Soviet / Russian Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Kremnij-2 and Parol

Below I have summarized my research and knowledge about the soviet/russian IFF systems “Kremnij” and “Parol”. The information originates from various sources, all of which are given below (see /1/, /2/ etc.). Since the sources go into detail at different topics and are difficult to access for technical and language reasons, I compiled all the important information for a basic understanding here.

Kremnij-2 / Кремний-2
Overview Kremnij-2 is an IFF system which was probably developed in the 1950s. The signal of an interrogating station must be answered with the correct code. For the code, there are 12 possibilities that are modulated to the response signal. The security of the system is based on the secrecy of the then valid code that was changed in hours. There are three interrogation modes in which the interrogation signal is sent on one or two frequencies. When making an interrogation on two frequencies, the signal of the primary radar is jointly used, to which the IFF system is coupled. Kremnij-2 uses three frequency ranges: - Frequency range I: primary radar 8600. .9700 MHz - Frequency Range II: Primary radar 2520. .3380 MHz - Frequency Range III: Interrogation and response frequency 668 MHz /1/ The frequency range II was put out of service by the East German forces in the early 1980s /12/ Interrogation modes according to /1/:

I assume that „Interrogation 3“ is the so-called "Autonomous Interrogation", because it can also be used independently of a primary radar (although the synchronization with the primary radar is still needed to ensure a consistent presentation).

/5/ Pulse diagram of the response signal according to /1/: It seems that there was a change over time: /3/ specifies 36 possible codes. /8/ General Identification (Mode I in the frequency range III) First. a target with IFF is shown by a parallel bar on the far side /1/. but with 6 additional combinations for the time positions T1 and T2 of two following response codes: In /11/ there is a hint that also indicates a variable timing of the response code: This manual states “numbers of the pulse intervals”.On the screen. there were 12 frequencies which can be used to code the response signal /1/ 1: 1.67 Mcs 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 6.67 Mcs 4.00 Mcs 7.67 Mcs 8.00 Mcs 7: 5.33 Mcs 9. /3/.33 Mcs 5.67 Mcs 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 2. which consist of only 6 different frequencies. .33 Mcs 3. it is occasionally discussed whether there have been 12 more code filter for war time use /4/.00 Mcs In discussion forums.00 Mcs 3.33 Mcs 7.

Interrogation K.To set up the individual identification. 81Э or 81Ä. presumably to keep the system secret until war time. so there are two possible codes. When the check code is interrogated by an additional fourth pulse.Check Code (Other names: Kremnij-2M /2/.The individual identification was displayed on the screen in the form of Morse code or letters /5/ . Individual Identification (mode III in the frequency range III) For individual the identification. This additional pulse can have two positions in time.g. Additional Code) The response signal of the system Kremnij-2 can easily be imitated by an enemy. Pulse diagram of the query according to /3/ Using the check code was only allowed when it was ordered /10/. Perhaps this has changed over time: /11/ from the year 1990 says "changing code of the check code of aircraft" and directs to use code no. Pulse diagram of the individual identification according to /3/: This signal seems to correspond more to the SPI ("ident") of the civilian secondary radar. because there are only 12 different codes. I found the following statements: . the possibility of a check code / additional code was introduced (in the East German forces in the early to mid 1980's /12/) The reaction to the check code interrogation must by activated manually at the transponder (e. 0 for the check code until different order. by the pilot of the aircraft). Therefore. Only the imitation units of the enemy continue to answer and are still shown on the screen with an IFF signal. . a three-digit code is used /11/ In clear contradiction is a statement in /3/: It describes that the individual identification has only one additional pulse that follows the general identification. triggered by a code word sent over the radio. an activated transponder recognizes this pulse and doesn't send a response. Veterans say that the check code in planes could be turned on and off. but without additional coding / 4/ /5/.

Distress Signal For the distress signal. Pulse diagram according to /1/ /3/ A target with distress signal is shown on the screen with a bold bar /3/.e. i. /8/ . the distress signal is not shown on the radar screen. when the code is set incorrectly. Therefore. the distress signal is bound to the correct setting of the code frequency. the frequency-coded signal of the general identification is repeated.

introduction to the East German forces began. Pulse diagram of the interrogation according to /3/: The transponder can reply with 6 different codes. many Parol ground systems still support Kremnij in the frequency range III. a much better imitation security is achieved. a target with identification is shown with a parallel bar /3/. The interrogation is done with three pulses and a further pulse for side lobe suppression. . For compatibility reasons.1458 Mcs: Response So in this range. it seems that there is also a check code in this mode /11/. two response frequencies are used /2/ General Identification (mode I in the frequency range VII) This mode is similar to the general identification of the system Kremnij-2 (mode I in the frequency range III). The response consists of two pulses. A new addition is the frequency range VII: . /8/ Codes are different for aircraft and ships /11/. In the late 1980s. one on each of the response frequencies. Using cryptographic methods. The mode is intended for jammed environments and when interrogated by many interrogating systems /3/.Parol / Пароль Overview Parol is the successor system to Kremnij-2. so security must be ensured by code changes /3/.1532 Mcs: Interrogation . The code is determined by the time interval T between the pulses and by the response frequency fB or fC on which the first pulse is sent /3/ On the screen.1470 Mcs: Response . It does not use cryptographic methods. Furthermore.

a code is randomly selected and sent for an interrogation. The result is received by the interrogating station and verified. The 16 possible response codes are formed by the time interval T between the two pulses (8 possibilities) and by the response frequency fB or fC on which the first pulse is sent (2 possibilities). From this large amount.Imitation Protected General Identification ("Guaranteed Identification") (mode II in the frequency range VII) For a day. there are 911 possible interrogation codes available. /3/. the target is considered as "own" /3/ Pulse diagram of the interrogation according to /3/: The response consists of two pulses. The transponder must receive the code and select and send the matching response code from a set of 16 possible codes. If the response code matches to the sent interrogation code. /3/ Pulse diagram of the response according to /3/: A target with guaranteed identification is displayed on the screen with a bar parallels with hook. /8/ .

/11/ is saying that the individual identification is defined by a three-digit code. /8/. A ground station can receive the distress signal as an alarm signal and display it with a lamp on the control panel.. the individual identification and distress are marked by a third pulse in the response signal. Overviews Frequency ranges: I 8600. The ground stations then have to scan their sector for the target /11/. Distress and Alarm According to /3/. even if they do not make own interrogations /3/. distress General identification interrogation of the check signal /3/ code /11/ Imitation-protected 16 response codes. distress 911 interrogation codes /3/ general identification signal /3/ Individual 3-digit code identification Individual 5-digit code /11/ identification Altitude and remaining fuel Interrogation VII VII VII I II III IV V VI VII VIII x x x x x . 1470 VII Mcs /1/ /1/ /1/.3380 Mcs III 668 Mcs IV V VI 1532. /8/ /2/ Modes Freq Mode Kremnij Parol Purpose I/II+III I III III I III x x x x x Response 12 response codes.9700 Mcs II 2520. of the check code distress signal Individual 2 kinds 3-digit code? /11/ identification 1 interrogation /3/. /2/.Individual Identification (mode III in the frequency range VII). distress General identification 2 kinds signal 12 response codes or no Interrogation + interrogation General identification response on check code. In contrast.. 6 response codes. 1458.

coming soon! Get your free preview! Radar IFF Hydroacoustical IFF Visual IFF Radio IFF Secrecy regulations when using IFF installations Accounting of IFF installations Storage of codes and filters and of IFF devices Scheduled preventive maintenance and repair Discarding IFF installations Dealing with the explosive devices of IFF systems Identification with civilian ships • • • + Bonus Material Former secret documents in facsimile. with english translations .eBook IFF .Identification Friend of Foe in the Warsaw Pact Document 1: Air Force • • • • • • • • Use of IFF systems Use of IFF ground systems Use of IFF aircraft systems Specifics of the use during radar jamming Distribution and use of IFF codes Security regulations Designation of the devices in unclassified correspondance Structure of code change tables Document 2: Navy • • • • • • • • In preparation.

Two sites look a little bit questionable. visuelle. Please use common sense when visiting unknown websites or retrieving material and follow basic rules: always use a fully patched and updated operating Description of SRO-2 und SRZO-2 in russian Наземный Радиолокационный Запросчик НРЗ-4П «Пароль»: Excerpt from training material for the NRZ-4P (russian language) Armenian forum. an updated virus scanner and never surf as administrator.rwd-mb3.1990 zur Ordnung 010/9/022 .FunkmeßKennungsordnung (LSK/LV 1990) /12/ Eckard Schlenker. defensive security settings. also includes descriptions of Kremnij and Parol systems (german language) /9/ http://nva-flieger. Funkmeß.de Thread: Einsatz bei NVA-LSK.studfiles.radioscanner.vardanank.nva-forum. Nutzung Kennungsgeräte (german language) /6/ http://www. a patched browser (browser. plugins).html IFF at NVA-Flieger. in djvu format /2/ http://forum.Sources Important: I visited all of the websites below. registration required.html Шпоры по военке 4 курс VII семестр: Study which includes a description of the system Parol (russian language) /7/ www. I prefer to use a live Linux system. und wer ist Feind“ Fliegerrevue 10/92 (german language) Thread: Luftraumü НАЗЕМНЫЙ РАДИОЛОКАЦИОННИЙ ЗАПРОСЧИК IЛ24: Study about the interrogation unit 1L24 (russian language) /4/ www. Freund Feind Kennung (german language) /5/ www. Durchführungsanordnung vom Extensive website about radar systems. Ullrich Mattisseck: „Wer ist hier describes Parol systems and the general principles of side lobe suppression (german and english language) /8/ www. /1/ http://www.und UKW-Freund-Feind-Kennung" (Volksmarine 1986) /11/ 1. /3/ (german language) /10/ DV 246/0/035 " so I'm not sure about Website about the missile and weapons service within the commander MB III of the East German forces. And if in doubt.