..., l

¸

. (11.10)

In the next section, a procedure that allows an on-line adaptation of the parameters θ(k) to the

controlled wind system will be introduced. The fuzzy logic control system adopted is represented in

Fig. 11.1. The fuzzy input vector is deﬁned as:

z(k) = [y(k −1), r(k), u(k −1)]

T

(11.11)

where y(k) is the output of the plant (controlled variable), u(k) is the control variable (output of the

fuzzy controller), and r(k) represents a reference signal for y(k).

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 150

y(k)

Fuzzy

cont r oller

z

-1

z

-1

WECS

Plant

u(k)

z(k)

y(k-1)

u(k-1)

r (k)

LSA par amet er

est imat or

+

_

r (k+1) y(k+1)

Figure 11.2: Fuzzy control system with the parameter estimator.

11.3.1 Estimator-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic

In general, an Adaptive Fuzzy Logic (AFL) control starts from an initially assumed set of parameters

θ(0), whose only requirement is to stabilize the plant. Then, at each time step, the AFL control adapts

the set of parameters θ(k), in order to minimize the cost function:

.(k) =

1

2

e

2

y

(k) (11.12)

where e

y

(k) is the control error deﬁned as:

e

y

(k) = r(k) −y(k). (11.13)

The control error e

y

(k) can be determined only if a deterministic model of the controlled system is

available. In this case it is supposed that no a priori deterministic model of the controlled system is

available. The Estimator-based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic (EAFL) control here suggested allows to solve

this class of problems. Indeed, instead of deriving the appropriate change in each internal parameter

from the control error e

y

(k), the EAFL refers to an approximate estimation of the control error

ˆ e

y

(k) = r(k) − ˆ y(k) (11.14)

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 151

and to the corresponding cost function:

ˆ

.(k) =

1

2

ˆ e

2

y

(k). (11.15)

In Eq. (11.14), ˆ y(k) represents the estimated value of the output at the time k, to be evaluated. As

stated in [5], the present system can be expressed as follows:

y(k) = a

k

y(k −1) + b

k

u(k −1) (11.16)

where a

k

and b

k

represent the time-varying coefﬁcients of model (11.16). If the controlled plant

is observable, then (11.16) represents its model in state space notation. In such a case, the model

coefﬁcients a

k

and b

k

are unknown. These coefﬁcients can be on-line estimated by applying the Least

Square Algorithm (LSA) in recursive form [5],[6]. As a consequence, the basic scheme of the fuzzy

control system has to be modiﬁed as shown in Fig. 11.2, where the LSA estimator evaluates the

coefﬁcients ˆ a

k

and

ˆ

b

k

. Assuming that such coefﬁcients do not change from the time k to the time

k + 1, the estimated model of the controlled system one-step-ahead, i.e., at time k + 1, assumes the

following expression:

ˆ y(k + 1) = ˆ a

k

y(k) +

ˆ

b

k

u(k) (11.17)

which is the output of the LSA parameter estimator (Fig. 2).

The signal ˆ y(k + 1) is compared to the reference signal r(k + 1) and the difference determines

the modiﬁcation of the fuzzy controller parameters θ(k). This is implemented by rewriting the cost

function

ˆ

. at time k + 1 as:

ˆ

.(k + 1) =

1

2

¸

r(k + 1) −

ˆ a

k

y(k) +

ˆ

b

k

u(k)

¸

2

. (11.18)

The minimization of the cost function

ˆ

.(k + 1) can be easily accomplished by using the gradient

descent algorithm as follows:

θ(k) = θ(k −1) −η

∂

ˆ

.(k + 1)

∂θ

(11.19)

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 152

where the sensitivity derivatives of

ˆ

.(k + 1) with respect to θ (refer to (11.10)) are given by:

∂

ˆ

.(k + 1)

∂β

i

= −

ˆ

b

k

ˆ e

y

(k + 1)

¸

l

j=1

w

ij

(k)

¸

N

i=1

¸

l

j=1

w

ij(k)

(11.20)

∂

ˆ

.(k + 1)

∂

ˆ

A

i

j

= −

ˆ

b

k

ˆ e

y

(k + 1)

−v

ij

(k)

¸

N

i=1

c

ij

¸

l

j=1

w

ij

(k)[β

i

−u(k)]

¸

N

i=1

¸

l

j=1

w

ij(k)

(11.21)

∂

ˆ

.(k + 1)

∂σ

˜

A

i

j

= −

ˆ

b

k

ˆ e

y

(k + 1)

σ

˜

A

i

j

v

2

ij

(k)

¸

N

i=1

c

ij

¸

l

j=1

w

ij

(k)[β

i

−u(k)]

¸

N

i=1

¸

l

j=1

w

ij(k)

(11.22)

where:

v

ij

=

ˆ

A

i

j

− ˆ z

j

σ

2

˜

A

i

j

+ σ

2

zj

(11.23)

w

ij

(k) = e

−1/2(

ˆ

A

i

j

−ˆ z

j)

2

/

σ

2

˜

A

i

j

+σ

2

zj

!

(11.24)

The coefﬁcient η is the rate of descent which can be chosen arbitrarily. Moreover, c

ij

is equal to 1 if

the i-th rule is dependent on the j-th input, otherwise it is equal to 0.

11.4 Remarks

After several years of efforts in design of control schemes for wind turbines, the wind industry is

slowly succumbing to advanced controllers that offer a series of advantages over the classical linear

systems. Research has been undertaken and various conﬁgurations proposed, for WECS control

involving H

∞

controllers [7]–[9] and Fuzzy logic schemes [10],[11], though successful practical

implementation of these paradigms is not (yet) documented. From the pedagogical overview of some

of the most promising and recent developments in advanced control for WECS discussed in this

report, future research work is motivated by two issues:

◦ capability of the novel multiobjective controllers for effective energy conversion and drive-load

reduction for MW-class WECSs, and

◦ ﬂexibility on the part of wind turbine manufacturers to embrace a shift from the classical PID.

Furthermore, rapid improvements in computer hardware, combined with stiff competition in the wind

industry as well as various governments’ regulations are largely responsible for research in advanced

control. Future research aims to address the frequently expressed improvement sought — to decrease

control response time (including model development, computation, programming, communications,

user interface), not just the cost beneﬁt — as these advanced paradigms mature to a commodity status.

CHAPTER 11. FUTURE WORK 153

References

[1] M. J. Grimble, “H

∞

robust controller for self-tuning applications, Part 1: Controller design,”

Int. Journal of Control, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1429-1444, 1987.

[2] M. J. Grimble, “H

∞

robust controller for self-tuning applications, Part 2: Self-tuning and ro-

bustness,” Int. Journal of Control, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1819-1840, 1987.

[3] N. A. Fairbairn, and M. J. Grimble, “H

∞

robust controller for self-tuning applications, Part 3:

Self-tuning controller implementation,” Int. Journal of Control, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 15-36, 1990.

[4] J. M. Mendel, “Fuzzy logic systems for engineering: a tutorial,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.

83, no. 3, 1995.

[5] G. C. Goodwin, and K. S. Sin, Adaptive, ﬁltering, predﬁction and control Prentice-Hall Inc.,

Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, 1984.

[6] A. L. Dadone, L. D’Ambrosio, and B. Fortunato, “One-step-ahead adaptive technique for wind

systems,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 39, no. 5/6, pp. 399, 1998.

[7] T. Senjyu, E. Omine, D. Hayashi, E. B. Muhando, A. Yona, and T. Funabashi, “Balancing

control for dispersed generators considering torsional torque suppression and AVR performance

for synchronous generators,” IEEJ Trans. Power and Energy, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 75-83, 2008

(in Japanese).

[8] B. Connor, S. N. Iyer, W. E. Leithead, and M. J. Grimble, “Control of a horizontal axis wind

turbine using H inﬁnity control,” First IEEE Conference on Control Applications, 13-16 Sept.

1992, vol. 1, pp. 117-122. doi: 10.1109/CCA.1992.269889.

[9] Dengying, Y. Shiming, W. Xiangming, L. Sun, and L. Jiangjing, “Researches on a controller

for reducing load of driving chain in wind turbine based on H

∞

control,” IEEE Int. Conf. on

Automation and Logistics, 18-21 Aug. 2007, pp. 1-4. doi: 10.1109/ICAL.2007.4338573.

[10] M. G. Simoes, B. K. Bose, and R. J. Spiegel, “Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of a variable

speed cage machine wind generation system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 12, no. 1,

Jan. 1977.

[11] I. G. Damousis, M. C. Alexiadis, J. B. Theocharis, and P. S. Dokopoulos, “A fuzzy

model for wind speed prediction and power generation in wind parks using spatial cor-

relation,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 352-361, June 2004. doi:

10.1109/TEC.2003.821865.

Appendix A

Parameters Setting

A.1 WECS Model Details

Table A.1: WECS parameters and baseline safety operational limits

PARAMETER VALUE

Wind turbine and rotor

blade radius, R 35 m

number of blades 3

hub height 61.5 m

rated wind speed, v

r

12.205 m/s

cut-in/cut-out wind speed 4/25 m/s

gearbox ratio, K

gr

83.33

turbine inertia, J

t

6.029E+06 kgm

2

low speed shaft torsional stiffness, K

s

1.6E+08 Nm/rad

low speed shaft torsional damping, D

s

1.0E+07 Nms/rad

Generator and grid network

rated capacity, P

r

2 MW

optimal mode maximum generator speed 1500 rpm

generator inertia, J

g

60 kgm

2

max/min generator torque, Γ

g,max/min

14.4/0 kNm

generator torque set-point 13.4 kN

max/min generator speed 1800/850 rpm

generator stator resistance 0.01 Ω

generator rotor resistance 0.01 Ω

stator leakage inductance 95.5E-06 H

rotor leakage inductance 95.5E-06 H

generator magnetizing (mutual) inductance 0.0955 H

stator rated voltage, V

e

690 V

stator rated (electrical) frequency, f

n

50 Hz

rotor rated magnetizing current 1700 A

Pitch controller

max/min pitch angle, β

max/min

90/-2 deg

max/min pitch rate,

˙

β

max/min

8/-8 deg/s

APPENDIX A. PARAMETERS SETTING 155

A.2 Aerodynamics Information

A.2.1 Steady-state Operation Point Parameters

Table A.2: Performance coefﬁcients calculation

rated wind speed 12.205 m/s

minimum tip-speed ratio 2

maximum tip-speed ratio 20

tip-speed ratio step 0.1

pitch angle -2 deg

rotor speed 20 rpm

A.2.2 Wind Speed Simulation Parameters

Table A.3: Simulated time-dependent wind ﬁeld parameters at hub height

mean wind speed for simulation 12.205 m/s

ﬂow inclination 8 deg

interpolation scheme cubic

sampling period, ∆t

w

0.1 s

turbulence intensity:

longitudinal 16.0108 %

lateral 12.5465 %

vertical 8.92472 %

turbulence charactertistics:

spectrum type von Karman

width of turbulent wind ﬁeld 100 m

height of turbulent wind ﬁeld 100 m

length of turbulent wind ﬁeld 1804.8m

step-size of turbulent wind ﬁeld 0.88125 m

Table A.4: Physical constants

air density, ρ 1.225 kg/m

3

air viscosity, ν 1.82E-05 kg/ms

gravitational acceleration, g 9.81 m/s

2

density of water, ρ

w

1027 kg/m

3

Notes:

1. For Table A.3, the rated speed is taken as the mean wind speed for simulation.

2. Details on the determination of the various values for 3-D turbulence intensity are obtained

from the IEC 61400-1 Standard, as explained in Section A.2.3.

APPENDIX A. PARAMETERS SETTING 156

A.2.3 The IEC61400-1 Standard for Turbulence Model

The extreme wind events experienced by the WECS are included in the currently available draft of

the IEC-Standard as extreme load conditions that must be considered as ultimate load cases when

designing a wind turbine. Within the framework of the IEC 61400-1 Std these load situations are

deﬁned in terms of two independent site variables — a reference mean wind speed and a characteristic

turbulence intensity, TI.

Turbulence in random ten-minute periods has more scatter at low wind speeds. This is both

because the uncertainty depends on the ratio of the time scale and sample duration, and because

deviation from neutral atmospheric stability is more pronounced at low wind speeds. These effects

are accounted for by an empirical formula in edition 3 of the IEC61400-1 Standard:

The Standard deﬁnes the representative turbulence intensity, σ

1

, as the mean + 1.28 times the

standard deviation of random ten-min measurements. Load cases are deﬁned by the reference

turbulence intensity, I

ref

, which is equal to the mean turbulence intensity at 15 m/s

σ

1

= I

ref

¸

(15m/s + aV

hub

)

(1 + a)

+ 1.28 1.44m/s

. (A.1)

Note that in the formula the variability is added as an extra term because I

ref

refers to mean TI. The

representative TI may be deﬁned by the actual edition 3 formula that is equal to the more complex

formulation when a = 3 as follows:

σ

1

= I

ref

(0.75V

hub

+ 5.6m/s). (A.2)

The values in Table A.5 are speciﬁed for the turbulence model:

Table A.5: IEC 61400-1 Ed. 3 parameter assignments

Class A B C S

I

ref

0.16 0.14 0.12 Designer speciﬁes

In this thesis, a Class A turbulence site is considered. For the seasonal mean wind speed of 7 m/s,

cut-in wind speed of 4.0 m/s, and operation at rated wind speed of the turbine equipment (12 m/s),

the prevailing turbulence intensities (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) are obtained as (16.0108%,

12.5465%, and 8.92472%), respectively, as given in Table A.3. In almost all circumstances the

horizontal component of the wind is much larger than the vertical — the exception being violent

convection.

APPENDIX A. PARAMETERS SETTING 157

A.2.4 Annual Energy Yield

The annual energy yield is calculated by integrating the power curve for the turbine together with a

Weibull distribution of hourly mean wind speeds. The power curve is deﬁned at a number of discrete

wind speeds, and a linear variation between these points is assumed. The Weibull distribution is

deﬁned by:

F(v

w

) = 1 −e

−(

vw

c¯ vw

)

k

(A.3)

where F is the cumulative distribution of wind speed. Thus the probability density f(v

w

) is given by

f(v

w

) = −k

v

k−1

w

(c¯ v

w

)

k

e

−(

vw

c¯ vw

)

k

(A.4)

with k as the Weibull shape parameter and c as the scale factor. For a true Weibull distribution, these

two parameters are related by the gamma function:

c = 1/Γ

1 +

1

k

. (A.5)

Unless the user supplies the value for c, its value is calculated as above. Note that if a different value

is supplied, the resulting distribution will have a mean value that is different from ¯ v

w

.

The annual energy yield is calculated as

E = Y

cut−out

cut−in

P(v

w

)f(v

w

)dv

w

(A.6)

where

P(v

w

) = power curve, i.e., electrical power as a function of wind speed, given in (2.6)

Y = length of a year, taken as 365 days.

The result is further multiplied by the availability of the turbine, which is assumed for this purpose to

be uncorrelated with wind speed (see Section 2.2.4: Capacity Factor). The aforegoing is the basis of

mean wind speed calculation for a given site as mentioned in Section 5.2: Determination of Mean

Wind Speed, v

m

.

Appendix B

Supporting Concepts

B.1 Per Unit System for the WECS Model

In electrical engineering in the ﬁeld of power transmission a per-unit system is the expression of

system quantities as fractions of a deﬁned base unit quantity. A per-unit (pu) system provides units for

power, voltage, current, impedance, and admittance. Pu system—widely used in the power industry in

power ﬂow studies to express values of quantities — is adopted in the dynamic analysis of the drive-

train as well as the electrical system in order to simplify calculations by expressing the parameters on

a common power base. These are based on the following formulation:

base value in pu =

quantity expressed in SI units

base value

. (B.1)

B.1.1 DQ Base Values

The dq system base voltage and current are taken equal to the respective abc instantaneous base

values:

V

b,dq

=

√

2V

b,abc

I

b,dq

=

√

2I

b,abc

. (B.2)

Using these deﬁnitions, the base power S

b

is given by

S

b

=

3

2

V

b,dq

I

b,dq

(B.3)

whereas the base resistance is equal to the respective abc value

Z

b,dq

=

V

b,dq

I

b,dq

= Z

b,abc

(B.4)

APPENDIX B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 159

B.1.2 Mechanical System

If S

b

is the base power (VA), ω

0

the base electrical angular velocity (rad/sec) and p the number of

poles of the generator, then the base values at the high speed side (generator-side) of the drive train

are deﬁned as follows:

ω

b

=

ω

0

p/2

the base mechanical speed, in mechanical rad/sec (B.5)

Γ

b

=

S

b

ω

b

the base torque, in Nm (B.6)

J

b

=

S

b

0.5ω

2

b

=

Γ

b

0.5ω

b

the base inertia, in Nm/(rad/sec) (B.7)

K

b

=

Γ

b

ω

b

=

S

b

ω

2

b

the base stiﬀness coeﬃcient, in Nm/(rad/sec) (B.8)

D

b

=

Γ

b

ω

b

=

S

b

ω

2

b

the base damping coeﬃcient, in Nm/(rad/sec) (B.9)

The low speed side (rotor-side) base quantities are calculated from the above quantities using the

gearbox ratio N

gr

as follows:

ω

B

= N

gr

ω

B

, Γ

b

= N

gr

Γ

b

, J

b

= N

2

gr

J

b

, K

b

= N

2

gr

K

b

and D

b

= N

2

gr

D

b

. (B.10)

where primed and double-primed respectively are the low and high speed side base quantities.

Generally, the pu inertia values relate to the mass moments as follows:

H

t

=

J

t

ω

2

b

2S

b

N

gr

p

2

and H

g

=

J

g

ω

2

b

2S

b

N

gr

p

2

. (B.11)

Further, the shaft stiffness is obtained from

K

S

=

2ω

2

0

H

t

ω

b

(B.12)

while the electrical twist angle of the shaft, θ

tg

, is given by

dθ

tg

dt

= ω

b

(ω

t

−ω

g

). (B.13)

In the aforegoing, ω

0

= 2πf

n

, where f

n

is nominal grid frequency (Hz), and ω

b

= 2πf

0

, with f

0

being

the mechanical drive train eigenfrequency (Hz).

APPENDIX B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 160

B.2 Pole-placement

For the second-order system

B(z)

A(z)

=

b

1

z + b

2

z

2

+ a

1

z + a

2

(B.14)

and a second-order controller

S(z)

R(z)

=

s

0

z

2

+ s

1

z + s

2

z

2

+ r

1

z + r

2

(B.15)

the polynomial A(z)R(z) + B(z)S(z) becomes

(z

2

+ a

1

z + a

2

)(z

2

+ r

1

z + r

2

) + (b

1

z + b

2

)(s

0

z

2

+ s

1

z + s

2

)

= z

4

+ (a

1

+ r

1

+ b

1

s

0

)z

3

+ r

2

(a

2

+ a

1

r

1

+ r

2

+ b

1

s

1

+ b

2

s

0

)z

2

+ (a

2

r

1

+ a

1

r

2

+ b

1

s

2

+ b

2

s

1

)z + (a

2

r

2

+ b

2

s

2

) . (B.16)

If the control coefﬁcients (r

1

, r

2

, s

0

, s

1

, s

2

) are known the coefﬁcients in the polynomial

A(z)R(z) + B(z)S(z) = P(z) = z

4

+ p

1

z

3

+ p

2

z

2

+ p

3

z + p

4

become

a

1

+ r

1

+ b

1

s

0

= p

1

a

2

+ a

1

r

1

+ r

2

+ b

1

s

1

+ b

2

s

0

= p

2

a

2

r

1

+ a

1

r

2

+ b

1

s

2

+ b

2

s

1

= p

3

a

2

r

2

+ b

2

s

2

= p

4

(B.17)

and the closed loop poles are found from P(z) = 0. If the poles are speciﬁed in advance these

equations may be solved with respect to the unknown control coefﬁcients (r

1

, r

2

, s

0

, s

1

, s

2

) and the

above expression in matrix form becomes

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

b

1

0 0 1 0

b

2

b

1

0 a

1

1

0 b

2

b

1

a

2

a

1

0 0 b

2

0 a

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

s

0

s

1

s

2

r

1

r

2

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

p

1

−a

1

p

2

−a

2

p

3

p

4

(B.18)

APPENDIX B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 161

Having 5 unknown controller parameters and 4 equations means that an extra equation in the con-

troller parameters may be fulﬁlled. If integral action of the controller is speciﬁed i.e. the DC-gain of

the controller is inﬁnite, then the following extra equation is obtained:

R(z = 1) = 0 (B.19)

or

1 + r

1

+ r

2

= 0. (B.20)

The combined pole-placement controller with integral action then becomes the solution to

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

b

1

0 0 1 0

b

2

b

1

0 a

1

1

0 b

2

b

1

a

2

a

1

0 0 b

2

0 a

2

0 0 0 1 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

s

0

s

1

s

2

r

1

r

2

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

p

1

−a

1

p

2

−a

2

p

3

p

4

−1

. (B.21)

For the DC-gain, consider the system:

Y (z) =

b

1

z + b

2

z

2

+ a

1

z + a

2

(B.22)

that has the discrete time realization

y(k + 2) + a

1

y(k + 1) + a

2

y(k) = b

1

u(k + 1) + b

2

u(k). (B.23)

If the system is assumed stable then a constant input u(k) = u

0

will after a while lead to a constant

output y(k) = y

0

satisfying the equation

y

0

+ a

1

y

0

+ a

2

y

0

= b

1

u

0

+ b

2

u

0

(B.24)

or

y

0

=

b

1

+ b

2

1 + a

1

+ a

2

u

0

(B.25)

and the DC-gain is then seen to be the value of the transfer function for z = 1.

Appendix C

List of Publications

C.1 Journal Publications

1. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Atsushi Yona, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Fun-

abashi, 2007. “Disturbance Rejection by Dual Pitch Angle and Self-tuning Regulator for WTG

Parametric Uncertainty Compensation,” IET - Control Theory and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 5,

pp. 1431-1440, Sept. 2007. DOI:10.1049/iet-cta:20060448.

2. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Naomitsu Urasaki, Atsushi Yona, Hiroshi Kinjo,

and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Gain Scheduling Control of Variable Speed WTG Under Widely

Varying Turbulence Loading,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 14, pp. 2407-2423, 2007.

DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2006.12.011.

3. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Atsushi Yona, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Fun-

abashi, “Regulation of WTG Dynamic Response to Parameter Variations of Analytic Wind

Stochasticity,” Wind Energy, (In Press), DOI:10:1002/we.236.

4. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Aug-

mented LQG Controller for Enhancement of Online Dynamic Performance for WTG System,”

Renewable Energy, (In Press), DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.001.

5. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Eitaro Omine, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Fun-

abashi, “Model Development for Nonlinear Dynamic Energy Conversion System: an Advanced

Intelligent Control Paradigm for Optimality and Reliability,” IEEJ Trans. Power and Energy,

2007. (Accepted for publication).

APPENDIX C. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 163

6. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Extend-

ing the Modeling Framework for Wind Generation Systems: RLS-Based Paradigm for Perfor-

mance under High Turbulence Inﬂow,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, 2007. (Forthcoming).

7. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hiroshi Kinjo, Zachary Otara Siagi, and Toshihisa

Funabashi, “Intelligent Optimal Control of Nonlinear Wind Generating System by a Modeling-

Based Approach,” IET - Renewable Power Generation, 2007. (Accepted for publication).

8. Tomonobu Senjyu, Endusa Billy Muhando, Atsushi Yona, Naomitsu Urasaki, Hiroshi Kinjo,

and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Maximum Wind Power Capture by Sensorless Rotor Position and

Wind Velocity Estimation from Flux Linkage and Sliding Observer,” Int. Journal of Emerging

Electric Power Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2, Art. 3, pp. 1- 9, 2007.

9. Tomonobu Senjyu, Satoshi Tamaki, Endusa Billy Muhando, Naomitsu Urasaki, Hiroshi Kinjo,

Toshihisa Funabashi, Hideki Fujita, and Hideomi Sekine, “Wind Velocity and Rotor Position

Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for WGS,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 31,

No. 11, pp. 1764-1775, 2006. DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2005.09.020.

10. Tomonobu Senjyu, Eitaro Omine, Daisuke Hayashi, Endusa Billy Muhando, Atsushi Yona,

and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Balancing Control for Dispersed Generators Considering Torsional

Torque Suppression and AVR Performance for Synchronous Generators,” IEEJ Trans. Power

and Energy, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 75-83, 2008. (in Japanese).

—————————————————————————————————————–

11*. Endusa Billy Muhando, Hiroshi Kinjo, Eiho Uezato, Tomonobu Senjyu, and Tetsuhiko Ya-

mamoto, “Online Neurocontroller Design Optimized by a Genetic Algorithm for a Multi-trailer

System,” Journal of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE), Vol. 42, No. 9,

pp. 1017-1026, 2006.

12*. Endusa Billy Muhando, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Tetsuhiko Yamamoto, “Enhanced Performance for

Multivariable Optimization Problems by Use of Genetic Algorithms with Recessive Gene Struc-

ture,” Artiﬁcial Life & Robotics - Springer Japan, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 11-17, 2006.

DOI:10.1007/s10015-005-0355-7.

* Not related to PhD research work presented in the Thesis.

APPENDIX C. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 164

C.2 Journal Papers under Peer Review

1. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Stochas-

tic Inequality Constrained Closed-loop Model-based Predictive Control of MW-Class Wind

Generating System in the Electric Power Supply,” IET Procs. Renewable Power Generation

2. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Model

Fidelity Prerequisites for Individual Blade Pitch Regulation of Wind Generating System with

State-Feedback Control,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion

—————————————————————————————————————–

3*. Endusa Billy Muhando, Hiroshi Kinjo, Tomonobu Senjyu, Tetsuhiko Yamamoto, and Toshihisa

Funabashi, “Multi-trailer Back-up Conundrum Revisited: LQR for Control Load Mitigation on

Neurocontroller,” Automatica

* Not related to PhD research work presented in the Thesis.

APPENDIX C. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 165

C.3 Conference Papers: Presented

1. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, and Hiroshi Kinjo, “Disturbance Rejection by Stochas-

tic Inequality Constrained Closed-loop Model-Based Predictive Control of MW-Class Wind

Generating System,” Presented at the IEEJ-IEICE Joint Conference 2007), University of the

Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan, 19 Dec. 2007.

2. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Otara Zachary Siagi, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “In-

telligent Optimal Control of Wind Power Generating System by a Complemented LQG Ap-

proach,” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society Conference & Exhibition (Power-

africa2007), Johannesburg, South Africa, 16-20 July 2007.

3. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Atsushi Yona, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa Fun-

abashi, “RLS-Based Self-Tuning Regulator for WTG Dynamic Performance Enhancement Un-

der Stochastic Setting,” Presented at the International Conference on Electrical Engineering

(ICEE 2007), Hong Kong, 8-12 July 2007.

4. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Atsushi Yona, and Hiroshi Kinjo, “Evolutionary

Intelligent Control of Wind Turbines for Optimized Performance and Reliability,” Presented

at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007, Tampa, FL. USA, 24-28 June

2007.

5. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Naomitsu Urasaki, Atsushi Yona, and Toshihisa

Funabashi, “Robust Predictive Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generator by Self-

Tuning Regulator,” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007,

Tampa, FL. USA, 24-28 June 2007.

6. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Naomitsu Urasaki, Hiroshi Kinjo, and Toshihisa

Funabashi, “Online WTG Dynamic Performance and Transient Stability Enhancement by Evo-

lutionary LQG,” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007,

Tampa, FL. USA, 24-28 June 2007.

7. Tomonobu Senjyu, Yasutaka Ochi, Endusa Billy Muhando, Naomitsu Urasaki, and Hideomi

Sekine, “Speed and Position Sensorless MaximumPower Point Tracking Control for WGS with

Squirrel Cage Induction Generator,” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society Power

Systems Conference & Exposition (PSCE’06), Atlanta, GA. USA, 29 Oct.–01 Nov. 2006.

APPENDIX C. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 166

C.4 Conference Papers: Scheduled

1. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Eitaro Omine, Yuri Yonaha, and Toshihisa Fun-

abashi, “Steady-state and Transient Dynamic Response of Grid-Connected WECS with Asyn-

chronous DOIG by Predictive Control under Turbulent Inﬂow,” To be presented at the IEEE-

Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA, 20–24 July 2008.

2. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Eitaro Omine, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Full State

Feedback Digital Control of WECS with State Estimation by Stochastic Modeling Design,” To

be presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania,

USA, 20–24 July 2008.

3. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “Model Fidelity Prereq-

uisites for Variable Speed Pitch-Regulated WECS with State-Feedback Control,” To be pre-

sented at the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2008), Cambridge,

UK, 30 June–02 July 2008.

4. Endusa Billy Muhando, Tomonobu Senjyu, Hideomi Sekine, and Toshihisa Funabashi, “In-

dividual Blade Pitch Regulation for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with

State-Feedback Control,” To be presented at the IEEJ Power Engineering Society Conference

(PES’08), Hiroshima, Japan, 24–26 September, 2008.

C.5 Conference Papers: Other

1. Hiroshi Kinjo, Endusa Billy Muhando, Kunihiko Nakazono, Eiho Uezato, and Tetsuhiko Ya-

mamoto, “Real-time Design and Control of Multi-trailer System Using Neurocontroller Opti-

mized by a Genetic Algorithm,” Presented at the 9th International Conference on Mechatronics

Technology (ICMT 2005), Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, 5-8 Dec. 2005

Copyright by

MUHANDO, Billy Endusa March 2008

and forms the basis of control design for wind generating systems in this research. The main contribution is the harmonization of the various state-space models with varying dynamics to facilitate multiobjective controller design. University of the Ryukyus. The dissertation has been submitted in partial fulﬁllment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Engineering in Interdisciplinary Intelligent Systems. variable-speed wind generating system with active pitch regulation. are presented in a concise manner outlined in two parts. Einstein’s conundrum aside. The ﬁrst part of the dissertation is concerned with modeling the aerodynamic conversion system. It is based on articles published or submitted to peer-reviewed journals during the period of the PhD project. was rehearsing a Haydn string quartet. i . and Control Systems) with Sustainable Energy. is that you simply can’t count—what is your occupation anyhow?” to which he answered that he (Einstein) was an artist’s model. “The problem with you. Computer simulations executed in C-programming and MATLAB /Simulink™ environments conﬁrm the efﬁcacy of the paradigms (albeit often in amalgamated conﬁgurations) when applied to the developed performability models. and the problems thereof. It has been prepared in Japan at the Power Energy System Control (PESC) Laboratory of the Electrical & Electronics Department. Modeling the various wind turbine subsystems — wind speed and power train system (comprising the electrical and mechanical parts) — aims to provide an argumentative framework for a prototype that can be independently evaluated for validation. the cellist looked up and said. methodology and steps leading to solutions to the problems. When he failed for the fourth time to get his entry in the second movement. As an introduction. who fancied himself as a violinist. The project has been carried out as a harmonization between the Laboratory’s core research areas (Power Systems. modeling has been embraced by engineers of various persuasion in systems’ design. The dissertation is a condensed report based on investigation of generator torque control for optimal performance of a three-bladed. a brief rundown is offered on recent trends in world energy demand. The second part deals with optimal controller design based on some deﬁned control strategies. and ﬁnally the results. Faculty of Engineering.Preface G ERMAN physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955). It discusses the potential of several advanced intelligent control paradigms for meeting the two contradictory control objectives: power conversion maximization and active attenuation of structuraldynamic load-oscillations as well as static loads of the drive-train. reﬂecting his feeling that he was constantly posing for sculptures and paintings. The problem deﬁnition. challenges to the wind industry. the integration of wind energy in the global energy mix. Power Electronics. Albert.

and encouraged me to publish and make presentations at national and international symposia. as always. and sense of humor. at my brother Clyde’s room. Special thanks go to dissertation committe member. B. and Japan. Okinawa. Urasaki. notably Prof R. the book was elemental in arousing my thinking about machines and very deeply inﬂuenced me in pursuing a career in engineering. fun. Dr N. perspectives. and members of the PESC laboratory who offered a conducive environment for research. Abbott’s book: Ordinary Level Physics. Thanks are due ﬁrst to Prof Tomonobu Senjyu — my doctoral studies supervisor — for his great insights. Prof Senjyu. whom I can never thank enough for her endless love. mostly thanks to practising engineers I have met in the ﬁeld including Kenya. Japan. Culture. my partner Senta Judy Haron. Looking back. Dr K. Last but not least. Arizono who were instrumental in A my expertise in C-language. Kelly (for Japanese language tutorship). My time in studying and practising engineering has been intellectually stimulating. Secondly. M. Clyde let me borrow it. challenging and above all. showed me the essence of research in control engineering. E. My sincere thanks go to both Prof Hiroshi Kinjo and Prof Tetsuhiko Yamamoto (formally) of Mechanical Systems Engineering who dedicated their time in seeing me through the two-year masters course leading to an M. Alsharif. Sports. company and encouragement. Sincere gratitude is also extended to members of the academia at the University of the Ryukyus who have inﬂuenced my work and made this educational process a success. Unaware of the fact that I would not return it for two years and only then under threat of severe penalty. both challenged me and guided me throughout my thesis work. They particularly inducted me to life in Japan. Firstly. F. I have been humbled by the altruistic commitment of Messrs. Murata and H. Nakazono. kept me abreast of current work in wind turbine research and helped put this work on a strong foundation by facilitating presentation of our research results in various colloquiums across the globe. Around the same time I was enrolled in junior high at the Alliance High School. Prof Koji Kurata for his time in reviewing this manuscript. . S. GNU-Plot.ii In 1985 I came across A. Science and Technology ( 文部科学省) for advancing me the Monbukagakusho (MEXT) scholarship for my 5-year graduate (master and doctoral) studies. and (typesetting in) LTEX 2ε —the scientiﬁc word processor that effortlessly couples magniﬁcent layout with user-unfriendliness of varying degrees! Of course none of this would have been possible without support from the following. March 2008 Muhando. Ms A. the Japan Ministry for Education. Belgium.Eng degree. my parents: my Mom and dad’s loving encouragement (may your souls rest in peace) and inspiration (dad’s) at a young age to be a scientist. Physics at this level was an interesting and at the same time frustrating experience. thought-provoking. I am glad he did.

The disturbance (input) signal is the wind that is modelled as a stochastic process constituted by the seasonal mean wind speed and the instantaneous turbulence component. artiﬁcial neural networks (ANNs) in form of neurocontrollers. Wind plants have beneﬁted from steady advances in technology. Wind turbines have become the most cost-effective renewable energy systems available today and are now completely competitive with essentially all conventional generation systems. the self-tuning regulator (STR). Their design is enhanced by modeling: the plant and its environment are structured as a system of interacting subsystems that constitute an equivalent model deﬁned in state space. wind energy is regarded the most attractive vanguard of the world’s energy challenges as it is clean. wind turbines present nonlinear dynamic behavior and lightly damped resonant modes. and a renewable source of power. This thesis examines design of advanced control paradigms geared toward lessening the negative impact of wind stochasticity on modern MW-class wind energy conversion systems (WECS) during high turbulence. fuelfree (produces no CO2 ). and a model-based predictive control (MBPC) scheme. To address security of supply and energy diversiﬁcation. and the control capability. digital systems whereby control is exercised through regulation of generator torque. and much of the advance has been made in the components dealing with the utility interface. while drive-train components (turbine. The proposed advanced paradigms include the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG). the electrical machine. a iii . Additionally. the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a critical part of the new thrust of engineering for sustainability.Abstract A GAINST the backdrop of increasing awareness of the effects of global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions and with fossil-fuel prices on the rise and their supply increasingly un- stable. Computer simulations conducted using the MATLAB /Simulink™ software. with the generator model as an interface between the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the WECS reveal that achieving the objectives of optimal operation for reliability by the proposed multiobjective schemes becomes more attractive vis-`-vis the classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. These yield. However. the power electronic converter. the major problem is the wind’s unpredictable nature that forces utility operators to think differently about power generation. singly or in combination. gearing and generator subsystems) are represented as a series of inertias linked by ‘soft’ shafts without friction. with the main challenge being to provide governor functions and controlled rampdown during high wind speed events. The main control design objectives are to maximize power conversion throughout the operating envelope for steady output power as well as to actively attenuate structural-dynamic load-oscillations of the drive-train.

Glossary

I. Acronyms and Abbreviations

(A)NN ARMA CF COE CSS DOIG FSIG GHGs GSC HAWT LQ LQG MBPC MPPT NC OP PI PID RSC Std STR VAWT VSIG WECS (artiﬁcial) neural network auto-regressive moving average capacity factor cost of energy constrained stochastic simulation double output induction generator ﬁxed speed induction generator greenhouse gas emissions grid side converter horizontal axis wind turbine linear quadratic linear quadratic Gaussian model-based predictive control maximum power point tracking neurocontroller operational point proportinal-integral (controller) proportinal-integral-derivative rotor side converter The IEC61400-1 Standard self-tuning regulator vertical axis wind turbine variable speed induction generator wind energy conversion system

iv

v

II. Nomenclature

Notation for various symbols is deﬁned as they occur in the text, however, the following are the common ones encountered across chapters: α β Γ θ λ µw ξ ρ c cP cT f0 fn ird,rq isd,sq k kω kvw kβ rr rs t u urd,rq usd,sq vr vt vw x y Notes: 1. The subscript OP is used to denote the operating point (value of respective quantity at control design point). 2. The superscripts x and x denote the ﬁrst and second derivatives of x w.r.t. time, i.e. d/dt and ˙ ¨ ˆ d2 /dt2 respectively, while x represents the estimated value of x, an arbitrary dynamic quantity. stator ﬁring angle rotor collective pitch torque torsional angular twist tip-speed ratio (TSR) seasonal mean wind speed Gaussian noise air density Weibull scale parameter power coefﬁcient torque coefﬁcient mechanical eigenfrequency grid nominal frequency rotor d- and q-axis current stator d- and q-axis current Weibull shape parameter partial derivative of Γt w.r.t. rotor speed partial derivative of Γt w.r.t. wind speed partial derivative of Γt w.r.t. pitch angle rotor resistance stator resistance time control input rotor d- and q-axis voltage stator d- and q-axis voltage rated (design) wind speed for WECS perturbed wind disturbance free-stream wind speed state vector control (or measured) output σ τ ϕ Ψ ω ∆ ∆t Λ A B C C(s) Ds G J Jg Jt Ks Kp Ki P Pe Pm Pr Q R Vhub Xm Xr Xs standard deviation actuator time constant hidden neuron output ﬂux rotor speed deviation from reference simulation time step area of rotor disk state matrix control input gain matrix relates plant output to states controller transfer function drive-train torsional damping coefﬁcient gain in full state feedback law quadratic cost function generator mass moment of inertia rotor mass moment of inertia drive-train torsional spring stiffness classical controller proportional gain classical controller integral gain weighting on the states x WECS electrical power WECS mechanical power WECS rated power weighting on the input u rotor radius wind speed at hub height mutual reactance rotor reactance stator reactance

Contents

I Analytic Models for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WECSs Generation Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 WECS Siting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WECS Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WECS Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2 2 6 6 6 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 14 18 18 19 19 20 22 23 24 26 27

Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Identiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goals and Scope of Present Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 Aim of the Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scientiﬁc and Technological Contribution of this Work . . . . . . . . . . . . Outline of Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Aerodynamic Conversion Modeling 2.1 2.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theoretical Development for Aerodynamic Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.4 Energy Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Output Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Turbine Linearization for Steady-state Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Response and Fault-ride-through Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detailed Model of DOIG Unit with Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Remarks . . DOIG: a Mechanical Perspective . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Construction and Operation Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Electrical System Modeling 4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remarks . . . . .1 4. . . .3. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power train Modeling Concept . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Steady-state Analysis . . . Real-time Wind Speed Proﬁle . . .3 Introduction . . . . . . . . .3 4.2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii 3 Drive-train Modeling 3. . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical State Space System .2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . DOIG Operation under Steady-state and Fault Conditions . . . vm .1 5. .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSS Model for Wind Turbulence. . . . . . . . .5 Steady-state Operation . . 29 29 30 32 34 34 35 35 36 38 38 39 39 41 46 47 47 48 49 50 52 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 Remarks . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOIG: Electrical Model . . .3 3.2 4. . . . . . . .5 Formulating the Turbulence . Operation under High Turbulent Inﬂow . . 4. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . Drive-train Torque Dynamics . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Constraints . . . . . . . . .4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vt (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. .4 5. . . References . . . . . . . . . 5 Modeling Wind Field Dynamics 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Mean Wind Speed. .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Development for the Power-train . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Model Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 6. . References . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Active Power Control . .4. . . . . . .4 Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Pitch Actuator and Blade Servo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Full-State Feedback Digital Control by LQG 7.3. . . Optimization of Power Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . LQG Controller Design .viii II Control Strategies and Design for Wind Energy Conversion Systems 6 Control Philosophy 6. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 State Estimation and LQG Design . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 NC Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Choice of Weighting Matrices for LQG Cost Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Assigning the Control Tasks . . . . Hybrid Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .2 Introduction . Control Objectives . . . . 6. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . 62 63 63 65 65 67 68 68 68 69 69 70 72 75 76 78 78 80 82 82 84 85 87 87 89 90 90 92 94 94 95 Control Strategy . . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . .3 Tracking Performance by Proposed Technique . . . . . .2. . . . . 6.4. . .6 Conclusion . Minimization of Shaft Torsional Torque . . . . .5 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . Solution of the Stochastic Linear Regulator Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NC Training . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . .3 7. . . . . . .1 7. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . J .2 7. . 6. .4. . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5. . . . . .2 7. . Power-train Torsional Load Alleviation . . . . Generator Torque Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 111 Control Concept for Power Regulation .3 Introduction . . . and Conclusions 128 10. 105 Control for Load Alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 8. 120 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Γg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Preamble . . . . . . 101 Inner Loop: Control Law. . . Perspectives. . . 126 10 Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . .1 9. . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Drive-train Torque Variation Minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . .1 8. . . .4 Simulation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 8. . . 141 References . .4. 143 . . . . . WECS Multi-objective Control Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . .3 111 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . 108 References .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Simulation Analysis . . . . .ref . .ix 8 Predictive Control I: STR 8. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 10. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .4 Aerodynamic Power Production . . . . . . . .5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . .3 WECS Modeling: Assessment of Approach and Validation . . . . . . . . . .2 Γg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 97 99 STR Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusions .2 Modeling: an Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Generator Torque Control . . . . 109 9 Predictive Control II: MBPC 9. . . . .ref by MBPC . . . . 105 8. .4 Control: an Appraisal of Classical and Advanced Paradigms . . . .2 Control for Energy Extraction . . .1 9. . . . . . . . .2 Outer Loop: Parameter Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Comparison: MBPC and Classical PID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 9. 124 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ref by PI . 123 Evolution of Electrical Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .3. . . 114 Γg. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8.

Part I Analytic Models for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Background

Wind Energy: Basis for Investment

R

ESOLVING the world’s growing demand for energy, minimizing related impacts on the environment and reducing the potential geopolitical tensions associated with increased competition

for energy supplies represent some of the greatest technical and policy challenges of the next several decades. These global energy and environmental challenges require a multidisciplinary systems approach that integrates policy design and technology development. Fossil fuels supply more than 80 percent of the world’s primary energy [1] but they are ﬁnite resources and major contributors to global climate change. The ways and means for their ultimate replacement with clean, affordable and sustainable energy sources at the scale required to power the world are not yet fully obvious, readily available or, in many instances, technically feasible. Also, these alternative sources are not all benign and their impacts on the environment, particularly when deployed at scale, are not fully understood. Turning off the carbon spigot is the ﬁrst step, and many of the solutions are familiar: windmills, solar panels, nuclear plants. All three technologies are part of the energy mix, although each has its issues, including noise from windmills and radioactive waste from nukes. Moreover, existing energy infrastructures around the world are complex and very large, represent enormous capital investment and have operational life spans of 50 years or more. Wholesale or even piecemeal replacement of these infrastructures will be costly, will take time and will be frequently resisted by entrenched interests. In addition, the local, regional and global impacts of climate change require unique understanding of the scientiﬁc and technical underpinnings of the problems in order to formulate informed and timely responses at unprecedented national and international levels.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

3

(a) Early windmill design, Denmark

(b) Modern WECS integrate well in urban environments

Figure 1.1: Evolution of WECS through the decades: structure inﬂuenced by purpose.

Meeting dramatic increases in energy demand, particularly in the developing world, will compound these problems at the same time that it enables opportunities for enhanced national stability, economic development and improved quality of life. To meet the energy, environmental, and security imperatives of the 21st century, it is essential that energy policy, technology development, regulatory and diplomatic decisions and actions be coordinated and based on the strongest, most informed and integrated scientiﬁc, economic and social analyses to: ◦ avoid or minimize the stranding of assets, ◦ optimize the investment in research, ◦ minimize potential economic dislocation during the transition to a sustainable energy future, ◦ preserve fundamental drivers of free markets by internalizing environmental stewardship, and ◦ maximize the opportunities for successful transformation of global energy systems.

**Wind Energy: Decades of Technological Development
**

In windmills (a much older technology), wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work; historically, windmills were used traditionally for grinding grain or spices, pumping water, sawing wood or hammering seeds (Fig. 1.1(a)). The evolution of modern turbines is a remarkable success story of engineering and scientiﬁc skill, coupled with a strong entrepreneurial spirit. The progress of wind energy around the world in recent years has been consistently impressive, with the main engineering challenge to the wind industry being to design an efﬁcient wind turbine to harness that energy and turn it into electricity. Fig. 1.1(b) shows a modern wind turbine — structural design has been inﬂuenced by need to be a good neighbor!

several impediments to truly large-scale deployment. 1. including intermittency [5]-[7]. and energy yield grew 500-fold in just 25 years. There are.000.CHAPTER 1.000 Nominal power (kW) 1985 80 20 40 95.80/kWh in 1980 to $0.000 124 120 17. The major concerns can be summed up as follows: • It is commonly held that the introduction of intermittent sources of electricity such as wind energy into a utility network causes operational problems and necessitates the provision of energy storage. In the last 25 years turbines have increased in power by a factor of 100. • First-hour critics argued that with continued upscaling. • Reliability and durability of the structural assembly.000 2005 5.06/kWh in 2005 (in 2005 dollars) [2]). and public opposition to siting of WECS facilities [8]-[10]. almost 4. and the industry has moved from an idealistic fringe activity to the edge of conventional power generation.500 74 100 3. the huge dimensions would limit the number of suitable potential locations.000 2000 1. The cumulative global wind power production capacity has expanded rapidly.2 illustrates the growth in size of commercial wind turbines since 1980. due to a broadening of the global wind energy market to engage a spread of new countries across all continents. the location of high-quality wind resources far from large demand centers.000 Figure 1.000 1990 250 30 50 400.5 times greater than in 2000 [3]. future prospects are very promising: it is envisaged the total wind power installed world-wide could rise to 160 GW by 2012 [4]. Further. with global installed capacity standing at over 74 GW of electricity generating wind turbines that are operating in over 50 countries by the end of 2006.2: Upscaling: size increased 100×. • Wind power sceptics have raised questions on the conceivable environmental aspects. Fig.03 − 0. the cost of energy has reduced (from $0.500. based on O&M costs.250.000 1995 600 46 78 1. however. INTRODUCTION 4 1980 30 Rotor diameter (m) 15 Hub height (m) 30 Annual energy yield (kWh) 35. considering both physical and biological receptors as well as socio-economic impacts. .

landscape integration and transport logistics. which is comparable to a quiet indoor room. Local reinforcement of grids and the ability of variable speed turbines to contribute to grid stability counteract concerns about variability of supply.5 MW prototype was created in 2002 and two 5 MW prototypes developed in 2004. most utility networks are able to maintain grid stability with penetrations of wind energy above 10% without any change to their operating procedures. but there is no overriding technical difﬁculty that would limit wind energy penetration to very low values. Wind itself is noisy!). in part. through development of novel wind power technologies. there is evidence from independent studies suggesting wind farms do not have a signiﬁcant adverse effect on AM radio. though there are different ways of estimating the personnel employed in the wind energy sector. most manufacturers peg the lifetime of a wind turbine at 20-25 years [11]. But how realistic are these plans? Is bigger better. mismatch with demand. Interestingly. the world’s most powerful wind turbine — the E112 manufactured by Enercon GmbH of German — delivers up to 6 MW. In typical grid systems there may be an adverse economic impact for penetration levels above 20%. Public opposition to facility siting can be addressed. installation. Mechanical noise has practically been eliminated and aerodynamic noise has been vastly reduced (a WECS installation at 350m emits a noise level of 35–40 dB. The pace of upscaling can only be described as breathtaking. and O&M). has an overall height of 186 m and a diameter of 114 m. the jury is still out. The world’s ﬁrst commercial 4. navigation systems. Now industry insiders are talking about next-generation offshore turbine giants of 7. Currently. and military radar operation. mobile phone transmission. the trend towards lower costs for wind-generated electricity has driven manufacturers to less conservative. in practice. Careful siting can avoid potential interference with electromagnetic radiation for communication. with one installed in the North Sea 15 miles off the East coast of Scotland near the Beatrice Oil Field (assembly/commissioning in 2006). The modernization of the power network and increased efﬁciency of the grid will enable the integration and transmission of wind energy over longer distances. The last two arguments focus not so much on technological challenges but on aesthetics (visual impact). On the brighter side. project design. this is not the world’s largest wind turbine. and reduced overheads. the variability associated with wind energy only causes problems once wind energy raises the statistical error margin. there has been considerable potential created for employment in all aspects of the wind industry (manufacture.CHAPTER 1. and technological advances in the control system coupled with pertinent materials for blade strength have ensured long maintenance-free operation times. it just produces the most power! 1 . Overall. and are there limits to wind turbine upscaling? Regarding these. INTRODUCTION 5 Regarding integration of the output into the grid. Concerning reliability. and the need for storage. Besides. more optimized machine design at an increasingly large scale 1 .5 to 12 MW with rotor diameters of up to 200 metres. The point that is overlooked is the fact that there are numerous uncertainties in the electricity supply and demand balance. Advances in energy-storage technologies can address intermittency issues. with the exception of low level air-defence radar.

Due to their expected advantages of omni-directionality and having gears and generating equipment at the tower base. including: • reduced aerodynamic efﬁciency — much of the blade surface is close to the axis • albeit usually at ground level. However. vertical axis designs were considered. peculiarly. the most dramatic increase in performance is realized at lower wind speeds. • Advantages: (i) ability to supply power at a constant voltage and frequency while the rotor speed varies (ii) control of the active and reactive power.[16]. several disadvantages have caused the vertical axis design route to disappear from the mainstream commercial market. HAWT/VAWT Turbine development over the years has experimented with both horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) and verical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) types. but recent trends favor offshore siting because wind speeds are higher (may be 25% higher than at the coast) and less turbulent than onshore winds [12].2 WECSs Generation Technologies 1. 1. it is not feasible to have the gearbox of large VAWT at ground level because of the weight and cost of the transmission shaft • invariably have a lot of structure per unit of capacity (catenary curve loaded only in tension). Variable-speed.2 WECS Conﬁgurations I. Pitch-regulated Variable speed is facilitated by pitch regulation that involves turning the blades about their lengthwise axes (pitching the blades) to regulate the power extracted by the rotor. . INTRODUCTION 6 1.2.CHAPTER 1.2. and there is reduced social imapact. II.1 WECS Siting WECSs have traditionally been installed on land. • Disadvantages: (i) require some active protection system to keep the turbine connected to the network but also protected against any over-current in the case of short-term grid disturbances [14] (ii) the alternating current (ac) they produce has a variable frequency that cannot be safely delivered to existing power transmission grids without conditioning [15]. thus enhancing grid integration [13] (iii) variable-speed capability allows the turbine to operate at ideal tip-speed ratios over a larger range of wind speeds.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

III. Fixed-speed, Stall-regulated

7

As wind speed increases, the blades become increasingly stalled to limit power to acceptable levels without any additional active control. The rotor speed is held essentially constant, achieved through the connection of the electric generator to the stiff grid frequency. • Advantage: simple and robust construction, hence lower capital cost. • Disdvantages: (i) do not have the capability of independent control of active and reactive power (ii) offer no inherent means of torque oscillation damping which places a greater load and cost on their gearbox. Industry has been shifting toward variable speed for reasons related to overall wind turbine performance: they take full advantage of variations in the incident wind speed, encounter lower mechanical stress and less power ﬂuctuations, and provide 10–15% higher energy output compared with constant speed operation [17],[18]. They are routinely connected “indirectly” to the grid to allow for power conditioning to occur (at the wind farm). The majority of modern turbines include transmissions, clutches, and rotor shaft braking systems or aerodynamic stall features that act on the rotor blades to maintain the variations in a rotor shaft’s rotation within prescribed design limits. Such turbines are also equipped with SCADA2 systems [19],[20] that can adjust operating conditions (e.g., aerodynamic stall and blade pitch) to changing wind conditions.

1.2.3 WECS Control

Recent research concentrates on improving the technological advantage of wind plants over existing conventional power generating systems. Such research has seen various proposals for the wind industry to embrace novel digital control systems geared toward low installation and maintenance costs while ensuring maximum energy extraction efﬁciency. The most common strategies incorporate the linear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller [21]-[23] that has been tested in the ﬁeld environment. Recently, multivariable control paradigms have been gaining prominence as they are multiobjective hence several control goals can be met simultaneously. Such robust schemes include sensorless techniques [24]-[26], adaptive control that incorporates gain-scheduling by the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller [27]-[31], the self-tuning regulator (STR) [32]-[34], and fuzzy control systems [35]-[37] that may be considered an extension of maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) schemes and yield more ﬂexible but quite context-dependent controllers.

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition — a system that collects data from various sensors at a plant or in other remote locations and then transmits this data to a central computer that manages and controls the data.

2

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

8

1.3 Motivation

Enviromental and technological considerations form the conceptual framework for the essence and the design of modern WECS that incorporate sophisticated control paradigms, a theme for this thesis. Motivation for this work stems from, ﬁrstly, the need for stabilization of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, which requires that annual emissions be brought down to the level that balances the Earth’s natural capacity to remove such gases from the atmosphere. Though prediction of the extent of climate change with complete certainty has not been established, the risks can be envisaged. Mitigation — taking strong action to reduce emissions — must be viewed as an investment, a cost incurred now and in the coming few decades to avoid the risks of very severe consequences in the future. The stocks of hydrocarbons that are proﬁtable to extract (under current policies) are more than enough to take the world to levels of GHGs concentrations well beyond 750ppm CO 2 e, with very dangerous consequences3 . GHGs emissions contributed by the power sector can be cut by switching to lowercarbon technologies for electricity, to be at least 60%, and perhaps as much as 75%, decarbonized by 2050 to stabilize at or below 550ppm CO 2 e. While a portfolio of technologies to achieve this already exist, the priority is low-cost abatement so that they are competitive with fossil-fuel alternatives under a carbon-pricing policy regime. Most countries have formulated policies to support the wind industry, which is a powerful motivation that has seen wind turbine innovation across the globe. Secondly, computer processing power and available memory have increased at a phenomenal rate over the 20 years that the modern wind turbine industry has existed. Coupled with the possibilities for extremely user-friendly software environments, sophisticated design calculations can be executed in a straightforward and convenient manner by the wind turbine designer, using standard desktop PC hardware. Simulation — the time domain approach to calculating the response of a system subject to some disturbance — forms the basis of all current, state-of-the-art wind turbine design calculations. Computer simulation is a most powerful tool to investigate the means and capabilities of different technologies for integrating WECSs to the power network. When incorporation of large amount of wind power into electric power systems takes place, a number of technical problems will be encountered that need innovative solutions. The approach relies on computer modeling and simulations to develop effective control schemes to ensure reliability of the WECS and smooth integration of wind power into the grid. In this report, calculations are run on Intel Celeron™ CPU, 128 MB RAM,

Unix compiler (C–programming) and Windows 2000 OS (MATLAB /Simulink™ environment) to develop computational tools for modeling.

3

CO2 e designates CO2 -equivalent

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

9

1.4 Problem Identiﬁcation

There are two intrinsic issues common to wind power systems that are explored in this thesis, relating to the operating environment, and robustness of the installed control scheme, viz: I Stochastic Operating Environment Control design in this rersearch focuses mainly on what will happen when grid-connected wind power plants experience large amounts of highly-ﬂuctuating wind. The issues relate to ensuring steady electrical power output, alleviation of cyclic (torsional) loads on the power train components, and maintaining transient voltage stability, speciﬁcally, to avoid voltage collapse in the power system. II Limitation of Linear Control Systems For a long period in the wind industry, controller design has centered mainly on simple, linear, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers that are easily implemented in the ﬁeld environment. Conventional PID controllers must be conservatively tuned in order to ensure closed–loop stability over the full range of operating conditions. Gain selection for these controllers has generally been a trial-and-error process relying on experience and intuition from the engineers. Unfortunately, this means that the plant can not operate at high efﬁciency, since the wind turbine is a highly nonlinear process [38], [39].

1.5 Methodology

The aforementioned objectives and control problem stem from wind stochasticity that impacts on both power quality and drive-train fatigue life for a WECS, and the nonlinearity in the system respectively. The WECS under consideration is an onshore, HAWT, variable speed, pitch-regulated type. Its electrical part is comprised by the double output induction generator (DOIG) — a conﬁguration that employs a wound-rotor induction machine and a rotor converter cascade consisting of a back-to-back double-bridge inverter conﬁguration based on IGBTs. The approach, as detailed below, entails two fundamentals: modeling of the various WECS dynamic components, and design of advanced control paradigms to enhance optimal operation geared toward low cost of energy (COE). The generality of the developed models strongly depends on the modeling requirements, i.e. time scale (transient and 120-second simulations), and nature of the phenomena to be reproduced (power quality and power train loading), as follows:

The following main subsystems are modelled independently: • Rotor aerodynamics. consisting of the electrical generator. notably: • Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) — this converts control system design problems to an optimization problem with quadratic time-domain performance criteria. In this report dynamic models are presented for a variable speed WECS conﬁguration that uses an induction generator and stator or rotor AC/DC/AC converter cascade. A hybrid scheme is also mooted. • Self-Tuning Regulator (STR) — control is exercised through a self-tuning regulator. The fundamental concept common to these designs is that they are both adaptive and depend on state feedback (often with state estimation to render full-state feedback). to execute generator torque control. . i. whereby the control load is shared such that the LQG handles the linear part while the NC utilizes the intrinsic properties of NNs to handle the nonlinearities inherent in the WECS system. This study proposes several control schemes and evaluates their design and performance. In the sequel the modeling equations for each subsystem that constitute the WECS are presented and the main assumptions outlined. and the associated controls. and incorporates a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm to estimate plant parameters. • Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC) — control algorithm based on solving an online optimal control problem via a receding horizon policy. (includes a wind speed model) • Power-train. disturbances and measurement noise are modelled as stochastic processes. INTRODUCTION I Modeling Aspects 10 No general model can be introduced that would represent with sufﬁcient accuracy the dynamic behavior of all variable speed WECS schemes. II Advanced Control Design Although industry has embraced the PID controller. based on augmenting the LQG with a neurocontroller (NC). and also for calculating its stability margin during above rated turbulent inﬂow. gearbox and elastic couplings linking the turbine rotor to the electrical generator • Electrical and control subsystem.e. the power electronics converters. for representing the behavior of the output power in both relatively slow wind variations.CHAPTER 1. and • Blade-pitch regulation system and speed controller. the torsional subsystem of the axes. researchers have begun to investigate the capabilities of more sophisticated control designs [40]-[43].

6. 1. and maintain the stable closed-loop behavior of the WECS. INTRODUCTION 11 1. . This study is focused mainly on: • An investigation of the capabilities of advanced control paradigms for wind-electrical energy conversion performance. by proposing advanced control paradigms whose stock-in-trade is robustness.2 Scientiﬁc and Technological Contribution of this Work 1. In addition. and wind energy is becoming a signiﬁcant player in the energy mix. establishing permanent reference value. This research focuses on the need to design control systems that properly account for the ﬂexible modes of the turbine. 3. this research contributes to advancement in wind technology geared toward lower cost of energy (COE). they are easily implemented in a microprocessor matrix. • The transient and steady-state analysis of a wind-power DOIG operating under high turbulence wind inﬂow using the developed power-train and ﬁeld-circuit simulator models. Applying the developed methodology of combining detailed wind turbine subsystems’ modeling with a Matlab-Simulink environment for the analysis of the whole electric drive system and electric part of a wind energy conversion system. Overall. Most of the research has been published in peer-reviewed journals.1 Aim of the Work The objective of this work is to develop advanced control techniques for variable-speed.6.6 Goals and Scope of Present Work 1. Adverse climatic change and hence the need for ‘green’ energy in contemporary times aside. and validation of the developed simulator. 2. • An investigation on the impact of detailed DOIG wind turbine modeling on the accuracy of electrical system performance analysis. pitch-regulated WECS by a modeling approach and validate their performance. • Reduction of power train fatigue loads by enhanced damping through generator torque control.CHAPTER 1. global energy demand is consistently exponential. Comparative study of different variable speed wind turbine control approaches from the point of view of transient simulation accuracy. gauged upon the classical PID. Veriﬁcation of the method for coupling the magnetic ﬁeld and circuit equations of the electrical machine with the drive-train dynamic equations.

aerodynamic relations. status of wind power today. The research work presented in this chapter appears in IET Proc. including the Introduction (Chapter 1) that has given a background check on the development of wind power through the decades. control features and controller design. as depicted in Fig. . The content of the work is separated into two parts: • Part I deals with development of WECS subsystems’ dynamic models. torque & pitch angle) LQG control STR control MBPC control Analysis & conclusions Chapter 4 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Figure 1. (Accepted for publication. Renewable Power Generation. • Part II analyzes design. for optimality and stability in operation. and the various WECS conﬁgurations. Chapter 2 validates the economic viability of WECSs by a theoretical development of a model for the energy conversion as well as the concept of turbine linearization that is essential for the control formulation in the steady-state analysis.CHAPTER 1. Furthermore. 1. the thesis is divided into eleven chapters.3. 1. of several advanced controllers applied to the perfomability models developed in Part I. and the various time constants associated with the subsystems are deﬁned. the objectives.3 Outline of Presentation This project is a multi-task work. the challenges.6. The rest of the work is detailed in the following fashion. 2007). and the overall interaction of the wind energy conversion system (wind turbine and power system). INTRODUCTION 12 WECS Background: Chapter 1 Future work (H2 /Hinf & Fuzzy control) Electrical system Mechanical system Control system Chapter 11 Grid & Converter DOIG model Aero dynamics model Drive train model Wind speed model Control concept (Gen. it contains elements of electric machinery theory. future trends.3: Outline of presentation of the work in this thesis. State-space representation of the mechanical and electrical subsystems are harmonized as a foundation for the control design in the sequel. The models are discretized to enable sampling during the simulations. and the methodology employed in addressing the problems. Motivation for this thesis has been presented. shaft system representation. as well as the statement of the problem.

2. 11. 1. no. Chapter 4 describes the DOIG as the interface between the wind turbine and grid. This research work is published in IET Procs. The Appendix serves to provide important features regarding the modeling. 1-19. 2407-2423. 1764-1775. 2407-2423. pp. 32. INTRODUCTION 13 Chapter 3 deals with the mechanical dynamics of the WECS with regard to torsional loading. Chapter 7 presents the ﬁrst of several advanced control paradigms — the LQG in combination with a nuerocontroller (NC). This work is published in Renewable Energy.CHAPTER 1. with particular emphasis on modeling of gust events for the turbulent inﬂow. pp. Chapter 10 renders the analyses and perspectives — a crispy discussion on the implications of advanced control paradigms to the wind industry from the dual techno-economic viewpoint. 31. These are handled in subsequent chapters.12. of Emerging Electric Power Systems. Chapter 8 proposes the self-tuning regulator (STR). 8. This concept is developed in most of the published works by the author as detailed in Appendix C. pp.renene. and suggests the necessary shift in controller design: use of multivariable schemes for generator torque control. Investigations are carried out on the suitability of the proposed controllers in meeting the two objectives at above rated wind speeds: output power leveling and drivetrain load mitigation. as a foundation for viable alternatives. pp. vol. and describes the global model detailing interaction of the WECS subsystems.236. albeit only qualitatively. .2007. (Forthcoming). This research is published in Renewable Energy. Description of controller formulation is presented. 1431-1440.1002/we. 5.1016/j. no. as well as a conclusion of the thesis. pp.001. This research is published in Renewable Energy. Chapter 6 elucidates on the control philosophy. J. with the converter control mentioned with a generic scheme. vol. The chapter examines maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) schemes as well as their demerits. vol. Control Theory & Applications. and Renewable Energy. Chapter 9 develops the model-based predictive control (MBPC) as an alternative control scheme that relies on prediction to minimize errors in control design and performance. This work appears in the paper submitted to IET Procs. Chapter 5 presents in detail the model for generating a real-time wind speed proﬁle for the simulations. Chapter 11 gives directions for future research. 32. doi:10. vol. and Int. in respect of WECS parameters and mathematical derivations for supporting various concepts developed therein. The work is based on DOIG modeling as presented in the author’s work: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Renewable Power Generation. and analysis of the system reliability is tackled. and Wind Energy. vol. Art. 14. doi:10. based on an on-going study of several schemes: H2 /H∞ and neurofuzzy logic. no. no. A spring-mass-damper model for the mechanical construction of the drive-train as a series of elastically coupled frictionless shafts is developed. 14. 3. no.

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2007. 1-8. Simoes. Barreiros. doi:10. O. “Control of a wind turbine using several linear robust controllers. Eskander.385499. pp. Uezato. [37] R. 2001. no. 2. Funabashi. pp.1993. A. Bose. B. vol. H. N. 19. and T.” IEEE Trans. PowerAfrica 2007. . 87-95. INTRODUCTION 17 [34] T. no. Ekelund.2007. T. pp. “Speed control of wind turbines in the stall region.” Procs. 235-245. pp. Power Systems. [43] K. doi:10. Siagi. “Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of a variable speed cage machine wind generation system. H. 1993. K. 2004. M.” IEEJ Trans. J. 23. 4. doi:10.1109/CCA. 4. Lopes. and T.325530. and J. Muhando. Stol and M. M. 124B. 15-17 Dec.1109/CDC. and T. Funabashi. 12. vol. vol.1109/PES. pp. Ghali. M. L. “Fuzzy logic control based maximum power tracking of a wind energy system. J. Thupili. 1455-1463. K. R.” Procs. B. vol.” Procs. Sakamoto. “Improving power system dynamic behavior through doubly fed induction machines controlled by static converter using fuzzy control. and N. Urasaki. Spiegel. M. W. Kraan. Urasaki. Kinjo. Power Electronics. K. 1997.” Renewable Energy. 254-258. [40] E. N. [41] T. Bongers. G. Nov. vol. pp.” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering.381194. and F. Power and Energy. N. 24-28 June 2007. 123.CHAPTER 1. pp. Higa. P. 12. no. 319-326. “Intelligent optimal control of wind power generating system by a complemented linear quadratic Gaussian approach. G. IEEE Power Engineering Society Conference and Exhibition. pp. and R. de Almeida. Funabashi. Senjyu. 227-232. 1942-1950. Balas. vol. pp. “Online WTG dynamic performance and transient stability enhancement by evolutionary LQG. “Full-state feedback control of a variable-speed wind turbine: a comparison of periodic and constant gains. 3rd IEEE Conference on Control Applications. A. K. “Output power control of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using minimum variance control. no. 25-27 May 1993. 1928-1929. 24-26 Aug. [39] C.” Procs. [35] A. 16-20 July 2007. Senjyu. Joseph. Mohamed. and P. B. 1994. 1. 2001. “Evaluation of classical and fuzzy logic controllers for wind turbine yaw control.1994. Kung. 1. 2004.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. R. Senjyu. vol. The First IEEE Regional Conference on Aerospace Control Systems. A. Nov. [42] I. Muhando. [38] E. 32nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. [36] M. Z. T.” IEEE Trans.

As wind turbines grow in size. To provide industry with the support it needs to develop technologies capable of cost-effective operation in stochastic wind speed resource areas. A LL the successful megawatt-class wind technology developments to date are results of rather conventional evolutionary design efforts whose basis is the premise that control can signiﬁ- . as a rule. Typically. Indeed. it is important for researchers to understand drive train design for effective power conversion through advanced power electronic components. Maintaining an optimum ratio between rated power and rotor swept area is essential. These assist in visualizing the concept of control design as a philosophy geared toward achieving near-ideal performance within the technological constraints that abound in the wind industry. but the optimal value depends to a large extent on average wind speed at hub height. the approach to wind turbine design has been transformed to the point where sophisticated computer-based analysis is now performed routinely throughout the industry. their components will be subjected to additional wind loading associated with complex environments of their installation. technology improvements in these areas can provide as much as 50% of the cost reduction.Chapter 2 Aerodynamic Conversion Modeling 2. This chapter develops both aerodynamic and electrical models for power production based on empirical formulations. One implication of increasing rotor diameters is increased aerodynamic noise. and the rotor captures 100% of the energy. when power rating goes up. Beginning with simple calculations based largely on engineering intuition. hence rotor speed. has to come down to curb these emissions.1 Introduction cantly improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in a WECS [1].[2]. rotor structural dynamics signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the wind turbine response during electrical faults. Because blades and rotor comprise up to 25% of the WECS’s total capital cost. rotor diameter increases too.

β) denotes the performance coefﬁcient of the turbine. The portion of the extracted wind power converted to mechanical power by the rotor can be simulated by the static relation obtained according to the Rankine-Froude theory [3] of propellers in incompressible ﬂuids Pm = cP (λ. The control system serves to regulate the rotor speed and damp out torque ﬂuctuations at the shaft by pitch and torque controllers respectively. as explained in Part II. The working principle of the WECS encompasses two conversion processes that are executed by its principle subsystems. 2. determined by the pitch angle. λ.2) where Pm is the mechanical power (W).2. Ew . available from the turbine blades’ rotation is a derivative of the kinetic energy. which is transmitted via the shaft and gearing to the generator rotor. 2. P w . vw is the wind speed at the centre of the rotor (m/s). 2. . The windmill comprises the blades and the hub. ρ is the air density (kg/m 3 ). of the wind with respect to time Pw = 2 3 ∂Ew 1 ∂(mvw ) 1 ∂(ρΛvw t) 1 3 = = = ρΛvw ∂t 2 ∂t 2 ∂t 2 (2. and Λ = πR2 is the frontal area of the wind turbine (m2 ). The generator converts this torque into electric power. the wind power.CHAPTER 2.2 Theoretical Development for Aerodynamic Conversion Fig.1) where m is the mass of the air (Kg) in the area swept by the blades. R being the rotor radius (m). and cP (λ. The wind turbine generates torque from the wind pressure.1: Generalized block diagram of the WECS’s main subsystems.1 Energy Extraction With regard to energy production. β. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING WINDMILL DRIVE TRAIN ELECTRICAL SYSTEM AC generator Torque control Γref 19 v w Gearbox Γ t Γ g AC AC Grid Figure 2. β) ρΛ 3 v 2 w (2. of the blades and the tip-speed ratio (TSR).1 depicts the interconnection of the main drive train components.

1 0 0 β=−2 β=0 β=3 β=5 β=7 β=10 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 β 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 λ 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 λ (a) cP (λ. 2. λi λ + 0.035 = − 3 . One common way to control the active power of a wind turbine is by regulating the cP value. according to [9].2: Performance curves for a 3-bladed WECS.2 Power Curve Research in advanced control for development of efﬁcient production tools is in line with the framework that aims to improve performance of WECS to get the best beneﬁt from the wind energy source. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING cp(λ. in rad/sec.3) (b) Variation of c P with λ and β Figure 2. 2.1. and minimizing control actuating loads.2 0. The proﬁle in Fig.6 0.2(a). 2. Negative cP values have been set to zero.CHAPTER 2.4β − 5 e λi + 0. β) according to (2.4 0.2(b) shows that cP = 0.3) where the TSR is computed from the blade tip-speed and wind speed λ= ωt R vw (2. Several numerical approximations have been developed to compute c P [5]-[8].β) 0.48 for β = 0◦ and λ = 8. Further.4) with ωt designating the rotor angular velocity.5 0. This tip-speed value is assigned as the optimum tip-speed .1 0 0 20 0.5 0.2 0.5176 −21 116 − 0. With the primary objective of maintaining steady electrical power.0068λ λi (2.4 cP 0.5) For practical purposes cP may be determined using a graphical method.2. controller design requires a formulation of the power curve of the WECS. Information on the power coefﬁcient for commercial wind turbines is not readily given by turbine manufacturers [4]. reducing rotor speed ﬂuctuations.3 0. It is modelled as cP (λ.3 0. This chapter analyzes an achetype for modeling cP . approximated using a nonlinear function based on the turbine characteristics. the power coefﬁcient is illustrated as a three-dimensional mesh surface in Fig. the value λ i is determined from 1 1 0.08β β + 1 (2. β) = 0.6 0.

CHAPTER 2. cT 0. introduced into the above power equation to reﬂect the reality that the rotor’s power-capturing efﬁciency is less than perfect.3(b) and (c) show. Fig. 2. It is noteworthy that WECSs are now highly efﬁcient with less than 10% thermal losses in the system transmission.5 Power coefficient.3(a) shows variation in ωt . This curve is then used as a reference in the active power control. 2. respectively.02 0. c P can be thought of as a correction factor. Note that the maximum theoretical c P value in Fig. and β while Figs.4 0.06 0. . β) and torque coefﬁcient cT (λ. corresponding to β = −2 ◦ and λ = 14. λopt .2(b) from the empirical formulation in (2. called the Lancaster-Betz limit [3].) 0. cP 0. for optimum power production.07 0.3) is about 0. vw [m/s] 20 25 (b) Performance coefﬁcient c P (λ.03 0. This value is based upon the physical reality that even the most aerodynamically efﬁcient turbine blade disrupts the airﬂow of incident wind before the wind front reaches the rotating blade. vw [m/s] 20 25 (a) Rotor speed (rpm). 2.593. TSR. β) Figure 2.3 0. and the optimum turbine speed curve at any given wind speed can be obtained based on this value. ratio. β) Torque coefficient. vw [m/s] 20 25 (c) Torque coefﬁcient c T (λ. which is near the theoretical maximum value of 16/27≈0. λ.1 0 5 10 15 Wind speed. β) for the WECS over a range of wind speeds.3: Steady power curve calculations: performance coefﬁcients variation with wind speed.50 for state-of-the-art technology. the desired variations in cP (λ.44 to about 0. the air molecules within the cross-sectional area swept by the rotor slow down as they approach rotating turbine blades and thus lose kinetic energy proportional to the cube of that velocity loss. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 5 21 ωt λ β 10 15 Wind speed.04 0.59. In actuality.2 0.05 0. The aerodynamic efﬁciency of turbines has gradually risen from the early 1980s with cP rising from 0.01 5 10 15 Wind speed. and pitch angle (deg.

2 1 0. and the gustiness of the wind.2) Linearized (Eqn 2. vc .6) k Pe = a + bvw for (vc ≤ vw ≤ vr ) Pe = Pr for (vw > vr ) where Pr is the rated electrical power. transmissions. efﬁciencies of the drive train components. 2. rising above zero at a wind speed of 5.8 1. It is noteworthy that other turbines.3 Electrical Output Model The electrical power output is a function of various parameters including wind speed. more accurate energy estimates can be attained. The ﬁrst curve (cP =1. and rated. and generators will produce somewhat different curves with approximately the same shape. rotor speed. type of turbine. vr . wind speeds.CHAPTER 2.4 1.6 1. 2. the electrical power varies as vw between the cut-in and rated wind speeds.4 0. .8 0.0 (Eqn 2. and linearized electrical output power. system inertias. By deﬁning a model for the output electrical power P e . A closed form expression [10] for energy production is obtained by assuming that P e varies k as vw between cut-in. where k is the Weibull shape parameter: Pe = 0 for (vw < vc ) (2.4 shows the power curve for the variable speed.6) Power. [pu] 10 15 uw(t). and the coefﬁcients a and b are given by a= k Pr vc k k vc − vr and b= k vr Pr . while the second one (‘Actual’) is the mechanical power (including all the generator and transmission losses) for production of useful electrical power.1) Actual (Eqn 2. [m/s] 20 25 Figure 2.0) gives the maximum wind power available. k − vc Fig. pitch-regulated WECS.2 0 0 5 22 cP=1.6 m/s and then assumes a constant value at and above rated wind speeds.6) for k = 2.6 0.2.4: Ideal and actual shaft power. 2 For the linearized plot of Pe versus vw in (2. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 1.

Pavg may be computed as a product of the power produced at each wind speed and the fraction of the time that wind speed is experienced.7) where f (vw ) is the Weibull probability density function f (vw ) = k vw c c k−1 exp − vw c k (2.[15]. (2.6) and (2. integrated over all possible wind speeds Pavg = 0 ∞ Pe f (vw )dvw (2.10) is the Capacity Factor (CF). (2.8) into Eq. the estimate c = 1. as the latter is chosen by the manufacturer with less accurate regard to wind speed at a site.4 Capacity Factor Average power output. thus Pavg = Pr (CF). of a turbine is a much better economical indicator of the total energy production as compared to the rated power Pr .9) and neglecting small terms Pavg = Pr exp[−(vc /c)2 ] − exp[−(vr /c)2 ] (vr /c)2 − (vc /c)2 .5 ≤ k ≤ 3. and since most good wind regimes will have the shape parameter k in the range 1. (2. Generally. Pavg . (2. CFs of at least 25% are considered minimally necessary for a site to be considered economically viable [12]. values as high as 45% have been observed [12].[14].7) yields vr Pavg = vc (a + k bvw )f (vw )dvw ∞ + Pr vr f (vw )dvw . Substituting (2. the most efﬁcient wind farms exhibit individual turbine CFs of 30 to 35% [13]. a subset of the Weibull distribution when k = 2 and is sufﬁciently accurate for analysis of wind power systems when statistics at a given site are unknown.CHAPTER 2.8) with c as the scale parameter. Thus the optimum design for energy production is a rated speed of about twice the mean speed. where µw designates the long term mean wind speed at the site.0. However.2.9) The Rayleigh distribution [11] is a χ 2 density function with 2 DOF.12µw sufﬁces. Substituting the limits of integration in (2.[13]. .11) The CF may be envisaged as a correction factor that reﬂects the turbine’s technical availability. c is about 12% larger than the mean wind speed. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 23 2.10) The quantity inside the brackets in (2. In practice.

∆Γ t Γt = Γt.OP . Once stability is attained. Thus Γt − Γt. vw. and the turbine may be linearized along the optimal trajectory by considering a small signal value. possesses nonlinearity. Γ t = f (ωt .12) This continuous function. variables do not change signiﬁcantly from their initial values at the operating point [4]. The linearization process. βOP ) + 1 ∂2f ∂f ∂f ∂f ∂2f ∆ωt + ∆vw + ∆β + (∆ωt )2 + 2 (∆vw )2 ∂ω ∂v ∂β 2! ∂ω 2 ∂v 2 2 2 2 ∂ f ∂ f ∂ f ∂ f + (∆β)2 + 2 (2.OP + ∆Γt (2. extracted from the wind. stationarity is assumed i. Γt = R 2 (2. At the OP.OP . observation of the system response to step inputs provides direction in choosing gain values that provide adequate performance [16].OP . Γt |OP = Γg |OP .15) Adopting a local convention and denoting the respective slopes as kω = ∂f ∂ω . respectively.OP ) and (β − βOP ). AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 24 2.e.3 Turbine Linearization for Steady-state Analysis Linear controller design requires that the nonlinear turbine dynamics be linearized about a speciﬁed operating point (OP).16) OP OP OP . and delivered through a gearbox to the DOIG.14) ∆ωt ∆vw + 2 ∆vw ∆β + 2 ∆ωt ∆β + hots 2 ∂β ∂ω∂v ∂v∂β ∂ω∂β where partial differentials are computed around the OP.OP and βOP at the OP: Γt = f (ωt. ∆vw and ∆β designate deviations from the chosen OP i. Γ t . being a function of the third power of wind speed.13) that may be expanded as a Taylor series with respective values ω t. and kβ = ∂f ∂β (2.CHAPTER 2. vw. (vw − vw. (ω t − ωt. vw . β). while ∆ω t . which are neglected. and “hots” refers to “higher order terms”. β) . ∂ω ∂v ∂β (2.e. carried out by numerical simulation. ∆ indicates instantaneous change. For small-signal approximations.OP = ∂f ∂f ∂f ∆ωt + ∆vw + ∆β . expressed as 2 ρΛvw cT (λ. The assumption is that the plant dynamics are adequately described by a set of ordinary differential equations in state-variable form. kv = ∂f ∂v .OP ). The wind turbine is driven by a rotor torque. determines an optimal OP that yields maximum energy extraction.

18)–(2. vw [m/s] 20 25 (c) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 0 -500 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 -3000 -3500 5 10 15 Wind speed.t.20). vw [m/s] 20 25 25 ∂Γt/∂ωt ∂Γt/∂vw (a) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w. Since the torque coefﬁcient c T (λ.3) to yield the respective aerodynamic (linearization) coefﬁcients in (2.18) OP = OP 3cP .OP − ωt R OP ∂cP ∂λ (2. then (2.t. OP ∂cP ∂λ (2.16). as follows [17] ∂Γt ∂ωt ∂Γt ∂vw ∂Γt ∂β ρΛ 2 v 2 2ωt w.12) may be determined from the modelled c P (λ. representing the linearization coefﬁcients in (2.OP 2ωt ∂β (2. 2. β) (2.r.OP 2ωt −cP OP kω = kv = kβ = = OP vw.r. and are computed from the cP (λ. rotor speed 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 5 10 15 Wind speed. β)/λ the aerodynamic torque in (2. and pitch angle.17) cP (λ. β) in (2. vw [m/s] 20 25 (b) Partial derivative of aerodynamic torque w.15) becomes ∆Γt = kω ∆ωt + kv ∆vw + kβ ∆β and this linearizes the turbine torque around the OP. wind speed. β) surface according to the OP loci.CHAPTER 2. .OP + ωt R vw. pitch angle Figure 2.20) Figs.OP ρΛ vw.19) OP = OP ∂cP ρΛ 3 vw.5: Variation in linearization coefﬁcients with wind speed.5(a)–(c) show the respective partial derivatives of aerodynamic torque with rotor angular frequency. wind speed 0 ∂Γt/∂β -5000 -10000 -15000 5 10 15 Wind speed.r.t.

acceptable results in most cases. However. Since the Rayleigh density function is dependent only on the mean wind speed. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 26 2. that is dependent on both the Rayleigh probability density function as well as the Capacity factor. In general.CHAPTER 2. there are some small beneﬁts from increasing blade number. these losses are less for a larger number of narrow blade tips than for fewer. . Although the power curve is an accurate measure of the turbine’s ability to generate electricity from incident wind. no fundamental reason for the higher tip speed. the capacity factor becomes a much more valuable tool for supporting decisions about wind farm development than the turbine’s power curve alone. In aggregate. it does not adequately describe expectations of real-world power production. For a more realistic analysis. Indeed the Rayleigh is very easy to use and will yield quality. There is. all its statistics to describe a measurement site are immediately available without massive amounts of additional computation. relating to minimizing losses that take place at the blade tips. The two-bladed rotor design is technically a little less efﬁcient aerodynamically than the established three-bladed design. Two-bladed rotors generally run at a much higher tip speed than three-bladed rotors so most historic designs would consequently have noise problems. more problematic technically whilst the two-bladed rotor is basically acceptable technically. the average power. Pavg . thus are considered as the most realistic and reliable predictors of the energy yield for a given candidate site. the one-bladed rotor is. Thus. is utilized. With the speed chosen it then follows that there is an optimum total blade area for maximum rotor efﬁciency. however. perhaps. Capacity factors are normally represented as annualized values to account for seasonal variations in wind regimes.4 Remarks In rotor design. The decisive factor in eliminating the one-blade rotor design from the commercial market and in almost eliminating the two-bladed design has been visual impact. Most modern WECSs have three blades. Because it is rooted in the real world. and it is often asserted that component mass and costs increase less than cubically with scale. having regard to issues such as acoustic noise emission. the underlying physics is often confused with the effects of technology development and the inﬂuence of volume on production cost. wider ones. Energy capture improves with increasing turbine size. though both are at par in the overall cost beneﬁt. expressed as a ratio in which the WECS’s annual predicted energy production is divided by the energy it would produce if it operated at its nameplate rating continuously. and this should be discounted in an objective technical comparison of the design merits of two versus three blades. CFs are dimensionless. as conﬁrmed by various studies [18]-[20]. an operating speed range is normally selected ﬁrst.

R. ISBN:978-0471489979. Price. Akagi. “Disturbance rejection by dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty compensation. Jenkins. “RLS-based self-tuning regulator for WTG dynamic performance enhancement under stochastic setting. T. Anderson. 2001. B. 1983. “An analytical expression for the average output power of a wind machine. Nabae. 1-8. “Design of state-space-based control algorithms for wind turbine speed regulation. 3. 1981. Industrial Applications. [10] W. vol. 386-395.6 wind turbine-generators. [3] T.0. Bose. doi:10. Kinjo. 1981. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Man. 2007..” IET Procs. pp. 1. “Stability simulation of wind turbine systems.1049/iet-cta:20060448. 2003. D. Bossanyi. W. A. no. J. [2] A. and M. Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems. vol.” Solar Energy. Control Theory and Applications. Wasynczuk. and J. vol. 26. Burton. pp. 4.” IEEE Trans. pp. Muhando. vol. ISBN 0-471-97143-X. J. and J. Muhando. [7] O. 77-80. Sullivan. Kanazawa. Syst.5 and 3. IA-20.. B. “Dynamic behavior of a class of wind turbine generators during random wind ﬂuctuations. Kinjo. and T. GE WTG Modeling-v3. Yona. H.” IEEE Trans. October 27. New York: Wiley. Senjyu. Senjyu.” GE Power Systems Energy Consulting. pp. 100.CHAPTER 2. 625-630. Syst. A. T. Funabashi. ICEE 2007. Wright. 125. P. Yona. Powell. Sanchez-Gasca. Sharpe. [9] S. and E. 5. pp. Balas. D. W. H. and A. Power App. vol. 28372845. . W. N. [4] E. “Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components. no. pp. 102. 8-12 July 2007. Power App. Miller. [6] N. no. May/June 1984. June 2003. 3791-3795. T. and T.” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. D. M. “Dynamic modeling of GE 1.” IEEE Trans. pp. [8] P.doc. [5] H.” Proc. Y. vol. Heir. and A. Sept. 1998. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 27 References [1] E. Wind Energy Handbook. 1431-1440. The International Conference on Electrical Engineering. 1. no. Funabashi.

T. F. Harder. “An analytical expression for the speciﬁc output of wind turbine generators. and T. 1-8. 20. Oct. and S. doi:10. “Big Spring Wind Power Project. September 1977. Klein. and J. Funabashi. L.” Final Report. Urasaki. Muhando. no. O. AERODYNAMIC CONVERSION MODELING 28 [11] E. Corotis. vol. Manner. 2001. [17] E. 14. 2002. Asmussen. Park. Yona. 2003. B.and Second-Year Operating Experience: 2001-2003. [15] J. H. pp. First. 147-197. Muhando. RLO/2342-77/2.” Proceedings of the IEEE. DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Veriﬁcation Program. A. G. 16-20 July 2007. T.” DOE-EPRI Wind Turbine Veriﬁcation Program.385499. 483-493. Design. vol.” Proc. B. Z. and Electric Power Research Institute).” Solar Energy. N.” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. PowerAfrica 2007. no. [13] EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 66. McGowan. Connors. Dec. Manwell.” ERDA Report. ISSN: 0018-9219. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. “Stochastic modeling of site wind characteristics. A. IEEE Power Engineering Society Conference and Exhibition. A. . [12] J. Second-Year Operating Experience: 2000-2001. 1978. and T. [20] J. G. and J. [19] R. “Tennessee Valley Authority Buffalo Mountain Wind Power Project. vol. no. pp. Urasaki. “Intelligent optimal control of wind power generating system by a complemented linear quadratic Gaussian approach. B. ISBN:978-0471499725. 32. Senjyu. Kinjo. N. Funabashi. pp. Funabashi. and T. 2007. 10. pp. G. Senjyu. Corotis. “Windpower: A turn of the century review. pp. 1295-1298. [18] R. pp. 2000. Senjyu. B. [16] E.1109/PES.2007. “Gain scheduling control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading.. Wind Energy Explained: Theory.” Renewable Energy. 24-28 June 2007. D. vol.CHAPTER 2. Rogers. Sigl. 25. T. 1978. McGowan. H. 1-8. Tennessee Valley Authority. and E. Kinjo. Siagi. 2407-2423. and Application. B.” Proc. L. [14] DOE/TVA/EPRI (DOE. 6. B. “Probability models of wind velocity magnitude and persistence. Chichester. “Online WTG dynamic performance and transient stability enhancement by evolutionary LQG. Muhando. Dec.

and the number of fatigue cycles experienced by the major structural components can be orders of magnitude greater than for other rotating machines. the relevance of detailed representations of the structural dynamics of variable speed WECS on transient stability studies is assessed.[2]. Due to the increased compliance of the drive-train of almost every wind turbine (usually achieved by “soft” axes or special elastic couplings).[11].1 Introduction loading input from turbulent wind conditions. The power train components are subject to highly irregular .Chapter 3 Drive-train Modeling 3. simpliﬁcation of the drive-train model may have a negative impact on the accuracy of wind-generator modeling [10]. which assumes that all the rotating masses can be treated as one concentrated mass [7]–[9]. considering challenges posed by the severity of the fatigue environment. or the frequently used lumped model approach. suitable multimass equivalents must be employed in order to represent the low frequency torsional modes that dominate the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine. wind technology has a unique technical identity and R&D demands. However. In the sequel. V ARIABLE speed wind turbine systems provide better dynamic performance characteristics than ﬁxed speed conﬁgurations. Particularly. Most of the DOIG wind turbine models used in dynamic stability studies include a drive-train model. A modern wind turbine operates for about 13 years in a design life of 20 and is almost always unattended [1]. Thus. and repeated loadings need to be taken into account in wind generating system design. In this thesis the model of the wind turbine drive-train is represented by means of a three-mass model considering an equivalent system with an equivalent stiffness and damping factor on the wind turbine rotor side [12]. Such multimass equivalents for modeling the drive-train fall in either of two categories: the so-called two-mass model [3]–[6]. the lumped model approach may be insufﬁcient in the case of transient analysis.

. The mechanical part of the wind turbine consists of a shaft system and the rotor of the wind turbine itself. During a transient event torque oscillations may be introduced in addition to the aerodynamic torque due to the rotor structural dynamics. but an elaborate model is necessary for a variable speed WECS. and high-speed shaft. gearbox.2 Power train Modeling Concept The physical diagram of the variable speed WECS system is shown in Fig. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING Pitch control Torque control AC AC Gearbox Ratio 1:n Grid 30 Converter CONTROL SYSTEM Wind Low-speed shaft Wind turbine High-speed shaft Generator (a) Main components of the WECS Jt J1 ωt Dt ω1 Kgr Γt Kt Γ1 ω2 Dg ωg Jg Turbine rotor J2 Γ2 Kg Γg Generator (b) 3-inertia system Figure 3. Variable speed WECS show large inertias and low shaft stiffness. hub. the drive-train can be represented by a single-mass model. 3.1: Dynamic drive-train equivalenced by a 3-inertia system interlinked by a ﬂexible shaft. then the drive-train is represented as a multimass model where the blade bending dynamics are neglected. These torque oscillations are associated with the torsional ﬂexibility of the shafts. The torque induced by the aerodynamics on the rotor disk is transmitted to the generator by a series of turbine structures: blades. and the interaction between the wind turbine and electrical generator could give rise to low frequency oscillations that can limit the transient stability of the system. 3.CHAPTER 3. When the shafts are assumed rigid. low-speed shaft. The torque applied to the generator shaft is not the same as the aerodynamic torque in the blades because of the ﬂexibilities of these rotor structures. as the mechanical and electrical frequencies are decoupled. If the torsional ﬂexibility of the shafts is included. Representing the mechanical system as a lumped mass may give optimistic results especially for ﬁxed speed induction generators (FSIGs).1(a).

a multimass model is adopted in this study to formulate the state space for analyzing system response to disturbances at steady state. gearbox wheels. Fig. J 1. Jt . The wind turbine is driven by a rotor torque Γ t extracted from the wind. Dg are respective damping constants on turbine and generator sides (K represents the elastic properties of the shaft element while D models internal viscous friction). the gearbox experiences a torsional torque.2) The torsional torque experienced by the low speed shaft is comprised by the torques developed at the gearbox. consisting of rotating masses (rotor with the asynchronous generator) elastically coupled to each other by a linear torsional spring and a linear torsional damper. Considering the model with a single dominant resonant mode. θg are the angular positions of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides.3) (3. thereby rendering the shafts extremely soft. resulting from the torsional effects due to the difference between θt and θg : Γ1 = J1 Γ2 dω1 + Dt ω1 + Kt (θ1 − θt ) dt dω2 + Dg ω2 + Kg (θ2 − θg ) = J2 dt (3. thus the effective shaft stiffness. and generator mechanical speeds. ω1. The nomenclature is explained as follows. The shaft system gives a soft coupling between the heavy turbine and the light generator rotor. Jg are the wind turbine and generator moments of inertia. through a gearbox with gear ratio Kgr . As a consequence.15 – 0. and Dt . Γ2 (= Γ1 /Kgr ) is torque out from the gearbox. Γd . which is delivered. ωg are the wind turbine.2 . ωt . This may be compared with shafts in conventional power plants incorporating synchronous generators. K s . dt (3.4) where θt . where 20 ≤ K s ≤ 80 pu [13].CHAPTER 3. Kt .1(b) illustrates the mechanical equivalent 3 rd -order model of the WECS drive-train. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 31 To enhance design of a suitable controller for damping the torsional oscillations. to the generator that yields a generator torque Γg .2 represents the inertia of the gearwheels. Γ 1 is torque that goes in the gearbox. In modern turbines Kgr is normally in the range 50 – 70. the generator is driven by the high speed shaft torque Γ 2 and braked by Γg −Γg = Jg dωg + Dg ωg + Kg (θg − θ2 ). with Ks typically in the range 0. is reduced by the 2 ratio 1/Kgr . Kg are the spring constants indicating the torsional stiffness of the shaft on wind turbine and generator parts. . 3. the dynamic response of the rotor driven at a speed ωt by the aerodynamic torque Γt written on the generator side has the expression Γt = Jt dωt + Dt ωt + Kt (θt − θ1 ).1) Similarly.40 pu. and ω2 = Kgr ω1 . dt (3.

. [K] is the 3 × 3 stiffness matrix. . obtained using the inertias’ angular positions and velocities as state variables θ d ··· dt ω [I]3×3 [0]3×3 = . respectively.. .. a Hamiltonian matrix [14].. gearbox and generator inertias.CHAPTER 3.1). −[2H]−1 [K] . −[2H]−1 [D] . are incorporated in the lumped inertias of the model. disc brakes etc..3 Mechanical State Space System Fig. θ · · · ω Γ (3...... where D hgb and Dgbg are relative dampings of elastic couplings. dg are the external damping coefﬁcients... dgb ... Adopting the per unit (pu) system (see Appendix B. These are expressed as follows: 2H = diag(2Ht .θ gb Γ d H gb Kgbg ωg . Further.... [2H] is the diagonal 3 × 3 inertia matrix of turbine. The elasticity and damping elements between adjacent inertias correspond to the low and high speed shaft elasticities and internal friction..θ g Γ g Hg dt dgb Dgbg dg Figure 3.5) [0]3×3 + .θ t Γt Ht Dhgb Khgb 32 ωgb . 2Hgb . and dt .2: Schematic representation of the drive-train as a series of elastically coupled inertias. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING ω t .. 3.. whereas the external damping elements represent the torque losses. [2H]−1 where [0]3×3 and [I]3×3 are the zero and identity 3 × 3 matrices. 3.. while [D] is the 3×3 damping matrix... The interconnecting axes.2 illustrates the mechanical equivalent..... 2Hg ) Khgb −Khgb 0 = −Khgb Khgb + Kgbg −Kgbg 0 −Kgbg Kgbg d + Dhgb −Dhgb t = −Dhgb dgb + Dhgb + Dgbg 0 −Dgbg 0 −Dgbg dg + Dgbg K D ...[15] may be generated by the state equations for the drive train mechanical equivalent. where Khgb and Kgbg are the hub to gearbox and gearbox to generator stiffness coefﬁcients. .. ..

the input aerodynamic torque Γ t applied on the turbine rotor should be counter-balanced by an opposing electromagnetic torque developed inside the induction machine. Therefore.[17] 1 = 2π 1 = 2π b − − 2 b − + 2 √ √ b2 − 4c 2 1 2 f1 f2 where b = − Kt 1 1 + Jt Jgb (3. θT = [θt . from the corresponding point on the other end of the shaft. ωgb . Neglecting damping. conventionally accelerating. θ T and ω T are the vectors of the angular positions and angular velocities of the rotor. The resonance lies in the most ﬂexible part of the rotational system. Consequently. viz.7 Hz. the frequencies of vibration of the rotor structure are: f1 = 2. the mechanical vibrations of the WECS interact with the electromechanical dynamics. Γd . ω T = [ωt . and low shaft stiffness. while Γ T is the vector of the external torques acting on the turbine rotor and on the generator rotor. and Γ T = [Γt . Jt Jgb Jg The ﬁrst-mode mechanical frequency of a typical wind turbine is in the 0 to 10 Hz range [18].8) + Kg 1 1 + Jgb Jg and c = Kt K g Jt + Jgb + Jg . which is also the range for electromechanical oscillations. By conducting a spectral analysis of the low-speed shaft torque for the 2 MW WECS (wind turbine data is given in Appendix A). In the steady state condition. this subjects the elastic shaft element to a torsional twist. θgb . causing a point on the circumference of one end of the shaft to shift by a large electrical twist angle θtg .CHAPTER 3. θg ]. gearbox and generator respectively.6) where ωb = 2πfn is the base angular frequency and fn is nominal grid frequency (Hz). Due to high turbine inertia relative to J g . the ﬁrst-mode mechanical turbine dynamics must be accurately represented. ωg ]. and f2 = 11 Hz. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 33 Additionally. in order to create an accurate model of a wind generator for transient stability analysis. the natural frequency of vibration of the three mass model is given as [16]. Γg ]. .7) 1 2 b2 − 4c 2 (3. The angle generated per unit applied torque is computed as dθtg = ωb (ωt − ωg ) dt (3. in electrical radian.

and generator torques. constraining it to the OP locus. From Fig. 3.6 0. low-speed shaft.8 0. 3.2 0 5 10 15 Wind speed.4 0.6 0. vw [m/s] 20 25 Γg [kNm] (c) Generator torque Figure 3.3(a) shows how the aerodynamic torque increases with wind speed.4 Drive-train Torque Dynamics 3. vw [m/s] 20 25 (a) Aerodynamic torque 1. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 1.8 0. and uses pitch control to limit the power above rated wind speed. Fig.2 1 34 Γt [MNm] 0. 3. vw [m/s] 20 25 (b) Gearbox torque 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 Wind speed. blade pitch is adjusted to maintain the chosen OP.3: Steady state variation in aerodynamic.3(c) it can be observed that the torque demand is kept constant at rated value for all higher wind speeds (to actively damp shaft torsional oscillations). The steady-state operating curve can be described with reference to the torque-speed characteristic: • below rated the operating curve resembles a stall-regulated variable speed case • above rated. Fig.2 0 5 10 15 Wind speed.CHAPTER 3. . 3.4.3(a)–(c) show the steady-state calculation results for aerodynamic. respectively.4 0. gearbox and generator torques with wind speed. 3.3(b) represents development of the low-speed shaft torque — the shaft should experience reduced ﬂuctuations to avoid cyclic fatigue stresses.2 1 Γd [MNm] 0. At high wind speeds (above rated) changing the pitch alters the trajectory of constant wind speed.1 Steady-state Operation The WECS system considered in this thesis employs a frequency converter to decouple the generator from the ﬁxed frequency of the grid. Pitch control then regulates rotor speed. Figs.

that a challenge is introduced in deﬁning the level of detail required for each study (modeling. and the number of fatigue cycles experienced by the major structural components can be orders of magnitude greater than for other rotating machines.CHAPTER 3. In some situations representation of certain details of structural dynamics may not be necessary if they have no impact on the electrical performance during the time frames of interest in a particular study.5 Remarks An appropriate model of system behavior is the heart of control design. part of the extra power goes into shaft potential energy rather than instantly appearing in the electrical output. however. Thus a shaft helps to smooth out power ﬂuctuations. the power train components of a WECS are subject to highly irregular loading input. mechanical and electrical systems of WECS [19]-[22]. these models are normally developed in different simulation platforms and the availability of reliable studies that investigate the dynamic interaction that exists between the electrical and structural systems is limited. and control design). mainly because • under turbulent wind conditions. 3.4. • control that optimizes energy capture in medium to high wind speed regimes can also cause undesirable torque ﬂuctuations that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control attempts to follow the wind. a simple linear model is preferred for control design purposes. there are models that accurately represent the aerodynamic. This stored energy will then go from the shaft into the electrical system during a wind lull. In this study the importance of a detailed representation of the power train is assessed. when a wind gust strikes the turbine. Controller design is enhanced by the 3 rd −order model developed in this Chapter. A twisted shaft contains potential energy. . However. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 35 3. It is appreciated. Although a nonlinear model is required for the simulation. Focus is on the need to design control systems that properly account for the ﬂexible modes of the turbine.2 Operation under High Turbulent Inﬂow Controller design in this thesis deals particularly with operation under high turbulence. analysis. and maintain the stable closed-loop behavior of the WECS. by devising effective control algorithms that reﬂect the plant dynamic characteristics as well as the anticipated working environment. At present. During a transient event torque oscillations associated with the torsional ﬂexibility of the shafts are introduced in addition to the aerodynamic torque. The torque applied to the generator shaft is not equivalent to the aerodynamic torque due to ﬂexibilities of the drive train structures.

no. Generation. [6] ——.org/oct06/4661. Mar. Polinder. Muhando. “Windmill modeling consideration and factors inﬂuencing the stability of a grid-connected wind power-based embedded generator. H. pp. and J. and hybrid wind/PV systems. T. “Direct solution method for initializing doubly-fed induction wind turbines in power system dynamic models. “Disturbance rejection by dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty compensation. S. D. Funabashi. pp. Generation. October 2006. J.807113. 70-75. no.1049/iet-cta:20060448. 3. Ledesma. H. 2007.spectrum. Sept. May 2003. Kling. [10] S.236. [8] ——. “Minimum voltage protection in variable speed wind farms. H. vol. and W. no. Power Systems. L.renene. 10-13 Sept. pp. A. Venkataramanan. 13.658206. D. J. and T. no. pp.” IEEE Trans. “I’ve Got the Power.12. Holdsworth. “Regulation of WTG dynamic response to parameter variations of analytic wind stochasticity. http://www.1002/we. . 43.CHAPTER 3. 2003. “Generation unit sizing and cost analysis for stand-alone wind. 2. no. DOI: 10. Yona. Transmission and Distribution.” IEEE Trans. DOI:10. 1. vol. vol. Wu. no. T. Teo. Senjyu.” IEEE Spectrum Magazine. G. vol. W. H. 18. pp. [2] W. 1998. 150. de Haan. Nehrir. no. doi:10. H. 4. Power Systems. vol. G. “Augmented LQG controller for enhancement of online dynamic performance for WTG system. Slootweg. X. L.001. vol.1016/j. doi:10. vol. pp.” IEE Procs. Kinjo. and V.ieee. photovoltaic.2002. [9] J. pp. 1431-1440. Kellogg. vol. Salman.1109/60.2007. [4] P.” Renewable Energy. 1-6.” IEEE Trans. 144-151. Control Theory & Applications. 18. Muhando. B. Gerez. Funabashi. 2001. 3. DOI: 10. 5. [3] E. May 2003. 150. 343352. 334-342. B. 10 (INT). 1. DRIVE-TRAIN MODELING 36 References [1] W. Kinjo.” Wind Energy. [5] E. Jenkins. Senjyu. Available online. 793-802. Jones. 1. [7] L.” IEE Procs. G. Transmission and Distribution. May 2003. Energy Conversion. and A. M. Feb. B. Ekanayake.” IET Procs.1109/TPWRS. “Comparison of ﬁxed speed and doubly fed induction wind turbines during power system disturbances. Usaola. K. “General model for representing variable speed wind turbines in power systems dynamics simulations. and N. and T.” Proceedings IEEE Porto Power Tech 2001.

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. and relatively cheaper and smaller converter as compared with squirrel cage or synchronous machines [1]–[3]. The main advantage of the DOIG concept is that only a percentage of the power produced in the generator has to pass through the power converter. This fact is directly related with the control ﬂexibility offered by static converters that enhance maintaining the terminal voltage at a constant value when the IG operates with variable speed as well as to allow independent active and reactive power control exchanged between the machine and the grid with better use of the available wind energy. both for reasons of network compatibility and reduction in mechanical loads. Nowadays one of the most widely used generator types for units above 1 MW (installed either offshore or onshore). Several studies undertaken on the DOIG as a mainstream conﬁguration for large wind turbines have shown that it is possible for the wind turbines to remain grid-connected during grid faults so that they can contribute to the stability of the power transmission system [5]. The control performance of the DOIG is excellent under normal grid conditions.1 Introduction T HE increasing integration of the double-output induction generator (DOIG) systems controlled by static converters for wind generation into power grids is currently a generalized tendency in numerous countries. Typically this is only 20%–30% compared with full power (100%) for a synchronous generator-based wind turbine concept. allowing active and reactive power changes in the range of few milliseconds owing to the presence of power electronics.[8]. is the DOIG for effective variable speed operation [4]. the grid-connected DOIG provides several attractive features during variable speed operation. for instance: constant frequency. In addition to constant voltage.Chapter 4 Electrical System Modeling 4. generation above the machine rated power.[6]. and thus it has a substantial cost advantage compared with the conversion of full power [7].

1: General schematic of the WECS: DOIG. and power density. this disconnects the converter and connects the rotor circuit to a crowbar resistor instead. which is the multiphase slip ring assembly with potential control instability [9]. the converters are modelled as voltage source and/or current source.[10]. By eliminating the multiphase slip ring assembly and guaranteeing stability at any speed. system electrical loss. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING Turbine 39 ps . The DOIG is a brushless wound-rotor electric machine incorporating the most optimum electromagnetic core structure of any electric machine. combined. . the theoretical attributes of the wound-rotor DOIG are acquired: upto 50% reduction in system cost.CHAPTER 4. 4. whereas the grid side converter (GSC) is assumed to be a controlled current source. are the deciding factors. When the current drops back below a set value.2. Nothing approaches the brushless wound-rotor DOIG machine. if cost.1 Construction and Operation Principle Fig.1 illustrates the wind turbine coupled to a grid connected 2 MW asynchronous DOIG. efﬁciency. Crowbar protection is included: in the event of excessive rotor current. ω 0 . the GSC may offer additional voltage support capabilities in conditions of excessive speed ranges or in transient operations. 4.fault operation Figure 4.2 Detailed Model of DOIG Unit with Converters 4. but without the traditional Achilles’ Heel of the wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine (DIFG).normal operation . Since the simulation of the fundamental power system dynamic behavior does not require a detailed modeling of power electronics. The rotor side converter (RSC) is assumed as a voltage source injected into the rotor. converters and controllers.q s Drive train gearbox DOIG Rotor side converter Grid side converter ωt Pitch angle control ~ = p r. The rotor in the generator has three pole pairs while the three phase stator winding is connected directly to the grid synchronous frequency. and system physical size.q r Crowbar Fault detection Torque control = ~ Q ref Pref kc pr Power converter control (voltage or PF) Control mode selection: . the crowbar disengages and the converter is reconnected. As the RSC can provide reactive power control.

albeit considerably faster than the fundamental drive train dynamics and therefore can be neglected in the modelling. The main disadvantage of DOIG wind turbines is their increased capital cost. results in a loss of active power.2: Main components of the frequency converter. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING I dc DOIG U dc Power system 40 Generator f ref Figure 4. The converter is controlled by two main control loops: • a torque control loop that works by injecting a quadrature-axis voltage into the rotor circuit. The main components are an AC/DC converter. while the rotor active and reactive power (pr and qr ) pass through the power converter. kc . When power is ﬂowing from the generator. absorbing torque pulsations caused by wind gusts. Due to the decoupling between mechanical speed and electrical frequency that results from DOIG operation. the mechanical stresses on a DOIG wind turbine are reduced in comparison to a ﬁxed speed induction generator (FSIG). The stator is directly coupled to the electrical power supply network. The DC-link can be used to attenuate voltage ﬂuctuations.CHAPTER 4. A great advantage of the DOIG wind turbine is that it has the capability to independently control active and reactive power. permitting maximum absorption of wind power. 4. The stator active and reactive power (ps and qs ) are fed directly to the network. Γ g = Γg. Fig. The converter efﬁciency.2 shows the main components of the frequency converter. allowing the turbine to be run at variable speed. thus the generator stator voltage always equals the grid voltage. which works by injecting a direct-axis voltage. The DOIG connects to the grid with a back-to-back voltage source converter that controls the excitation system. By utilizing the converter. and the DC/AC converter acts like an inverter. the rotor can act as an energy storage system. the network frequency is decoupled from the mechanical speed of the machine and variable speed operation is possible. a DC-link and a DC/AC converter. Other advantages of the DOIG include reduced ﬂicker and acoustic noise in comparison to FSIGs. . This means that the generator torque will be equal to its reference value. thereby maintaining the frequency out of the generator on a stable level independent of the generator’s angular speed. Moreover. The fundamental dynamics of the frequency converter are very complex and nonlinear. the AC/DC converter acts like a rectiﬁer. Control of the converter ﬁring angle makes it possible to control the electrical torque in the generator. The frequency converter is used to transform the constant frequency and constant voltage of the grid to variable frequency and voltage on the generator side.ref . and • a voltage or power factor control loop.

The stator current is positive when ﬂowing toward the machine. and the generalized reduced order DOIG model is developed based on the following conditions and assumptions: 1. In this research. the voltage in the stator. using direct (d) and quadrature (q) axis representation [12]. The reactive power initialized is in accordance with the control strategy chosen. the electric power and the reactive power are initialized independently. is applied from the grid while the voltage in the rotor. The q component of the stator voltage is chosen to be equal to the real part of the generator busbar voltage obtained from the load ﬂow solution that is used to initialize the model. detailing the frequency converter system with dc–link.3: Simpliﬁed schematic of the electrical system. At initialization. Similarly. 4. 5.CHAPTER 4. 4. The equations are derived in the synchronous reference frame ﬁxed to the stator ﬂux. U s . The dc component of the stator transient current is ignored. the higher order harmonic components in the rotor injected voltages are neglected.2 DOIG: Electrical Model Fig. Initialization of the DOIG model is essential prior to starting dynamic simulations. the diode rectiﬁer represents the RSC while the line-commutated inverter models the GSC. 3. and the following considerations are taken into account: the DOIG consists of a wound rotor IG with a converter feeding into the rotor circuit. For purposes of formulating the system equations. Additionally. and it has a symmetrical three-phased winding distributed around the uniform air-gap. is induced by the converter. permitting representation of only fundamental frequency components. Finding an operational point of the DOIG in steady-state operation corresponds to initialization [11]. The q-axis is 90◦ ahead of the d-axis in the direction of rotation. 4. the electric power operation point is deﬁned by the incoming wind.3 is the functional scheme of the WECS with DOIG. 2. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING Grid Us Is Ir Ur Gearbox Generator Diode rectifier α Line-commutated inverter U d1 U d2 IT Step-down η = U s T Ui transformer 41 Turbine Rd Ld Id Ii Ui Figure 4. Ur . .2.

2) (4.6) (4.5) (4. Ψsq ωb dt 1 d = −rr ird − (ω − ωt )Ψrq + .3) (4. The inputs u sd and usq of the model are directly available from the known stator voltage.8) in the arbitrary d–q synchronous reference frame. rr are the stator and rotor windings resistances. The space model for the ﬂux can be written using ﬂuxes as state variables [4]. Ψrd ωb dt 1 d = −rr irq + (ω − ωt )Ψrd + . and Xm is the magnetizing reactance. Ψsd ωb dt 1 d = −rs isq + ωΨsd + . with p being the number of pole pairs of the machine. The ﬂux equations are obtained as Ψsd = −Xs isd + Xm ird Ψsq = −Xs isq + Xm irq Ψrd = −Xm isd + Xr ird Ψrq = −Xm isq + Xr irq (4. isd . Xr are the stator and rotor windings reactance. and ω0 being the synchronous mechanical speed obtained as ω 0 = 2πf0 .5)–(4. Ψrq ωb dt (4. irq are the stator and rotor d and q windings currents.4) and ﬂux equations (4.9) u sd usq + urd urq 2 where B = Xs Xr − Xm and ω = pω0 .1)–(4. described by the following equations against an arbitrary reference frame [13]. ird . . The state-space modelling of the induction machine considers the voltage equations (4. ω is the arbitrary dq frame electrical angular speed.CHAPTER 4. Additionally. ω b = 2πfn is the base angular frequency. while the rotor voltages u rd and urq are computed from the converters and dc ﬁlter equations. where f0 is the mechanical drive train eigenfrequency (Hz). and rs . and fn is the nominal grid frequency in Hz. isq . usq are the stator voltage d and q components. u rd .4) where usd .[14] usd = −rs isd − ωΨsq + usq urd urq 1 d .8) where Xs .1) (4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 42 The DOIG can be simulated by the standard 4th order dq model.7) (4. urq are the rotor voltage d and q components. as Ψ sd d Ψsq dt Ψrd Ψrq =−1 B rX −ωB −rs Xm 0 s r ωB r s Xr 0 −rs Xm −rr Xm 0 r r Xs −(ω − ωt )B 0 −rr Xm (ω − ωt )B r r Xs Ψ sd Ψsq Ψrd Ψrq (4.

13) (4.CHAPTER 4. = dt Jg (4. −rr Xm −ωt Xr Xm isd (4.10) The inputs to the model u sd . ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 43 For convenience.14) dωg = − Kg (θ2 − θg ) + Dg ωg + Γg dt (4.9) is rewritten with the currents as inputs to the system model. assuming generator convention −Jg whence dωg 1 Γd − Xm (isq ird − isd irq ) .1)–(4. The generator electromagnetic torque. can be expressed in terms of stator and rotor ﬂuxes as Γg = Ψsd isq − Ψsq isd ≡ Ψrd irq − Ψrq ird (4. The torque control using the frequency converter allows the wind turbine to run at variable speed and thereby makes possible a reduction of the stress on the drive train and the gearbox [15]. it is possible to control the electrical torque in the generator. achieved by substituting (4. while the rotor voltages urd . . Γg .2). urq are computed from the converters and dc ﬁlter equations.8) in (4. (4. This yields the state equations with the currents as state variables.11) which may be set in terms of the reactances and currents as Γg = Xm (isq ird − isd irq ) and from (3.4) and solving for the derivatives of the currents.12) By controlling the ﬁring angle of the converter.5)–(4. usq are directly available from the known stator voltage. expressed in the arbitrary dq reference frame: d isq dt ird irq isd 2 −(ωB + ωt Xm ) −rs Xr = ωb B −rs Xm ω t Xs Xm −rs Xm −ωt Xs Xm 0 Xm 0 −Xr u sd 0 Xm usq −Xr ωb 0 + B −Xm urd 0 Xs 0 urq 0 −Xm 0 Xs −rs Xr 2 (ωB + ωt Xm ) isq ω t Xr Xm −rr Xm −rr Xs (ωB − ωt Xs Xr ) ird −(ωB − ωt Xs Xr ) −rr Xs irq .

Id the dc current. Ii the peak phase values of inverter output voltage and current. 4.CHAPTER 4.17) (4.15) (4.16) (4.17) respectively. A. eliminating U d1 and Ud2 by (4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING The following relations hold for the diode rectiﬁer (RSC) and thyristor inverter (GSC) in Fig.24) . Ur and Ir . Ur .e.21) while Rd and Xd are the dc ﬁlter resistance and reactance.15) and (4.18) where Ud1 . are related to the respective d and q components by: Ur = Ir = u2 + u2 rq rd i2 + i2 . Ui . and ηT = Us /Ui is the rotor transformer ratio. α the inverter ﬁring angle. Ud2 are the rectiﬁer and inverter dc voltages.20) where Uc is the voltage of the inverter cosine ﬁring angle controller: Uc = ηM Us cosα ηT (4. rq rd (4.. Us the bus voltage peak phase value.23) (4.19) where Rd and Ld are the choke resistance and inductance. Ir the peak phase rotor voltage and current.16): Ur + Uc = Rd Ir + Xd dIr ω0 dt (4. referred to the stator of the DOIG: 2 Rd = ηM π 2 Rd s 18 ZB and 2 Xd = ηM π 2 ω0 Ld s 18 ZB (4.3: Ud1 = Ir = Ud2 = Ii = √ 3 3 Ur π √ 2 3 Id π √ √ 3 3 1 3 3 · Ui cosα ≡ Us cosα π ηT π √ 2 3 Id π 44 (4.22) s with ZB the stator base resistance and ηM the equivalent stator/rotor turn ratio of the DOIG. V. The dc link RL ﬁlter differential equation is obtained from Ud1 − Ud2 = Rd Id + Ld dId dt (4. The rotor voltage and current. Ω. Expressing (4.19) in p. and all quantities are in absolute values (i. and H). and substituting I r for the dc current Id from (4.u.

urq = Ur . U r .26) where the complex representation F of a dq quantity f (voltage. 4. Hence Ur = − Differentiating (4. the following expression is obtained ωb dIr 2 = − Xm P1 + rr Xs Ir − Xs (urd ird + urq irq ) dt BIr ωb 2 = − Xm P1 + rr Xs Ir − Xs Ur Ir BIr where the quantity P1 is given by P1 = Re ∗ Us + (rs + jωr Xs )Is Ir .27) and its complex conjugate is denoted by the superscript “∗”.28) (4.24) Ir Ur ⇔ Ir ird irq Ur .4: Relative position of rotor fundamental voltage and current phasors. Ir Ir e urd = (4. its reactive power consumption is zero and therefore the rotor voltage and current are displaced by 180 ◦ as shown in Fig. B + Xs X d (4. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 45 q i rq urd ~ Ir d i rd Ur ~ urq Figure 4.26).25) I ∗ ird dird + irq dirq Re{ ddtr Ir } dIr dt dt = = dt Ir Ir (4.11) in (4.30) .28) with (4.4 (the rotor current conventionally enters the rotor terminals). Ignoring the harmonics and the commutation phenomena of the diode rectiﬁer. Substituting the derivatives of the rotor current from (4.CHAPTER 4.29) Combining (4. yields the following relation Ur = (rr Xs Xd − BRd )Ir + BUc + Xm Xd P1 /Ir . (4. current or ﬂux) and its derivatives are deﬁned respectively as dfd dfq dF = +j dt dt dt F = fd + jfq and (4.20) and solving for the rotor voltage.

s.0 (4. A variable speed WECS requires a controller to generate an appropriate torque demand.ref 1 + τe s (4. irrespective of the generator speed (as long as it is within speciﬁed limits). Den(s) 0. and hence the power factor. such that the turbine speed is regulated appropriately.ref + ωg 1 + τe s Den(s) (4. Note that the use of a small time constant may result in slower simulations. the minimum and maximum generator torque must be speciﬁed. The transfer function is supplied as a ratio of polynomials in the Laplace operator.ref is the demanded torque. thereby reducing overall mechanical wear and tear over the generator’s service life.123s Num(s) = .31) where Γg.002643s2 + 0.33) The transfer function represents a tuned bandpass ﬁlter designed to provide additional damping for the drive-train torsional vibrations. in effect.2.32) where. including good overload handling and ability to accommodate changes in the torque applied by the wind turbine’s rotor shaft (via the transmission). The phase angle between current and voltage. which adds a term derived from measured generator speed onto the incoming torque demand. which in the case of variable speed operation may otherwise be very lightly damped. and τe is the time constant of the ﬁrst order lag. without much effect on accuracy. This term is deﬁned as a transfer function acting on the measured speed. is speciﬁed on the assumption that. Thus the equation for the air-gap torque becomes Γg = Num(s) Γg. in this study. sometimes causing severe gearbox loads. Γg is the air-gap torque.CHAPTER 4. A modern variable speed drive is capable of accepting a torque demand and responding to this within a very short time to give the desired torque at the generator air-gap. An option for drive-train damping feedback is provided. both active and reactive power ﬂows into the network are being controlled with the same time constant as the torque. A ﬁrst order lag model is provided for this response Γg = Γg. motoring may occur if a negative minimum is speciﬁed. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 46 4. Additionally. and that the frequency converter controller is programmed to maintain constant power factor. This represents additional fuctionality that may be available in the frequency converter controller.3 DOIG: a Mechanical Perspective The asynchronous DOIG has mechanical properties that render it very suitable for WECS applications.0257s + 1. Num(s) and Den(s) are the following polynomials 15. .

[rpm] 47 (a) Generator speed 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 Wind speed. the steady-state (Γg —ωg ) operating curve is determined by the target of maximizing energy capture by following a constant TSR load line that corresponds to operation at the maximum cP . the torque demand is kept constant for all higher wind speeds. and electrical output power. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 5 10 15 Wind speed. Blade pitch is adjusted to maintain the chosen OP by altering the lines of constant wind speed and constraining the WECS to the OP locus. the maximum speed in constant TSR mode. Electric power. ω g. and pitch control regulates the rotor speed. and above-rated torque set-point. [MW] 2 1. 4. P e Figure 4. vw [m/s] 20 25 Pm Pe (c) Shaft power.5: Steady-state generator parameters’ variation with wind speed. P m . The parameters needed to specify the steady state operating curve are: the minimum speed. is generated when ωt > ω0 .5 0 5 10 15 Wind speed. vw [m/s] 20 25 Generator speed. . Figs.min . Pe .3. the maximum steady-state operating speed. ω g.1 Steady-state Analysis Below rated wind speeds.3 DOIG Operation under Steady-state and Fault Conditions 4.5 Power.CHAPTER 4. vw [m/s] 20 25 Γg [kNm] (b) Generator torque 2.5 1 0.max .5(a)–(c) show results of steady state calculations for variation in generator speed and generated powers with wind speed. Pitch control is used to limit the power above rated wind speed. where ω0 denotes the system synchronous speed. Once rated torque is reached. 4.

07 1.13 1.4 0. [s] 0.15 1.1 1.5 pu.14 seconds.11 1.2 0 0.14 pu at 0. [pu] (a) Generator speed 3 Rotor current. Thus the DOIG is equipped with an over-current protection — in case the rotor current magnitude reaches the setting value of the protection relay. .6 0.2 0.4 t. The setting point of the protection relay is set at 1.8 0.4 t. [s] 0.2 0.2 Transient Response and Fault-ride-through Analysis Analysis of voltage restoration capability with various controllers is dealt with in Part II of the thesis. Ir [pu] 2 1 0 -1 -2 0 0. 4.09 1.2 0. [pu] 0.4 seconds after the fault. the current ﬂowing through the power converter may be too high. The implication is that approximately 60 ms after the fault is cleared the terminal voltage is recovered (back to the steady state value) and the currents resume their respective variation.06 0 0.6(c) shows the generated power.08 pu to a high of 1. the fault is not signiﬁcant to trigger the over-current protection. Fig. Time t = 0 is the time immediately after a fault. as observed in Fig. 4. [s] 0.3. For a serious fault.6(a) that the fault causes the speed to rise from 1.6(b).6 0. However.08 1. It is seen in Fig. which may cause damage to the RSC.12 1. 4.CHAPTER 4. and thus the DOIG is able to ride through the incurred voltage dip.8 1 48 Speed.6 0. 4. In this case.4 t.6 serves to illustrate the relatively fast recovery of the DOIG when subjected to a single phase fault. the converter is subsequently blocked. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 1. severe ﬂuctuations in both d.6 0.14 1. 4.8 1 (c) Turbine power.8 1 d-Axis q-Axis (b) Rotor current: d-axis and q-axis 1. The fast voltage recovery is a plus with respect to the DOIG’s capability to control the reactive power.2 1 Power.16 1. More importantly.6: DOIG single phase fault. Fig. P m Figure 4.and q-axis currents are attenuated within 0.

the DOIG can be excited from the rotor circuit by the rotor converter. The effect of wind power integration in the grid depends on both the power system design to which the WECS is connected and the turbine control ability to fulﬁl the grid requirements. but not necessarily from the power grid. . The doubly outage induction machine is a wound-rotor type and is directly connected to the grid with little additional conditioning. 3) Decoupling of the electric and the reactive power control with independent control of torque and rotor excitation current. the DOIG will produce electric power and exchange some reactive power with the grid to reach a desired voltage in the vicinity of the connection point. the DOIG has several advantages over conventional induction machines in wind power applications: 1) Ability to control reactive power — since the rotor voltage is controlled by a power electronics converter. Due to the relatively constant operating conditions. Thus there exist two distinct principal situations: • When connected to a strong power system where the voltage is (or about) 1 pu. the DOIG will produce electric power and be reactive-neutral with the power network).4 Remarks Variable speed WECS utilize the available wind resource more efﬁciently especially during light wind conditions. the DOIG does not exchange reactive power with the power system (i. • When connected to a weak power system characterized by ﬂuctuating voltages. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODELING 49 4. Model simulation studies to understand the impact of system disturbances on wind turbines and consequently on the power system itself abound [19]-[21].CHAPTER 4. however. this has important consequences for power system stability and allows the machine to remain connected to the system during severe voltage disturbances.. This fact has challenged different wind turbine manufacturers regarding the ability of different wind turbine concepts to comply with high-power system operator requirements [16]-[18]. 2) Ability to control the rotor voltage — this enables the induction machine to remain ‘synchronized’ with the grid while the wind turbine varies in speed. The presence of power electronics inside modern WECS provides large potential for control capability and provides a versatile electronic interface for the grid connection. the DOIG will be excited from the rotor circuit by the rotor converter. the DOIG is able to both import and export reactive power. By decoupling (item 3).e. the DOIG can be ordered to produce or absorb an amount of reactive power to control voltage.

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Globally. the wind energy resource is plentiful. A considerable body of research has been undertaken for reliable prediction and/or simulation of real-time wind speeds for analyzing WECS response to wind gusts [7]–[11]. renewable. Current design standards and certiﬁcation rules accept the use of standard spectral models of turbulence such as von Karman [3]. and it is now common practice to base load calculations on a model of the three turbulent velocity components [6]. Though the intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power at low to moderate penetration levels. In an effort to eliminate the need for measured data acquired over long periods of time. among others.[14]. as a starting point.1 Introduction a virtual ceiling.[4] and Kaimal [5].Chapter 5 Modeling Wind Field Dynamics 5. the IEC 61400-1 Standard [2] allows the use of statistical methods to generate turbulent wind ﬁelds. clean. auto-spectral and coherence descriptions of the turbulence. W INDS come about as a consequence of the differential heating that powers a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the Earth’s surface to the stratosphere that acts as . Several models have been proposed. wind speed — certainly the most signiﬁcant wind energy parameter — is considered as one of the most difﬁcult meteorological phenomena due to its non-predictability [1]. a constrained stochastic simulation (CSS) approach [15]. leading to global circulation patterns. including the point source Box-Muller algorithm [12].[16] is adopted. the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model [13]. and reduces toxic atmospheric and greenhouse gas emissions if used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity. The importance of turbulent loading is now universally recognized. All these methods use. such intermittency has reportedly caused problems for grid stability in areas where penetration is greatest. However. widely distributed. The method can be applied to generate wind gusts from time series around events deﬁned by means of a linear condition (constraint). In this thesis.

8) for k = 2. k is the shape parameter. The annualized energy output. v m In the absence of manufacturer speciﬁcations with regard to turbine rated wind speed. 2 Due to physical reasons. the seasonal wind speed.2) where α is the mode of the distribution.0 k=2.08 0. E. µw .0 53 Figure 5. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 0. The Rayleigh function f (vw ) is derived from the general Weibull function in (2.2.1 shows annual Rayleigh distribution curves for a range of shape parameters. in the range from cut-in speed (vc ) to furling-speed (vf ). with a standard deviation σ = α 4−π . the area under each curve is unity.14 Rayleigh function 0.2 Determination of Mean Wind Speed.8). Once the Rayleigh distribution is established. µ w .CHAPTER 5. cannot change abruptly. The Rayleigh is a probability density function that describes the annual wind speed distribution and is used for estimating the energy recovery from a wind turbine. may be obtained and utilized in determining the .04 0. with α related to the scale parameter c as α = c/ 2.0 k=4. 5. This expression is √ analogous to (2.1 0. for the WECS is obtained as (see Appendix A. the Rayleigh distribution [17].1) where 8760 is the number of hours in a 365-day year and P is the non-zero power captured corresponding to wind speed vw .12 0.02 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Wind speed [m/s] k=1.06 0. the turbulence level.1: Rayleigh distribution for annual wind speed. but instead only continuously.[18] may be utilized in determining the average annual wind speed.0 k=5. Fig. and v w is the instantaneous wind speed.0 k=3. σ ∗ .4) vf E = 8760 vc P f (vw )dvw (5. 5. It has the form f (vw |α) = vw vw exp − √ α2 2α 2 (5.

the seasonal mean wind speed at site. homogeneous simulation that is subsequently projected onto the orthogonal complement of the subspace spanned by the constraints. to all intents and purposes. For operation under turbulent wind. and vm ≡ Vhub = 12. v t(t) CSS imposes a set of linear constraints on a turbulent wind ﬁeld — the speed increases with a certain amount over a certain period in time and space. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS hub height average wind speed for simulations.3 CSS Model for Wind Turbulence. is the effective mean wind speed vm . Vhub . µw = 7 m/s.44m/s 3 (5. The starting point for the stochastic part is an ordinary Gaussian.2. Since σ∗ σ2 µw 54 (5. In the model the turbulent wind ﬁeld is represented by an expression for the temporal and spatial cross correlation of wind speed ﬂuctuations which is transformed to a frame of reference moving with the rotor blades. The deterministic part is time series given the speciﬁed constraints.4) the average wind speed. 5. The simulated Gaussian ﬁeld is the sum of a deterministic and a stochastic part. 3) for the representative turbulence intensity as detailed in Appendix A. either vertical or horizontal. the following assumptions are made in the modeling: a) at t < 0 the power system is under steady-state conditions (almost constant wind speed) so that the load ﬂow algorithm can be used to evaluate the initial conditions. which. In this study. formulated as a variational problem where the constraints are introduced by means of Lagrange multipliers.28 × 1. In order to compute the dynamic response and loading of the wind turbine. c) variations in the horizontal direction of wind speed are not considered thus ensuring perfect tracking in the yaw direction (in practice this is not possible and causes 1–2% energy loss and additional stress on components [16]).CHAPTER 5.205 m/s.3 σ ∗ = Iref (15m/s + 3Vhub ) + 1.3) then using the the IEC 61400-1 Standard (ed. . at hub height is empirically determined. this cross correlation function is integrated with the linear model of the rotor aerodynamics model. is taken into account. b) no wind shear.

2: Model for simulating wind speed behavior with CSS.5) where ξ(t) is white noise from the noise generator. The design tool is for analyzing the extreme response as well as determining the internal loads of the WECS as a function of time. The sequential signal values with the sample time. and ωk = k∆ω.6) where ∆ω = ωmax /K. σ w . 2π] that follow from √ K 1 2 vt (t) = 2 k=0 2Gw (ωk )∆ω cos(ωk t + φk ) (5. T . ωk a set of K equidistant frequencies. 5.1 Formulating the Turbulence In the sequel a concise outline is given of CSS as a probabilistic method to determine a suitable wind speed proﬁle as input for a wind turbine simulation tool. vt (t). . The linear model of the turbulence component (wind gust). while ωmax is an upper cut-off of the noise spectrum.CHAPTER 5. The white noise is smoothed by a signal shaping ﬁlter with transfer function Gw (jω) and time constant τw . are thus independent of each other. 5. thereby transforming it into colored noise.3.2 shows the model for executing CSS in simulating wind speed behavior. A basic assumption in applying CSS for this purpose is that the extreme response is driven by wind turbulence and that the turbulence is Gaussian. The discrete signal produced has mean value zero and unit variance. The kσw block serves to standardize the colored noise by the standard deviation. of vm (obtained statistically from the Rayleigh distribution) to yield v t (t). The stochastic component of the wind ﬁeld is modeled as follows. which is ideally the summation of independent harmonics with random phases φ k uniformly distributed over [0. The driving force of the wind is normally distributed white noise produced by a random number generator. CSS presents a comprehensive method that may be applied for any event that can be expressed as a linear function of the involved random variables. is comprised by a ﬁrst order ﬁlter disturbed by Gaussian noise vt (t) = − ˙ 1 vt (t) + ξ(t) τw (5. Fig. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS White noise 55 Colored noise ξ(t) Signal shaping filter vt (t) σw k σw Simulated wind speed Gw Noise generator Mean wind speed τw + + vm vw (t) vm Rayleigh distribution Figure 5.

12) vt (t) = k=0 2Sk cos(ωk t + φk ). τw (5. 3 ) T (5. [20]. Substituting (5. Non-Gaussianity of wind turbulence and how to incorporate it in constrained simulation may be addressed by variational calculus.10) may be discretely approximated thus: √ [Sk (ωk ) + Sk (ωk+1 )][ωk+1 − ωk ] 2 Ak (ωk ) = 2 (5. The turbulence component (5.CHAPTER 5. of each discrete frequency component represents the power in a speciﬁc frequency band Ak (ωk ) ≈ ∞ 2 ω0 2 Sk (ωk ) dω . Ak .11) where the frequencies ωk are chosen to be logarithmically spaced to adequately represent the frequency content.8) where Γ designates the beta function.6) may be rewritten as K vt (t) = k=0 Ak cos(ωk t + φk ) (5. Ak is based on the area under a density function S — the power spectral density of the turbulence — represented by the ﬁlter. These parameters are obtained as Ξw ≈ 2π τw L and τw = 1 1 µw Γ( 2 .8) in (5.10) The integral in (5.9) where the amplitude. Selection of ﬁlter parameters depends on the long term mean wind speed.7) yields the von Karman distribution [19] Sk (ωk ) = 2 0. It is noteworthy that the development of v w (t) assumes normal distribution. (5. µw . MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS The ﬁlter takes the form Gw (jω) = Ξw (1 + jωτw ) 6 5 56 (5. and the characteristic turbulence length scale L that corresponds to the site roughness.475σw vL m 1+ and thus (5. as suggested by Nielsen et al.9) becomes K L ωk µw 5 6 (5.13) where t is the discretized time. .7) where Ξw is the ampliﬁcation factor.

MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 57 5.17) sinω1 t0 ··· sinωK t0 . To obtain the desired wind gust.14) where. should satisfy the above conditions. The desired gusts are automatically selected by a combination of (5. for normally distributed wind speed ﬂuctuations. The covariance matrix M of c is the diagonal with elements 2S k /Tw : 2 M = E[ccT ] = τw S1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SK . leading to: Gc = a with G c a = = = cosω1 t0 cosω2 t0 ··· cosωK t0 T (5.18) .2 Setting the Constraints Applying the Fourier transform to the wind gust component in (5.CHAPTER 5. (5.16) where the constraint (5.14) and (5.9) yields the series of the form: K vt (t) = k=1 ak cosωk t + bk sinωk t (5.15). −ω1 sinω1 t0 −ω2 sinω1 t0 · · · −ωK sinωK t0 ω1 cosω1 t0 · · · ωK cosωK t0 a1 a2 · · · aK b1 b2 · · · bK . is a constant. the Fourier coefﬁcients a k and bk will also be normal. and (A 0)T .3. vm . and their variances are 2Sk /τw = 1.15) (5. which are normally distributed. Selecting gusts with amplitude A at time t = t 0 corresponds to applying the following constraints: vw (t0 ) = A vw (t0 ) = 0 ˙ (5. they are mutually uncorrelated. bk . the Fourier coefﬁcients a k . Their means are zero.16) ensues from the fact that the ‘reference trajectory’ for the mean wind speed.

21) Sk cosωk t0 Sk ωk sinωk t0 (A − vw (t0 )) + vw (t0 ) ˙ 2 Sk ω k Sk (5.20) Thus having made an unconstrained simulation of the wind velocity. Together they constitute the tools leading to a more efﬁcient and reliable WECS design. it is appreciated that the rotor interacts with a complex spatially and temporally varying wind-ﬁeld. over the rotor disk. In order to obtain the distribution of the extreme loading caused by a gust with arbitrary amplitude (for a given v m ). .15) and (5. the different distributions should be convoluted (weighed) with the occurrence probability of the individual gusts. ˙ 2 Sk ω k Sk (5. Furthermore.22) Vhub is obtained from (5. Over short periods the wind speed can be approximated as the superposition of the mean wind speed and the instantaneous turbulence component vw (t) = vm + vt (t) where vm (5.14) are obtained as ak.3(a) and (b).c = bk + Sk sinωk t0 Sk ωk cosωk t0 (A − vw (t0 )) − vw (t0 ) .19) and thus the constrained Fourier coefﬁcients (5. slowly variable component. µ w .21) determine the Fourier coefﬁcients that satisfy the gust constraints in (5. and the rapidly variable turbulence component. vw (t). vt (t). 5. respectively. (5. This wind speed is modelled as a stochastic process with two components: the seasonal.20) and (5. The constraint may be conveniently expressed in terms of the unconstrained simulation time function: A − Gc = A − vw (t0 ) −vw (t0 ) ˙ (5.16).c = ak + and bk. using the load distribution and resistance distribution of the structure the probability of failure can be estimated. the wind ﬁeld may be represented by an effective wind speed.4) that is based on µ w determined by the Rayleigh distribution while vt (t) is computed via CSS.CHAPTER 5. expressed in (5. Gaussian white noise and typical wind speed proﬁles are shown in Figs. 5. However. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 58 The constraint is that there is a peak of given height A at time t 0 .17).4 Real-time Wind Speed Proﬁle For analysis of wind turbine loading. It should be noted that the spectral characteristic of this effective wind speed is very different from that of a point source.

Z 59 (a) Gaussian white noise signal of zero mean. The current IEC-Standard considers extreme wind events as extreme load conditions that must be considered as ultimate load cases when designing a wind turbine. and operation at rated wind speed of the turbine equipment (12. calculations of the loading and behavior of wind turbines were based on grossly simpliﬁed models of the wind: a steady wind speed. and blue line is proﬁle at v m = 16 m/s and turbulence intensity of 16%.It=18% vm=16. 3) [2]. constant power or logarithmic law model of wind shear. A.0 m/s. respectively (see Appendix A. unit variance. green line represents v m = vr at a turbulence intensity of 18%. and a dominant longitudinal component of turbulence. Until relatively recently.2.It=16% 80 100 (b) Wind speed proﬁles. For the seasonal mean wind speed of 7 m/s. 12. [s] 25 30 35 40 White noise signal. based on a Class A turbulence site.[21]. 24 22 Wind speed. Although such input enables a satisfactory calculation of the periodic loading. lateral and vertical) are obtained as 16.5 0 -0.0108%.5 1 0.92472%.3: White noise and typical generated wind speed proﬁles by CSS at various mean wind speeds and turbulence intensities. v(t) [m/s] 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 20 40 t. Red line is v m = vr at a turbulence intensity of 16%. cut-in wind speed of 4. In this research CSS generates a spatial turbulent wind ﬁeld at ﬁxed points at the rotor disc.205 m/s). the prevailing turbulence intensities (longitudinal.2. 5. Within the framework of the IEC 61400-1 Std (ed.5 -2 0 5 10 15 20 t. a constant ﬂow inclination. Figure 5.3). MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 2 1. [s] 60 vm=12.It=16% vm=12.CHAPTER 5. it provides no basis for evaluating the random loads due to turbulence.5465%. . and 8.5 Remarks Time domain simulations of wind gust events are of practical interest for wind turbine design calculations. these load situations are deﬁned in terms of two independent site variables — a reference mean wind speed and a characteristic turbulence intensity.2.5 -1 -1.

Reardon. de la Salle. [9] R. 1994. B. F. and R. Vol.1994. March 1991. 2007. P. [10] P. Stavrakakis. [11] G. IEEE Workshop on Computers in Power Electronics. and M. 3-4 June 2002.318705. 378-386. pp.1109/TPAS. Urasaki. Maggiore. Rastgoufard. Park. Energy Conversion. doi:10.” IEEE Trans. 431-438. UPEC ’06. 58-63. 4. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 60 References [1] E. pp. Leithead.2007. Lehn. [6] W. 762-767. Karki. doi:10. Available online. A. Bierbooms. Muhando.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. 113-117. 2004.” IEE Procs. R. Tapia. N.1109/CIPE.iec. 24-26 Aug. and A.367726. pp. 1. Senjyu. “Reliability evaluation of a wind power delivery system using an approximate wind model. PAS-103. Funabashi. no. M.” Procs. E. and Z. 6-8 Sept. 1. no. Kinjo. Nogaret. and E.1109/CCA. 47.381194. Shu. vol. doi:10.1109/UPEC. N. and G. [7] F.” IEEE Trans. no. Energy Conversion. T. “Role and objectives of control for wind turbines. Lotfalian. [2] International Electrotechnical Commission. 138. [4] W.1196716. Series B. 41st International Universities Power Engineering Conference.385499. 11. pp.2006. 5. 30. 1-8. and T. vol. [5] T. Chen. Blaabjergg.ch.CHAPTER 5. vol.2002. S. Flores. G. 1008-1016. “Speed control of wind turbines in the stall region. 2. L.” IEEE Trans. doi:10. pp. L. pp. vol. http://www. Ekelund. “Comparative study of different implementations for induction machine model in Matlab/Simulink for wind turbine simulations. 2. D.1984. Hansen.” Renewable Energy. 2005. 227-232.1109/PES. “Simulation and assessment of wind array power variations based on simultaneous wind speed measurements. 2. . G. “A gust model for wind turbine design. Hu. 22. “Application of a control algorithm for wind speed prediction and active power generation. S. IEC 61400-1: Wind Turbines Part 1: Design Requirements. pp. doi:10. 2005.” IEEE Procs. Rawn. 1996. pp. 135-148. A. no. 1984. 3rd IEEE Conference on Control Applications. vol. “Wind power forecasting using advanced neural networks models. vol. Tapia. pp. Shayanfar. A. and D. F.” Procs. vol. IEC 2005-08. “A control methodology to mitigate the grid impact of wind turbines. [3] B. Iov. 523-536. 24-28 June 2007. pp. 3rd edition. Power Apparatus and Systems. “Online WTG dynamic performance and transient stability enhancement by evolutionary LQG. G. Transmission and Distribution. No. P.” JSME International Journal. Generation. P. Bouwmeester. [8] R. Kariniotakis. Billinton. 2006. W. Schlueter. H.

” IEEE Trans. 523-529. Mann. “Wind simulation for extreme and fatigue loads. [18] R. 1-8. B. 1-6. Senjyu. B. The International Conference on Electrical Engineering. MODELING WIND FIELD DYNAMICS 61 [12] G. 1958. [19] C. Box.” Ann. no.” Solar Energy.org/standards . 6. Energy Conversion. [13] E. pp. Yona. E. J. Z.CHAPTER 5. [21] IEC 61400-1 Standard: Wind Turbine Safety and Design Ed 3. P. D. Klein. Siagi. 14. pp. Ce˘nga. and T. and B. PowerAfrica 2007. no. A. Funabashi. and J. Dec. Corotis. “RLS-based self-tuning regulator for WTG dynamic performance enhancement under stochastic setting. E. “Large band simulation of the wind speed for a real time wind turbine simulators. 2002. and T. “Intelligent optimal control of wind power generating system by a complemented linear quadratic Gaussian approach. 1978. Larsen. N. no. and E. “Probability models of wind velocity magnitude and persistence.. Muhando. and T. Luca.” Renewable Energy. 20. Dakyo. pp. Math.” Proc. J. “A note on the generation of random normal deviates. [14] E. Stat.2007. B. 8-12 July 2007.” Risø-R-1437(EN). 483-493. and T.385885. S. A. [20] M. pp. B. Nielsen. S. and M.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. 32. O. Available online. Pedersen. vol. pp.awea. vol. doi:10. Corotis. Yona. RLO/234277/2.” ERDA Report. T. pp. pp. K. Ott.” IEEE Power Engineering Society Conference and Exposition. Urasaki. A. Funabashi. 4. N. 610-611. T. Senjyu. 17. Muhando. Sigl. Muhando. T. Yona. [17] R. Urasaki. 24-28 June 2007. G. H. 1-8. “Gain scheduling control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading. Senjyu. Senjyu. “Stochastic modeling of site wind characteristics. [16] E. Muhando. Nichita. 2003. Funabashi. Hansen. [15] E. Kinjo. A. H. B. T. http://www. B. “Robust predictive control of variable-speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator. C. Kinjo. ICEE 2007. 2407-2423. B.1109/PES. 29. 16-20 July 2007. September 1977. 2007. vol. vol. Muller. Funabashi. B.

Part II Control Strategies and Design for Wind Energy Conversion Systems .

PID controllers [1]-[6] that are easily implemented in the ﬁeld environment. Although industry has embraced the PID controller. the selftuning regulator (STR) scheme [12]-[15].1 Introduction C ONTROL can signiﬁcantly improve the energy capture by a wind turbine. in order to convince industry to invest in more complicated controllers it is necessary to show that they are potentially able to guarantee long service life of the WECS. linear. Particularly. to mitigate loads as far as possible.Chapter 6 Control Philosophy 6. Part II of this thesis reviews techniques for the control of wind turbines during power production. multiobjective paradigms. there is increasing interest in designing controllers with load reduction as part of the primary objective. It is important to be able to quantify the beneﬁts of any new controller with particular regard to the variability of the real wind. ensure low maintenance and above all. including the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) [7]-[10] that has been shown to effectively optimize power conversion for a wind power system across a whole range of operating regions [11]. Several advanced controllers are proposed and analyzed in this research. maintain a high level of energy conversion.[17]. Classical methods based on proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithms are a good starting point for many aspects of closed-loop controller design for ﬁxedand variable-speed turbines. as turbines become larger and more ﬂexible. With regard to energy extraction efﬁciency of WECs. researchers have begun to investigate the capabilities of more sophisticated control designs for ensuring efﬁcient power conversion. However. such as drive train torsion in variable-speed turbines. especially multivariable. Terms can be introduced into the controller to help damp resonances. and model-based predictive control (MBPC) [16]. . controller design has centered mainly on simple. These have an advantage over the PID since they can incorporate multiple inputs and multiple outputs.

Additional sensors such as accelerometers and load sensors can also help the controller achieve its objectives more effectively. Individual pitch control has potential for very signiﬁcant load reduction but is not yet commercially proven. . these aspects of controller design become increasingly important. Some optimization of energy capture below rated is also possible. Although ﬁeld trials are useful. Blade pitch control is primarily used to limit the aerodynamic power in above-rated wind speeds in order to keep the turbine within its design limits. but it is possible to go further by designing them with load reduction as an explicit objective — the main theme for Part II of this report. but it can also be used to reduce certain loads. A very basic controller might consist of a classical PI or PID algorithm acting on a single measured signal (generator speed or power output) to generate a pitch demand. This thesis covers the following possibilities: • joint control of pitch and torque to improve the trade-off between energy and loads. Finally. The algorithms used for controlling pitch and torque need careful design. the importance of modeling for controller design is stressed. These strategies are now routinely used in the industry. including load reduction.CHAPTER 6. Generator torque control in variable-speed turbines is used primarily to maximize energy capture below rated wind speed by controlling rotor speed. The design of the control algorithms is clearly of prime importance. computer simulations are also vital. This basic scheme can be greatly improved in a number of ways. and to limit the transmission torque above rated. especially in the drive train. and as cost reduction targets encourage lighter and hence more ﬂexible and dynamic structures. For variable-speed turbines a torque demand is generated independently from a speed–torque look-up table. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 64 Advanced controller design methods can offer an explicit mathematical formulation for the design of controllers with multiple objectives. the control algorithms can also have a major inﬂuence on the loads experienced by the wind turbine. As the size of wind turbines increases. • using torque control to damp out torsional resonances. but it also has an important effect on structural loads. attention to detail in the interaction of pitch and torque controllers can signiﬁcantly improve energy capture without any compromise on loads. This thesis illustrates the ﬁnding that. For variable speed turbines. more robust multiobjective and adaptive controllers can be developed that can achieve better performance levels relative to classical linear controllers and are much more likely to be adopted in practice. with careful design. Clearly the algorithms must be designed so as to prevent excessive loading. In addition to their effectiveness in meeting these primary objectives. Such controllers have been used on commercial turbines to a limited extent. and are utilized to evaluate performance.

1 . The wind model. The instantaneous wind speed v w (t) is described by (5. Fig. and generator torque reference. converters and controllers. because the main contribution to fatigue loads is in this frequency range. power train reliability. One of the main targets is to improve the generator models used in advanced aeroelastic tools and to add the electrical part of the wind turbine. strictly speaking. The interconnections between the different dynamic components are depicted as the respective blocks: 1) The aerodynamic model of the turbine rotor 2) The shaft system model — represents possible torsional oscillations in the shaft system 3) The electric generator model — it is a transient model 4) The converter and its control 5) The blade-angle (pitch) control and the servo model.1 is the block diagram of the dynamic WECS model that is applied to investigate power output performance. The work presented in Chapters 2–5 has been to develop subsystem models as part of a simulation platform project in which the main idea is to extend the ability of the existing wind turbine design tools to simulate the dynamic behavior of the wind turbines and the wind turbine–grid interaction. is not a component of the wind turbine model. 6.1: Relational schematic of the WECS with DOIG.CHAPTER 6.2. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 65 5 ωt vw Optimal control Pref Q ref β 2 Wind Γ t turbine rotor 1 Γt Drive-train Γg dynamics βcmd vw Wind speed model 6 ωg ωt Stator i dq_s 4 voltage i dq_r Active/ udq Pref reactive udq_r power Q ref (P&Q) udq_s control ωg 3 udq_s i dq_s udq_r i dq_r ωg DOIG Γg ωt Figure 6. but the output power calculation for the WECS requires the knowledge of instantaneous wind speed.1) in Chapter 5. and transient voltage stability in the sequel. 6. In these aeroelastic tools the focus is on the frequency scale between 0 and 20 Hz.2 Control Concept 6. 5) The wind model1. An entire nonlinear simulation model of the wind turbine can then be derived by connecting the individual sub-models.1 Model Overview The most signiﬁcant dynamics of the wind turbine have been modelled in Part I with emphasis on control design.

To highlight the importance that an accurate representation of the structural dynamics has for purposes of model validation of IG wind turbines. 6. The active (P). and eight state variables. . The real advantage of the method is visible in the chosen highly turbulent wind environment. wind speed disturbance ¯ vt . Before the models can be used with conﬁdence. β cmd . and (4.ref u ds u qs States x ωt ωg β θtg i ds i qs i dr i qr Outputs y P Q Figure 6. the complete linearized model is obtained.CHAPTER 6. and outputs. characterized by six inputs u. Fig. presenting a noisy signal to the system. and adjustable control variables of the converter. Based on the state-space form of the induction machine dynamic model. this study compares the performance of the proposed modeling and control to the actual prototype values detailed in Appendix A. After that. state variables. The inputs include pitch angle reference. The simulation model is implemented in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with the control target of ensuring response geared toward optimum power conversion and minimizing shaft torsional torque variations without additional ﬁltering.2: Complete dynamic model of inputs. and then the reduced-order model that neglects the stator transients. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 66 Inputs u vt βcmd ω g.2 illustrates the complete WECS dynamic model. The developed models are used in controlling the DOIG with a power electronic converter in the WECS. an analysis of the control variables is performed in order to obtain the operational points of the DOIG. These transfer functions are useful in the linear design of the control loops as well as in the analysis of the stability and response of the system under different operating conditions. and reactive (Q) powers injected into the grid are taken as model outputs. State variables comprise 8 nonlinear equations: (3. they should have been validated by comparing model results to measurements.5) for the drive-train states from Chapter 3. The focus is on analysis of the state-space modeling of a 2 MW DOIG used in WECS applications.ref Γ g. Based on the steady-state model. and the steadystate model are easily extracted.11) for the induction machine (Chapter 4). and the mechanical and aeroelastical aspects must be considered to visualize the dynamic behavior. the required transfer functions between the desired input– output pair can be obtained. two outputs ¯ y .

ref = . CONTROL PHILOSOPHY TURBULENCE 67 vt Wind speed Proposed multivariable controller Γ prp Γbc DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION Γg. initial insight into this requirement can be gained by considering the situation when the wind is steady and the turbine is in equilibrium. and to regulate turbine speed in the above-rated region thereby maintaining rated power. The WECS can be started at the wind speed of 4 m/s and operated in the wind area up to 25 m/s.3: Control strategy by the frequency separation principle.3 illustrates the frequency separation principle utilized in analyzing the system: steady state optimization assumes operation at the optimal wind speed while with dynamic optimization the OP is bound to shift hence the need for an adaptive controller to regulate the aerodynamic effects on the system. which includes enhancing the damping to the drive train torsion and mitigating the effects of wind speed disturbances. and minimizing the peak loadings experienced. The overall objective of the controller is to maximize energy production. A further.2. . While the wind is highly stochastic. and subject to operating constraints. 6. ◦ To specify the demanded generator torque to maintain stable closed-loop behavior over the entire turbine operating envelope. The control design objectives are: ◦ To optimize power production in low to medium wind speeds.CHAPTER 6. Fig. whilst working within the operational limits of the turbine.2 Control Objectives In this study the control problem is conveniently divided into two time scales corresponding to slow mean wind speed changes and rapid turbulent wind speed variations.ref Σ WECS ω ∆ω Electric power Key: STEADY STATE OPTIMIZATION Γ prp Γbc vm SEASONAL Baseline controller Generator command signal by proposed controller Generator command signal by baseline controller Figure 6. Three operating modes can be identiﬁed: 1. extreme gust is employed to conﬁrm the ability of the controllers to maintain operation within the allowed rotor speed limits. Γ g. Energy capture limited by available wind energy 2. Energy capture limited by rotor speed constraints 3. Energy capture limited by generator rating Overall. The mean speeds are treated as steady state operating points. effectiveness of each proposed control scheme is evaluated based on the objectives. Γbc + Γprp 6. deterministic.

the generator torque controller’s output.opt trajectory and constrained to operate at lower values of TSR and cP .3. The WECS has to produce less than it is capable of at a given wind speed.3. . thus the pitch controller kicks in and drives the pitch angle to positive values until the rated generator speed is reached. The inverter controller holds the electrical power constant at rated power. 6.2 Power-train Torsional Load Alleviation In above rated wind regimes.ref . The difference between the generator speed and its reference value is negative and. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 68 6. generator torque control is utilized exclusively for overload prevention. Γg. Speed controller keeps the generator speed limited to its rated value by acting on the pitch angle.CHAPTER 6. The difference between the generator speed and its rated value is positive. Γ g. is increased systematically thereby driving the TSR to its optimal value by varying the rotational speed. • The power reference is the rated power • The speed reference is the rated speed. and generator torque control for alleviation of torsional loads on the power train. thus the turbine is prevented from following the c P. • The power reference is the wind turbine available power • The speed reference is the optimal speed. the pitch angle is kept constant at the lower limit (optimal value). This action implies both a larger dynamical pitch activity and a larger steady-state pitch angle. whereas blade pitch control is used for power limitation. power is limited to rated power. The power that the inverter injects into the grid is completely independent of both the grid frequency and the DOIG speed. The turbine has to produce the optimum power corresponding to the maximum tracking power point look-up table. (b) Power limitation strategy — for above rated wind speed. based on the following control strategies: (a) Power optimization strategy — utilized for below rated wind speed. P r .1 Active Power Control The control objectives of the active power control loop are achieved by speed control. 6. where the energy capture is maximized by tracking the maximum power coefﬁcient.3 Control Strategy The devised strategy is twofold: active power control for optimal conversion throughout the WECS operating envelope.ref is for damping only. In this operational regime. therefore.

The speed controller — controls generator speed to its reference value by acting on pitch angle. This is based on the maximum power tracking point (MPTP) as a function of the optimal speed.CHAPTER 6.1 Assigning the Control Tasks As illustrated in Fig. 6.4.4: WECS control level. 6. The power controller (the external controller in the cascade controllers) provides a reference rotor current to the rotor current controller (the internal controller in the cascade controllers).4. 2. while (ii) the reactive power control is achieved by controlling the d-axis component of the rotor current (the magnetizing current) collinear with the stator ﬂux. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY Speed controller Wind speed Optimal speed 69 β ref β ωgen ref + _ ∆ω PI + _ τ Rate limiter Angle limiter Turbine rotor Γaero Transmission system Γmech ωgen meas K pi Gain scheduling β Power controller Active power reference ACTIVE POWER CONTROL LOOP Rotor current controller ACTIVE CURRENT CONTROL Generator frequency converter Control signals P ref grid P meas grid + _ PI i qref + _ P mq PI i qmeas REACTIVE CURRENT CONTROL ωgen meas Reactive power reference REACTIVE POWER CONTROL LOOP Q ref grid Q meas grid + _ PI i dref + _ P md PI i dmeas Available power P MPTP el P el MPTP ω Figure 6.4 Controller Design 6. The power controller ensures the power reference by acting on the current reference of the rotor current controller and thus on the generator current/torque. The wind turbine control level contains • a slow control level (speed controller and a power controller). . the WECS’s power capability is expressed in terms of instantaneous (shortterm) available power. the converter controls the power of the WECS through two controllers in cascade: 1. which further controls the generator current and thus the generator torque. and • a fast control level (frequency converter-rotor current controller). In implementation. this is achieved via two control loops: (i) the active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis component of the rotor current (in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame). Note: rotor current controller generates rotor voltage components as control variables of the converter.

the aerodynamic torque input to the rotor is altered and hence the output power. and is fed to the pitch actuator to regulate the pitch angle of the turbine blades.2 Pitch Actuator and Blade Servo The actuator dynamics and implementation of the pitch control are depicted in Fig. By varying the pitch angle β. 6. β=− β+ τβ τβ (6. thus β has to be modiﬁed between −2◦ and 30◦ to reduce cP (λ. ◦ Pe remains at WECS rating. Pr . Pe . Controller dynamics are nonlinear with saturation limits on both pitch angle and pitch rate.4. β). Pe . and ∆βcmd is derived by gain scheduling in the PI block. as high as possible subject to the condition P e < Pr . The desired pitch angle is selected so that the generated power.2) where ∆P = Pe − Pref . 6.5.1) The desired pitch command. Because the inertia of the blades is large and the actuator should not consume a great deal of power. follows Pref .5: Pitch control system. is the output of the pitch controller. the actuator has limited capabilities. The command βcmd is the integral sum of the small changes of pitch command (∆βcmd ) over the sampling intervals. and can be represented as βcmd = −sgn{∆P }|∆βcmd | (6. βcmd .CHAPTER 6. thus the dynamics of the servo with the blades may be described by a ﬁrst order transfer function with a time constant τ β Kβ 1 ˙ βcmd . this implies holding the pitch angle at a mechanical limit: β = −2 ◦ . CONTROL PHILOSOPHY PI P ref + Pe K pp _ + K ip 70 βcmd + _ max 1 β s s min K PI Gain scheduling β Figure 6. . Output power P e is smoothed by a hydraulic servo system that drives the blades around their lengthwise axes. The pitch angle controller is only active during high wind speeds. in the region of higher wind speeds. the pitch dynamics exhibit linear behavior. The goals of pitch control include: ◦ Total active power. When the pitch angle and pitch rate are less than the saturation limits.

since the WECS aerodynamic characteristics vary according to the OP. vw [m/s] 20 25 71 Figure 6. The pitch rate commanded by the actuator is physically limited to maximum ±8 ◦ /s while the saturation level of the pitch angle is from –2◦ to 90◦ . CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 25 Pitch angle. for −2◦ < β ≤ 0◦ (6.CHAPTER 6. β [deg] 20 15 10 5 0 -5 5 10 15 Wind speed. based on minimizing deviations from the setpoint without excessive control action and without causing any instabilities.4) for β > 30◦ + 1.01025. communication delay. It should be mentioned that in power control mode lower values of pitch rate are desirable. Fig. KP I is given as follows: KP I = β 15 1. and hence vw .6 is a typical variation in pitch angle with wind speed at steady state conditions for the WECS in this study. Gain scheduling serves to compensate for the large changes in the sensitivity of aerodynamic torque to pitch angle over the operating range. These limits should not be reached during the normal operation in order to avoid not only the fatigue damage and wear of the pitch actuator. and possibility of other delays e. the rate limiter is applied to the output with instantaneous integrator desaturation to prevent wind-up.g. in order to ensure suitable control loop characteristics are attained at all wind speeds. Additionally. however. The transfer function C(s) between the power error and β cmd is: C(s) = βcmd (s) sKpp + Kip = . and KP I is by trial and error. but allowance has been made for servo system delay.3) Selection of Kpp .05 s can operate very fast. computational delay and conditional delay (to overcome Coulomb friction). The servomotor. Thus the proportional and integral gains are scaled by the gain scheduling constant. 6. K P I .0246 s and Kip = 0. Kip . for speed control mode the larger pitch rate value shows better transient performance. for 0◦ < β ≤ 30◦ 3. The proportional and integral constants are respectively Kpp = 0. Thus the response of the pitch actuation system is not instantaneous. . modeled as a ﬁrst order system with time constant τ β = 0. ∆Pe (s) s (6.6: Variation of pitch angle with wind speed in steady state conditions. but also the loss of performance.

The generator torque controller utilizes only the local generator speed to produce appropriate control signals for meeting the control objectives. the generator rotational speed.7) where Γ ∗ incorporates all the non-adaptive gain (KT ) parameters apart from air density ρ that is time-varying and thus uncontrollable. the control objective shifts from maximizing power capture to regulating power to the WECS’s rated output while reducing rotor speed ﬂuctuations and minimizing both control actuating loads and shaft torsional moments.3 Generator Torque Controller 6.opt : 1 R Pm. (6.opt = ρΛcP. cP. in this study the control law (6. Hence in above rated wind regimes. The target is to track the OP locus (λopt . Most turbines have separate control mechanisms to prevent reverse operation.opt 2 λopt 3 3 ωt . At low and moderate wind speeds generator speed. When the wind speed exceeds its nominal value. executed in accord with the expression 2 Γref = KT ωt where 1 R KT = ρΛcP. for ω < 0 Γref = ρΓ ∗ ω 2 . both generator torque control and blade pitch control are used for overload prevention and power limitation.opt 2 λopt 3 (6.1 Baseline Controller The choice of generator torque as a control input is motivated by the fact that when connecting the generator to the grid via the frequency converter. .3. This decoupling enables variable speed operation. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 72 6. is controlled to maximize energy capture by operating continuously at the TSR that results in the maximum power coefﬁcient. ωg . ωg .4.CHAPTER 6.6) 0. The gain algorithm is derived from the non-adaptive case presented in (6. for ω ≥ 0 (6.6) assumes positive regions of ω.4. II. and a control strategy based on wind speed regime may be formulated: I. will be independent of the grid frequency. Pm.opt) by regulating the generator torque to yield the optimum power conversion.6) Γref being the reference torque signal and KT the torque control gain.5) A standard baseline controller is then designed to keep the turbine operating at the peak of its cP -TSR-pitch surface.

6.ref Torque to current translation Pref ωref ωg + i rq. Us (6. by applying both d.8) where the reference stator current is calculated with the reference values for torque. Γg. Γg. . The inner loop is the torque control that compares the electric torque and the output signal from the speed proportional plus integral controller.ref · ω0 .ref in (6.10) where the proportional and integral constants are Kpt = 500 Nms/rad and Kit = 250 Nm/rad. that is used to deﬁne isq.3. II. the reference values for the rotor current are calculated as irq. Speed Control The speed controller in Fig. shown in Fig. The reference generator speed is a function of wind speed: below rated wind speed the reference generator speed is proportional to the wind speed. I.ref .ref = Us Xs − isq.7 is a PI regulator that gives the relationship between the input.ref + _ i rq s K pv+ K iv s u rq Figure 6. above. Xs Xm Xm (6. Current Control The stator current is regulated through control of the rotor current.4. respectively.9).2 PI Controller for Γg.ref The PI controller consists of a cascade speed and torque control-loop.ref = Kpt ∆ωg + Kit 0 ∆ωg dt (6. The speed controller compares the actual rotor speed and the reference rotor speed.ref = Γg.7. and the output.CHAPTER 6. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY Optimum characteristic 73 Rotor injected voltage PI K pt+ K it _ Γ g.and q-components.ref t Γg. ∆ωg . it is constant at rated value. 6.ref isq. The output signal from the cascade controllers is the q-axis rotor current. and. 6.ref · .9) The rotor currents are controlled with a PI controller. equipped with anti-windup and decoupling terms to optimize the dynamic behavior [18].7: Generator torque and speed control. The output is Γg.

is to modify the generator torque control to provide some damping. .ref Two signiﬁcant problems abound with the standard control in (6. with its phase adjusted to counteract the effect of the resonance and effectively increase the damping.CHAPTER 6. Besides. To address these issues. resulting in less energy capture. Although it may be possible to provide some damping mechanically. STR and MBPC. The time constant τ can sometimes be used to compensate for time lags in the system. which has been successfully adopted on many turbines. inaccuracies in determining Γ ∗ due to changing blade aerodynamics over time. there is a cost associated with this. 74 2. control with PI (6. or to adjust the phase of the response. Instead of demanding a constant generator torque above rated. These paradigms include: LQG. These controllers seek the gain that maximizes power capture regardless of whether this gain corresponds to the maximum of the power curve for the WECS. a small ripple at the drive train frequency is added on. as detailed in Chapters 7–9. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 6.4. the converter in the variable speed turbine neither adds inherent damping to the power system.10) that optimizes energy can also cause undesirable torque ﬂuctuations that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control attempts to follow the wind.7): 1. A highpass or bandpass ﬁlter of the form G 2ζωs(1 + sτ ) s2 + 2ζωs + ω 2 (6. wind speed ﬂuctuations force the WECS to operate off the peak of its power curve much of the time. for example by means of appropriately designed rubber mounts or couplings. nor is its speed inherently damped by the power system.3.3 Multiobjective Controllers for Γg. The several multivariable. Mechanical stress and strain reduction are met by reducing the vibrations between the rotating parts. multiobjective schemes that are proposed generate the appropriate generator torque signals respectively to compensate for the above contigencies as well as add damping to the drive-train. adaptive controllers are proposed that reduce the negative effects of both the uncertainty regarding Γ ∗ and the change in optimal OP due to turbulence. Another solution. Moreover. The frequency ω must be close to the resonant frequency which is to be damped. Indeed. tracking of T SR = λopt at high frequency is not desirable because it would induce sudden variations of turbine rotational speed and thus high mechanical loads on the drive train.11) acting on the measured generator speed can be used to generate this additional ripple.

The greatest advantage of these paradigms over PID control is the fact that they are multiobjective. Note that the effective wind speed. the controllers are able to adjust these manipulable variables: (i) the blade pitch angle. structural dynamics and/or control system dynamics. Although the frequency domain approach has the advantage that it provides for a very rapid analysis of wind turbine loading. The sensor dynamics can be assumed negligible. and the control and protection of the power converter during and after the grid faults. for example. and eventual reduction in cost of energy. no scheme is clearly favored against the others. hence can incorporate multiple inputs and multiple outputs. . The method is. Against the limitations of PID control. Of the analyzed multiobjective. nevertheless. detailed wind turbine design calculations. Several advanced controllers are proposed in the sequel whose commonality is full-state feedback with state estimation and/or prediction. the frequency domain approach is generally not utilized as the basis of ﬁnal. the various paradigms are being tested and evaluated with respect to the classical PID controller. and (ii) the generator speed. with the rotor aerodynamics. it suffers from the disadvantage that it cannot take account of system non-linearities associated. of some value in the very early stages of wind turbine design for optimization studies. Pe = Γg · ωg . For this reason in particular. in order to convince industry to shift toward more sophisticated controllers. vw . Within this framework the designed controllers have the following measurements available (i) the instantaneous power. it is necessary to compare their functionality with PID controllers. cannot be measured. ωg .5 Conclusions The overall objective of the controller is to maximize energy production. that these elaborate controllers offer greater beneﬁt in form of robustness. as is measurement noise. In the case of grid faults the controllability of the WECS embraces both the control for preventing rotor overspeed. through systematic design methods. based on modeling the WECS components as discrete systems. However. whilst working within actuator operational limits and minimizing the extreme loads and associated fatigue damage on the turbine structure and drive-train — a disturbance rejection task. The design and development of the various multiobjective control paradigms is undertaken in the time domain. efﬁciency. Issues such as reducing shaft fatigue could be easily included in the control objectives. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 75 6. and (ii) the generator reaction torque.CHAPTER 6. multivariable controllers. the aim is to establish. Additionally.

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Morton. Kinjo. “Disturbance rejection by stochastic inequality constrained closed-loop model-based predictive control of MW-class wind generating system. Funabashi. A.” IEEE Int. R. [18] J. [17] E. 1. pp. Kinjo. 2003. Driesen. 5. Joint IEEJ-IEICE Conference. pp. 1431-1440. 2007. B. 1-8. B. and T. pp. Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality. Munteanu. A. on Power Electronics. N. “Self tuning control of wind-diesel power systems. 24-28 June. 13. Belmans.2004. 8-11 Jan. 1. vol.385885. Sakamoto. 2007. pp.” 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting.539550. J. Ce˘nga. Muhando. 91-99. Antoine. 21-24 Nov. pp. T.1109/PES. no.1109/59. T. Tripathy. Conf. Soens. Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth. CONTROL PHILOSOPHY 77 [11] I. “Disturbance rejection by dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty compensation. Gallestey. 186-191. A. “Output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using adaptive control method. Bratcu. Senjyu. Yona. Int. doi:10. and H. 2002. no.doi:10. 2007. and T. Muhando. doi:10. Mufti. H. and S. Senjyu.” Procs. vol. [12] E. PowerCon 2004.” Procs.1460109. T. Muhando. Senjyu. Urasaki. N. [16] E. and T. [15] M. N. “A comprehensive model of a doubly fed induction generator for dynamic simulations and power system studies. I. A. Power Systems. Urasaki. vol.-D. Yona. B. 258-264.982212. T. Senjyu.1996. Conf. 17. .-u.” Procs. Funabashi. Cutululis.” IET Procs. vol. “Optimization of variable speed wind a power systems based on a LQG approach.2007. doi:10. Balasubramanian.CHAPTER 6.” Control Engineering Practice. doi:10. 19 Dec. 834-839. Kinjo. on Power Systems Technology. Feb. C. “Robust predictive control of variable speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator. and S. Spain. Funabashi.1109/PEDES. of the 1996 Int. Stothert. 2004. 1996. ICREPQ ’03. Control Theory and Applications. pp. and R. A.1049/iet-cta:20060448. vol. and E. April 9–12. M. pp. “Model predictive control and the optimization of power plant load while considering lifetime consumption. [13] E. T.” IEEE Trans. [14] R.1109/ICPST. 1. 1. 903-912. 2005. Vigo.

and the generated power quality is deteriorated [3]. the LQG’s main purpose is to add damping to the drive-train. the power generated may change rapidly due to continuous ﬂuctuation of wind speed and direction: the baseline controller tracks wind speed variations with the target of optimizing aerodynamic efﬁciency during below rated wind speed events. full state feedback with state estimation scheme — for generator torque control is proposed to meet the following objectives: 1. In the above rated wind speeds. However. Renewables. A sophisticated control strategy incorporating a standard baseline controller and the LQG — a multi-objective. the need for grid operators to quickly assess the impacts of the wind generation on system stability has become critical. less power ﬂuctuations.1 Introduction Meeting the world’s growing demand for energy is a challenge that requires heavy investment in power sources that minimize related impacts on the environment. Ensure system reliability by enhancing reduction of stresses on the drive-train. industry has been shifting toward variable speed WECSs as they encounter lower mechanical stress. When the frequency range of the disturbances matches one of the resonant modes. However. the life of the turbine components is reduced. and provide 10–15% higher energy output compared with constant speed operation [1].Chapter 7 Full-State Feedback Digital Control by LQG 7. With regard to power production. thereby minimizing cyclic fatigue. Ensure operation geared toward optimal power conversion 2. have an important part to play in widening the diversity of the energy mix. However. with high wind penetration levels.[2]. variable speed WECs present nonlinear dynamic behavior and lightly damped resonant modes. while a pitch control mechanism prevents rotor overspeed thus ensuring the maximum power constraint is respected. achieved by regulating large torque variations at the shaft to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems. particularly wind power. .

The controller utilizes feedback from just one output variable. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 79 The ﬁrt part of this chapter explores the LQG [4].[5] as a control scheme for WECS. the designed control scheme should achieve a trade-off between two contradictory demands: • maximization of energy capture from the wind by operating at the optimum power coefﬁcient • alleviation of mechanical dynamical loads due to very lightly damped resonant modes of the system [15]. Several studies have shown the efﬁcacy of LQG in WECS control [6]-[10].CHAPTER 7. State estimation is employed in modeling the unknown states to attain full-state feedback. to achieve stability. A practical implementation is reported by Lescher et al. made up of an artiﬁcial neural network (ANN). Disturbances and measurement noise are modeled as stochastic processes. Other objectives include maintaining stable closed-loop behavior as well as enhancement of damping in various ﬂexible modes of the turbine. to ensure maximum power capture and regulation of shaft load variations via generator torque control. to aid in the design synthesis of the controllers and gain insight into approximate behavior of the WECS. .3. [11]. and the generator loading of the WECS made to follow the desired optimum shaft power locus. generator speed. The second part of this chapter proposes a hybrid control paradigm. a process undertaken by a Kalman ﬁlter [16]-[18]. Once this is established. Computational speed. The neurocontroller (NC) is introduced to work in tandem with the LQG since the turbine system is dynamically nonlinear. and 2. The acronym refers to Linear Quadratic Guassian — Linear systems with Quadratic performance criteria that include Gaussian white noise in the LQ paradigm. performance. and robustness. The basis for including the NC is inﬂuenced by two properties of ANNs: 1. Ability to learn and generalize even in cases where full information for the problem at hand is absent [14]. the generator torque line can be controlled by the LQG (or hybrid).[13]. The WECS is dynamically nonlinear. the main control objective is the regulation of turbine speed. the system has to be linearized as explained in Section 2. By including Gaussian white noise in the LQ paradigm linear optimal feedback systems based on output feedback rather than state feedback may be found. as developed in [12]. MIMO problems can be handled almost as easily as SISO problems. With either control strategy. where the LQG is incorporated in intelligent micro-sensors placed on the wind turbine blades and tower to monitor fatigue loads during above rated wind speed operation. LQG design methods convert control system design problems to an optimization problem with quadratic time-domain performance criteria. The scheme takes advantage of the qualities of the NC. Overall.

Further.1: Dynamic drive-train equivalent system: rotating masses interlinked by a ﬂexible shaft. 7.1) (7. the drive-train modiﬁes the dynamics of the system because they include torsional modes that relate to the aerodynamic rotor mass swinging with the induction generator mass through the ﬂexible transmission shaft. external damping is assumed negligible. 7. 7. and refers to the dimension of the state vector. .1(b)). and the moments of inertia of the shafts and the gearbox wheels can be neglected because they are small compared with that of the wind turbine or generator. Generally. the system would be subjected to an instantaneous speed change.2 State Development for the Power-train Fig.1 illustrates the multimass model of the drive-train. ∆ω t . Therefore the resultant model is essentially a two-mass system connected by a ﬂexible shaft of equivalent stiffness and damping factor (Fig.2) The low speed shaft torque. Thus there is justiﬁcation for model reduction prior to realizing a simpler LQG controller design: the McMillan degree 1 should be minimal for practical implementation to avoid complex control laws.CHAPTER 7. acts as braking torque on the rotor. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG Jt J1 80 θtg ωt Dt ω1 Kgr ωt Dg D Γt Kt Γ1 ω2 ωg Jg N gr Jt Ke ωg Jg Turbine rotor J 2 Γ2 Kg Γg Generator (a) 3-inertia model (b) 2-inertia model Figure 7. The moments of inertia of the shafts and the gearbox wheels can be neglected when assumed to be small compared with either J t or Jg . In the event that a strong gust is experienced. The dynamics of the drive train are dωt = Γt − Γd dt dωg Jg = Γd − Γg . simpliﬁed to a spring-mass-damper mechanical representation. Γd .3) This is the model order. it results from the torsion and friction effects due to the difference between ωt and ωg and may be modelled to represent the torsional moments that relate to the cyclic twist of the shaft during operation Γd = Ke (θt − θg ) + D 1 (ω t − ω g ) ˙ ˙ (7. Only the gearbox ratio has inﬂuence on the new equivalent system. dt Jt (7.

since the elasticity and damping elements between the adjacent inertias correspond to the low. A ∈ N ×N represents the command signals. and x5 is the wind disturbance over the rotor disk.and high-speed shaft elasticities and internal friction. The states x1 –x5 are obtained from (7. ∆Γ d x4 is the perturbed actuator pitch rate. dt and dθg = ωg dt 81 (7. (7. ∆v w .1). ∆ωt x2 is the perturbed generator speed. (6. O. Model orders are deﬁned in {M.6) consists of . respectively. which is the measured output (generator P ×N speed).6) M is a vector consisting of the system states. In the analysis. ∆ωg x3 is the perturbed shaft torsional torque.1(b). The vector x ∈ the system states deﬁned respectively as follows: x1 is the perturbed turbine rotor speed. and is a vector-valued Gaussian white noise process. ∆β. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG where D represents the damping index and Ke is the equivalent shaft compliance.5) respectively. (7. given by 1 1 1 = + 2 Ke Kt /Ngr Kg and further. θg are the angular positions of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides. N in (7. dθt = ωt .3) and Fig.3). is constructed from the states and the inputs through matrix C ∈ . N. u ∈ is the disturbance input vector. Note that friction of the shaft at the rotor and generator sides is implied in D. N ×M is the system matrix while the inputs affect . and (5. The signal ξ models the wind disturbances on the plant. The output variable y ∈ P is . For each t ≥ 0 the state x(t) and input u(t) are dimensional vectors.1).5) where θt . and Bw ∈ N ×O the state dynamics through the control input gain distribution matrix B ∈ the disturbance input matrix. The output y(t) is the controlled output. Γ d is the torsional torque experienced by the ﬂexible shaft that couples the two rotating inertias. The linearized model locally valid around the OP may be developed on an equivalent mathematical state-space representation of the form x = Ai ∆x + B∆u + Bw ξ ˙ y = Cx where x ∈ ξ(≡ mw ) ∈ N O (7. P }.2). from (7. 7. θtg = (θt − θg ).CHAPTER 7.4) (7.

The system states are generated using the estimated aerodynamic torque.CHAPTER 7.17). In the ﬁgure. Unknown states are determined from just one measured variable — generator speed.2: Schematic of the proposed LQG controller with state estimator.1 State Estimation and LQG Design Fig. By estimating the aerodynamic torque. Thus xk+1 = xk+1 + M(yk − yk ) (7.21). Γt in (2. subject to minimization of the expected sum of squares of the prediction error. taking into account the prediction error. kβ in (2.ref βcmd + 0 0 0 0 − τ1 w ξ . y represents the predicted measurements and x the predicted states. and a correction updates the state estimates. kv .19)–(2. The initial state x(0) is assumed to be a random vector. At any time t the entire past measurement signal y(s).17) with respective aerodynamic coefﬁcients kω . FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 82 x(k-1) u(k-1) Turbine dynamics x’(k) Optimal state feedback x(k) u(k) y’(k-1) y(k-1) State estimator Correction Cost function J=xT Px + uT Qu Figure 7. C = (0 1 0 0 0) in (7. from vw . the state estimator makes a one-step-ahead prediction of the states.7) where. 7. thus the state-space mathematical equivalent becomes ωt ˙ 1 0 0 0 Jg Dkβ D D ˙ Γd = Ke + Dkω −Ke −( Jt + Jg ) Jt Jt ˙ 0 0 0 − τ1 β β ωg ˙ vw ˙ 0 0 0 0 kω Jt 0 1 − Jt kβ Jt kv Jt 0 Dkv Jt 0 − τ1 w ωg − J1g 0 Γd + Ke 0 Jg β 0 − τ1 β vw 0 0 ωt 0 0 Γg. ωref and β by the relation in (2.2 is a schematic of the proposed control paradigm.3 LQG Controller Design 7. 7. s ≤ t. (yk − yk ). Γ t . the matrix M is computed from the system dynamics and the disturbances.3. is assumed to be available for feedback. assuming the stochastic disturbances acting on the system are Gaussian. With generator speed being the only measurement.6).

why the LQG? 83 Generally. that is. when (vw ≤ vr ).ref (t)2 + r2 ∆βcmd (t)2 .9) where ∆λ(t) = λ(t) − λopt and ∆Γd (t) = Γd (t) − Γd.ref (t)RΓg. (7.ref (t)2 (7. composed by the state estimator for linear system state vector estimation ∆x = (x − xi ) and by state feedback ∆u = G∆x . control that optimizes energy by tracking λ opt (as formulated in (6.10) . designed using the state-space model. Static state feedback G is calculated in order to minimize the quadratic function J depending on control objectives. which are dependent on operating zone: I.8) where Q and R are symmetric weighting matrices. The LQG is synthesized for each linearization point Si (xi . ui). To this end.7)) at high frequency can be undesirable a) torque ﬂuctuations that result from the inertia of the rotor as the torque control attempts to follow the wind would induce sudden variations of rotor speed and thus high mechanical loads on the drive train b) the converter in the variable speed turbine neither adds inherent damping to the power system. with the following formulation: J = ∞ 0 E[x Qx(t) + u (t)Ru(t)]dt ≈ t=0 T T ∞ T x(t)T Qx(t) + Γg. the proposed LQG seeks the gain that maximizes power capture regardless of whether this gain corresponds to the maximum of the power curve for the WECS.6) and (6.i . the produced electric power has to be regulated to its nominal value ∞ J = t=0 ¯ ¯ q1 ∆Pe (t)2 + q2 ∆Γd (t)2 + r1 ∆Γg. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG So. To address these issues. The problem of controlling the system is the stochastic linear regulator problem. the system has to operate at λ = λopt to extract the maximum of energy ∞ J = t=0 ¯ ¯ q1 ∆λ(t)2 + q2 ∆Γd (t)2 + r∆Γg.CHAPTER 7. The LQG. Q = Q T and R = RT . nor is the turbine speed inherently damped by the power system. when (vw > vr ). and the target is to control the WECS plant from any initial state x(0) such that the output y(≡ ω g ) is regulated to the desired value as quickly as possible without making the input u(≡ Γ g.ref ) unduly large. II. the system is discretized and a performance index J introduced. takes into account stochastic properties of the system disturbances.ref (t) (7.

13) max denotes the maximally acceptable deviation value for the ith component of where the number yi the output y. are quadratic forms in the components of the output.ref (t). The cost function. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 84 7.8) measures the accumulated deviation of the states from their references. ω g . Γg. i = 1. R is positivedeﬁnite if xT Rx > 0 for all nonzero x.2 Choice of Weighting Matrices for LQG Cost Function. The choice of the weighting matrices Q and R is a trade-off between control performance (Q large) and low input energy (R large). that is. · · ·. 2 . · · ·. to take Q and R nonnegative-deﬁnite 2 . J Often it is adequate to let the two matrices simply be diagonal. k (7. 2. It is most sensible to choose the weighting matrices Q and R such that the two terms are nonnegative. An initial guess is to choose both Q and R diagonal 0 Q2 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 0 0 Q4 0 0 0 0 0 Q5 R1 0 = 0 R2 Q1 0 0 0 0 Q (7. and the input signal.11) R (7. The two terms. Ri = 1 umax i . The second term measures the accumulated amplitude of the control input.12) where Q and R have positive diagonal entries such that Qi = 1 max yi . it provides a means to trade-off opposing objectives: state regulation versus control usage. Thus. x T (t)Qx(t) and T Γg.3. respectively.ref (t)RΓg. has no physical signiﬁcance. Increasing both Q and R by the same factor leaves the optimal solution invariant. only relative values are relevant. The Q and R parameters generally need to be tuned until satisfactory behavior is obtained.ref . An n × n symmetric matrix R is nonnegative-deﬁnite if x T Rx ≥ 0 for every n-dimensional vector x. The other quantity u max has a similar meaning for the ith component of the input u.CHAPTER 7. J . i = 1. m . i Starting with this initial guess the values of the diagonal entries of Q and R may be adjusted by systematic trial and error. The ﬁrst term in the integral criterion (7. 2. If the matrices are diagonal then this means that their diagonal entries should be nonnegative.

the optimal controller is given by ˆ ˙ ˆ x = Aˆ(t) + BΓg.ref (t) = −Gˆ(t).16) However.17) (7. (7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 85 7. white noise disturbance ξ is present.15) (7. It satisﬁes the ˆ ˆ state differential equation of the system (7.6). for the WECS under consideration. but may be optimally estimated with the help of the Kalman ﬁlter. The signal x is meant to be an estimate of the state x(t). Then the solution of the stochastic linear regulator problem with output feedback (rather than state feedback) is to replace the state x(t) in the state feedback law (7.ref (t)RΓg.18) under output feedback. The extra input term K ωg (t) − C x(t) on the rightˆ hand side of (7. but some of the states cannot be accessed for measurement.17) provides a correction that is active as soon as the observation error is nonzero. The controller minimizes the steady-state mean square error T T limT →∞ E ωg (t)Qωg (t) + Γg.[20] AT X + XA + D T QD − XBR−1 B T X = 0. K is the observer gain matrix that needs to be suitably chosen.CHAPTER 7.3 Solution of the Stochastic Linear Regulator Problem The stochastic linear regulator problem consists of minimizing J for the system in (7.3.ref (t) (7. Thus. then for T → ∞ the performance index is minimized by the state feedback law Γg. For the case when there is no state noise (ξ = 0) and the state x(t) may be directly and accurately accessed for measurement. given by G = R−1 B T X (7.14) with the estimated state x(t). n=5). The observation error ˆ ˆ ˆ ωg (t)−C x(t) is the difference between the actual measured output ωg (t) and the output ωg (t) = C x(t) ˆ as reconstructed from the estimated state x(t).6) with an additional input term K ωg (t) − C x on the right-hand side. .14) and the matrix X is the nonnegative-deﬁnite solution of the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) [19].ref (t) + K ωg (t) − C x(t) x ˆ x Γg.ref (t) = −Gx(t) with the G being the k × n state feedback gain matrix (k=1.

ref (t) + K[ωg (t) − C x(t)]. then differentiation of e(t) = x(t) − x(t) leads to the error differential ˆ equation e(t) = (A − KC)e(t) − Bw ξ(t).20) then x(t) ˙ e(t) ˙ = A − BG 0 −BG A − KC x(t) e(t) Bw ξ(t) −Bw ξ(t) (7.6) has order n then the compensator also has order n. (7.21) The eigenvalues of this system are the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system. which in effect is the separation principle.3 shows the arrangement of the closed-loop system.3: Observer based feedback control. Figure 7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 86 _ Γ g. The closed-loop system that results from interconnecting the plant (7.17) is stable. . and may be recognized as follows.19) to the noisy system in (7.22) + (7.6) with the compensator (7. Hence. there are 2n closed-loop poles. t ∈ ˆ x (7. By certainty equivalence (using the estimated state as if it were the actual state). ˙ Together with (7. state estimation is divorced from control input selection.CHAPTER 7. If the plant (7. t ∈ ˙ . Inspection shows that these eigenvalues consist of the eigenvalues of A − BG (the regulator poles) together with the eigenvalues of A − KC (the observer poles). By connecting the observer ˙ ˆ x = Aˆ(t) + BΓg.20) Substitution of u(t) = −Gˆ(t) into x(t) = Ax(t)+Bu(t)+B w ξ(t) yields with the further substitution x ˙ x(t) = x(t) + e(t) ˆ x = (A − BG)x(t) − BGe(t) + Bw ξ(t).6).ref WECS Plant ωg x Gain Observer Figure 7.

and accommodating the ﬂuctuations in wind speed for reliability. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG Augmented system 87 X ref LQG GA uLQ + + Drive-train damper Plant DT loads Hidden layer. To ensure optimal operating conditions. 7. f (x) as the activation function. Instabilities would be obtained at high wind speeds if the only controller utilized is a linear one. By introducing a hybrid control system comprised by a LQG and a neurocontroller (NC) acting in tandem.1 NC Architecture In its formulation.ref = uLQ + uN C (7. and w ji .4.4: Hybrid control scheme illustrating the augmented LQG with NC. O lI (k) as output of the lth neuron of the output layer at time k. Deﬁning ui (k) and IiI (k) as input and output of the ith input neuron at time k. A relatively compact design having a 4:5:1 conﬁguration is employed. and its architecture is shown in I Fig. GA denotes the genetic algorithm procedure that serves to train the NC. H j Input layer. I i Γ ref g. Fig. 7. the NC is constructed from artiﬁcial neural network (ANN) units — a radial-basis feedforward neural network whose hidden layer is nonlinear whereas the output layer is linear. the hybrid controller effects minimization of errors between actual and reference states. Drive-train dynamics ωg NC uNC ∆ωt ∆ωg ∆Γ d ∆β Output layer.23) where uLQ is the control contribution by the LQG and u N C is the NC control component. 7. the nonlinearities in the system are handled by the latter. H j (k) as output of the jth neuron of the hidden layer at time k. O l Γt Pitch controller WECS aerodynamics Other loads uNC wi j wj i Wind speed model β cmd ∆vw (a) Simulation block diagram for the hybrid control scheme (b) Feedforward ANN architecture Figure 7. by controlling large torque variations at the shaft to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems. wlj as the connection weights (1) (2) (3) . wj .CHAPTER 7.4(b).4(a) shows the simulation block diagram. 7.4 Hybrid Controller Design The main goals of the control system are to control the power interchange within the WECS system. and outputs the generator torque command signal Γg.

. nI I I I Hj (k) = f nI H nI (7.. and is differentiable everywhere. (7. Hidden layer Composed of the kernel nodes whose effective range is determined by their center and width. ∆ωg . l = 1.. ..24) I wji ui (k) + wj Hj (k − 1) . j = 1.0. ∆Γd . Third layer Consists of the output node that simply computes the weighted sum of the hidden node outputs. of the neuron: n y=k i=1 wi xi + b (7. nI O (7.. and b > 0} (7. x i .. 2. with the gain a set to 1. ∆β. .28) where xj (n) is the weighted sum of all synaptic inputs of neuron j.0 and b = 1.. i = 1. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 88 from the input layer to the hidden layer. The combined inputs from the ﬁrst layer are fed into an activation function of the second layer that produces the output.CHAPTER 7. 2..26) First Layer Consists of input nodes. The argument of the activation function of each hidden unit computes the Euclidean distance between the input vector and the center of that unit. f j is the output of the neuron. and ∆vw ... n) that multiply the inputs. y. both chosen by trial and error.25) H (1) (2) i=1 (3) Output layer : OlI (k) = j=1 I wlj Hj (k). the structure of the 3-layered recurrent NN has the following mathematical description: Input layer : Hidden layer : IiI (K) = ui(K). Each neuron model receives 5 inputs: ∆ω t . .. between hidden layers and from hidden layer to output layer respectively. It is a linear mapping un = φxi where φ = 0. Such an asymmetric activation function typically learns faster [14]. 2. Associated with each input are scalar weights wi (i = 1.. 2. nI (7.29) ..27) where k is a logistic logarithmic function with sigmoidal nonlinearity. deﬁned by fj (xj (n)) = a . 1 + e−bxj (n) {for − ∞ < xj (n) < ∞.1 and x is the input vector.

32) (x1 (k) − xl (k))2 ˆ I (xl (k) − xl (k))Hj (k) ˆ l=1 nI O = − l=1 nI O (7. thereby yielding the desired input-output mapping.38) i=1 .30) where the factor Qi = 1. Adjustment of the connection weights for training the NN is as follows: w(k + 1) = w(k) − η(k) 1 E I (k) = 2 ∂E I (k) (3) ∂wlj nI O ∂E I (k) + α∆w(k) ∂w (7. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 89 7. chosen by trial and error. and βji(0) = 0.CHAPTER 7. δj (0) = 0. After the identiﬁer neural network is trained.2 NC Training Training of the NC by the GA is undertaken during preprocessing.34) ∂E I (k) (1) ∂wji = − (7.36) where w(k) and ∆w(k) are connection weights and change of connection weights at time k respectively. The evaluation function. E. The weight vectors along the interconnection paths between layers are determined with an algorithm so that the signals are scaled down to the range of [0.0.1]. where δj (k) = f βji (k) = f nI l I I wji ui(k) + wj Hj (k − 1) (Hj (k − 1) + wj δj (k − 1)) (1) (2) (2) (7. denotes the weight associated with the squared error function and adjusts the importance of the control variables. Further.33) ∂E I (k) (2) ∂wj = − l=1 nI O (xl (k) − xl (k))wlj δj (k) ˆ (xl (k) − xl (k))wlj βji (k) ˆ l=1 (3) (3) (7. (7. The real-coded GA ensures fast training with good representational accuracy.4.35) (7.37) i=1 nI l (1) (2) I (2) wji ui(k) + wj Hj (k − 1) (ui (k) + wj βji (k − 1)). η and α are learning rate and momentum factor. of the NC represents the mean square errors between the WECS output and the reference values E= i Qi x(t) − x(t) 2 (7. x(t) is the actual output and x(t) is the desired state variable.31) (7. outputs of the nonlinear system are same as those of the NN when the plant is controlled.

205 m/s under gusty conditions.5. 7. As the OP deviates from the design point of the WECS.5 Γt [pu] 1 0.1 Tracking Performance by Proposed Technique Fig. overall.5(a) shows a wind proﬁle generated for a 42-second simulation. The controller is designed using one set of gains appropriate for a particular wind speed and blade pitch angle.5 0 0 5 10 15 Γt ˆ Γt 20 25 30 35 40 t [s] ˆ (b) Bold line shows the actual aerodynamic torque Γ t while the dotted line represents the estimated value Γt Figure 7.5 Simulation Results 7.CHAPTER 7.5(b) shows good tracking performance of the aerodynamic torque as estimated by the Kalman ﬁlter. with turbulence intensity of 19%. the estimation of Γ t is achieved with appreciably signiﬁcant precision. However. . Pitch control assures rated power. This is the essence of turbine linearization about an OP. the nonlinear aerodynamics of the turbine cause the estimator to get less accurate. 7. For the most part vw > vr and the target for the LQG controller is to mitigate against torsional loading on the drive train. 7.5: Aerodynamic torque tracking with the proposed hybrid scheme. The apparent deviations from actual values may be explained as follows. Fig. The philosophy of LQG control is ability to estimate plant states so as to generate the command signal necessary to compensate for parameter variations. The prevailing mean wind speed is 12. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 22 20 vw(t) [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] 25 30 35 40 90 (a) Simulated wind speed 2 1.

FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 91 22 20 vw(t) [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] 25 30 35 40 (a) Simulated wind speed 25 TSR. Pitch angle 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] 25 30 35 40 λ β (b) TSR (bold line) and pitch angle (dotted line) 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] IG real power Aerodynamic power 25 30 35 40 (d) IG real power (bold line) and aerodynamic power (dotted line) with the proposed method Power.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] 25 30 35 40 (c) Coefﬁcient of performance.5 1 0. β) 2 1.CHAPTER 7.6: Evolution of plant parameters for power conversion. c P (λ.2 0. [pu] Figure 7.5 0.4 0.3 cP 0. .

The IG real power is maintained at a steady output (rated) value in wind speed regimes beyond nominal. increase in wind speed results in a decrease in the TSR (λ ∝ 1/vw ). 7.5. From Fig. This relates to the initialization procedure for above rated wind speed analysis.1 1. . the power coefﬁcient is lowered appropriately. Since both the TSR and β determine the value of cP .08 1. It is noteworthy that above nominal wind speed. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 22 20 vw(t) [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 0 5 10 20 25 t [s] (a) Simulated wind speed 15 30 35 40 92 1. by the action of the pitch controller. power conversion has to be checked to avoid damage to mechanical subsystems.6 that wind turbulence considerably affects the evolution of the various power parameters. by systematically decrementing c P .7: Variation in phase voltage Ve with either controller for the 42 s simulation. This results in pitching the blades to regulate aerodynamic conversion. 7. is large. as seen in Fig. the overall effect is that as wind speed increases. 7.04 1. 7.6(d).CHAPTER 7. 7. thereby limiting harvested aerodynamic power (Fig. since the demanded pitch signal.98 0. an initial mean wind speed value has to be given for the simulations since there is no unique relation between wind speed and generated power.6(c)). With the progression of the wind speed beyond the rated value. βcmd .96 Proposed method LQG 20 25 30 35 40 t [s] (b) Bold line shows Ve with the proposed hybrid controller while dotted line represents V e with LQG 0 5 10 15 Figure 7.06 Ve.6(b) it is seen that pitch angle β rises in direct relation to the wind speed. [pu] 1.02 1 0.2 Optimization of Power Output It is observed from Fig. Further.

Though both controllers achieve steady V e over the simulation period. Γ d . at 3. the system is destabilized somewhat. and maintain the output voltage and power at rated levels when wind speed is over the rated speed. 7. The phase voltage response is shown in Fig.cmd. and the LQG takes longer to regain stability (large Ve ﬂuctuations for longer).8: Variation in torque parameters with either controller for the 42 s simulation.5 Γg. As a whole it is seen that the proposed hybrid controller can enhance voltage transient stability of the wind turbine generator during high turbulence when wind ﬂuctuations around v m are severe. respectively. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 22 20 vw(t) [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 0 5 10 15 20 t [s] 25 30 35 40 93 (a) Simulated wind speed 1 0. Bold and dotted lines represent quantities under the proposed hybrid controller and LQG.7(b). . This is an instance of voltage recovery after a transient fault. 30 35 40 Figure 7.2 s from beginning of simulation. it is seen that in instances when v w < vr e.5 -1 -1.ref 40 1. Γ g.5 0 5 10 15 Proposed method LQG 20 25 t [s] (c) Drive-train torque.5 0 -0.5 1 Γd [pu] 0.CHAPTER 7.g.5 -1 0 5 10 15 Proposed method LQG 20 25 30 35 t [s] (b) Demanded generator torque command signal. [pu] 0 -0.

Comparisons are made between the proposed controller and the LQG with regard to robustness to the evolution of plant parameters with changing operating conditions. Inﬂuence of the torsional dynamics on the grid through delivered active power is eliminated by using the generator torque command to achieve damping. a trade-off is imposed between the contradictory objectives of maximizing energy capture from the wind and minimizing both the stress on the mechanical parts of the WECS and power ﬂuctuations in the grid.ref is more steady with the proposed method relative to the LQG. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 94 7..8(b) shows that Γ g.e. In this chapter a sophisticated control strategy is presented to compensate for the complicated effects of a stochastic operating environment and nonlinearities inherent in WECS dynamics that cause parametric uncertainties.3 Minimization of Shaft Torsional Torque At high wind speeds the generator torque serves only to add damping to the drive train thus should be maintained at a fairly constant value to ensure rated power output. 7. tracking error e (tracking performance). alleviating undue loads on the shaft.8(c) depicts the torsional torque variations experienced by the ﬂexible shaft. with either controller. deﬁned in the cost function. The essence of the NC is to handle the nonlinearities in the system and alleviate part of the control load on the LQG. To meet the objectives. .5. Pitch control determines the power coefﬁcient. simulation results validate the effectiveness of the latter scheme in satisfying both objectives relative to the former.ref i. the requirement is to design a controller to trade-off minimizing the control usage due to the penalty thereof. 7.ref both the speed set-point and damping of excess aerodynamic torque are effected. More speciﬁcally. It can be seen that the objective of ensuring the drive train is cushioned from severe torque ﬂuctuations is attained more readily with the proposed hybrid controller.CHAPTER 7.6 Conclusion The control objective aims to robustly stabilize the system while maintaining good disturbance attenuation and small tracking error despite actuator saturation. the approach involves designing an adaptive controller and applying it to a performability model. By utilizing either control scheme. By use of Γ g. This is attributable to the learning and generalization-ability of the neural network in the NC system. This involves disturbance attenuation to guarantee robust stability. Though both the LQG and the proposed hybrid controller show good conversion performance and robustness. while also reducing the deviations from reference input ω g. Fig. while the generator torque command is used to compensate for variations in parameters. Fig. 7. The energy required to regulate these variations is exchanged with the turbine hub rather than the grid.

Islam. [3] P. pp. no. 903-912. Senjyu. Margolin. 2005. H. N. no. no. 13. no. vol. Munteanu. 2007. Multivariable Feedback Design. pp. Energy Conversion. Automatic Control. 91-96. no.” Renewable Energy. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited. 123-129. vol. 97-105. Tan. [4] J. 4-16. “Multivariable feedback design: concepts for a classical/modern synthesis. doi:10. B. Ben-Abdennour. Novak. [11] F. vol. [8] E. Energy Conversion. “Alleviation of wind turbines loads with a LQG controller associated to intelligent micro sensors. and W. I.” Control Engineering Practice. 19. Funabashi. 1990.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. Maciejowski. Energy Conversion. vol. 1998. S. and C. 2000. K. 15. 14. [7] A. Reading. A. and L. 28-38. T. and R. and G.” IEEE Control Systems Magazine. 19. no.1016/j. [2] K.renene. June 2004. M. Y. Xu. Yona. 1981.12. no. A. “Optimum control strategies in energy conversion of PMSG wind turbine system without mechanical sensors. C. Y. and E. 4. vol. vol. Stein. pp. Lee. Camblong. 2004. 12421249. N. T. R. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 95 References [1] Q. 5.” IEE Proc. 2407-2423. . vol. [10] I. Lescher. “Optimal controller design for nonlinear systems.011.CHAPTER 7. Kinjo. 1993. Ceanga.1109/ICIT.” IEEE Trans. “Multivariable robust control of a power plant generator. 392-399. Abdin. pp. H. Kuo. O. and R. Yang. 15. Bratcu. Curea. Muhando. 1995. C. Wang. L. Ekelund. vol. 145. 2. Edwards. pp. Control Theory and Applications.2006.” IEEE Trans. and S. J. Feb. Doyle. AC-26.” IEEE Trans. pp. “Gain scheduling control of variable speed WTG under widely varying turbulence loading. doi:10. “Modeling and control of variable-speed wind turbine drive system dynamics. 2006. vol. 15-17 Dec.2006. pp. [9] C. Chang. 1. “An intelligent maximum power extraction algorithm for inverter-based variable speed wind turbine systems.372245. Schmidtbauer. M. Cutululis. “Optimization of variable speed wind power systems based on a LQG approach. Briand. Jovik and B. 1. [5] J. 8. A. Urasaki. Power Electronics. 1. 32. and T. pp. “Control design and dynamic performance analysis of a wind turbine induction generator unit.” Presented at the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology. [6] E. pp.

Guo. H. D.1342041. Joint Conf. Automatic Control.236. H. “Adaptive optimal fuzzy control for variable speed pitch wind turbines. WCICA 2004.1016/j. [15] T. 2nd ed.” ASME Trans. Wunsch. B. Duncan. [13] E. doi:10. [16] R. 1991. C. and C. L.renene. doi:10.. Prentice Hall. and T. Funabashi. “A new approach to linear ﬁltering and prediction problems. and B. Muhando. Barratt. doi:10. T. Giesselmann. 4. 1653-1662. and T. E. X. and M.” 5th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. Boyd. 35-45. Yi-Bing. 1999. vol. Petru.” Renewable Energy. and L. T. on Neural Networks.001. FULL-STATE FEEDBACK DIGITAL CONTROL BY LQG 96 [12] E. Senjyu. Journal of Basic Engineering. 44. 10-16 July 1999. B. Power Syst. 82. vol. 2481-2485.12. Shuhui. pp. Muhando. “Wind turbine power estimation by neural networks with Kalman ﬁlter training on a SIMD parallel machine. pp. IJCNN ’99.” IEEE Trans. Kinjo. no. vol. and T. ISBN:978-0132733502. 15-19 June 2004. “Regulation of WTG dynamic response to parameter variations of analytic wind stochasticity.836215. Pasik-Duncan. “Augmented LQG controller for enhancement of online dynamic performance for WTG system. 2007. vol. Prentice-Hall. Yona. Da-Ping. pp. 3430-3434. “Adaptive continuous-time linear quadratic Gaussian control. . Thiringer. ISBN-13:978-0135386873.” IEEE Trans. 1999. “Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies. Funabashi. 17. Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation. vol. Senjyu. no. [18] L. 5.2007.doi:10. doi:10. 2002. Kinjo. [17] Z. [20] S.1109/IJCNN.1109/9788532.” Wind Energy. 1960. pp. 1132-1139. G.1109/WCICA. E. Xin-Fang. 3. A.1999.CHAPTER 7. Sept. [19] T. Haykin. pp. E.1002/we. 9. [14] S. O’Hair. Linear Controller Design: Limits of Performance. Kalman.” Int.2004.

and. plentiful. Such adaptive control interfaces include Minimum Variance Control (MVC) [1]-[4]. MVC generally gives very lively control and can be highly sensitive to nonminimum phase plants. The control law will then. clean. STRs consist of two parts: an estimator and a control law. To ensure smooth integration of the wind power into the grid. set the actuators such that the desired performance is achieved. .1 Introduction R ENEWABLE energy systems that take advantage of energy sources that will not diminish over time and are independent of ﬂuctuations in price and availability are playing an ever-increasing role in modern power systems. In this Chapter a self-tuning algorithm based on principles of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) [12] has been selected.[5]-[8]. The ability of the controller to achieve the performance goals is explicitly tied to how well the model represents the system at that instant. in all other respects.[17]. modern control techniques for WECS have become a prerequisite. Generalized Minimum Variance (GMV) [3]. Pole Assignment (PA) [5]. albeit more robust and generalized. The most commonly used estimator in STR is recursive least-squares (RLS) [16]. Use of STR for the adaptive control of WECSs has been shown to offer considerable promise [18]–[20]. but the algorithm can show numerical sensitivity when the plant model is overparameterized. often centred around various types of self-tuning control. and optimal predictors [11].Chapter 8 Predictive Control I: STR 8. GMV. One of the most commonly used and well studied adaptive controllers is the Self-tuning regulator (STR) [13]–[15]. Low cost.[9]. which are usually invoked at every sample period. “green” — these words describe wind power in a nutshell. The purpose of this estimator is to dynamically estimate a model of the system relating the measured metrics with the actuation. is vulnerable to unknown or varying plant dead time and can have difﬁculty with dc offsets.[10]. based on this model. PA aims to locate the closed-loop poles of the system at pre-speciﬁed locations leading to ‘smooth’ controllers.

Motivation for the choice of STR is attributable to advances in microcomputer technology that has made more sophisticated algorithms feasible. operation is executed on a trajectory that guarantees optimal energy conversion. implementation. In its implementation. Γg. The STR attempts to automate several of these tasks. In performing generator torque control.ref . In the proposed paradigm.CHAPTER 8. Variations in parameters are identiﬁed by a Kalman ﬁlter and their inﬂuence is compensated by generating a control signal to minimize output error. which is a function of wind speed: below rated wind speed the reference generator speed is proportional to the wind speed. design of the control law. where the structure comes from tracking error. is used to add damping to the drive train torsional modes. 5) Versatility: simple or complex controller structure as necessary. above. it is constant at rated value. The STR has been selected for control of generator torque of the WECS for these practical reasons: 1) Capability: can control difﬁcult systems such as wind turbines without special adjustments. by reference tracking. control is exercised through the STR that incorporates a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm to predict the process parameters and update the states. Changes in the system dynamics are slow and the estimator should be and is able to track parameter variations well. the turbine speed is regulated by the action of a pitch controller. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 98 The development of a control system involves many tasks such as modeling. The STR design is carried out as a nonlinear stochastic problem and is incorporated into the dynamical system. 3) Tuning knobs: enable customized performance and give ﬂexibility. 4) Future target reference: adjustable setting to enhance control during scheduled changes. The RLS is one of the most widely used estimation algorithms in adaptive controllers due to its robustness against noise. To prevent large torque and power peaks during high wind speeds. A gradient-based tuning algorithm guarantees the boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals. the scheme dictates the reference generator speed. Below rated wind speeds. on-line recursive parameter estimation is employed to evaluate the time-varying or unknown parameters of a discrete time model of the WECS. Any concerns over the STR controller ranging too far can be met in the software by imposing limits or ‘jacketing’ the control. and validation. In this case the output of the STR. . and its proven convergence speed — factors elemental in effecting stability of the whole control loop. 2) Multi-step prediction: control signal can be inﬂuenced by future system output bounds. giving robustness.

and is regulated by applying both d.2) where the proportional and integral gains are Kpt = 500 Nms/rad. ∆ω g . and Kit = 250 Nm/rad.and q-components.ref = Kpt ∆ωg + Kit 0 t ω0 .CHAPTER 8. The d-. as shown in Fig.1) ∆ωg dt.ref Γg. the reference values for the rotor current are calculated as irq. The speed controller compares the actual rotor speed and the reference rotor speed. 8.ref .1. (8. The inner loop is the torque control that compares the electric torque and the output signal from the speed controller. PI controller — the PI regulator in Fig. and the output.ref ωg STR Torque to current translation i rq.ref . Us (8. In the simulations. STR — this is explained in Section 8. is used in determining the current in (8. Γg. Γg. 8. generator torque control command. II.ref + _ i rq K pv+ K iv Rotor injected voltage s u rq Figure 8. 8. This is accomplished by either control: I. Its performance in meeting the objectives of optimizing power conversion and alleviating power train loads is gauged against that of a PI set up in the same fashion.ref = Γg. Γg. .1 gives the relationship between the input. The output signal from the cascade controllers is the q-axis rotor current. Γg.3.ref .ref · Generator Torque Control The output of the generator torque controller.1: Choice of STR or PI for generator torque control. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR PI Optimum characteristic 99 K pt+ K it Pref ωref + _ s Γ g. Current Control The reference stator current is calculated from the reference torque.1). the rotor side converter operates in a stator-ﬂux oriented reference frame and executes control via the generator torque controller consisting of a cascade speed and torque control-loop. is generated by the STR controller.q-axis rotor currents are transformed to 3-phase currents prior to being applied to the rotor side converter.2 WECS Multi-objective Control Concept To achieve rotor speed and current control.

**CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR
**

Design specifications Plant parameters, θ(k) RLS model Estimator System response ωg (k)

100

**Optimal tracking controller design
**

Controller parameters Target/Reference setting

Control signal Control law

Γ (k) g,ref

+

_

WGS plant

SELF-TUNING REGULATOR

Figure 8.2: Self-tuning regulator block diagram.

**8.3 STR Design and Implementation
**

Fig. 8.1 shows the STR — a type of adaptive control system composed of two parts: an estimator and a control law. These constitute two loops that are executed to yield a generator torque command signal for stabilizing the WECS during operation under high turbulent inﬂow, viz. • an outer loop composed of a recursive parameter estimator and design calculations that adjusts the parameters of the controller, and • an inner loop that consists of the WECS plant and an ordinary linear feedback controller. An indirect adaptive algorithm is utilized for the overall execution of the WECS control in two steps: 1. estimate plant model parameters 2. update controller parameters as if estimates were correct (The Certainty Equivalence Principle)1 . Out of the several possible parameter estimation techniques, the RLS algorithm is selected to perform the above tasks; additionally, of the several possible controller design methods, a LQ tracking optimal control using state space models, is adopted. For the STR control, LQ tracking optimal control design employs the RLS algorithm based on an equivalent non-minimal state space realization of the WECS model as prior developed in Part I. Simulations assume the complete dynamic model is set on an equivalent mathematical state-space representation as x(k) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bv w(k) and ωg (k) = Cx(k). Note that the state vector ˙ at time k is simply formed using past values of the input variables. No state observer is required. In contrast, if minimal state space realizations are used, then a state observer is usually required. Development and execution of the RLS algorithm and the control law are presented in Sections 8.3.1 and 8.3.2, respectively.

The outcome of even an ideal measurement of a system is not deterministic, but instead is characterized by a probability distribution, and the larger the associated standard deviation is, the more “uncertain” that characteristic is for the system — The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) in quantum physics.

1

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR

101

**8.3.1 Outer Loop: Parameter Estimation
**

The following notation is used in Fig. 8.1 for the least-squares estimation: Γ g,ref (k) is the vector of the M th actuator setting during sampling interval k, where Γg,ref (k) = [Γg,ref 1 (k), Γg,ref 2 (k) · ··, Γg,ref N ]T (8.3)

and ωg (k) is the vector of the performance measurements of the N workloads, measured at the beginning of interval k ωg (k) = [ωg,1 (k), ωg,2 (k), · · ·, ωg,M ]T . The relationship between ωg (k) and Γg,ref can be described by the following MIMO model:

N N

(8.4)

ωg (k) =

i=1

Ai ωg (k − 1) +

i=1

Bj Γg,ref (k − 1).

(8.5)

Note that Ai ∈

N ×N

, Bj ∈

N ×M

, 0 < i ≤ n, 0 < j ≤ n, and {n = 8} ∈ N is the order of the

model. This linear model is chosen for tractability since the relationship will indeed, in all but the most trivial cases, be nonlinear. However, it is a good local approximation of the nonlinear function and ample enough for the controller since it only makes small changes to the actuator settings. The plant model (8.5) can be written explicitly as ωg (k) = −a1 ωg (k − 1) − a2 ωg (k − 2) − · · · − an ωg (k − n) + b0 Γg,ref (k − d0 ) + · · · + Γg,ref (k − d0 − m). (8.6)

where {m = 8} ∈ N is a system model order and d0 = 1 is the dead time. For notational convenience, the system model may take the following form, noting that this process is linear in the plant parameters: ωg (k) = ϕT (k − 1)θ(k − 1) where ϕT (k − 1) = θT = − ωg (k − 1), · · ·, − ωg (k − n), Γg,ref (k − n), · · ·, Γg,ref (k − d0 − m) a1 , a2 , · · ·, an , b0 , · · ·, bm (8.7)

with ϕ(k) being the regression vector and θ(k) the parameter matrix.

CHAPTER 8. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR

102

The estimation block that utilizes the RLS algorithm is the heart of the STR. It recursively estimates the unknown process parameters for each measurement based on minimization of the leastsquare error. The whole RLS algorithm involves the following matrix computations: 1) new data ωg (k) and ϕ(k) are acquired, and the prediction error vector, ε(k), is computed from the old estimated parameter ˆ ε(k) = ωg (k) − ϕ(k)T θ(k − 1) ˆ 2) new parameter θ(k) is calculated ˆ ˆ θ(k) = θ(k − 1) + ϕ(k)T P (k − 1)ε(k) λ + ϕ(k)T P (k − 1)ϕ(k) (8.9) (8.8)

3) data in the covariance matrix, P (k), is updated for the next sample P (k − 1) ϕ(k)T P (k − 1)ϕ(k)P (k − 1) − P (k) = λ λ 1 + ϕ(k)T P (k − 1)ϕ(k) ˆ a b b where θ(k) = [ˆ1 , a2 , · · ·, ˆ n, ˆ0 , · · ·, ˆm] is the estimated process parameter vector, ε(k) ∈ a ˆ ˆ error in predicting the signal ωg (k) one step ahead based on the estimate θ(k), P (k) ∈ (8.10)

N ×1

is the is

N M n×N M n

the error covariance, k is an integer discrete time index, and λ is the forgetting factor: (0 < λ ≤ 1). A high forgetting factor means that RLS remembers a lot of old data when it computes the new model. Conversely, a low forgetting factor means that it largely ignores previous models and only focuses on producing a model from the last few samples. The intuition behind these equations is quite simple. (8.8) computes the error between the latest performance measurements and the performance prediction (8.7) of the model. This is the RLS error, ε(k). The model parameters are then adjusted in (8.9) according to the RLS error and another factor dependent on the covariance matrix P computed in (8.10). P contains the covariances between all ˆ the measurements and the actuators. The model θ is then used by the control law described in the next section to set the actuators correctly. The RLS algorithm enables the adaptive ﬁlter to ﬁnd the ﬁlter coefﬁcients that relate to producing, recursively, the least squares of the difference between the desired and actual signal. The beneﬁts of using the RLS algorithm is that there is no need to invert extremely large matrices, thereby saving computation time, and that through it some intuition behind such results as the Kalman ﬁlter is gained. Note that the recursion for P follows a Riccati equation and thus draws parallels to the Kalman ﬁlter.

PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 103 In practice. λ(k). computed at each sampling period. Case I: If ζ(k−1) > 0.. a rectangular covariance matrix is computed by the recurrent algorithm P (k) = P (k − 1) − where δ(k − 1) = λ(k) − 1 − λ(k) ζ(k − 1) C(k − 1)ϕ(k − 1)ϕT (k − 1)P (k − 1) δ −1 (k − 1) + ζ(k − 1) (8.. (8. In calculating the parameter estimates.13) The most complex situation is in the continuous-time domain since the straight differentiation of data must be avoided. D = diag(d1 . then P (k) = P (k − 1). Case II: When ζ(k − 1) = 0. the same set of control calculations can offer four types of control costs and two types of identiﬁed models. Each self-tuner of a given structure has two main “knobs” — the ﬁrst is for model option (RLS applied to a regression (ARX) model).. while adaptation is supported by directional forgetting [21]. The approach entails descretizing the continuous system to enable sampling and digital control analysis. Owing to the uniﬁed approach of the control synthesis. . implementation of plain RLS algorithms may lead to numerical problems. . the stability of the RLS method is improved by means of LD decomposition (L = lower triangular matrix. the second selects the performance criterion (LQ in this case).CHAPTER 8.11) with the adaptive directional forgetting factor.12) (8. dn )). thus the k th sampling (or at time kT ) represents a sample at the instant t in the continuous system. Since the task of recursive identiﬁcation consists of searching for a parameter estimate vector θT (k) that minimizes the given criterion in (8.5). then the vector of the parameter estimates is computed according to the square root version (LD decomposition) of the recursive relations P (k − 1)ϕ(k − 1) ˆ ˆ ε(k − 1) ˆ θ(k) = θ(k − 1) + 1 + ζ(k − 1) where ζ is an auxiliary scalar in step k such that ζ(k − 1) = ϕT (k − 1)P (k − 1)ϕ(k − 1). and a factorization of the covariance matrix should be considered to overcome this drawback.

ref (k).ref (k).ref (k − 1) T R Γg.7).15) To stay within the adaptive ﬁlter terminology. this error function may be conceptualized as a performance index. (8. this performance index is the Cost Function. · · ·. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 104 8. an . that evaluates the performance of the control unit.14) From (8.18) . Γg. and their values adjusted by systematic trial and error. This deﬁnes the control law that governs the plant: Γg.ref (k) = − R+BiT QBi BiT Q i=1 (8.ref The concept behind the RLS ﬁlter is to minimize a weighted least squares error function in the relation between input and output {Γg. Γg. Because J (θ0 ) = 0. (8. · · ·. The proposed performance index also takes into account the prevention of excessive control.ref (k) − W Γg. P I(·) 1 P I(θ) = N N k=1 1 |ε(k)| = N 2 N ωg (k) − ϕT (k)θ k=1 2 . then J (θ) ≥ 0 with only one minimum.. J (k). this minimum is θ = θ 0 . the two terms are chosen to be nonnegativedeﬁnite. and the task of the recursive identiﬁcation consists of ˆ searching for a parameter estimate vector θT (k) that minimizes the criterion J (θ) = ωg (k)T Qωg (k) + Γg. The implication is that for suitable excitation of the system these parameters may be found by solution to the equations ∂ J (θ) = 0 ∂θ with respect to θ. bm )T then P I(θ0 ) = 0.N based on the prediction error ε(k). (8. Due to the fact that the cost function is square in the parameter θ. a trade-off between control performance (Q large) and low input energy (R large) is desirable.ref (k−1) . ωg (k)} for k = 1.. The weight parameters are tuned until satisfactory behavior is obtained.ref (k − 1) (8. W are the weights associated with the control signal. As an initial guess. and R. for θ0 = (a1 . To minimize J (θ) along all possible trajectories of the system.16) where Q is the weighting on the output.2 Inner Loop: Control Law.CHAPTER 8. b0 .17) NAi ωg (k+1−i)+ i=2 NBi (k+1−i) −RW Γg.ref (k) − W Γg. ∀ input.3.

8. Γ g.3(c) that the mechanical power extracted from the wind is successfully kept steady in cases of wind speeds above rated to guarantee the electric power output is kept within the allowable ±5% of the WECS’s rating. Control is thus multivariable in this zone.1 2 1.3(a) shows the generated wind speed signal. as well as variation in rotor speed for the 1-minute simulation. .4 Simulation Analysis 8. The inverter controller holds the electrical power constant. Rotor speed 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 10 20 30 Time.ref 2. as expected. β). thus the turbine is prevented from following the cP.8 1. 8. t [s] 40 Wind speed (m/s) Rotor speed (rpm) 105 50 60 (a) Nominal wind speed at hub position and rotor speed 15 14 Γg.4.5 1. [s] 40 50 60 (b) Demanded generator torque. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR Wind speed. [s] 40 50 60 Pm [MW] (c) Shaft mechanical power Figure 8.7 1. For above rated wind speeds the turbine operates at full load and the output electric power has to be regulated at nominal generator power.opt trajectory and constrained to operate at lower values of λ and cP .2 2. t. It is observed from Fig.CHAPTER 8. because it acts on both generator torque and pitch angle.3(b) demonstrates. how the demanded generator torque is kept very nearly constant at above rated wind speeds so as to provide damping to the drive train. t. 8.3: Evolution of control and controlled parameters. Fig.ref [kNm] 13 12 11 10 9 0 10 20 30 Time.6 1. The turbine rotational speed is maintained around nominal generator speed and β is controlled in order to reduce cP (λ.4 0 10 20 30 Time.1 Control for Energy Extraction Fig. 8.9 1.

The available reactive power. With regard to network compliance. t. Fig. respectively.0019 11.4: Electrical parameters. 8.0016 11. . Figs. t.4(b) that the network voltage is virtually undisturbed by variations in operating conditions.0013 11.205 m/s 11.4(b)–(d) depict variations in electrical parameters: the grid voltage.0018 11. depends on the active power. [s] 40 50 60 (c) WECS current Reactive power. [VAr] 400 350 300 250 200 150 0 10 20 30 Time. v m =12. for the current loop.002 11.CHAPTER 8. current and reactive power. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR Wind speed. vw [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 10 20 30 Time.0015 11.4(c) shows variation in the rotor current. It is observed from Fig. 8. t.4(d). 8.0012 0 10 20 30 Time. [s] 40 50 60 106 (a) Nominal wind speed at hub position. t. The fast-acting reactive power control (applied through either converter) improves the stability of the generator.0014 11.0017 11. shown in Fig. [s] 40 50 60 (d) WECS reactive power Figure 8. [s] 40 50 60 Voltage [kV] (b) Line voltage (rms) 120 Current [A] 110 100 90 80 70 0 10 20 30 Time. 8. the active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis component of the rotor current (in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame). The assumption that the dc link voltage remains constant is valid if the dc link capacitor and converters are designed to enable continued operation of the DOIG with low generator busbar voltages caused by close-up faults.

[s] 40 50 60 (c) Low speed shaft torque. [s] 40 50 60 107 (a) Nominal wind speed at hub position.2 1.4 1.8 0 10 20 30 Time.5(b)–(d) show evolution of various torques during the 1-minute simulation.1 1 0. [s] 40 50 60 (b) Aerodynamic torque. severe shaft torsional moments that may cause mechanical stress and strain are prevented by reducing vibrations between the rotating parts. It results from the torsional and frictional effects due to the difference between ωt and ωg and is modelled to represent the torsional moments that relate to the cyclic twist of the shaft during operation.2 Control for Load Alleviation Figs. Γ d 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 0 10 20 30 Time. [s] 40 50 60 Γg [kNm] (d) Generator torque. It is seen that at above rated wind speeds. 8. Fig. 8.CHAPTER 8. v w 1.5(b) gives the corresponding aerodynamic torque developed by the turbine that is a function of v w . t.5(d) that the generator torque does not exceed Γg. The control is very effective in maintaining generator torque control — it is observed from Fig. Γ t 1.2 1.4 1. Γ g Figure 8.9 0. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR Wind speed.8 0 10 20 30 Time. 8. vw [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 10 20 30 Time. 8. Fig.3 Γd [MNm] 1.9 0. t. 8. Γd .3 Γt [MNm] 1. .4. that acts as a braking torque on the rotor. t.5(c) depicts the low speed shaft torque.max despite the turbulence that occassionally drives the wind speed above rated.1 1 0.5: Variation in various WECS torques. t.

The control philosophy of the proposed paradigm relies on feedback. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 108 8. resulting in a reduction in pitch activity. The appeal of the proposed STR is that the RLS algorithm is easy to implement and does not require massive processing power. and provides disturbance rejection due to a stochastic wind. enables state estimation for unmodelled states. be subject to highly stochastic states due to large turbulence that would be dangerous in reality. and also guarantees that uncertainties in the WECS and wind models are explicitly taken into account. to the new control signals. . This study is set against the background of need for modern digital controls to ensure optimum power conversion in all operating ranges as well as alleviation of drive train loads that occur due to highly turbulent wind environments that cause cyclic fatigue on the mechanical components. The power of the mathematical model lies in the fact that it can be simulated in hypothetical situations. Once designed. the STR performs well in attenuating drivetrain vibrational magnitudes at the rated wind speed. ω g . Effectiveness of the generator torque control is gauged on capacity to improve damping for suppression of torsional vibration. amplitude and energy types.5 Conclusion The two core problems that face wind energy conversion systems today include grid integration issues and reliability of the turbine structure. In implementing the control topology.CHAPTER 8. the fundamental concept of feedback is tremendously compelling as it enhances stability. ω g . With regard to drive-train load mitigation capability. Γg. including state estimation to approximate unmeasured plant states using the single turbine parameter. to signiﬁcantly enhance dynamic compensation and response of the closed loop system. the considered constraints imposed on the control input signal are the rate. execution of the STR is reduced to a set of difference equations connecting the measured outputs. Relative to the classical PI controller. For the nonlinear WECS system. both attributable to the stochasticity of the wind. and it can be used as a basis for synthesizing controllers. the STR control scheme shows considerable improvement in achieving the dual objectives of maximization of energy capture and regulation of torsional dynamics under turbulent wind conditions. A self-tuning regulator is proposed for the coordinated active power control and shaft torsional moments reduction for a variable speed WECS that is incorporated into the grid. improves the steady-state error characteristics.ref .

no. Feb. T. pp. Mar 1999. Jurado. H. Funabashi.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. pp. Power Systems. pp. Robotics and Vision. Y. “Generalized minimum variance implicit self-tuning nodal voltage regulation in power systems with pole-assignment technique. Mukundan. Senjyu. 181-185. vol. pp. doi:10. no. Automation.1109/59.1049/ip-gtd.1109/ICARCV. Transmission and Distribution.2002. and T. Sakamoto. and A. doi:10.1109/ICPST. Urasaki. G.” IEEE Trans.19990039. H. 21-24 Nov. Aug. and K.1109/PES. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 109 References [1] T. “Robust digital control of a wind turbine for ratedspeed and variable-power operation regime. and M. 21. 1.49110.” IEEE Trans. “Output power leveling of wind turbine generator for all operating regions by pitch angle control.874253. T.345452.CHAPTER 8. 2. T. 1990. 1989. [9] H. doi:10. and R. vol. “A self-tuning power system stabilizer for wide range synchronous generator operation. 1191-1199. N. Niimura.1270948. 1. ICARCV ’06.. T. pp. “Output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using adaptive control method. Fujita. pp. Conf. S. . 81-91. 146. doi:10.1109/TEC.1109/59.1109/MELECON. no. and J. and H. 4. R.2004. Chung. Bollinger. E. 2.” IEE Procs. Ko. MELECON 2002. vol. Energy Conversion.32617. “Digital and laboratory implementation of a generalized minimum variance controller for an HVDC link. Jan. Y. and M. “An intelligent controller for a remote wind-diesel power system – design and dynamic performance analysis. vol. [8] J. 5-8 Dec 2006.2003. and K. T. Fan. Sekine. 227-234.” 9th IEEE Int. David. Urasaki. Lee. Camblong. K.1460109.2006. vol. pp. 3.” IEE Procs. [4] F.” IEEE Trans. N. 834-839. 2006. 2004. 13-17 July 2003. Saenz. doi:10. Generation. Funabashi. T.1049/ip-cta:20045190. doi:10. Sakamoto. Power Systems. PowerCon 2004. 5. Russo.2006. doi:10. Kinjo. 2006. Gu. 153. 1.” Int. no. 7-9 May 2002. 55-60. Fusco. vol. [7] W.” 11th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf. Senjyu. Rodriguez. doi:10. [3] H. Ortmeyer. doi:10. “Adaptive control for biomass-based diesel-wind system. “Power system stability improvement with multivariable self-tuning control. 4.1014529. [2] R. [5] G. 467-475. pp. on Control. 1-6. vol. Tapia. Conf. R. [6] W. on Power System Technology. Control Theory and Applications. no.

24-28 June. Adaptive Control. Welstead.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting.539550.1049/iet-cta:20060448. J.1996. [20] M. [18] E. and T. no. Conf. and P. 2. Algorithms. Gevers. Urasaki.-D. Muhando. . Yona. and extensions and interpretations. A. T. Wong. T. Kinjo. 21. R. and P.1109/TEC. and V. and G. W. “Disturbance rejection by dual pitch control and self-tuning regulator for wind turbine generator parametric uncertainty compensation. [21] R. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN0-898-38163-0. 23.” IET Procs. and T. 2047-2060. vol. N. P. 1994. no.1109/60. [11] A.2006. “Implementation and test results of a generalized self-tuning excitation controller. AC-30. Mufti. vol. pp. ˚ o [13] K. 23. Energy Conversion.73806. MA: Addison-Wesley. 6. Englewood Cliffs. [19] W. and M. Chandra. doi:10. [14] R. doi:10. vol. Yuan-Yih. Energy Conversion. 2006. Ren. Muhando. 2007.” Procs. and H.2007.1109/PES. pp. 2007. doi:10. K. and S. 3. S. and Applications. “Controller design for an induction generator driven by a variable-speed wind turbine. Wertz. Messerschmitt. Hope. 2 ed. PREDICTIVE CONTROL I: STR 110 [10] C. Chichester: Wiley. on Powewr Electronics. M. 1991. 1. pp. 1984. no. and D. Self-Tuning Systems: Control and Signal Processing. doi:10. C. vol. “Stochastic adaptive prediction and model reference control. Clarke. Electrical Engineering: Control Engineering. “Restricted exponential forgetting in real time identiﬁcation. 137-160.” IEEE Trans. Honig. 186-192. 1987. 1-8. Astr¨m. Sept. Wittenmark.” IEEE Trans.1109/PEDES. Reading. Adaptive Optimal Control. Senjyu.. of the 1996 Int. Zarrop. Tuffs. the basic algorithm. vol.CHAPTER 8. B. Adaptive Filters: Structures. no. vol. B. O. pp. 625-635. pp. 1431-1440. 1990. H.” Automatica. E. 1. 1995. 258-264. “Self tuning control of wind-diesel power systems. Tripathy. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Woei-Luen. [12] D.875478. Mohtadi. Funabashi. and B. pp. 5. Kumar. y no.385885. Balasubramanian. 1996. Hingham. [16] M. Yona. Funabashi. Bitmead. B. 1987.” IEEE Trans. S. 5. 586-600. pp. C.-u. “Generalized predictive control. Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth. pp. Control Theory and Applications. Automatic Control. K. doi:10. Malik. “Robust predictive control of variable-speed wind turbine generator by self-tuning regulator. vol. [15] P. The Thinking Man’s GPC. 8-11 Jan. A. 1. Kulharv´. Mar 1991. ISBN 0-201-55866-1. R. [17] E. Senjyu.” Automatica.

However. Wind turbines have become the most cost-effective renewable energy systems available today and are now completely competitive with essentially all conventional generation systems. Wind plants have beneﬁted from steady advances in technology. nuclear plants. solar panels. the electrical machine. Turning off the carbon spigot is the . and • allows operation closer to constraints that frequently lead to more proﬁtable operation. The only advanced control methodology that has made a signiﬁcant impact on industrial control engineering is Model Predictive Control (MPC) [2]-[6]. All three technologies are part of the energy mix. including noise from windmills and radioactive waste from nukes. it is not hard to see why. the wind’s unpredictable nature forces utility operators to think differently about power generation. and many of the solutions are familiar: windmills. the power electronic converter. • capacity to account for actuator limitations. and much of the advance has been made in the components dealing with the utility interface.Chapter 9 Predictive Control II: MBPC 9. With fossil-fuel prices on the rise and their supply increasingly unstable.1 Introduction ﬁrst step. I F the Earth is choking on greenhouse gases. Global carbon dioxide output approached a staggering 32 billion tons in 2006. although each has its issues. the need for more environmentally benign electric power systems is a critical part of the new thrust of engineering for sustainability. and the main challenge is to provide governor functions and controlled ramp-down during high wind speed events. Greenhouse-gas-induced global-warming worries are not the only reasons to consider a power-grid shift to wind power. Wind stochasticity results in ﬂuctuations in output power as well as undesirable dynamic loading of the drive-train during high turbulence. The main reasons for this success in applications include: • ability to handle multivariable control problems naturally. and the control capability [1].

[7]. A criterion to regulate the costing horizon of the MBPC is deﬁned in the form of minimizing a quadratic cost function. To execute the control. but do not consider the cyclic loading impact on the drive train due to high turbulence. This chapter develops the Model-Based Predictive Control (MBPC) strategy [14]-[17] for current and speed control of the ﬁeld oriented induction machine drive as well as regulation of drive train shaft torsional moments reduction through generator torque control. MBPC requires an equivalent model deﬁned in state space for online estimation and prediction of future states. • on-line state estimation (including disturbances).g. In its implementation. the plant is dynamically decoupled from the stiff grid frequency since the mechanical dynamics are slower than the electrical ones. An optimization process generates the control sequence. model parameters. Simulations are conducted using the MATLAB/Simulink software to validate the MBPC technique vis-`-vis the classical PI controller. Several researchers have reported the potential of GPC for WECS control [11]-[13]. Nonetheless. and the system response is based on future control action.CHAPTER 9. appropriate weighting on the ﬁnal state). and the actual system state. This is made possible by the fact that the value function of the optimal control problem acts as a Lyapunov function for the closed loop system. MBPC provides a systematic procedure for dealing with constraints (both input and state) in MIMO control problems. these references apply predictive control for energy extraction maximization.[8] and the properties of GPC are further presented for a set of continuous linear systems [9] and nonlinear problems [10]. . The key elements in the design of the MBPC digital system for WECS control are: • state space (or equivalent) model (developed in Part I). and is widely used in industry. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 112 Model predictive control. The proposed controller associates the predictive control action and ensures the smooth transition of control from region to region. including disturbances. Remarkable properties of the method include global asymptotic stability provided certain conditions are satisﬁed (e. and • on-line optimization of future trajectory subject to constraints using Quadratic Programming. in the form of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC). The idea of MBPC is based on computing a control function for the future time in order to force the controlled system response to attain the reference value. Computer simulations reveal that achieving the two objectives of a maximizing energy extraction and load reduction by the proposed control paradigm becomes more attractive relative to the classical linear controller. • implementation of ﬁrst step of control sequence. A remarkable property of MBPC is that stability of the resultant feedback system (at least with full state information) can be established. • prediction of future states (including disturbances). was ﬁrst proposed by Clark et al.

and then the corresponding generator torque control. thereby ensuring rated power output: Pe = Pr . In this region generator torque control serves only to add damping to the drive train. This is achieved by regulating the generator torque via the torque reference. Such regional control aims to maintain the desired power command.ref .2 r w r where Pr is rated power. P1 is the maximum power command calculated for the impressed wind speed in region 1 (safe operating region). 9. When v w > vr . The proposed control scheme ﬁrst derives Pref throughout the operating region. as follows: • At low and moderate wind speeds. and pitch command. the rotor speed is controlled to maximize energy capture by operating continuously at the TSR that results in the maximum power coefﬁcient. 9.1 shows the overall control loops for the WECS. the target is rated power output.2 Control Concept for Power Regulation Fig. The target is to track the trajectory with cP.1: Pitch regulated variable speed WECS speed control loops. vr are cut-in and rated wind speeds. Γg.opt. βcmd . Control action to achieve both objectives of conversion performance as well as drive-train load mitigation throughout the operating envelope is undertaken by two controllers: generator torque control and pitch angle control. . at various wind speeds in different wind regimes by the control expression P if P ≤ P 1 1 r Pref = & (vw < vc ) (9. Γg. • When vw > vr .ref . β cmd . and P 2 is the optimum power command in region 2 of operation. vc . Pref . given by the proposed MBPC.1) P if P2 ≤ Pr & (vc ≤ vw ≤ vr ) 2 P if P > P & (v > v ) r 1. for adjusting blade pitch to regulate c P (λ. at which priority is given to power system stability rather than to producing maximum wind energy conversion. are computed to follow the actual power along the Pref trajectory. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC Optimum characteristic 113 PI Pitch controller MBPC ωg _ + βcmd Γref Γref Pref ωref Above rated Below rated PI Figure 9.CHAPTER 9. the rotor collective pitch controller kicks in and generates a pitch signal. β).

9.2 illustrates the concept of MBPC applied to the WECS model.ref by MBPC The ﬂow-chart in Fig. solve. In this case only the generator speed is measurable. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC @time=t k 114 Take process measurements WECS plant model = Current & future Control actions Disturbances Objectives Future plant outputs Constraints Solve above optimization problem Best current and future control actions Implement best current control action @time=t k+1 Figure 9. an open-loop control problem over some future interval taking into account the current and future constraints. . the rest of the states are obtained by an observer (state estimation). with the objective of determining the control function for the future time in order to constrain the WECS response to attain the reference values. (ii) Apply the ﬁrst step in the optimal control sequence. A receding horizon approach is used. 9. which involves the following control algorithm: (i) At time k and for the current states xi (k). and the closed loop policy is obtained by replacing the respective states by the estimates.1 Γg. (iii) Repeat the procedure at time (k + 1) using the current states. online. It utilizes a control algorithm founded on solving an online optimal control problem.3.3 Generator Torque Control 9. which are known.CHAPTER 9. xi (k + 1). The solution is converted into a closed loop strategy by using the measured value of x i (k) as the current state.2: MBPC scheme.

ﬁnite horizon optimization of a plant model. where the reference values are assumed to be a constant sequence while the system response is based on future control action. With respect to the wide prediction horizon MBPC algorithms need more calculation power relative to standard linear controls. At time k the current plant state is sampled and a cost minimizing control strategy is computed (via a numerical minimization algorithm) for a relatively short time horizon in the future: [k.predicted state _ x .3 demonstrates the receding horizon control principle. Fig. MBPC algorithms have a greater “prediction horizon”. The prediction horizon keeps being shifted forward and for this reason MPC is thus called receding horizon control. k + N]. has been increasing steadily. and ◦ an optimization cost function J over the prediction horizon. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 115 x . The calculation performance of microcontrollers.CHAPTER 9. 9. an online calculation is used to explore state trajectories that emanate from the current state and ﬁnd (via the solution of Euler-Lagrange equations) a cost-minimizing control strategy until time k. Only the ﬁrst step of the control strategy is implemented. then the plant state is sampled again and the calculations are repeated starting from the now current state. Speciﬁcally. The model is used for precalculating the future behavior of the controlled system as well as for the selection of optimal control values.actual future state Measured past k Prediction horizon Unpredicted future k+N Figure 9. Fig. which can be identiﬁed separately. k + N. MBPC is based on iterative. Although this approach is not optimal.past state x . MBPC is a multivariable control algorithm that uses: ◦ an internal dynamic model of the plant ◦ a history of past control moves. and the actual system state.4 deﬁnes the fundamental principles of the proposed control scheme. to calculate the optimum control moves. .3: Receding horizon control principle. however. in practice it has given very good results. model parameters. 9. yielding a new control and new predicted state path.set-point x . characterized by an explicit model of the controlled system.

· · ·. makes necessary the use of a model for the plant and external disturbances. Assuming . At time k ﬁnd p m min u[k|k]. This. and the optimal input u[k] = uopt [k|k] is applied to the plant. p. · · ·. (9. is the set of future plant input values with respect to which the optimization will be performed.ref Future reference value Model Predictor Total response ωg + Forced response Model Figure 9. It is clear that the above problem formulation necessitates the prediction of future outputs y[k + i|k]. p − 1 and y SP is the set-point... i = m.CHAPTER 9.3) (9. and u[k + i − 1|k].ref.4: Structure of MBPC as applied to the WECS. · · ·. for i = 1.ref ωg (k-i k) Γ (k-i k) g.. For a traditional MBPC formulation. etc. i = 1. i = 1. m ymax ≥ y[k + i − 1|k] ≥ ymin . i = 1. while ∆ is the backward difference operator.ref ).7) (9.ref Free response WECS plant w + _ Γ (=u) g.4) (9.w. m umax ≥ u[k + i − 1|k] ≥ − ∆umax .e. This procedure is repeated at subsequent times k+1. · · ·.···. ∆u[k + i − 1|k] ≈ u[k + i − 1|k] − u[k + m − 2|k]. The MBPC online optimization problem is developed as follows. and output y(≡ ωg ). in turn. where u[k + i − 1|k] = u[k + m − 1|k].5) where p and m < p are the lengths of the plant output prediction and manipulated plant input horizons respectively.) dΓ g.u[k+p−1|k] i=1 y[k + i|k] − y SP + i=1 ri ∆u[k + i − 1|k]2 (9. p (9. i.2) subject to umax ≥ u[k + i − 1|k] ≥ umin . PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC Cost function Future error 116 ωg(=y) Constraints Optimizer dJ(Γg. the above optimization problem is solved at time k. consider a SISO plant with input u(≡ Γ g.6) In typical MPC fashion. k+2. · · ·.

i = 1.u[k+p−1|k] i=1 j=1 hj u[k + i − j|k] − j=1 hj u[k − j] + y[k] − y SP + i=1 ri ∆u[k + i − 1|k]2 (9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 117 the following ﬁnite-impulse-response (FIR) model describes the dynamics of the controlled plant: n y[k] = j=1 hi u[k − j] + d[k] (9. · · ·. An approximation or simpliﬁcation has to be employed. · · ·. x(k) = x (9.8) where hi are the model coefﬁcients (convolution kernel) and d is the disturbance.9) where u[k + i − j|k] = u[k + i − j].5) yields p n n 2 m min u[k|k].11) into (9.15) The above optimization problem is a quadratic programming problem that can easily be solved at each time k. (9.CHAPTER 9.11) where y[k] is the measured value of the plant output y at sampling point k and u[k − j] are past values of the process input u. x( + 1) = f (x( ).12) subject to umax ≥ u[k + i − 1|k] ≥ umin . i = 1. m n n (9. i = 1. Γg. i − j < 0.9) to (9.16) . Substitution of (9. For the WECS plant model. such as n d[k + i|k] = d[k|k] = y[k] − j=1 hj u[k − j] (9.···. p (9. · · ·. The elaborate models developed for the drive train and electrical system in Part I are appropriate to ensure the system behavior is calculable. Then n y[k + i|k] = j=1 hj u[k + i − j|k] + d[k + i|k] (9.ref ( )). m ∆umax ≥ ∆u[k + i − 1|k] ≥ − ∆umax .14) ymax ≥ j=1 hj u[k + i − j|k] − j=1 hj u[k − j] + y[k] ≥ ymin .2) to (9.10) The prediction of the future disturbance d[k + i|k] clearly can be neither certain nor exact.13) (9.

26) is a necessary condition for optimality: Theorem 1 (Optimality Principle Bellman) For the above problem if {u(t) = u o(t). X ⊂ n is convex and closed.21) (9. and the set W is appropriately selected to achieve stability. the model and cost function are time invariant. uo (N − 1)} x x x then. U) = =0 L x( )...19) VN (x. U) U ∈uN 118 (9. . the actual control applied at time k is the ﬁrst element of this sequence. U ⊂ m = k.ref (0)..18) (9.22) is convex and compact.e. Γg. .ref (k). .. U) = =k L x( ). Γg.CHAPTER 9.. t ∈ [to . i.e.24) (9.26) generates a control sequence that forces the future system response to be equal to the reference values. uo (1). tf ].ref (k + N − 1)} k+N −1 (9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC the MBPC at event (x. k) is computed by solving the constrained optimal control problem: o PN (x) : VN (x) = min VN (x. Γg. k + 1. Here.ref ( ) + F x(N) o Ux = {uo (0)..25) VN (x. i.17). k + 1.. Proof: See [18].. where to < to + ∆t < tf ..ref ( ) + F (x(k + N)) and UN is the set of U that satisfy the constraints over the entire interval [k.ref ( ) ∈ U x( ) ∈ X together with the terminal constraint x(k + N) ∈ W. With the constraint (9. k + N (9. k + N + 1 = k. . then u o (t) is also the optimal solution over the (sub)interval [t o + ∆t. thus a time-invariant feedback control law is obtained by setting U = {Γg. Γg. k + N − 1].. Γg. . Expression (9.[20]. (9. Γg.. u = uo (0) x where u Γg.ref . 2 The essence is that any part of an optimal trajectory is necessarily optimal in its own right [19].26) The predictive control law in (9... Γg.17) where U = {Γg.ref (N − 1)} N −1 (9. tf ]} is the optimal solution.ref (k + 1)..20) (9.ref (1)..23) (9. .

3. λ opt ) since the energy losses may also vary with the operating point (OP).opt (λ.5 (shown as dotted block in Fig.1) is a PI regulator that gives the relationship between the input. The generator torque controller in Fig. is obtained thus 2 Γg. This maximizes c P (λ. 9.5: Rotor speed and active power control by PI.ref = Kopt ωg (9. Γg. it is constant at rated value. by computing Kopt . β) and hence the aerodynamic power available. ∆ω g . PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC Optimum characteristic 119 PI Pref ωref ωg + _ K pt+ K it Γ g.2 Γg. PI tuning involves the long process of carefully adjusting the gains through several simulations by trial and error in order to obtain minimum variations for the controlled variables.ref Figure 9. and thus the required generator torque demand. 2λ3 (9.ref = Kpt + ∆ωg s (9.ref . energy output may not necessarily be maximized by maximizing aerodynamic efﬁciency (tracking optimum TSR. 9. Γg. the variable speed WECS tries to stay at the desired TSR wherever possible by tracking wind disturbances. above.CHAPTER 9. achieved by using generator torque control for regulating rotor speed in proportion to the wind speed.27) where Kopt is the optimal mode gain Kopt = πρR5 cP (λ.28) Thus below and around rated wind speeds. and Kit = 250 Nm/rad. β) 3 Ngr .29) where the proportional and integral gains of the PI controller are respectively: K pt = 500 Nms/rad.ref by PI 2 In the steady state the generator torque is set to be proportional to ω g . The reference generator speed is a function of wind speed: below rated wind speed it is proportional to the wind speed.ref via the transfer function C(s) C(s) = Kit Γg. β).ref s Torque to current translation i rq. . 9. Note that in steady state conditions. and the output. It is therefore better to track a slightly different TSR that yields cP.

gain-scheduling is carried out to compensate for non-linearities of the WECS characteristics. [s] 80 100 120 (d) Aerodynamical power. is presented. and electrical power. β ref and β 1560 Generator speed [rpm] 1540 1520 1500 1480 1460 1440 0 20 40 60 Time. active and reactive powers injected into the utility grid.e. and low speed shaft torque variations.2 0 Electrical Power Mechanical Power 20 40 60 Time. [s] 80 100 120 (c) Generator rotor speed 2.205 m/s 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 0 20 40 60 Time. t. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 20 Wind speed [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 20 40 60 Time. t. in response to variations of the input variables.6: Evolution of power parameters at rated speed (vr = 12. [s] 80 100 120 Pitch angle Pitch rate ˙ (b) Variation in pitch angle control variables.2 Power [MW] 2 1. v m = 12. P e Figure 9. and manufacturer’s data that has been tested in the ﬁeld environment.4 Simulation Analysis In the sequel the behavior of the output variables of the WECS system i. 9. t. [s] $\beta$ [deg].CHAPTER 9. The wind model provides a wind proﬁle for the rated wind speed of 12.205 m/s). . The effectiveness of the paradigm is validated against two criteria: comparison in performance with a classical PI controller. P m .8 1.6 1. 9.205 m/s with prevailing turbulence of 16%.4 1.6(a). t. as shown in Fig. In executing the MBPC. $\dot\beta$ [deg/s] 80 100 120 120 (a) Simulated wind speed.

are shown in Fig. The mechanical power.2 Power Limitation Strategy (vw > vr ) The controllers limit Pe and speed to the rated values of the WECS. 9.6(b)). thereby lessening pitch activity despite meeting control objectives (Fig.6(d) illustrates the steady state power curves at high wind speeds for the 2 MW wind turbine.CHAPTER 9. extracted from the wind and the corresponding output electrical power.4. thus ◦ the power reference is the rated power. This action implies both a larger dynamical pitch activity and a larger steady-state pitch angle of the wind turbine. Pm .6(c). 9. Pe .1.6(c)). Thus the speed controller keeps the pitch angle constant to its optimal value. It is easily noticed that at any given moment when vw > vr . The speed controller keeps the generator speed. 9. around the 75 th to the 95th seconds of simulation. 9. Hence the demanded pitch angle command signal. A reduction of the power conversion when the mean wind speed is over rated speed implies an increase in the demanded pitch angle. Fig. This is observed in Fig. βcmd . while the TSR is driven to its optimal value by varying the rotational speed. is kept at –2◦ as seen in Fig. 9. as shown in Fig.4. the deviation in power production from the optimum is satisfactorily small. 9. and that ω g is kept within ±3% of rated rpm of 1500 (Fig. by acting the pitch angle — β is driven to positive values so as to keep the generator speed around the rated value of 1500 rpm.1 Aerodynamic Power Production The proposed MBPC controller associates the predictive control action and ensures the smooth transition of control from region to region.6(b). limited to its rated value.6(b). and the corresponding pitch command is computed to follow the actual power along the trajectory of the desired power command. 9. the predictive controller ﬁrst derives the desired power command. ω r . |Pe − Pr | < 5%.1. In low to medium speed winds the controller regulates the TSR for optimal power extraction. ωg . ◦ the speed reference is the optimal speed.6(d). The turbine has to produce the optimum power corresponding to the maximum tracking power point. During instances when v w > vr .1 Power Optimization Strategy (vw ≤ vr ) The energy capture is maximized by tracking the maximum power coefﬁcient: ◦ the power reference is the wind turbine available power. It is noteworthy that pitch rates are kept within ±8 ◦ /s. ◦ the speed reference is the rated speed. the WECS has to produce less than it is capable of at a given wind speed. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 121 9.4. 9. 9. At above rated wind speeds. .

205 m/s 1. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 20 Wind speed [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 20 40 60 Time.7 0 20 40 60 Time.CHAPTER 9.3 1.7(c). Γ t 15 Generator torque [kNm] 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 0 20 Γg. by implementing the MBPC scheme.2 1. are kept to a minimum to ensure undue cyclic loads are not experienced.ref Γg 40 60 Time.ref and Γg Low speed shaft torque [MNm] 1.4. Despite the high ﬂuctuations in the generated aerodynamic torque as shown in Fig.9 0.7(a) shows the simulated turbulent wind speed at a mean of 12. t. .6 0 20 40 60 Time.7(d) conﬁrms that variations in the drive-train torque.3 1. 9. as seen in Fig. t.9 0. [s] 80 100 120 122 (a) Simulated wind speed at v m = 12. 9. Fig. Γ d .2 1.205 m/s under a prevailing turbulence intensity of 16%.ref . 9. t. Γ d Figure 9. t. More importantly.8 0.7 0. Γg.5 1.1 1 0. Essentially.8 0. MBPC yields a good tracking of the reference generator torque. [s] 80 100 120 (d) Variation in low-speed shaft torque. Γ g.4 1. 9. [s] 80 100 120 Aerodynamic torque [MNm] (b) Aerodynamic torque.7(b).7: Development of torques during 120 s simulation.2 Drive-train Torque Variation Minimization Fig. generator torque control and current control are used to limit shaft moments thereby put in check the cyclic fatigue stresses that may ensue thereof. [s] 80 100 120 (c) Generator torques. 9.1 1 0.

t. It can be observed from Fig. Fig. 9. [s] 80 100 120 (b) Drive train torque Generator power loss [kW] 120 110 100 90 80 70 MBPC PID 0 20 40 60 Time.205 m/s 1.8: Comparison of performance in power conversion and alleviation of drive train loads by MBPC (red line) and classical PID (green line). [s] 80 100 120 (c) Generator power loss Figure 9.CHAPTER 9. . especially at critical instances (vw < vr ).8(c) that the generator power loss is higher with the linear PID than the MBPC. This ensures a smooth transition when gusts are experienced.9 0. t. to avoid exciting ﬂexible turbine modes that increase dynamic loads. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 20 Wind speed [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 20 40 60 Time.3 Comparison: MBPC and Classical PID The main objective of the generator torque controller in the above rated region is to enhance damping in the ﬁrst drive train torsional mode.1 1 0.2 1.4. t. 9.7 0 20 40 60 Time.8 MBPC PID 0.8 serves to validate the choice of the proposed MBPC when a comparison is made between the MBPC scheme and the PID with regard to performance in meeting the objectives: • During the two-minute simulation it is seen that the PID shows relatively higher ﬂuctuations in the drive train torque as opposed to the MBPC (Fig.3 Drive train torque [MNm] 1. especially in regions of high wind speeds. 9. • The generated power is compromised by using the PID. [s] 80 100 120 123 (a) Simulated wind speed at v m = 12. This is attributable to the fact that the PID is a linear controller and is unable to handle the nonlinear WECS dynamics fully.8(b)). 9. when the objective is energy conversion maximization.

[s] 80 100 120 Voltage [kV] (b) Voltage at connection point (line. t.0019 11.205 m/s. 9. the stator voltage. [s] 80 100 120 124 (a) Simulated wind speed at v m = 12.4 Evolution of Electrical Parameters Figs.0014 11.CHAPTER 9. The active power control is achieved by controlling the q-axis component of the rotor current (in a stator ﬂux dq reference frame). t. . [s] 80 100 120 (d) Reactive power Figure 9.0017 11.4. The rotor current controller generates rotor voltage components as control variables of the converter.002 11. PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 20 Wind speed [m/s] 18 16 14 12 10 8 0 20 40 60 Time. [s] 80 100 120 (c) Current 400 Reactive power [VAr] 350 300 250 200 150 0 20 40 60 Time. The power controller ensures the power reference by acting on the current reference of the rotor current controller and thus on the generator current/torque.0018 11.0012 0 20 40 60 Time. while the reactive power control is achieved by controlling the d-axis component of the rotor current (the magnetizing current) collinear with the stator ﬂux.9: Variation in electrical parameters. t. This is achieved via two control loops: one for the active power control and the other for reactive power control.0016 11. 9. t.205 m/s 11.0015 11.9(b)–(d) show. and reactive power for simulation at the mean wind speed of 12.0013 11. respectively. current. rms) 110 Current [A] 100 90 80 70 0 20 40 60 Time.

over a ﬁnite control horizon. The main reason for the interest of control engineers in MBPC is therefore its ability to systematically and effectively handle hard constraints. MBPC’s ability of handling constraints is of paramount importance whenever constraints are part of the control design speciﬁcations. Being a predictive control paradigm based on iterative. in a discrete-time setting only the ﬁrst control of the open-loop control sequence is applied to the plant. the nonlinear model may be used directly in nonlinear MBPC and nonlinear estimation (e.g. moving horizon estimation). given the WECS plant dynamical model and current state. Alternatively. Though this computation relies upon an open-loop control problem. there is great potential for its integration in the control modules of modern wind turbines.5 Conclusion MBPC is a powerful methodology for solving challenging control problems. as they stem from actuators’ saturations and/or physical. It relies on a feedback-control methodology suitable to enforce efﬁciently hard constraints on the variables of the controlled WECS system. according to the receding horizon control policy. Indeed. an open-loop optimal control problem.CHAPTER 9. MBPC is utilized successfully in meeting the control objectives of energy maximization as well as regulation of drive-train torsional moments. The control sequence is computed by solving online. MBPC yields a feedback-control action. The time derivatives may be set to zero (steady state) for applications of real-time optimization or data reconciliation. It is shown that the method hinges upon a constrained open-loop optimal control problem along with the adoption of the so-called receding-horizon control strategy. In fact. The nonlinear WECS model may be linearized to derive a Kalman ﬁlter or specify a model for linear MBPC. the whole optimization cycle is repeated at the subsequent time-instant based on the new plant-state. particularly the ones where prescribed point-wise-in-time input and/or state constraints have to be satisﬁed. . PREDICTIVE CONTROL II: MBPC 125 9. ﬁnite horizon optimization whose key elements include a state space (or equivalent) model and online state estimation and prediction of future states (including disturbances). constraints are typically present in WECS dynamics. and. MBPC can be often calculated online by existing optimization routines so as to minimize a performance index in the presence of hard constraints on the time evolutions of input and/or state. Because it involves a control horizon made up by only a ﬁnite number of time-steps. Though MBPC has been applied effectively in the chemical and process industries. safety or economical requirements.

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projecting this ﬁgure to as much as 6.carbon dioxide. The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases . As a result. Daily Nation.Chapter 10 Analysis. compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol. while some predictions for the next century are sobering. and Conclusions 10. A warmer and less stable climate has potential for massive ecological and economic challenges. Perspectives. methane. Remarks atributed to Mr Michael Ranneberger. Unpredictable weather and natural disasters — drought. and perﬂuorocarbons . whose Kyoto Protocol — a European Union-led effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. National limitations range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US. The US is a party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. in an attempt to give a human face to environmental degradation. 0% for Russia. sulfur hexaﬂuoride. primarily carbon dioxide associated with global warming — has been reluctant to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Kyoto would lead to an increase in associated emissions in countries without obligations under the treaty. taking with them 4 million jobs. such as China and India. nitrous oxide. of 26 May 2007. ﬂoods.averaged over the period of 2008-2012. US ambassador in Nairobi. and therefore produce no real environmental beneﬁt. and reported in the Kenyan newspaper.8◦ C and 4◦ C. 6% for Japan.2% compared to the year 1990” (but note that. because it would unfairly hurt the American economy 2 . hurricanes and heat waves — are becoming more common. this limitation represents a 29% cut). most countries have turned to renewables to meet electricity deAccording to a press release from the United Nations Environment Programme: “The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.4◦ C. 2 An independent analysis showed that compliance with Kyoto would dramatically increase energy costs. substantially reduce GDP growth and force energy-intensive industries overseas. global temperatures will rise between 1. Evidence of climate change is already here. the Intergov- . Building on action taken by signatories of the Kyoto Protocol 1 .1 Preamble ernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that this century. The year 2007’s World Environment Day highlighted the consequences of the melting of the polar ice caps. 1 T HE debate on whether climate change is real is virtually over — the facts are in: the Earth is heating up. and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland. Commitment to the Kyoto Protocol by some of the greatest GHGs emitters has been lukewarm. hydroﬂuorocarbons. The stalemate notwithstanding.

Strong growth ﬁgures prove that wind is now a mainstream option for new power generation. The exact amount of emissions saved depends on which fossil plants are displaced by wind energy. However. Regarding installation and O&M costs. thanks in part to remarkable advances in the wind power design that has been achieved due to modern technological developments. Wherever the wind speed exceeds approximately 6 m/s there are possibilities for exploiting it economically. . Further. reliability assurance. The methodology entailed modeling the various subsystems to derive mathematical state-space representations for multiobjective controller design. depending on the costs of competing power sources. it is claimed that a wind turbine used for electricity generation will repay the energy used in its manufacture within 6–9 months of its operation. pollutants and waste products. In particular. Numerous utility studies have shown that a unit of wind energy saves a unit of energy generated from coal. Development of advanced power electronic components is integral to providing industry with the support it needs to develop technologies capable of cost-effective operation. these developments raise a number of challenges. AND CONCLUSIONS 129 mand. optimized power output. gas or oil — depending on the utility’s plant — thereby saving emissions of greenhouse gases. The contribution of wind energy in the global energy mix has been steadily increasing. the contribution to grid stability. Renewable energy sources like wind energy are indigenous and can help in reducing the dependency on fossil fuels. The penetration of wind energy in the grid raises questions about the compatibility of the wind turbine power production with the grid.CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS. Growth in size and the optimization of WECSs has enabled wind energy to become increasingly competitive with conventional energy sources. Energy has since been established as a fundamental ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. a modern wind turbine operates for about 13 years in a design life of 20 and is almost always unattended. Wind energy provides a variable and environmental friendly option and national energy security at a time when decreasing global reserves of fossil fuels threatens the long-term sustainability of the global economy. and 2. and wind power is among the preferred sources of ‘green’ energy. It is against this backdrop that the research presented in this thesis explores advanced schemes for control of wind power plants with regard to: 1. It has been estimated that roughly 10 million MW of energy are continuously available in the earth’s wind. The wind turbine technology has evolved into a unique technical identity to meet unique demands in terms of the methods used for design. PERSPECTIVES. power quality and behavior during fault situations plays therefore as important a role as the reliability.

amplitude and time period speciﬁed for these discrete events remain rather arbitrary and largely unvalidated. These can be incorporated with modiﬁcation to the control methodology. The proposed control schemes (LQG. STR. requires considerable effort but is crucially important in the context of reﬁning wind turbine design analysis. The mean wind speed is obtained from an annual Rayleigh probability density curve and the turbulence component modelled as an instantaneous variation. The development of more reliable methods for the evaluation of extreme design loads. The improvement in energy capture from these methods depends on the turbine and operating environment. system losses. Turbulence models of the form described above are now widely used for the calculation of fatigue loads for design purposes. ANALYSIS. For calculation of extreme loads. Drive train dynamics.CHAPTER 10. These issues must be weighed against the increase in power output obtained from use. however. PERSPECTIVES. based possibly on the use of probabilistic analysis. use of variable-speed control increases the ﬂuctuation of output power and somewhat increases the shaft fatigue cycles. other issues of concern during variable-speed operation are drive train dynamics and avoiding operation at system resonant frequencies. and avoiding resonant frequencies can be incorporated using proper control system implementation. The form. system losses must be dealt with. Moreover. AND CONCLUSIONS 130 10. and MBPC) consistently show lower ﬂuctuations in shaft torsional torque when compared with the classical PI(D). taking into consideration the annual average as well as the turbulence spectrum. The problem is complicated and further work will undoubtedly be required before it will be possible to formulate reliable guidelines to assist the wind turbine designer. wind direction changes and wind shear transients. Drive-train Model With larger or more ﬂexible wind turbine structures. LQG/NC. However. Blade pitch can also be used to improve energy capture when the turbine is operating at large errors in power output. it is standard practice to base calculations on deterministic descriptions of extreme wind conditions. real-time wind speed has been simulated by a reliable CSS method. Current design standards and certiﬁcation rules specify extreme events in terms of discrete gusts. Wind Speed Model for Simulations Being the stock-in-trade for the WECS. II. These advanced paradigms are a better alternative for the wind turbine industry. by modifying the reference value for the aerodynamic torque near the resonant rotor speed.2 Modeling: an Overview I. .

[pu] 0.5 0 0.1 shows the DOIG response to a single phase fault introduced at t = 0 s.06 0 0.2 1 Power.11 1. DOIG Model: Fault Current Contribution and Post-Fault Behavior Fig.6 0.09 1.15 1. [pu] 1 0. All the parameters (phase current.6 0. [s] 0.5 -1 -1.1 1.14 1. ANALYSIS.5 0 0. [pu] 1 0.08 1. [s] 0.2 0.4 t.6 0.2 0. MBPC was utilized in generator torque control.13 1.07 1. The stator current.12 1. as seen in Fig. attesting to the effectiveness of the control in re-establishment after a short circuit fault.2 0 0. 10.5 -1 -1.2 0.5 Phase current.4 t. The crowbar is designed to be triggered by the high rotor current when the fault is cleared.16 1.8 0. 10. meaning that the power grid will still maintain transient voltage stability.8 1 Speed.CHAPTER 10.1(b)–(d).1(b).8 1 (d) Power output Figure 10.1: DOIG single phase fault: results of the WECS system. normal operation of the machine is maintained once the fault clears.5 0 -0.6 0.4 0.4 t.8 1 (b) Phase current 1.4 t. PERSPECTIVES.5 Phase Voltage. 10.6 0. [s] 0. The assumption is that both converters continue to operate normally during and after the fault.2 0. . [pu] (c) Rotor speed 1. AND CONCLUSIONS 1. rotor speed and power) stabilize within ample time. III. speed and power output during the fault and after the fault is cleared is shown in Figs.8 1 131 (a) Phase voltage 1.5 0 -0. However. [s] 0.

CHAPTER 10.2 1 Voltage. [pu] 3 2 1 0 0 0. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of the control system in limiting the generator current perturbations during a fault. [pu] 0.5 -3 0 0.2 0 0.4 0.2(a)–(d).2 1 0.8 0. Similar results are obtained for a 3-phase fault. [s] 1.5 2 (c) Generator speed 1.25 1.15 1.5 2 PQ control.2 0 0.2: 3P fault: RMS simulation. [s] 1. P (d) PQ control: active power. [s] 1. When the fault is applied.5 1 t.1 1.5 2 132 (a) Phase voltage 5 4 Current.2 Speed. During the fault. [pu] 1. the DOIG model shows a high current peak but the decay is rapid. ANALYSIS.05 1 0 0. Q (e) PQ control: reactive power. AND CONCLUSIONS 1.5 0 -0.5 2 (b) Current phasor 1. [s] 1.6 0.5 -1 -1. When the fault clears the over-current protection operates the crowbar circuit.2 0 -0. P 1 0.5 1 t. Q Figure 10.4 1.8 0. in Figs.5 2 PQ control.6 0.2 0 -0. PERSPECTIVES.4 0. . [s] 1.5 1 t.5 -2 -2.5 1 t.5 1 t. 10. the speed of the generator is maintained close to its prefault value and returns to normal operation.

it is in the area of vortex wake modelling and the incorporation of these models into wind turbine analyses that many future challenges lie for the wind turbine analyst. and • the representation of the unsteady aerodynamics of the blade sections. Therefore. Neglecting tower shadow modeling – changes in pitch also have a major effect on the thrust load. Despite their limitations. it can be modelled as a spatial variation in the ﬂow velocity normal to the chord of the blade section. and coupling issues between the subcomponent models cannot be discounted. which then feeds back into the pitch control via the aerodynamic torque — a strong feedback which has a major effect on the stability of the pitch control system. As a consequence. there are bound to be signiﬁcant differences with expected results. The emphasis is on two key areas that need continued serious consideration in WECS modeling: • the representation of the rotor wake using dynamic inﬂow and vortex methods. Other shortcomings include: 1. to a ﬁrst level of approximation. Vortex wake methods are attractive because of their appealing physical nature and ﬂexibility to handle a broad range of steady and transient operating conditions. model-based controls typically recourse to lower ﬁdelity models that penalize the achievable performance. suggesting unresolved deﬁciencies in the models. increased model accuracy implies reduced uncertainty. High-ﬁdelity physical models for WECS are usually developed during the design process of these components. This is turn affects the relative wind speed seen by the blades. 2.CHAPTER 10. PERSPECTIVES. Use of lower ﬁdelity (reduced order) models – in a model-based control approach. inconsistencies in empirical input parameters to the models.3 WECS Modeling: Assessment of Approach and Validation Limitations of Presented Modeling Concepts Even using the medley of subcomponent models as presented in Part I. AND CONCLUSIONS 133 10. the presented dynamic inﬂow models have attractive mathematical forms and good computational efﬁciency that will always be appealing for certain types of rotor analyses. While this has been neglected in the analysis. and in a time-averaged sense it can be represented as a velocity deﬁcit in the ﬂow behind the support tower. but their dimensionality is excessive for current control architectures. ANALYSIS. A systematic methodology for obtaining reduced order models directly from the design models as presented in this thesis reduce the development cycle for high performance model-based controllers. the tower shadow involves an unsteady wake structure. However. . which in turn drives the fore-aft motion of the tower.

The presented models and control codes are yet to be validated: development of tools for wind turbine analysis need veriﬁcation and validation before they can be tested in the ﬁeld environment [5]–[7]: ◦ Veriﬁcation: concerned with building the model right. guaranteeing 100% error-free implementation. or. Both work together for model credibility — to establish an argument that the model produces sound insights and comparable results to data from the real system after a wide range of tests and criteria. It asks the questions: Is the model implemented correctly in the computer? Are the input parameters and logical structure of the model correctly represented? ◦ Validation: concerned with building the right model. and that the model does not contain errors. Veriﬁcation does not. however. limitations. It is utilized in the comparison of the conceptual model to the computer representation that implements that conception. . oversights. Like all knowledge. and the insights gained. however. not a validated model. approximate and always subject to revision. or bugs. ensure the model solves an important problem. and appropriateness for addressing a range of important questions. an iterative process of comparing the model to actual system behavior and using the discrepancies between the two. to remove barriers and objections to model use. but rather a model that has passed all the validation tests — offers a better understanding of the model’s capabilities. Validation is usually achieved through the calibration of the model. the algorithms have been implemented properly. Model veriﬁcation and validation are essential parts of the model development process if models are to be accepted and used to support decision making. Veriﬁcation is done to ensure that the model is programmed correctly. ANALYSIS. this understanding of aerodynamics is not absolute and can be viewed as tentative. The end result of validation is. the model is salvageable with further work and results in a model having a higher degree of credibility and conﬁdence. Practical veriﬁcation recognizes that no computational model will ever be fully veriﬁed. PERSPECTIVES. to improve the model. correctly reﬂects the workings of a real wind turbine. as evidenced by several publications [1]–[4]. This process is repeated until model accuracy is judged to be acceptable.CHAPTER 10. AND CONCLUSIONS 134 Model Validation Many strides have been made in the understanding and modeling of wind turbine aerodynamics. the end result is technically not a veriﬁed model. but rather one that has passed a properly structured testing program that increases the level of statistical certainty to acceptable levels! Practical validation exercises amount to a series of attempts to invalidate a model — explicitly formulate a series of mathematical tests designed to “break the model”. Presumably. meets a speciﬁed set of model requirements. technically. In principle. It is utilized to determine that a model is an accurate representation of the real system. once a model is shown to be invalid.

and 2. 10. Two of the commercially available software for validation purposes include: 1. blade and tower dynamics. and stochastic wind model impact. 3. fault recovery studies. PERSPECTIVES. AND CONCLUSIONS Compare model to actual Initial model Revise First revision of model Revise Compare 2nd revised model to actual 135 Compare revised model to actual Actual System Second revision of model Revise Figure 10. to provide the analyst with tools to carry out the most complex power system studies. Especially in wind power applications. Fig. as all required models and simulation algorithms provide unmet accuracy and performance. Compare model input-output transformations to corresponding input-output transformations for the real (‘Actual’) system (or prototype). voltage stability analysis. ANALYSIS. harmonic penetration analysis. generator control design. Validate model assumptions. 2. as well as integrated wind park modeling. DIgSILENT PowerFactory [10] — incorporates extensive modelling capabilities with advanced solution algorithms. As an aid in the validation process.3: Iterative process of calibrating the WECS model. and Turbulence) Code [9] — a comprehensive aeroelastic simulator capable of predicting both the extreme and fatigue loads of two. both offer standard tools.CHAPTER 10. FAST (Fatigue. control principles. It is thus imperative to compare developed codes with those that have been tested on ﬂexible control structures of actual prototypes and whose long term simulation capability offer conﬁdence to allow for an integrated analysis of fault response.3 illustrates this concept in the validation of the simulation models developed in this thesis. . veriﬁcation of connection conditions. Naylor and Finger [8] formulated a three-step approach which has been widely followed: 1. Both ﬁnd typical applications in wind park design studies. Aerodynamics.and threebladed horizontal-axis wind turbines. The constantly growing size of WECS and wind parks is today’s most challenging aspect in power system analysis. Structures. Build a model that has high face validity.

For the process of intelligence to be understood. and perspectives of evolutionary computation [9]–[16]. for if a system cannot predict future events. It must be equally applicable to machines. however. Prediction is an essential ingredient of intelligence. a mechanical process that can be simulated and emulated. (ii) Control — an intelligent system must not simply predict its environment but must use its predictions to affect its decision making to be able to allocate its resources (i. The form of the intelligent system is irrelevant. an individual. If intelligent decision making is viewed as a problem of optimally allocating available resources in light of diverse criteria (environmental demands and goals). PERSPECTIVES. Environmental adaptability for the intelligent system relies on future event prediction. philosophy. Intelligence is not a property that can be limited philosophically solely to biological structures. mathematics. Intelligence and evolution are intimately connected.4 Control: an Appraisal of Classical and Advanced Paradigms Evolutionary Basis for Intelligent Control Design for Modern WECS Several attempts have been made to integrate the inspiration. AND CONCLUSIONS 136 10. The process of adaptation is one of minimizing surprise to the adaptive organism. control its behavior) with regard to the anticipated consequences of those actions to avoid relegating its future to nothing but pure luck. actualizations. then machine intelligence can be achieved by simulating evolution to effectively design controllers for modern WECSs. and revising its bases for making predictions based on feedback on the degree to which it is achieving its goals. (iii) Feedback — the adaptive mechanism must act on the error in prediction and the associated cost of inappropriate behaviors to improve the quality of its forecasting. or a social group. control of its actions in light of those predictions..CHAPTER 10. ANALYSIS. Intelligence is deﬁned as the capability of a system to adapt its behavior to meet its goals in a range of environments. Intelligence is a natural part of life. It is also. methods for its generation should converge functionally and become fundamentally identical. . every environmental occurrence comes as a surprise and adaptation is impossible. for its functionality is the same whether intelligence occurs within an evolving species. history.e. The mapping is essentially a model that relates previous experiences to future outcomes. and requires three basic elements: (i) Prediction — operates as a mechanistic mapping from a set of observed environmental symbols to another set of symbols that represents the expected new circumstance. relying on the same physics whether the intelligence occurs in a living system or machine.

as is usual. a very short time constant may result in slower simulations. . Alternatively. On the other hand. but slows down transient response and may lead to instability (K d is zero in a PI controller). for stability and performance. to integrated gasiﬁcation combined cycle. the larger the feedback to compensate. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to plant instability. If the PI controller being modelled is actually implemented in discrete form. PERSPECTIVES. A PID controller can be written in terms of the Laplace variable s (similar to a differentiation operator) as y= Kd s Ki + Kp + s 1 + sτ x (10. For a variable speed pitch-regulated turbine. where it could respond excessively to signal noise. y is the control action. Kd : Derivative Gain – larger Kd decreases overshoot. require some degree of closed-loop control. AND CONCLUSIONS 137 Linear Control Schemes All complex power production applications nowadays. The trade-off is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated away by positive error before a steady state is reached. Classical designs (PI and PID) controllers are widely used throughout industry and are a good starting point for many wind turbine control applications. the pitch is used to regulate the rotor speed to the desired value. A measure of ingenuity in selection of tuning parameters in (10. Below rated the pitch is forced to the ﬁne pitch limit. For example. and the time constant τ prevents the derivative term from becoming large at high frequency. then the desaturation time constant should be chosen to be somewhat smaller than the discrete controller timestep. Above rated. x is the difference between the measured generator rotational speed and the demanded or rated speed and y is the demanded pitch angle.1) with respect to pitch control design is a prerequisite. ANALYSIS. a pitch controlled machine crossing rated wind speed may take too long before the pitch starts acting.1) where x is the input error signal to be corrected. The tuning parameters are Ki : Integral Gain – larger Ki implies steady state errors are eliminated quicker. but the generator torque is varied in order to control the generator speed.CHAPTER 10. specify a zero time constant for instantaneous desaturation. Kp : Proportional Gain – larger Kp typically means faster response since the larger the error. from gas and steam turbines. while the generator torque or power is held constant. to wind turbines.

small amounts of measurement or process noise can cause large amounts of change in the output. However. PERSPECTIVES. it can never cause the control system to oscillate. low-pass ﬁltering and derivative control cancel each other out. 4. Thus practical application issues can arise from instrumentation connected to the controller. generally. This usually occurs when the controller’s output can no longer affect the controlled variable. such as need for high sampling rate. thus improving the system response and stability. . ANALYSIS. which in turn can be caused by controller saturation (the output being limited at the top or bottom of its scale). and measurement accuracy. duty cycle) limit the achievable performance of the controllers. The control system performance thus needs to be improved by combining the PID controller functionality with that of a feed-forward control output. Integral windup during implementation — refers to the situation where the integral. or if the controller is part of a selection scheme and it is not the selected controller. PID controllers are linear. However. nonlinear limitations imposed by the actuators (magnitude. PID controllers. AND CONCLUSIONS 138 Typically. commonly the process present value for startup problems b) Disabling the integral function until the plant has entered the controllable region c) Limiting the time period over which the integral error is calculated d) Preventing the integral term from accumulating above or below pre-determined bounds. Since the feed-forward output is not a function of the plant feedback. measurement precision. rate. 2. Due to the differential term in the PID. a well-tuned PID was sufﬁcient for the ﬁrst generation of control solutions where. hence their performance in WECS systems that are non-linear is variable.CHAPTER 10. when used alone. or reset action continues to integrate (ramp) indeﬁnitely. This needs to be addressed by: a) Initializing the controller integral to a desired value. can give poor performance when the PID loop gains must be reduced so that the control system does not overshoot. oscillate or “hunt” about the control setpoint value. This requires the additional use of a low-pass ﬁlter to ﬁlter the measurements. the problems in complex plants were related to performance improvement of different local loops. which is also coupled with the design of the different components. the differential band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control — equivalent to using the PID controller as a PI controller. Alternatively. 3. The major limitations of PI(D) control for WECS applications include: 1. so reducing noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. Often PID controllers need to be enhanced through methods such as gain scheduling or fuzzy logic.

including the LQG. constraints. objectives. STR. ui is the i-th manipulated variable. ANALYSIS. and all rely on an elaborate model of the WECS system. actuator duty. • using the control algorithm to provide damping for lightly damped resonant responses. g is a vector of inequality constraints. This leads to the optimization cost function J generally used to calculate the optimum control law. Equality constraints can be replaced by two inequality constraints. and wui is weighting coefﬁcient penalizing relative big changes in u i . h is a vector of equality constraints. It is the selection of design variables.2) where J is an objective. • the use of higher-order controllers to tackle particular problems in the turbine dynamics. . ri is the i-th reference variable. A further consideration is the strength and breadth of the interdisciplinary coupling in the problem. and is given by: J = wxi (ri − xi )2 + wui ∆u2 i (10. • algorithm design using optimal feedback or other techniques in which the trade-off between different design objectives can be included explicitly in the design. advanced controllers proposed in this thesis rely on a synthesis of both pitch regulation and a torque demand to address the following objectives: • controlling pitch and torque together to improve the trade-off between energy capture. and the relationships between them have been chosen. x i is the i-th control variable. objectives. and loads. and MBPC. x is a vector of design variables. constraints. h(x) = 0 and xlb ≤ x ≤ xub (10. Maximization problems can be converted to minimization problems by multiplying the objective by -1. Problem formulation is normally the most difﬁcult part of the process. In this thesis the above are handled by the proposed control schemes.CHAPTER 10. Once the design variables. None of these ideas is new and all of them have been explored to some extent for wind turbines. PERSPECTIVES. This is the basis of adaptive multiobjective control design that relies on state-estimation for full-state feedback. Constraints can be reversed in a similar manner. and models of the disciplines. w xi is weighting coefﬁcient reﬂecting the relative importance of xi . the problem can be expressed in the following standard format: ﬁnd x that minimizes J (x) subject to g(x) ≤ 0.3) without violating constraints (low/high limits). and xlb and xub are vectors of lower and upper bounds on the design variables. AND CONCLUSIONS 139 Advanced Multiobjective Controllers Starting from inability of classical PI or PID algorithms that act on a single input signal (to generate a pitch demand).

This is difﬁcult because of the variability of the wind input. more stringent requirements and systematic design of the plants to meet the speciﬁcations while minimizing cost. Most of these techniques require large numbers of evaluations of the objectives and the constraints. Fortunately. Suitable approaches to the evaluation of controller performance is thus limited to simulations. . The performance obtained by these controllers is crucial in wind power generation for which feedback control is a vital component of the overall operation. many of the optimization techniques are adaptable to parallel computing. A vital aspect of the development of new control algorithms for the novel schemes is the assessment of their effectiveness. AND CONCLUSIONS 140 While moving towards larger wind turbine installations. In this case.CHAPTER 10. particularly if the effectiveness of two or more alternative controllers is to be compared (or their cost beneﬁt!). singly or in combination: • Observers – utilize a subset of the known dynamics to make estimates of a particular variable. ANALYSIS. The disciplinary models are often very complex and can take signiﬁcant amounts of time for a single evaluation. • State estimators – using a full model of the dynamics. Challenges in implementing advanced control paradigms include: 1. model-based multiobjective control design is becoming more frequently the design method of choice. a Kalman ﬁlter can be used to estimate all the system states from the prediction errors. and much current research is focused on methods of decreasing the required time. the estimated wind speed can then be used to deﬁne the appropriate pitch angle. 3. model-based control design methods have to address typical problems associated with complex applications such as large order models and actuator nonlinearities. In power generation applications. but also speciﬁc issues – dynamic nonlinearities. PERSPECTIVES. The appeal of the proposed advanced schemes is that they are multiobjective. Thus it is possible explicitly to take account of the stochastic nature of the wind input by formulating a wind model driven by a Gaussian input. mode coupling or limitations due to conﬂicting control objectives. 2. there is no substitute for ﬁeld trials in real wind conditions. The solution can therefore be extremely time-consuming. and make use of the following concepts. Field trials – despite the power and reliability of some of the simulation models now available. It is noteworthy that efﬁciency of a WECS does not scale simply by physical dimensions and control plays a signiﬁcant role in increasing the size of the machine while decreasing the structural loads and improving the rotor efﬁciency. The variability of the wind makes it particularly difﬁcult to carry out ﬁeld trials repeatably and reliably. • Optimal feedback – the cost function approach means that the trade-off between partially competing objectives is explicitly deﬁned by selecting suitable weights for the terms of J .

. As part of the design process. Chapter 1 gives an overview of wind energy as well as motivation for this study. A brief review of the generator has been illustrated in Chapter 4. Reliability of wind turbine system is based on the performance of its components under assigned environment. handling. throughput. The main idea is to examine stresses on the drive shaft as well as the gearbox — a source of failures and defects in many wind turbines. various concepts are brought forth as a basis for modelling the various components of the drive train in order to formulate the control objectives for controller design. Several control conﬁgurations. Chapter 3 develops a mathematical model for the mechanical drive train as a multi-inertial system coupled by elastic linkages. This is then used to formulate a real-time wind proﬁle from Gaussian noise thus enabling the determination of the response of the WECS under highly stochastic environmental conditions.5 Conclusions In Part I.g. Part II develops a control strategy for WECS control based on harmonization between pitch angle control and generator torque control. The design of the control schemes attempts to maximize performance (e. The control objectives are determined as twofold: the optimization of energy conversion and mitigation of shaft torque torsional moments to check cyclic-stress-induced fatigue damage to mechanical subsystems. efﬁciency. The generated gusts have the desired properties and are used as input for wind turbine design tools in order to assess the extreme loading. Chapter 6 describes the control philosophy and expounds on the classical linear PI(D) controllers to regulate power. ANALYSIS. invariably. based on subsystems’ modeling. Chapter 2 details the essential concepts in aerodynamic conversion modeling. PERSPECTIVES. and the stress and aging process. the stock-intrade for the WECS) for a generic site. and formulates a model for the expected output of the WECS. gravitational loads. obtained via a constrained stochastic simulation scheme. a wind turbine must be analyzed for aerodynamic loads. inertia loads and operational loads it will experience during its design life. Chapter 5 analyzes the simulation of a real-time wind speed (which is. AND CONCLUSIONS 141 10.CHAPTER 10. The importance of turbine linearization in controller design is emphasized and developed. manufacturing process. One of the main goals of control is to increase power production and reduce loads with a minimum number of control inputs required for turbine measurement. speciﬁc energy consumption) while maintaining stability and physical integrity under both wind and load disturbances. are mooted for control of a 2-MW class WECS. The mean wind speed is obtained from an annual Rayleigh probability density curve and the turbulence component modelled as an instantaneous variation. The electrical system of the wind turbine includes all components for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. whose common denominator is multiobjectivity.

PERSPECTIVES. MBPC is conceptually a natural method for generating feedback control actions for linear and nonlinear plants subject to pointwise-in-time input and/or state-related constraints. However. by imposing. Chapter 10 gives an overview of the modeling approach employed in the thesis. as turbines become larger and more ﬂexible. The appeal is that they are able to capture the nonlinearities in the turbine and devise the pertinent control signals for effective energy conversion and mitigation of drive train loads. the basic idea of feedback is tremendously compelling as it enhances stability. that are invoked at every sample period. whenever possible. The hybrid shows remarkable improvement in control. leaving a wide scope for improvement in the coming years. in feedback-control systems of more traditional type. LQ tracking optimal control design employs the RLS algorithm based on an equivalent non-minimal state space realization of the WECS model. no paradigm is extremely superior to the others: all have inherent capabilities as well as shortcomings. Chapter 9 proposes the MBPC scheme for generator torque control. Of the proposed control techniques. constraints are indirectly enforced. a conservative behavior at a performancedegradation expense. clearly. as well as an evaluation of the merits and demerits of the various control paradigms proposed herein. e. A hybrid controller is also mooted. No state observer is required. However. most commercial wind turbines still use fairly basic control techniques. AND CONCLUSIONS 142 Chapter 7 reviews the LQG controller for generator torque control. and provides disturbance rejection due to a stochastic wind. Chapter 8 introduces the STR that consists of two parts: an estimator and a control law.CHAPTER 10. the latter to cater for the nonlinearities in the system. ANALYSIS. improves the steady-state error characteristics. based on the idea of augmenting the LQG with a neurocontroller. An important observation is made: in contrast to MBPC. LQG or H ∞ control.g. For the nonlinear WECS system. it is increasingly important not only to consider the effect that the controller has on component loads. Other instances where MBPC can be advantageously used comprise unconstrained plants for which off-line computation of a control law is a difﬁcult task as compared with on-line computations via receding-horizon control. but even to design the controller with load reduction as part of the primary objective. For the control law. The LQG control objective for the WECS multivariable system has been to obtain a desirable behavior of several output variables by simultaneously manipulating several input channels. .. Remark Classical methods based on PI(D) algorithms are a good starting point for many aspects of closed loop controller design for variable speed turbines. The purpose of the RLS algorithm (estimator) is to dynamically estimate the model of the WECS system relating the measured metrics with the actuation.

” Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Energy Conversion. “Fixed-speed wind-generator and wind-park modeling for transient stability studies. Klockl.” Journal of the Operational Research Society. and H. 2007. O’Malley. 159-183. H. Oct. Technical Report. Perdana. Aug. PERSPECTIVES.” Renewable Energy. [8] T. no.875473. “Veriﬁcation of computer simulation models. Ledesma. Knudsen. Carlson. C. Khan. vol. N. Gentile. vol.CHAPTER 10. doi: 10. M. E. A. [7] P. no. and E. A publication of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (A national laboratory of the U. 303-308. and J.” IEEE Trans. Ofﬁce of Energy Efﬁciency & Renewable Energy). “A phenomenological model for the dynamic response of wind turbines to turbulent wind. 2004. pp. 1301-1316. 22. large-scale. 24. A. offshore wind farm for power stability investigations – importance of windmill mechanical system. no. Rauh. NREL/EL-500-38230. 2002. Wilson. 1911-1917. ANALYSIS. An Integrated Power System Analysis Software for Wind Power Applications. [2] D. [9] J. A. Coughlan. 1967. J. and J. vol. Eisenhut. M. Aug. J.2004.de . “Validation of ﬁxed speed wind turbine dynamic models with measured data. pp.1109/TPWRS. Mullane. Trudnowski. Peinke.2307/2582053.1009/TEC. 929-936. 414-420. [3] A. vol.” J. Department of Energy. M.2007.” IEEE Trans. pp. FAST User’s Guide. Power Systems.92. “An aggregate model of a grid-connected. and M. and J.nrel. vol. 14. Finlay. June 2007. F. Power Systems. 38. [5] M. P. pp. P. 3.digsilent. pp. Krug. and B. M. Available online: http://wind. no.901649. M. vol. vol. Nov. and O. from DIgSILENT GmbH.” IEEE Trans.1109/TPWRS. “Wind turbine model for system simulations near cut-in wind speed. pp.2006. 32. doi: 10.S. [6] C. April 1987. pp. no. doi: 10. pp. 1. Schram. Finger.” Management Science. 709-717. doi: 10. 4. Naylor. “The paucity of model validation in operational research projects. 4. Wind Engineering and Industrial Dynamics.836204. “Wind turbine modeling for power system stability analysis – a system operator perspective. Buhl Jr. Petritz. 2. Smith. 2004. vol. Homepage: http://www. [4] V. L. Akhmatov. 19. and M. Agneholm. Jonkman. 2007. AND CONCLUSIONS 143 References [1] Y. 92-101. Martins. 2005. 22.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/ [10] DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

[14] A. Darwin. Axelrod. London: Pitman. [15] B. Genetic Algorithms in Search. MA: Addison-Wesley 1989. “The Evolution of Strategies in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. [17] F. 1962. London: John Murray. [16] K. [13] D. Ann Arbor. University of Michigan. Washington. Davis. Dept. Doctoral Dissertation. DC: Spartan Books.” In Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. De Jong. 32-41. [18] R. [12] J. 1859. Optimization and Machine Learning. PERSPECTIVES. Cambridge. Hoffman. NY: IEEE Press. 1989. Holland.CHAPTER 10. Goldberg. 1995. . Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms. New York: Oxford University Press. AND CONCLUSIONS 144 [11] C. ANALYSIS. Adaptation in Natural and Artiﬁcial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology. Evolutionary Computation: Toward a New Philosophy of Machine Intelligence. An Analysis of the Behaviour of a Class of Genetic Adaptive Systems. 1995. D. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservations of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. of Computer and Communications Sciences. H. Arguments on Evolution: A Paleontologist’s Perspective. edited by L. Rosenblatt. pp. E. A. 1975. Control and Artiﬁcial Intelligence. MA: MIT Press. Fogel. 1987.

which can reduce the number of computations in conventional controllers. in the face of WECS plant perturbations due to high wind turbulence.Chapter 11 Future Work 11. and • (Neuro)Fuzzy controllers — rely on fuzzy logic to model imprecise concepts and evolve context-dependent controllers via optimization.1 Introduction T HERE are two approaches to allow for uncertainty in system models and disturbances: adaptive versus robust control. Tsukamoto fuzzy model or Singleton fuzzy model. The ﬁrst approach is to use an adaptive controller. or parameter uncertainty. The second approach is to allow for uncertainty in the design of the ﬁxed controller. To deﬁne a fuzzy logic controller it is necessary to introduce IF-THEN rules to establish how probable the process variable is. Fuzzy controllers are implemented using fuzzy rules. the deﬁnition of fuzzy operations is also needed. The H∞ design approach can be combined with self-tuning action to obtain a robust adaptive controller [1]-[3]. Self-tuning devices have been very successful. It is also claimed that they can be implemented more easily than conventional controllers. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model. The application of the rules deﬁnes fuzzy set values of fuzzy output sets. The H∞ concept is particularly appropriate when improving robustness. which estimates parameters and calculates the control accordingly. To evaluate the rules. . Future research is in the direction of control based on the following two concepts: • H2 /H∞ — these formulations eliminate the stochastic element and permit a frequency domain view by allowing the introduction of frequency dependent weighting functions. but they involve online design computations and are therefore not as simple as a ﬁxed controller to implement. The most popular kind of fuzzy systems are based on either the Mamdami fuzzy model. thus producing a robust control scheme — one which is insensitive to parameter variations or disturbances.

robustness against plant uncertainty is handled more directly. stability properties can be guaranteed and safe reliable systems can be assured. which consists of all bounded functions that are analytic in the right-half complex plane. Design issues can be considered in the frequency domain and classical design intuition can be employed. which enables stability and robustness properties to be predicted with some certainty. H ∞ -optimization amounts to the minimization of the ∞-norm of the relevant frequency response function.CHAPTER 11. Moreover. FUTURE WORK 146 11. However. the most important advantage is that stability margins can be guaranteed and performance requirements can also be satisﬁed. 1 Named after the British mathematician G. Note that the design procedures cannot be used blindly. which are inevitable and limit high-performance control systems design. in a uniﬁed design framework. • If the uncertainty lies within the class considered. . since poor information can still lead to controllers with poor performance properties. The name 1 derives from the fact that mathematically the problem may be set in the space H ∞ . Hardy. Introducing µ-synthesis in the design aims at reducing the peak value of the structured singular value. It accomplishes joint robustness and performance optimization. An important aspect of H ∞ optimization is that it allows to include robustness constraints explicitly in the criterion. • There is a rigorous mathematical basis for the design algorithms.2 H∞ -Optimization for WECS Design by H∞ -optimization as a design tool for linear multivariable WECS control involves the minimization of the peak magnitude of a suitable closed-loop system function. The H∞ design approach is distinguished by the following features and properties: • It is a design procedure developed speciﬁcally to allow for the modeling errors. • The trade-offs between good stability properties and good performance are easier to make in a H∞ context than with many of the competing designs. Properties of H∞ Robust Control Design There are several advantages of the H∞ control design approach. H. The technique can be easily computerised and formalized design procedures can be introduced. • There are close similarities between state-space versions of H∞ controllers and the well-known Kalman ﬁltering or H2 /LQG control structures. It is very well suited to frequency response shaping.

A high-performance robust design would take account of this structure. (c) The calculation of H∞ controllers is more complicated than the equivalent H 2 /LQG controllers. whether the plant be non-minimum phase. . there are several ways of modifying the method to allow for parametric uncertainties.CHAPTER 11. or unstable (neglecting for the moment uncertainty and assuming controllers are implemented in full). whether this be in the time or frequency domains. (b) The H∞ design approach is closer to that of classical frequency response design in that the frequency-response shaping of desired transfer functions is attempted. The main disadvantage is that methods of handling parametric uncertainty are not handled so naturally in the H∞ framework. but the basic H∞ approach does not account for this type of information. (c) The dynamic cost weights have a similar effect in both types of cost function.g. FUTURE WORK 147 • The approach can be interpreted in terms of the stochastic nature of the system. including µ-synthesis and H ∞ adaptive control. which can account for uncertainties and is simple to use with computer-aided design tools. Comparison of H∞ and H2 /LQG Controllers The similarities and differences between the H∞ and the H2 /LQG approaches are detailed below: 1. integral action can be introduced via an integrator in the error weighting term in both cases. but if disturbances and noise are important H2 /LQG may still be the preferred solution. However. • The H∞ design technique is easy to use. (d) Closed-loop stability can be guaranteed. Similarities (a) Both H2 and H∞ optimal controllers are based on the minimization of a cost index. since the algorithms are available in commercial software. Differences (a) The basic conceptual idea behind H∞ design involves the minimization of the magnitudes of a transfer function. (b) Some of the closed-loop poles of the LQG solution will be the same as those of the H ∞ solution in certain limiting cases. The H∞ design approach is a strong contender to provide a general purpose control design procedure. which is quite different from the H2 /LQG requirement to minimize a complex domain integral representing error and control signal power spectra. e. 2.

3) (11. .3 Fuzzy Logic Control The Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) employs a set of N fuzzy linguistic rules. u(k) represents the fuzzy output of the FLS. These ˜ j j parameters will be adapted to the controlled wind system by minimizing an appropriate cost function. . The terms zj and j ˆ σzj are known constants.. Al ]T i i (11. zl (k)]T (11.. Likewise. In the antecedent of the i − th rule. Rulei .4) represents the vector of the fuzzy sets referring to the input fuzzy vector z(k). The membership ˜ functions of both the input vector z(k) and the vector A of the fuzzy sets are Gaussian. Rule2 . FUTURE WORK 148 11.2) (11. ..CHAPTER 11. RuleN ] where the i − th rule is: ˜ Rulei : IF z(k) is A THEN u(k) is βi where k refers to the variable values at time t = k∆t. On the other hand. zj (k).5) (11. the term ˜ ˜ ˜ A = [A1 .. engineering rules in FLS are expressed as a collection of IF – THEN statements... . and assume the following expressions: z µzj (k) = e−1/2[(zj (k)−ˆj )/σzj ] 2 µAi (k) = e ˜ j –2 » ˆ −1/2 (zj (k)−Ai )/σAi ˜ j j (11. . These rules may be provided by experts or can be extracted from numerical data. while Ai and σAi represent the unknown parameters of the FLS.... Ai and σAi are the mean value and the variance of the Gaussian ˜ j j ˆ ˆ membership function of the j − th fuzzy set referring to the i − th fuzzy rule. the vector z(k) = [z1 (k)..6) where zj and σzj are the mean value and the variance of the Gaussian membership function of the ˆ ˆ j − th input. Therefore a fuzzy rule base R containing N fuzzy rules can be expressed as: R = [Rule1 . In either case.. Ai . Moreover.1) represents all the l fuzzy inputs to the FLS..

11) where y(k) is the output of the plant (controlled variable)..7) where µQi [zj (k)] = µzj (k)µAi (k). 11. . a procedure that allows an on-line adaptation of the parameters θ(k) to the controlled wind system will be introduced. 2.. r(k).9) is the value of the j − th input that maximizes (11. The fuzzy input vector is deﬁned as: z(k) = [y(k − 1). 2. l . . The maximization of Eq. The output of the fuzzy controller. The fuzzy logic control system adopted is represented in Fig. ˜ j j (11. FUTURE WORK z -1 y(k-1) r(k) z(k) Fuzzy controller 149 u(k) WECS Plant y(k) u(k-1) z -1 Figure 11.max (k)] j N l i=1 j=1 µQi [zj. N. assumes the following expression [4] N l i=1 βi j=1 µQi [zj. (11. . u(k).1.. ˜ j j Moreover. u(k − 1)]T (11.10) In the next section. and r(k) represents a reference signal for y(k). βi (k)i = 1.max (k) = ˆ 2 zj σzj + Ai σAi ˆ 2 j ˜ 2 σzj (11.1: Layout of the fuzzy control system. u(k) is the control variable (output of the fuzzy controller).8)..8) represents the supremum operation in the sup-star composition of the i − th rule [4]. σAi (k). This fuzzy controller appears to be parameterized by ˆ θ(k) = Ai (K).8) j + 2 σAi ˜ j (11.CHAPTER 11. zj...max (k)] j u(k) = (11. j = 1.

14) . The Estimator-based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic (EAFL) control here suggested allows to solve this class of problems. the EAFL refers to an approximate estimation of the control error ˆ ey (k) = r(k) − y (k) ˆ (11. at each time step. 11. an Adaptive Fuzzy Logic (AFL) control starts from an initially assumed set of parameters θ(0). whose only requirement is to stabilize the plant. Indeed.13) (11. in order to minimize the cost function: 1 J (k) = e2 (k) 2 y where ey (k) is the control error deﬁned as: ey (k) = r(k) − y(k).3. instead of deriving the appropriate change in each internal parameter from the control error ey (k). In this case it is supposed that no a priori deterministic model of the controlled system is available.CHAPTER 11.2: Fuzzy control system with the parameter estimator. the AFL control adapts the set of parameters θ(k). (11.12) The control error ey (k) can be determined only if a deterministic model of the controlled system is available. Then.1 Estimator-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic In general. FUTURE WORK z -1 y(k-1) r(k) z(k) Fuzzy controller 150 u(k) WECS Plant y(k) u(k-1) z -1 LSA parameter estimator + r(k+1) _ y(k+1) Figure 11.

the basic scheme of the fuzzy control system has to be modiﬁed as shown in Fig. the present system can be expressed as follows: y(k) = ak y(k − 1) + bk u(k − 1) (11. the estimated model of the controlled system one-step-ahead.16) represents its model in state space notation. If the controlled plant is observable. ˆ 2 y 151 (11.[6].16). Assuming that such coefﬁcients do not change from the time k to the time ˆ b k + 1. to be evaluated.CHAPTER 11. assumes the following expression: y (k + 1) = ak y(k) + ˆk u(k) ˆ ˆ b which is the output of the LSA parameter estimator (Fig. The signal y (k + 1) is compared to the reference signal r(k + 1) and the difference determines ˆ the modiﬁcation of the fuzzy controller parameters θ(k). As ˆ stated in [5].e. As a consequence.17) . the model coefﬁcients ak and bk are unknown. These coefﬁcients can be on-line estimated by applying the Least Square Algorithm (LSA) in recursive form [5]. This is implemented by rewriting the cost ˆ function J at time k + 1 as: 1 ˆ r(k + 1) − ak y(k) + ˆk u(k) ˆ b J (k + 1) = 2 2 (11. 2). In such a case.. FUTURE WORK and to the corresponding cost function: 1 ˆ J (k) = e2 (k). i. (11. where the LSA estimator evaluates the coefﬁcients ak and ˆk .2.16) where ak and bk represent the time-varying coefﬁcients of model (11. at time k + 1. (11.15) In Eq.19) . then (11. y (k) represents the estimated value of the output at the time k.14).18) ˆ The minimization of the cost function J (k + 1) can be easily accomplished by using the gradient descent algorithm as follows: θ(k) = θ(k − 1) − η ˆ ∂ J (k + 1) ∂θ (11. 11.

23) ! wij (k) = e 2 ˆ z 2 −1/2(Ai −ˆj ) / σ2 i +σzj j ˜ A j (11. Research has been undertaken and various conﬁgurations proposed. communications.CHAPTER 11. . rapid improvements in computer hardware. programming. From the pedagogical overview of some of the most promising and recent developments in advanced control for WECS discussed in this report. 11.20) (11.24) The coefﬁcient η is the rate of descent which can be chosen arbitrarily. FUTURE WORK ˆ where the sensitivity derivatives of J (k + 1) with respect to θ (refer to (11.10)) are given by: ˆ ∂ J (k + 1) = −ˆk ey (k + 1) b ˆ ∂βi l j=1 wij (k) N l i=1 j=1 wij(k) N l i=1 cij j=1 wij (k)[βi − u(k)] N l i=1 j=1 wij(k) N l i=1 cij j=1 wij (k)[βi − u(k)] N i=1 l j=1 wij(k) 152 (11. combined with stiff competition in the wind industry as well as various governments’ regulations are largely responsible for research in advanced control. Moreover.[11]. the wind industry is slowly succumbing to advanced controllers that offer a series of advantages over the classical linear systems. not just the cost beneﬁt — as these advanced paradigms mature to a commodity status. user interface). computation. future research work is motivated by two issues: ◦ capability of the novel multiobjective controllers for effective energy conversion and drive-load reduction for MW-class WECSs. cij is equal to 1 if the i-th rule is dependent on the j-th input. for WECS control involving H∞ controllers [7]–[9] and Fuzzy logic schemes [10]. otherwise it is equal to 0. and ◦ ﬂexibility on the part of wind turbine manufacturers to embrace a shift from the classical PID.4 Remarks After several years of efforts in design of control schemes for wind turbines.21) ˆ −vij (k) ∂ J (k + 1) = −ˆk ey (k + 1) b ˆ ˆ ∂ Ai j σAi vij (k) ˆ ˜ ∂ J (k + 1) = −ˆk ey (k + 1) j b ˆ ∂σAi ˜ j where: vij = ˆj ˆ Ai − zj 2 2 σAi + σzj ˜ j 2 (11. Furthermore.22) (11. Future research aims to address the frequently expressed improvement sought — to decrease control response time (including model development. though successful practical implementation of these paradigms is not (yet) documented.

1819-1840. pp. and L. A. Journal of Control. “Control of a horizontal axis wind turbine using H inﬁnity control. no. “H∞ robust controller for self-tuning applications. Xiangming. 1984. Grimble. and T. 399. D’Ambrosio.” Proceedings of the IEEE. 19. L. 1977.” First IEEE Conference on Control Applications. Jiangjing. 15-36. Alexiadis. 2007. [5] G.” Int. vol. “Balancing control for dispersed generators considering torsional torque suppression and AVR performance for synchronous generators. Sun. no. no. “Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of a variable speed cage machine wind generation system. doi: 10. 46. Power and Energy. J. and B.1992. J.” IEEJ Trans. Iyer. Adaptive. S. D. vol. M. Theocharis. Muhando. 13-16 Sept. 52. and P. 5. “H∞ robust controller for self-tuning applications. pp. Fairbairn. 5/6. 352-361. vol. and M. pp. pp. 83. and M. vol. Damousis.. 39. Jan. 1. S. [2] M. Bose.” IEEE Trans. vol. [3] N. J. 1. J. Dokopoulos. 12. doi: 10. Part 2: Self-tuning and robustness.” IEEE Trans. 3. 1. B. and R. E. no. vol. Senjyu. vol. “Fuzzy logic systems for engineering: a tutorial. 1990.1109/ICAL. Conf. [9] Dengying. W. Grimble. C. “Researches on a controller for reducing load of driving chain in wind turbine based on H ∞ control. Journal of Control. no. Y. J. [11] I.” Int.CHAPTER 11. C. A. Connor.4338573. [7] T. J. W. 4. 1. 128. Grimble.” IEEE Int. 2. S. 1429-1444. Fortunato. Dadone. 18-21 Aug. [10] M. 1995. Grimble. 1987. pp. June 2004.1109/CCA. Mendel. New Jersey. Part 3: Self-tuning controller implementation. Spiegel. L. Power Electronics.2007. Hayashi.269889. pp.1109/TEC. Yona. Journal of Control. Englewood Cliff. K. no. pp. Goodwin. [8] B. 2008 (in Japanese). 1998. “A fuzzy model for wind speed prediction and power generation in wind parks using spatial correlation. no. M. doi: 10. Part 1: Controller design. ﬁltering.2003. 1-4. vol. N. G.” Energy Conversion and Management. and K. Energy Conversion. . FUTURE WORK 153 References [1] M. L. E. B. 1987. Funabashi. 1992. Shiming. [4] J. 117-122. 75-83.821865. no. E. predﬁction and control Prentice-Hall Inc. on Automation and Logistics. “H∞ robust controller for self-tuning applications. Sin. Leithead. Omine. “One-step-ahead adaptive technique for wind systems. B. pp. 46. [6] A. Simoes. vol.” Int. G.

vr 12.5 m rated wind speed. Γg.4 kN max/min generator speed 1800/850 rpm generator stator resistance 0. R 35 m number of blades 3 hub height 61.4/0 kNm generator torque set-point 13.Appendix A Parameters Setting A. Ve 690 V 50 Hz stator rated (electrical) frequency.33 6. Jt low speed shaft torsional stiffness.max /min 14. β 8/-8 deg/s . D s 1. K s 1. Kgr 83.01 Ω generator rotor resistance 0.5E-06 H generator magnetizing (mutual) inductance 0.205 m/s cut-in/cut-out wind speed 4/25 m/s gearbox ratio. Pr optimal mode maximum generator speed 1500 rpm generator inertia.029E+06 kgm2 turbine inertia.1 WECS Model Details Table A.0E+07 Nms/rad Generator and grid network 2 MW rated capacity.5E-06 H rotor leakage inductance 95. βmax/min 90/-2 deg ˙max/min max/min pitch rate.1: WECS parameters and baseline safety operational limits PARAMETER VALUE Wind turbine and rotor blade radius.6E+08 Nm/rad low speed shaft torsional damping.0955 H stator rated voltage. fn rotor rated magnetizing current 1700 A Pitch controller max/min pitch angle. Jg 60 kgm2 max/min generator torque.01 Ω stator leakage inductance 95.

2 Wind Speed Simulation Parameters Table A.4: Physical constants air density. g 9. ρw 1027 kg/m3 Notes: 1. the rated speed is taken as the mean wind speed for simulation. PARAMETERS SETTING 155 A. For Table A.205 m/s ﬂow inclination 8 deg interpolation scheme cubic sampling period.205 m/s minimum tip-speed ratio 2 maximum tip-speed ratio 20 tip-speed ratio step 0.92472 % turbulence charactertistics: spectrum type von Karman width of turbulent wind ﬁeld 100 m height of turbulent wind ﬁeld 100 m length of turbulent wind ﬁeld 1804. ∆tw 0.2.2 Aerodynamics Information A.5465 % vertical 8.0108 % lateral 12. 2.1 pitch angle -2 deg rotor speed 20 rpm A.2.8m step-size of turbulent wind ﬁeld 0.82E-05 kg/ms gravitational acceleration.1 s turbulence intensity: longitudinal 16.1 Steady-state Operation Point Parameters Table A.88125 m Table A. Details on the determination of the various values for 3-D turbulence intensity are obtained from the IEC 61400-1 Standard. .225 kg/m3 air viscosity.3.81 m/s2 density of water. as explained in Section A.2. ρ 1.3: Simulated time-dependent wind ﬁeld parameters at hub height mean wind speed for simulation 12.3.2: Performance coefﬁcients calculation rated wind speed 12. ν 1.APPENDIX A.

16 0.44m/s . For the seasonal mean wind speed of 7 m/s. the prevailing turbulence intensities (longitudinal.12 Designer speciﬁes (A.3. Load cases are deﬁned by the reference turbulence intensity. These effects are accounted for by an empirical formula in edition 3 of the IEC61400-1 Standard: The Standard deﬁnes the representative turbulence intensity.1) Note that in the formula the variability is added as an extra term because I ref refers to mean TI. Iref . lateral and vertical) are obtained as (16. . 3 parameter assignments Class A B C S Iref 0. This is both because the uncertainty depends on the ratio of the time scale and sample duration. PARAMETERS SETTING 156 A. σ1 . (1 + a) (A.28 × 1.0 m/s.3 The IEC61400-1 Standard for Turbulence Model The extreme wind events experienced by the WECS are included in the currently available draft of the IEC-Standard as extreme load conditions that must be considered as ultimate load cases when designing a wind turbine.92472%). 12.5: IEC 61400-1 Ed. Turbulence in random ten-minute periods has more scatter at low wind speeds. and operation at rated wind speed of the turbine equipment (12 m/s).6m/s). In almost all circumstances the horizontal component of the wind is much larger than the vertical — the exception being violent convection.28 times the standard deviation of random ten-min measurements.14 0. Within the framework of the IEC 61400-1 Std these load situations are deﬁned in terms of two independent site variables — a reference mean wind speed and a characteristic turbulence intensity. and 8.75Vhub + 5. cut-in wind speed of 4. a Class A turbulence site is considered. TI.5465%. which is equal to the mean turbulence intensity at 15 m/s σ1 = Iref (15m/s + aVhub ) + 1. The values in Table A.2. respectively. as the mean + 1.0108%. The representative TI may be deﬁned by the actual edition 3 formula that is equal to the more complex formulation when a = 3 as follows: σ1 = Iref (0. as given in Table A.5 are speciﬁed for the turbulence model: Table A.2) In this thesis.APPENDIX A. and because deviation from neutral atmospheric stability is more pronounced at low wind speeds.

e.2: Determination of Mean Wind Speed.APPENDIX A. which is assumed for this purpose to be uncorrelated with wind speed (see Section 2. ¯ The annual energy yield is calculated as cut−out E=Y cut−in P (vw )f (vw )dvw (A. .2. The result is further multiplied by the availability of the turbine..2. (A. PARAMETERS SETTING 157 A. vm . given in (2. its value is calculated as above.4 Annual Energy Yield The annual energy yield is calculated by integrating the power curve for the turbine together with a Weibull distribution of hourly mean wind speeds. For a true Weibull distribution.4: Capacity Factor).3) where F is the cumulative distribution of wind speed.5) Unless the user supplies the value for c. these two parameters are related by the gamma function: c = 1/Γ 1 + 1 k . taken as 365 days. The Weibull distribution is deﬁned by: v F (vw ) = 1 − e−( c¯w ) vw k (A.6) Y = length of a year. Thus the probability density f (v w ) is given by f (vw ) = −k k−1 vw k vw v e−( c¯w ) (c¯w )k v (A.4) with k as the Weibull shape parameter and c as the scale factor. i. Note that if a different value is supplied. The power curve is deﬁned at a number of discrete wind speeds.6) where P (vw ) = power curve. The aforegoing is the basis of mean wind speed calculation for a given site as mentioned in Section 5. electrical power as a function of wind speed. the resulting distribution will have a mean value that is different from v w . and a linear variation between these points is assumed.

1 Per Unit System for the WECS Model In electrical engineering in the ﬁeld of power transmission a per-unit system is the expression of system quantities as fractions of a deﬁned base unit quantity. These are based on the following formulation: base value in pu = quantity expressed in SI units .dq = Zb. (B.dq = √ √ 2Vb.abc Ib.dq 2 whereas the base resistance is equal to the respective abc value Zb.abc Ib. impedance.1) B. Pu system—widely used in the power industry in power ﬂow studies to express values of quantities — is adopted in the dynamic analysis of the drivetrain as well as the electrical system in order to simplify calculations by expressing the parameters on a common power base.1. and admittance.4) (B. base value (B.abc .2) Using these deﬁnitions.1 DQ Base Values The dq system base voltage and current are taken equal to the respective abc instantaneous base values: Vb.3) .dq Ib. A per-unit (pu) system provides units for power.dq = 2Ib.dq (B. the base power Sb is given by 3 Sb = Vb. current.dq = Vb. voltage.Appendix B Supporting Concepts B.

7) (B.11) Further. ω0 = 2πfn .5ωb 0. in Nm/(rad/sec) (B.APPENDIX B. the pu inertia values relate to the mass moments as follows: Ht = 2 Jt ω b 2Sb Ngr p2 and Hg = 2 Jg ω b .5ωb Γb Sb Kb = = 2 ωb ωb Γb Sb Db = = 2 ωb ωb ωb = the base mechanical speed. in mechanical rad/sec the base torque. in Nm/(rad/sec) the base stiﬀness coeﬃcient. with f0 being the mechanical drive train eigenfrequency (Hz). 2Sb Ngr p2 (B. θtg . (B. and ωb = 2πf0 . Generally.2 Mechanical System If Sb is the base power (VA).8) (B.1.10) where primed and double-primed respectively are the low and high speed side base quantities.6) (B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 159 B. 2 Kb = Ngr Kb and 2 Db = Ngr Db . 2 Jb = Ngr Jb . . then the base values at the high speed side (generator-side) of the drive train are deﬁned as follows: ω0 p/2 Sb Γb = ωb Sb Γb Jb = = 2 0.9) The low speed side (rotor-side) base quantities are calculated from the above quantities using the gearbox ratio Ngr as follows: ωB = Ngr ωB . is given by dθtg = ωb (ωt − ωg ). the shaft stiffness is obtained from KS = 2 2ω0 Ht ωb (B.13) In the aforegoing. in Nm/(rad/sec) the base damping coeﬃcient. in Nm the base inertia. Γb = Ngr Γb .12) while the electrical twist angle of the shaft. dt (B. where fn is nominal grid frequency (Hz). ω0 the base electrical angular velocity (rad/sec) and p the number of poles of the generator.5) (B.

2 Pole-placement For the second-order system B(z) b1 z + b2 = 2 A(z) z + a1 z + a2 and a second-order controller S(z) s0 z 2 + s1 z + s2 = 2 R(z) z + r1 z + r2 (B.15) the polynomial A(z)R(z) + B(z)S(z) becomes (z 2 + a1 z + a2 )(z 2 + r1 z + r2 ) + (b1 z + b2 )(s0 z 2 + s1 z + s2 ) = z 4 + (a1 + r1 + b1 s0 )z 3 + r2 (a2 + a1 r1 + r2 + b1 s1 + b2 s0 )z 2 + (a2 r1 + a1 r2 + b1 s2 + b2 s1 )z + (a2 r2 + b2 s2 ) . s0 . s2 ) and the above expression in matrix form becomes b 0 0 1 0 1 b2 b1 0 a1 1 0 b2 b1 a2 a1 0 0 b2 0 a2 p − a1 s 1 1 p −a 2 s = 2 2 p 3 r1 p4 r2 s0 (B.16) (B.18) . s1 . If the poles are speciﬁed in advance these equations may be solved with respect to the unknown control coefﬁcients (r 1 . If the control coefﬁcients (r1 .17) and the closed loop poles are found from P (z) = 0.14) (B. s0 .APPENDIX B. r2 . s1 . s2 ) are known the coefﬁcients in the polynomial A(z)R(z) + B(z)S(z) = P (z) = z 4 + p1 z 3 + p2 z 2 + p3 z + p4 become a1 + r1 + b1 s0 = p1 a2 + a1 r1 + r2 + b1 s1 + b2 s0 = p2 a2 r1 + a1 r2 + b1 s2 + b2 s1 = p3 a2 r2 + b2 s2 = p4 (B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 160 B. r2 .

e.21) z2 If the system is assumed stable then a constant input u(k) = u 0 will after a while lead to a constant output y(k) = y0 satisfying the equation y0 + a1 y0 + a2 y0 = b1 u0 + b2 u0 or y0 = b1 + b2 u0 1 + a1 + a2 (B. SUPPORTING CONCEPTS 161 Having 5 unknown controller parameters and 4 equations means that an extra equation in the controller parameters may be fulﬁlled.APPENDIX B.24) and the DC-gain is then seen to be the value of the transfer function for z = 1.19) (B. (B. If integral action of the controller is speciﬁed i. consider the system: Y (z) = that has the discrete time realization y(k + 2) + a1 y(k + 1) + a2 y(k) = b1 u(k + 1) + b2 u(k). (B.20) (B. the DC-gain of the controller is inﬁnite.22) p1 − a1 . . The combined pole-placement controller with integral action then becomes the solution to b1 0 0 1 0 s0 b2 b1 0 a1 1 s1 p2 − a2 0 b2 b1 a2 a1 s2 = p3 0 0 b2 0 a2 r1 p4 0 0 0 1 1 r2 −1 For the DC-gain.25) (B.23) b1 z + b2 + a1 z + a2 (B. then the following extra equation is obtained: R(z = 1) = 0 or 1 + r1 + r2 = 0.

Tomonobu Senjyu.” Renewable Energy. and Toshihisa Funabashi. No.1016/j. Tomonobu Senjyu. Eitaro Omine. Hiroshi Kinjo.2007. Hiroshi Kinjo. and Toshihisa Funabashi.236. Atsushi Yona.12. Atsushi Yona. 5. “Model Development for Nonlinear Dynamic Energy Conversion System: an Advanced Intelligent Control Paradigm for Optimality and Reliability. 4. pp. “Regulation of WTG Dynamic Response to Parameter Variations of Analytic Wind Stochasticity. Tomonobu Senjyu.12. 1.1016/j.” IEEJ Trans. (In Press).” Renewable Energy. . and Toshihisa Funabashi. and Toshihisa Funabashi. 3.renene. Atsushi Yona. 1431-1440. (Accepted for publication). pp. DOI:10:1002/we. Endusa Billy Muhando. “Gain Scheduling Control of Variable Speed WTG Under Widely Varying Turbulence Loading. Naomitsu Urasaki. “Augmented LQG Controller for Enhancement of Online Dynamic Performance for WTG System. “Disturbance Rejection by Dual Pitch Angle and Self-tuning Regulator for WTG Parametric Uncertainty Compensation. 2007.renene. Endusa Billy Muhando. Endusa Billy Muhando.Appendix C List of Publications C. Hiroshi Kinjo. Power and Energy. Tomonobu Senjyu.” IET . Hiroshi Kinjo. Sept. DOI:10. 2007. 2. 5.1049/iet-cta:20060448. No. DOI:10. (In Press).1 Journal Publications 1.Control Theory and Applications. 2007. Vol. Endusa Billy Muhando. Vol.” Wind Energy. 32. Hiroshi Kinjo. Endusa Billy Muhando.001. DOI:10. 2007.2006. 2407-2423. 14. Tomonobu Senjyu.011. and Toshihisa Funabashi.

9. “Online Neurocontroller Design Optimized by a Genetic Algorithm for a Multi-trailer System. Endusa Billy Muhando. 2008. Endusa Billy Muhando. 1764-1775. pp.” Artiﬁcial Life & Robotics .” Journal of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE). Vol. Atsushi Yona. Tomonobu Senjyu. “Balancing Control for Dispersed Generators Considering Torsional Torque Suppression and AVR Performance for Synchronous Generators. Endusa Billy Muhando. Vol. DOI:10. * Not related to PhD research work presented in the Thesis. No. pp. 9. Tomonobu Senjyu. and Toshihisa Funabashi. “Intelligent Optimal Control of Nonlinear Wind Generating System by a ModelingBased Approach. . Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems. 1. and Toshihisa Funabashi. no.Renewable Power Generation. 2007. “Maximum Wind Power Capture by Sensorless Rotor Position and Wind Velocity Estimation from Flux Linkage and Sliding Observer. Hideki Fujita. (Accepted for publication). 2007. Naomitsu Urasaki. Atsushi Yona. 1. Endusa Billy Muhando. Hiroshi Kinjo. 128. Energy Conversion. pp.APPENDIX C. (in Japanese). Satoshi Tamaki.” Renewable Energy. vol. —————————————————————————————————————– 11*. Vol. 9. 1017-1026. Art.renene.2005. Endusa Billy Muhando. Tomonobu Senjyu.Springer Japan.09. Endusa Billy Muhando. and Toshihisa Funabashi. and Tetsuhiko Yamamoto. Naomitsu Urasaki. “Enhanced Performance for Multivariable Optimization Problems by Use of Genetic Algorithms with Recessive Gene Structure.” IEEE Trans.1007/s10015-005-0355-7. 3. and Toshihisa Funabashi. Toshihisa Funabashi.” IET . Vol. 8. (Forthcoming).1016/j. Eiho Uezato. No. 8. 75-83. Hiroshi Kinjo. Tomonobu Senjyu. Tomonobu Senjyu. 42. “Wind Velocity and Rotor Position Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for WGS. “Extending the Modeling Framework for Wind Generation Systems: RLS-Based Paradigm for Performance under High Turbulence Inﬂow. 2.020. Hiroshi Kinjo. DOI:10.” Int. 11-17. pp. 1. 2007. Hiroshi Kinjo. No. Tomonobu Senjyu. 2006. Daisuke Hayashi. 2006. 10. and Tetsuhiko Yamamoto.” IEEJ Trans. Hiroshi Kinjo. 2006. pp. Power and Energy. Eitaro Omine. 12*. Hiroshi Kinjo. and Hideomi Sekine. No. 31. Zachary Otara Siagi. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 163 6. 7. 11. 10. Endusa Billy Muhando.

“Multi-trailer Back-up Conundrum Revisited: LQR for Control Load Mitigation on Neurocontroller. Endusa Billy Muhando. and Toshihisa Funabashi. “Stochastic Inequality Constrained Closed-loop Model-based Predictive Control of MW-Class Wind Generating System in the Electric Power Supply. Endusa Billy Muhando. Hiroshi Kinjo. Hiroshi Kinjo. Endusa Billy Muhando. “Model Fidelity Prerequisites for Individual Blade Pitch Regulation of Wind Generating System with State-Feedback Control. Tomonobu Senjyu. and Toshihisa Funabashi.” IEEE Trans. Tetsuhiko Yamamoto. Energy Conversion —————————————————————————————————————– 3*. Tomonobu Senjyu. and Toshihisa Funabashi.APPENDIX C.” Automatica * Not related to PhD research work presented in the Thesis. Hiroshi Kinjo. .2 Journal Papers under Peer Review 1. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 164 C. Tomonobu Senjyu. Renewable Power Generation 2.” IET Procs.

Tomonobu Senjyu.” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society Power Systems Conference & Exposition (PSCE’06). and Hideomi Sekine. USA. Johannesburg. Otara Zachary Siagi.” Presented at the IEEJ-IEICE Joint Conference 2007). and Toshihisa Funabashi. Hiroshi Kinjo. Atlanta. “Speed and Position Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for WGS with Squirrel Cage Induction Generator. “Robust Predictive Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generator by SelfTuning Regulator. 7. Endusa Billy Muhando. Endusa Billy Muhando. Atsushi Yona. South Africa. 24-28 June 2007. FL. USA. Tomonobu Senjyu.” Presented at the International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE 2007). “Disturbance Rejection by Stochastic Inequality Constrained Closed-loop Model-Based Predictive Control of MW-Class Wind Generating System. 3. 24-28 June 2007. University of the Ryukyus. LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 165 C.” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society Conference & Exhibition (Powerafrica2007). Endusa Billy Muhando.3 Conference Papers: Presented 1.” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007.” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007. 24-28 June 2007. 5. “Evolutionary Intelligent Control of Wind Turbines for Optimized Performance and Reliability. FL. 8-12 July 2007. 2007. “Online WTG Dynamic Performance and Transient Stability Enhancement by Evolutionary LQG. Tomonobu Senjyu. 2. USA. and Toshihisa Funabashi. Endusa Billy Muhando. Atsushi Yona. Hiroshi Kinjo. Naomitsu Urasaki. and Hiroshi Kinjo.–01 Nov. FL. . Hong Kong. 16-20 July 2007. and Toshihisa Funabashi. GA. Tampa. Tampa. Naomitsu Urasaki. “RLS-Based Self-Tuning Regulator for WTG Dynamic Performance Enhancement Under Stochastic Setting. Endusa Billy Muhando. Endusa Billy Muhando. Yasutaka Ochi. Tampa. 4. Tomonobu Senjyu. 19 Dec. Japan. and Toshihisa Funabashi. “Intelligent Optimal Control of Wind Power Generating System by a Complemented LQG Approach.” Presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting 2007. and Hiroshi Kinjo. Tomonobu Senjyu. Tomonobu Senjyu. Tomonobu Senjyu. 6. Naomitsu Urasaki. 2006. Okinawa. Atsushi Yona. 29 Oct.APPENDIX C. USA. Endusa Billy Muhando.

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 166 C. Japan. Hiroshi Kinjo. Malaysia.” Presented at the 9th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology (ICMT 2005). Kunihiko Nakazono.4 Conference Papers: Scheduled 1. and Toshihisa Funabashi. Pennsylvania. 3. Hideomi Sekine. Pittsburg. C. Cambridge. and Toshihisa Funabashi. USA.” To be presented at the IEEEPower Engineering Society General Meeting. 2008. 2005 . 20–24 July 2008. and Tetsuhiko Yamamoto. USA. 2. Eitaro Omine. “Steady-state and Transient Dynamic Response of Grid-Connected WECS with Asynchronous DOIG by Predictive Control under Turbulent Inﬂow. Tomonobu Senjyu. Eitaro Omine. Endusa Billy Muhando. Endusa Billy Muhando. Tomonobu Senjyu. Tomonobu Senjyu. and Toshihisa Funabashi. Pittsburg. 20–24 July 2008. Kuala Lampur. UK. Pennsylvania. Endusa Billy Muhando. 4. Tomonobu Senjyu. “Full State Feedback Digital Control of WECS with State Estimation by Stochastic Modeling Design.5 Conference Papers: Other 1.” To be presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2008). and Toshihisa Funabashi. Yuri Yonaha. “Real-time Design and Control of Multi-trailer System Using Neurocontroller Optimized by a Genetic Algorithm.” To be presented at the IEEE-Power Engineering Society General Meeting. Eiho Uezato. 30 June–02 July 2008. “Individual Blade Pitch Regulation for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with State-Feedback Control.” To be presented at the IEEJ Power Engineering Society Conference (PES’08). Endusa Billy Muhando. 5-8 Dec. Endusa Billy Muhando. “Model Fidelity Prerequisites for Variable Speed Pitch-Regulated WECS with State-Feedback Control.APPENDIX C. 24–26 September. Hiroshima.

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